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The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili
Zhili
and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China
Viceroys in China
proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Zhili
Zhili
was an important post because the province of Zhili, which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing. The administrative centre was in Tianjin
Tianjin
even though the provincial capital was in Baoding. The Viceroy's duties as well as responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong
Shandong
and Henan
Henan
provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili
Zhili
was also highly influential in imperial court politics. History[edit] The office was first created on 30 September 1649 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, but was later abolished on 1 June 1658. On 23 November 1661, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office was recreated, however abolished again later on 28 July 1669. After the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
restored it on 14 December 1724, the office had remained in place until the fall of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912. From 1870 onwards, the Viceroy of Zhili
Zhili
concurrently held the position of "Beiyang Trade Minister" (北洋通商大臣); cf. "Nanyang Trade Minister" (南洋通商大臣) held by the Viceroy of Liangjiang. 47 people had held the position from 1649 to 1912. Among them, the more notable ones included Li Wei, Tang Zhiyu, Fang Guancheng, Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Ronglu
Ronglu
and Yuan Shikai. Li Hongzhang, in particular, held the office for about 25 years in total during the height of his political career. List of Viceroys of Zhili[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes

Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong
Shandong
and Henan (1649–1658)

1 Zhang Cunren 張存仁

30 September 1649 November 1651 Died in office

2 Ma Guanghui 馬光輝

29 November 1651 8 April 1654 Left office due to illness

3 Li Zuyin 李祖蔭

16 April 1654 4 February 1657 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Huguang

4 Zhang Xuanxi 張懸錫

24 February 1657 1 June 1658 Demoted and dismissed from office on 29 June 1658

Viceroy of Zhili (1661–1665)

5 Miao Cheng 苗澄

23 November 1661 4 July 1665 Dismissed from office

Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong
Shandong
and Henan (1665–1669)

6 Zhu Changzuo 朱昌祚

13 July 1665 8 January 1667 Dismissed from office

7 Bai Bingzhen 白秉貞

27 January 1667 30 September 1669 Dismissed from office on 28 July 1669

Viceroy of Zhili (1724–1912)

8 Li Weijun 李維鈞

14 December 1724 26 September 1725 Dismissed from office

Cai Ting 蔡珽

26 September 1725

Stand-in as the Secretary of Defence

9 Li Fu 李紱

1 October 1725 16 January 1727 Reassigned to serve as Right Vice Secretary of Works

Yi Zhaoxiong 宜兆熊

16 January 1727 23 June 1728 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Huguang

Liu Shishu 劉師恕

16 January 1727 8 March 1729 Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Rites

He Shiji 何世璂

23 June 1728 4 March 1729 Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Personnel

Yang Kun 楊鯤

24 February 1729 1 July 1729 Stand-in as the Governor-General of Zhili

Tang Zhiyu 唐執玉

1 July 1729 27 October 1731 Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief

Liu Yuyi 劉於義

27 October 1731 2 September 1732 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

Li Wei 李衛

2 September 1732 September 1732 Acting Viceroy of Zhili

10 Li Wei 李衛

September 1732 29 November 1738 Retired due to illness

Tang Zhiyu 唐執玉

19 February 1733 April 1733 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

Sun Jiagan 孫嘉淦

29 November 1738 6 December 1738 Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel

11 Sun Jiagan 孫嘉淦

6 December 1738 26 September 1741 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Huguang

12 Gao Bin 高斌

26 September 1741 19 June 1745 Promoted to Secretary of Personnel

Liu Yuyi 劉於義

28 February 1745

Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel

13 Nasutu 那蘇圖

19 June 1745 18 August 1749 Died in office

Chen Dashou 陳大受

1749

Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel and Assisting Grand Secretary

14 Fang Guancheng 方觀承

18 August 1749 25 September 1768 Retired due to illness

Omida 鄂彌達

30 October 1755

Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

Yang Tingzhang 楊廷璋

25 September 1768 27 September 1768 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

15 Yang Tingzhang 楊廷璋

27 September 1768 26 November 1771 Reassigned to serve as the Secretary of Justice

16 Zhou Yuanli 周元理

26 November 1771 27 April 1779 Dismissed from office

Ying Lian 英廉

27 April 1779 29 April 1779 Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue

17 Yang Jingsu 楊景素

29 April 1779 27 January 1780 Died in office

18 Yuan Shoutong 袁守侗

27 January 1780 13 January 1782 Left office for filial mourning

Zhou Yuanli 周元理

27 January 1780

Acting Viceroy of Zhili

Ying Lian 英廉

13 January 1782

Stand-in as the Grand Secretary

19 Zheng Dajin 鄭大進

13 January 1782 25 November 1782 Died in office

20 Yuan Shoutong 袁守侗

25 November 1782 16 June 1783 Died in office

Liu Yong 劉墉

16 June 1783

Stand-in as the Secretary of Works

21 Liu E 劉峨

16 June 1783 10 April 1790 Demoted to serve as Left Vice Secretary of Defence

22 Liang Kentang 梁肯堂

10 April 1790 20 February 1798 Promoted to Secretary of Justice

23 Hu Jitang 胡季堂

20 February 1798 24 November 1800 Left office due to illness

Yan Jian 顏檢

24 November 1800

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

24 Jiang Sheng 姜晟

5 December 1800 19 July 1801 Dismissed from office and arrested

Xiong Mei 熊枚

19 July 1801

Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Justice

25 Chen Dawen 陳大文

20 July 1801 3 May 1802 Left office due to illness

Xiong Mei 熊枚

3 May 1802

Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief

Yan Jian 顏檢

9 May 1802

Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Henan

26 Yan Jian 顏檢

27 September 1802 4 July 1805 Demoted to a zhushi (主事)

Xiong Mei 熊枚

4 July 1805

Stand-in as the Secretary of Works

27 Wu Xiongguang 吳熊光

4 July 1805 12 December 1805 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangguang

Qiu Xingjian 裘行簡

6 November 1805

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

Qiu Xingjian 裘行簡

12 December 1805

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Zhili
and acting Vice Secretary of Defence

