The Info List - Vettones

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The Vettones
(Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.[1][2]


1 Origins 2 Culture 3 Location 4 History

4.1 Romanization

5 Namesake 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Bibliography

8.1 Further reading

9 External links

Origins[edit] Under a controversial interpretation, John T. Koch has proposed a western Hispano-Celtic classification for the Vettones.[3][4] A Celtiberian origin has also been claimed.[1] Organized since the 3rd Century BC, the Vettones
formed a tribal confederacy of undetermined strength. Even though their tribes’ names are obscure, the study of local epigraphic evidence has identified the Calontienses, Coerenses, Caluri and Bletonesii but the others remain unknown. Culture[edit] A predominately horse-[5] and cattle-herder people that practiced transhumance, archeology has identified them with the local 2nd Iron Age ‘Cogotas II’ Culture, also known as the ‘Culture of the Verracos’ (verracos de piedra), named after the crude granite sculptures representing pigs, wild boars and bulls that still dot their former region. These are one of their most notable enduring legacies today, the other possibly being the game of Calva, which dates to the time of their influence. The Iron Age
Iron Age
sites and respective cemeteries of Las Cogotas, La Osera, El Raso de Candeleda, La Mesa de Miranda and Alcántara
have provided enough elements – weapons, shields, fibulae, belt buckles, bronze cauldrons, Campanian and Greek pottery
Greek pottery
– which attest the strong contacts with the Pellendones
of the eastern meseta, the Iberian south and the Mediterranean. Location[edit]

Location of the Vettones' cities

The Vettones
lived in the northwestern part of the meseta—the high central upland plain of the Iberian peninsula—the region where the modern Spanish provinces of Ávila and Salamanca are today, as well as parts of Zamora, Toledo, Cáceres and also the eastern border areas of modern Portuguese territory. Their own capital city, which the ancient sources mysteriously failed to mention at all, has not yet been found though other towns mentioned by Ptolemy[6] were located, such as Capara (Ventas de Cápara), Obila (Ávila?), Mirobriga (Ciudad Rodrigo?), Turgalium (Trujillo, Cáceres), Alea ( Alía
– Cáceres) and probably Bletisa/Bletisama (Ledesma, Salamanca). Other probable Vettonian towns were Tamusia (Villasviejas de Tamuja, near Botija, Cáceres; Celtiberian-type mint: Tamusiensi), Ocelon/Ocelum (Castelo Branco), Cottaeobriga (Almeida) and Lancia (Serra d’Opa). History[edit] Traditional allies of the Lusitani, the Vettones
helped the latter in their struggle against the advancing Carthaginians led by Hasdrubal the Fair and Hannibal
in the late 3rd century BC. At first placed under nominal Punic suzerainty by the time of the Second Punic War, the Vettones
threw off their yoke soon after 206 BC. At the Lusitanian Wars of the 2nd century BC they joined once again the Lusitani
in their attacks on Baetica, Carpetania, the Cyneticum and the failed incursion on the North African town of Ocilis (modern Asilah, Morocco) in 153 BC.[7][8] Although incorporated around 134-133 BC into Hispania Ulterior, the Vettones
continued to raid the more romanized regions further south and during the Roman civil wars of the early 1st century BC, they even provided auxiliary troops to Sertorius’ army in 77-76 BC. Crushed by the provincial propraetor Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 61 BC, they later rose in support of Pompey's faction and fought at the battle of Munda ( Montilla
– Córdoba) in Baetica.[9] Romanization[edit] The Romans promptly began to establish military colonies at Kaisarobriga or Caesarobriga ( Talavera de la Reina
Talavera de la Reina
– Toledo) and Norba Caesarina (near Cáceres), and in around 27-13 BC the Vettones were aggregated to the newly created Roman province of Lusitania
with Emerita Augusta (Mérida) as the capital of the new province.[10] Namesake[edit] The Vettones
are not to be confused with the Vettonenses, inhabitants of Vettona (today's Bettona) in Umbria. See also[edit]

Bletonesii Celtiberian script Cynetes Lusitanian Wars Sertorian Wars Roman civil wars Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Ala Hispanorum Vettonum civium Romanorum


