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Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") [n 1] and Old Italic, is the collective name given to the Latin
Latin
translations of biblical texts (both Old Testament and New Testament) that existed before the Vulgate, the Latin
Latin
translation produced by Jerome
Jerome
in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate
Vulgate
became the standard Latin
Latin
Bible
Bible
used by the Catholic Church, especially after the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate
Vulgate
translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
texts survive in places in the liturgy (eg., the Pater Noster). As the English translation of Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is "Old Latin", they are also sometimes referred to as the Old Latin
Old Latin
Bible,[1] although they are written in the form of Latin
Latin
known as Late Latin, not that known as Old Latin. The Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
manuscripts that are preserved today are dated from AD 350 to the 13th century.

Contents

1 Text 2 Replacement 3 Comparison with Vulgate 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Text[edit] There is no single "Vetus Latina" Bible. Instead, Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is a collection of biblical manuscript texts that are Latin
Latin
translations of Septuagint
Septuagint
and New Testament
New Testament
passages that preceded Jerome's Vulgate.[1] After comparing readings for Luke 24:4–5 in Vetus Latina manuscripts, Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
counted "at least 27 variant readings in Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
manuscripts that have survived" for this passage alone.[2] To these witnesses of previous translations, many scholars frequently add quotations of biblical passages that appear in the works of the Latin
Latin
Fathers, some of which share readings with certain groups of manuscripts. As such, many of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
"versions" were generally not promulgated in their own right as translations of the Bible
Bible
to be used in the whole Church; rather, many of the texts that form part of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
were prepared on an ad hoc basis for the local use of Christian communities, to illuminate another Christian discourse or sermon, or as the Latin
Latin
half of a diglot manuscript (e.g. Codex Bezae). There are some Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
texts that seem to have aspired to greater stature or currency; several Vetus Latina manuscripts Gospels exist, containing the four canonical Gospels; the several manuscripts that contain them differ substantially from one another. Other biblical passages, however, are extant only in excerpts or fragments. The language of Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations is uneven in quality, as Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
lamented in De Doctrina Christiana
De Doctrina Christiana
(2, 16). Grammatical solecisms abound; some reproduce literally Greek or Hebrew idioms as they appear in the Septuagint. Likewise, the various Vetus Latina translations reflect the various versions of the Septuagint circulating, with the African manuscripts (such as the Codex Bobiensis) preserving readings of the Western text-type, while readings in the European manuscripts are closer to the Byzantine text-type. Many grammatical idiosyncrasies come from the use of Vulgar Latin
Latin
grammatical forms in the text. Replacement[edit] When Jerome
Jerome
undertook the revision of Latin
Latin
translations of Old Testament texts in the late 4th century, he checked the Septuagint
Septuagint
and Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
of his Vulgate
Vulgate
from Hebrew sources rather than from the Greek Septuagint. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine, his contemporary; a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome
Jerome
as a forger. While on the one hand he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint
Septuagint
on both philological and theological grounds, on the other, in the context of accusations of heresy against him, Jerome
Jerome
would acknowledge the Septuagint
Septuagint
texts as well.[3] Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
offered a single, stylistically consistent Latin
Latin
text translated from the original tongues, and the Vetus Latina translations gradually fell out of use. Jerome, in a letter, complains that his new version was initially disliked by Christians who were familiar with the phrasing of the old translations. However, as copies of the complete Bible
Bible
were infrequently found, Vetus Latina translations of various books were copied into manuscripts alongside Vulgate
Vulgate
translations, inevitably exchanging readings. Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations of single books continued to be found in manuscripts as late as the 13th century. However, the Vulgate generally displaced the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
as the standard Latin
Latin
translation of the Bible
Bible
to be used by the Catholic church, especially after the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–1563). Comparison with Vulgate[edit] Below are some comparisons of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
with text from critical editions of the Vulgate. The following comparison is of Luke 6:1–4, taken from the Vetus Latina text in the Codex Bezae:

Vetus Latina[4] Latin
Latin
Vulgate[5][6][7] Douay Rheims

Et factum est eum in Sabbato secundoprimo abire per segetes discipuli autem illius coeperunt vellere spicas et fricantes manibus manducabant. Factum est autem in sabbato secundo, primo, cum transíret per sata, vellebant discípuli eius spicas, et manducabant confricantes manibus. And it came to pass on the second first sabbath, that as he went through the corn fields, his disciples plucked the ears, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.