Qin Cheng'en 秦承恩

8 November 1806

Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

Wen Chenghui 溫承惠

23 November 1806

Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Fujian

28 Wen Chenghui 溫承惠

16 October 1807 5 November 1813 Dismissed from office

Zhang Xu 章煦

10 October 1813

Stand-in as the Secretary of Works

Zuo Wenning 左文寧

9 December 1813

Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Personnel

29 Na Yancheng 那彥成

5 November 1813 24 July 1816 Dismissed from office

30 Fang Shouchou 方受疇

24 July 1816 29 January 1822 Left office due to illness

Changling 長齡

29 January 1822 18 February 1822 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

Tu Zhishen 屠之申

18 February 1822

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

Songyun 松筠

18 January 1822

Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel

31 Yan Jian 顏檢

29 January 1822 15 May 1823 Reassigned to serve as Vice Secretary of Storage (倉場侍郎)

32 Jiang Youxian 蔣攸銛

15 May 1823 7 December 1825 Reassigned to serve in the Imperial Cabinet

33 Na Yancheng 那彥成

7 December 1825 25 March 1831 Dismissed from office

Mingshan 明山

22 December 1827 26 December 1827 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice

Tu Zhishen 屠之申

26 December 1827 18 May 1829 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

Songyun 松筠

21 May 1829

Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites

Wang Ding 王鼎

25 March 1831

Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue

34 Qishan 琦善

25 March 1831 14 April 1837 Left office for filial mourning

Mujangga 穆彰阿

14 April 1837

Stand-in as the Grand Secretary

Qishan 琦善

25 July 1837 28 September 1840 Reassigned

Nergingge 訥爾經額

28 September 1840 26 February 1841 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan

34 Nergingge 訥爾經額

26 February 1841 6 October 1853 Dismissed from office

35 Guiliang 桂良

6 October 1853 21 January 1857 Promoted to Grand Secretary of the Eastern Cabinet (東閣大學士)

Tan Tingxiang 譚廷襄

21 January 1857 26 April 1858 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shaanxi

36 Tan Tingxiang 譚廷襄

26 April 1858 26 July 1858 Dismissed

Ruilin 瑞麟

26 July 1858

Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites

37 Qingqi 慶祺

26 July 1858 25 March 1859 Died in office

Wenyu 文煜

25 March 1859

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

38 Hengfu 恒福

25 March 1859 26 February 1861 Left office due to illness

Wenyu 文煜

26 February 1861 14 February 1863 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong

Chonghou 崇厚

14 February 1863 20 April 1863 Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Defence

39 Liu Changyou 劉長佑

14 February 1863 29 November 1867 Dismissed from office

Guanwen 官文

29 November 1867 6 September 1868 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary of Wenhua Hall (文華殿大學士)

40 Zeng Guofan 曾國藩

6 September 1868 29 August 1870 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangjiang

41 Li Hongzhang 李鴻章

29 August 1870 26 April 1882 Left office for filial mourning

Zhang Shusheng 張樹聲

19 April 1882 13 July 1883 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Liangguang

Li Hongzhang 李鴻章

13 July 1883 23 September 1884 Acting Viceroy of Zhili

42 Li Hongzhang 李鴻章

23 September 1884 28 August 1895 Reassigned to the Imperial Cabinet

Wang Wenshao 王文韶

13 February 1895 28 August 1895 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Yun-Gui

43 Wang Wenshao 王文韶

28 August 1895 23 June 1898 Promoted to Secretary of Revenue

Ronglu 榮祿

15 June 1898 23 June 1898 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary

44 Ronglu 榮祿

23 June 1898 25 September 1898 Recalled to the capital

Yuan Shikai 袁世凱

25 September 1898

Stand-in as an acting Vice Secretary

45 Yulu 裕祿

28 September 1898 27 July 1900 Died in office

Tingyong 廷雍

9 August 1900

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

46 Li Hongzhang 李鴻章

8 July 1900 7 November 1901 Died in office

Zhou Fu 周馥

7 November 1901

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

Yuan Shikai 袁世凱

7 November 1901 9 June 1902 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong

47 Yuan Shikai 袁世凱

9 June 1902 4 September 1907 Promoted to Secretary of Foreign Affairs

Wu Chongxi 吳重熹

18 October 1902

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

Yang Shixiang 楊士驤

5 September 1907 23 July 1908 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong

48 Yang Shixiang 楊士驤

23 July 1908 28 June 1909 Died in office

Natong 那桐

28 June 1909

Stand-in as the Grand Secretary and Assisting Minister of Foreign Affairs

49 Duanfang 端方

28 June 1909 23 January 1910 Dismissed from office

Cui Yong'an 崔永安

23 January 1910

Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili

50 Chen Kuilong 陳夔龍

23 January 1910 3 February 1912 Left office due to illness

Zhang Zhenfang 張鎮芳

3 February 1912

Acting Viceroy of Zhili

References[edit]

Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese). 

v t e

Viceroys of the Qing dynasty

Viceroy of Caoyun Viceroy of Huguang Viceroy of Liangguang Viceroy of Liangjiang Viceroy of Min-Zhe Viceroy of Shaan-Gan Viceroy of Sichuan Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces Viceroy of Rivers and Waterways (Viceroy of Eastern Rivers • Viceroy of Northern Rivers • Viceroy of Southern Rivers) Viceroy of Yun-Gui Vice

.