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VETUS LATINA ("Old Latin" in Latin
Latin
), also known as VETUS ITALA ("Old Italian"), ITALA ("Italian")  and OLD ITALIC, is the collective name given to the Latin
Latin
translations of biblical texts (both Old Testament and New Testament
New Testament
) that existed before the Vulgate
Vulgate
, the Latin
Latin
translation produced by Jerome
Jerome
in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate
Vulgate
became the standard Latin
Latin
Bible
Bible
used by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, especially after the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate
Vulgate
translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
texts survive in places in the liturgy (eg., the Pater Noster ).

As the English translation of Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is "Old Latin", they are also sometimes referred to as the OLD LATIN BIBLE, although they are written in the form of Latin
Latin
known as Late Latin
Latin
, not that known as Old Latin . The Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
manuscripts that are preserved today are dated from AD 350 to the 13th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 Text * 2 Replacement * 3 Comparison with Vulgate
Vulgate
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

TEXT

There is no single "Vetus Latina" Bible. Instead, Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is a collection of biblical manuscript texts that are Latin
Latin
translations of Septuagint
Septuagint
passages that preceded Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
.

After comparing readings for Luke 24:4–5 in Vetus Latina manuscripts, Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
counted "at least 27 variant readings in Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
manuscripts that have survived" for this passage alone. To these witnesses of previous translations, many scholars frequently add quotations of biblical passages that appear in the works of the Latin
Latin
Fathers, some of which share readings with certain groups of manuscripts. As such, many of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
"versions" were generally not promulgated in their own right as translations of the Bible
Bible
to be used in the whole Church; rather, many of the texts that form part of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
were prepared on an ad hoc basis for the local use of Christian communities, to illuminate another Christian discourse or sermon , or as the Latin
Latin
half of a diglot manuscript (e.g. Codex Bezae
Codex Bezae
). There are some Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
texts that seem to have aspired to greater stature or currency; several Vetus Latina manuscripts Gospels exist, containing the four canonical Gospels; the several manuscripts that contain them differ substantially from one another. Other biblical passages, however, are extant only in excerpts or fragments.

The language of Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations is uneven in quality, as Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
lamented in De Doctrina Christiana (2, 16). Grammatical solecisms abound; some reproduce literally Greek or Hebrew idioms as they appear in the Septuagint
Septuagint
. Likewise, the various Vetus Latina translations reflect the various versions of the Septuagint circulating, with the African manuscripts (such as the Codex Bobiensis ) preserving readings of the Western text-type , while readings in the European manuscripts are closer to the Byzantine text-type . Many grammatical idiosyncrasies come from the use of Vulgar Latin grammatical forms in the text.

REPLACEMENT

When Jerome
Jerome
undertook the revision of Latin
Latin
translations of Old Testament texts in the late 4th century, he checked the Septuagint
Septuagint
and Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament
Old Testament
of his Vulgate
Vulgate
from Hebrew sources rather than from the Greek Septuagint. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine , his contemporary; a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome
Jerome
as a forger. While on the one hand he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on both philological and theological grounds, on the other, in the context of accusations of heresy against him, Jerome
Jerome
would acknowledge the Septuagint
Septuagint
texts as well.

Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
offered a single, stylistically consistent Latin text translated from the original tongues, and the Vetus Latina translations gradually fell out of use. Jerome, in a letter, complains that his new version was initially disliked by Christians who were familiar with the phrasing of the old translations. However, as copies of the complete Bible
Bible
were infrequently found, Vetus Latina translations of various books were copied into manuscripts alongside Vulgate
Vulgate
translations, inevitably exchanging readings.

Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
translations of single books continued to be found in manuscripts as late as the 13th century. However, the Vulgate generally displaced the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
as the standard Latin
Latin
translation of the Bible
Bible
to be used by the Catholic church, especially after the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
(1545–1563).

COMPARISON WITH VULGATE

Below are some comparisons of the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
with text from critical editions of the Vulgate.