^ a b Álvarez-Sanchís, Jesús R. (2005). "Oppida and Celtic society in western Spain". e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies, Vol. 6 (The Celts
in the Iberian Peninsula).  ^ Cremin, The Celts
in Europe (1992), p. 57. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 481.  ^ Cólera, Carlos Jordán (March 16, 2007). "The Celts
in the Iberian Peninsula:Celtiberian" (PDF). e-Keltoi. 6: 749–750. Retrieved 16 June 2010.  ^ Silius Italicus, Punica, III, 378. ^ Ptolemy, Geographika, II, 5, 7. ^ Appian, Iberiké, 57. ^ Livy, Periochae, 47. ^ Caesar, De Bello Civili, I, 38, 1-4. ^ Garcia y Bellido, Antonio (1958). Las colonias romanas de la provincia Lusitania
(PDF). Antigua: Historia y Arqueología de las civilizaciones. pp. 3, 4. 


Aedeen Cremin, The Celts
in Europe, Sydney, Australia: Sydney Series in Celtic Studies 2, Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Sydney (1992) ISBN 0-86758-624-9 Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos (1200-218 a.C), Editorial Gredos, Madrid (1989) ISBN 84-249-1386-8 Christophe Bonnaud, Les castros vettons et leurs populations au Second Âge du Fer (Ve siècle-IIe siècle avant J.-C.), I: implantation et systèmes défensives in Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia, pp. 209–242, volume 8, número 1, IPA Lisboa (2005) ISSN 0874-2782 Christophe Bonnaud, Les castros vettons et leurs populations au Second Âge du Fer (Ve siècle-IIe siècle avant J.-C.), II: l’habitat, l’économie, la société in Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia, pp. 209–242, volume 8, número 2, IPA Lisboa (2005) ISSN 0874-2782 Eduardo Sánchez Moreno, Vetones: Historia y Arqueología de un pueblo prerromano, Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma, Madrid (2000) ISBN 84-7477-759-3 Francisco Burillo Mozota, Los Celtíberos, etnias y estados, Crítica, Grijalbo Mondadori, S.A., Barcelona (1998, revised edition 2007) ISBN 84-7423-891-9 Isabel Baquedano Beltrán, La necrópolis vettona de La Osera (Chamartín, Ávila, España) – volumen I, Zona Arqueológia número 19-I, Museo Arqueológico Regional, Alcalá de Henares (2016) ISBN 978-84-451-3518-1 Isabel Baquedano Beltrán, La necrópolis vettona de La Osera (Chamartín, Ávila, España) – volumen II, Zona Arqueológia número 19-II, Museo Arqueológico Regional, Alcalá de Henares (2016) ISBN 978-84-451-3518-1 Manuel Salinas de Frías, Los vettones: indigenismo y romanización en el occidente de la meseta, Ediciones Universidad Salamanca, Salamanca (2001) ISBN 84-7800-881-0 Martín Almagro-Gorbea & Ana Maria Martín, Castros y Oppida en Extremadura, Editorial Complutense, Madrid (1994) ISBN 84-7491-533-3 Jesús R. Álvarez-Sanchís, Los vettones, Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid (2003) ISBN 9788495983169 Jesús R. Álvarez-Sanchís, Los señores del ganado – Arqueología de los pueblos prerromanos en el occidente de Iberia, Colección Arqueología, Editorial Akal, Madrid (2003) ISBN 84-460-1650-8

Further reading[edit]

Barry Cunliffe, The Celts
– A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 0-19-280418-9. Dáithí Ó hÓgáin, The Celts: A History, The Collins Press, Cork (2002) ISBN 0-85115-923-0 Daniel Varga, The Roman Wars in Spain: The Military Confrontation with Guerrilla Warfare, Pen & Sword Military, Barnsley (2015) ISBN 978-1-47382-781-3 Leonard A Curchin (5 May 2004). The Romanization of Central Spain: Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Routledge. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-134-45112-8.  Ludwig Heinrich Dyck, The Roman Barbarian Wars: The Era of Roman Conquest, Author Solutions (2011) ISBNs 1426981821, 9781426981821 John T. Koch (ed.), Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO Inc., Santa Barbara, California (2006) ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 1-85109-445-8

External links[edit]

Mapa del territorio vettón (Map of Vettonian Territory) Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iber