Quidam autem de farisaeis dicebant ei, Ecce quid faciunt discipuli tui sabbatis quod non licet? Quidam autem pharisæorum, dicebant illis : Quid facitis quod non licet in sabbatis? And some of the Pharisees said to them: Why do you that which is not lawful on the sabbath days?

Respondens autem IHS dixit ad eos, Numquam hoc legistis quod fecit David quando esurit ipse et qui cum eo erat? Et respondens Jesus ad eos, dixit : Nec hoc legistis quod fecit David, cum esurisset ipse, et qui cum illo erant? And Jesus answering them, said: Have you not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was hungry, and they that were with him:

Intro ibit in domum Dei et panes propositionis manducavit et dedit et qui cum erant quibus non licebat manducare si non solis sacerdotibus? quomodo intravit in domum Dei, et panes propositionis sumpsit, et manducavit, et dedit his qui cum ipso erant : quos non licet manducare nisi tantum sacerdotibus? How he went into the house of God, and took and ate the bread of proposition, and gave to them that were with him, which is not lawful to eat but only for the priests?

The Vulgate
Vulgate
text survives in places in the liturgy, such as the following verse well known from Christmas carols, Luke 2:14, whilst the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is closer to the Byzantine tradition:

Vetus Latina Latin
Latin
Vulgate[8] King James Version (1611) Douay Rheims

Gloria in excelsis Deo, et super terra pax in hominibus consolationis[9] Gloria in altissimis Deo, et in terra pax in hominibus bonæ voluntatis Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. Glory to God in the highest; and on earth peace to men of good will.

The Vulgate
Vulgate
text means, "Glory [belongs] to God among the high, and peace [belongs] to men of good will on earth". The Vulgate
Vulgate
text means "Glory [belongs] to God among the most high and peace among men of good will on earth". Probably the most well known difference between the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
and the Vulgate
Vulgate
is in the Pater Noster, where the phrase from the Vetus Latina, quotidianum panem, "daily bread", becomes supersubstantialem panem, "supersubstantial bread" in the Vulgate. See also[edit]

Latin
Latin
Psalters List of New Testament
New Testament
Latin
Latin
manuscripts

Notes[edit]

^ See, for example, Quedlinburg Itala fragment.

References[edit]

^ a b W. E. Plater and H. J. White, A Grammar of the Vulgate, Oxford at the Clarendon Press: 1926, paragraph 4. ^ Metzger, Bruce (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780195166675.  ^ Rebenich, S., Jerome
Jerome
(Routledge, 2013), p. 58. ISBN 9781134638444 ^ Text taken from Codex Bezae
Codex Bezae
and the Da Vinci Code Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine., A textcritical look at the Rennes-le-Chateau hoax, Wieland Willker, 2005 ^ I Wordsworth, H.I. White, H.F.D. Sparks, Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi Latine secundum editione S. Hieronymi, Oxonii 1889–1954 ^ Stuttgart Vulgate, Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, adiuvantibus Bonifatio Fischer OSB, Iohanne Gribomont OSB, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele, recensuit et brevi apparatu instruxit Robertus Weber OSB, editio tertia emendata quam paravit Bonifatius Fischer OSB cum sociis H.I. Frede, Iohanne Gribomont OSB, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele, 1983 ^ Punctuation taken from Biblia sacra Vulgatae editionis, Michael Hetzenauer, 1922 ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Latine, Novam Vulgatam Bibliorum Sacrorum Editionem secuti apparatibus titulisque additis ediderunt Kurt Aland et Barbara Aland una cum Instituo studiorum textus Novi Testamenti Monasteriensi (Westphalia), Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1884–1998, Lc 2,14, citing Wordsworth, supra, and Stuttgart, supra ^ http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-NN-00002-00041/7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Latin
Latin
Bible.

The Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
Institut, Beuron/Germany Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
– Resources for the study of the Old Latin
Old Latin
Bible
Bible
(in English, German, and Latin) Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
Iohannes – An electronic edition of the manuscripts of John The old Latin
Latin
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
– About the edition of the Latin versions of the Books of Acts (in German) Tanakh.info – Polyglot of the Tanakh
Tanakh
featuring the text of Old Latin version of the Old Testament
Old Testament
with a new English translation.

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list

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