The following comparison is of Luke 6:1–4, taken from the Vetus Latina text in the Codex Bezae
Codex Bezae
:

VETUS LATINA LATIN VULGATE KING JAMES VERSION (1611)

Et factum est eum in Sabbato secundoprimo abire per segetes discipuli autem illius coeperunt vellere spicas et fricantes manibus manducabant. Factum est autem in sabbato secundo, primo, cum transíret per sata, vellebant discípuli eius spicas, et manducabant confricantes manibus. And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.

Quidam autem de farisaeis dicebant ei, Ecce quid faciunt discipuli tui sabbatis quod non licet? Quidam autem pharisæorum, dicebant illis : Quid facitis quod non licet in sabbatis? And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?

Respondens autem IHS dixit ad eos, Numquam hoc legistis quod fecit David quando esurit ipse et qui cum eo erat? Et respondens Jesus ad eos, dixit : Nec hoc legistis quod fecit David, cum esurisset ipse, et qui cum illo erant? And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him;

Intro ibit in domum Dei et panes propositionis manducavit et dedit et qui cum erant quibus non licebat manducare si non solis sacerdotibus? quomodo intravit in domum Dei, et panes propositionis sumpsit, et manducavit, et dedit his qui cum ipso erant : quos non licet manducare nisi tantum sacerdotibus? How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?

The Vulgate
Vulgate
text survives in places in the liturgy, such as the following verse well known from Christmas carols, Luke 2:14, whilst the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
is closer to the Byzantine tradition:

VETUS LATINA LATIN VULGATE KING JAMES VERSION (1611)

Gloria in excelsis Deo
Gloria in excelsis Deo
, et super terra pax in hominibus consolationis Gloria in altissimis Deo, et in terra pax in hominibus bonæ voluntatis Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

The Vulgate
Vulgate
text means, "Glory to God among the high, and peace to men of good will on earth". The Vulgate
Vulgate
text means "Glory to God among the most high and peace among men of good will on earth".

Probably the most well known difference between the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
and the Vulgate
Vulgate
is in the Pater Noster , where the phrase from the Vetus Latina, quotidianum panem, "daily bread", becomes supersubstantialem panem, "supersubstantial bread" in the Vulgate.

SEE ALSO

* Latin
Latin
Psalters * List of New Testament
New Testament
Latin
Latin
manuscripts

NOTES

* ^ See, for example, Quedlinburg Itala fragment .

REFERENCES

* ^ A B W. E. Plater and H. J. White , A Grammar of the Vulgate, Oxford at the Clarendon Press: 1926, paragraph 4. * ^ Metzger, Bruce (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780195166675 . * ^ Rebenich, S., Jerome
Jerome
(Routledge, 2013), p. 58. ISBN 9781134638444 * ^ Text taken from Codex Bezae
Codex Bezae
and the Da Vinci Code, A textcritical look at the Rennes-le-Chateau hoax, Wieland Willker, 2005 * ^ I Wordsworth, H.I. White, H.F.D. Sparks , Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi Latine secundum editione S. Hieronymi, Oxonii 1889–1954 * ^ Stuttgart Vulgate, Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem, adiuvantibus Bonifatio Fischer OSB , Iohanne Gribomont OSB, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele, recensuit et brevi apparatu instruxit Robertus Weber OSB, editio tertia emendata quam paravit Bonifatius Fischer OSB cum sociis H.I. Frede, Iohanne Gribomont OSB, H.F.D. Sparks, W. Thiele, 1983 * ^ Punctuation taken from Biblia sacra Vulgatae editionis, Michael Hetzenauer, 1922 * ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Latine, Novam Vulgatam Bibliorum Sacrorum Editionem secuti apparatibus titulisque additis ediderunt Kurt Aland et Barbara Aland una cum Instituo studiorum textus Novi Testamenti Monasteriensi (Westphalia), Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1884–1998, Lc 2,14, citing Wordsworth, supra, and Stuttgart, supra * ^ http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-NN-00002-00041/7

EXTERNAL LINKS

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