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Vernonia
Vernonia
is a genus of about 1000 species of forbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Some species are known as ironweed. Some species are edible and of economic value. They are known for having intense purple flowers. The genus is named for the English botanist William Vernon. There are numerous distinct subgenera and subsections in this genus. This has led some botanists to divide this large genus into several distinct genera.[2] For instance, the Flora of North America only recognizes about 20 species in Vernonia
Vernonia
sensu stricto, 17 of which are in North America
North America
north of Mexico, with the others being found in South America.[3]

Contents

1 Uses 2 Species

2.1 North America 2.2 South America 2.3 Africa 2.4 Asia

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Uses[edit]

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015)

Bee ( Ceratina
Ceratina
sp.) on Vernonia cinerea
Vernonia cinerea
at Ananthagiri Hills, in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh, India

Several species of Vernonia, including V. calvoana, V. amygdalina, and V. colorata, are eaten as leaf vegetables. Common names for these species include bitterleaf, onugbu in the Igbo language, ewuro and ndole. They are common in most West African and Central African countries. They are one of the most widely consumed leaf vegetables of Nigeria, where the onugbu soup is a local delicacy of the Igbo people, and of Cameroon, where they are a key ingredient of Ndolé. The leaves have a sweet and bitter taste. They are sold fresh or dried, and are a typical ingredient in egusi soup. Vernonia amygdalina is well known as a medicinal plant with several uses attributed to it, including for diabetes, fever reduction, and recently a non-pharmaceutical solution to persistent fever, headache, and joint pain associated with AIDS
AIDS
(an infusion of the plant is taken as needed).[4][5] These leaves are exported from several African countries and can be purchased in grocery stores aiming to serve African clients. The roots of V. amygdalina have been used for gingivitis and toothache due to its proven antimicrobial activity.[6] In Brazil, V. condensata (commonly known as "figatil" or "necroton") is traditionally used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithermal, antianemic, antibacterial, liver tonic, hepatoprotective, and antiulcerogenic agent.[7] Vernonia galamensis
Vernonia galamensis
is used as an oilseed in East Africa. It is grown in many parts of Ethiopia, especially around the city of Harar, with an average seed yield of 2 to 2.5 t/ha. It is reported that the Ethiopian strains of Vernonia
Vernonia
have the highest oil content, up to 41.9% with up to 80% vernolic acid, and is used in paint formulations, coatings plasticizers, and as a reagent for many industrial chemicals.[8] Vernonia
Vernonia
species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species including Coleophora vernoniaeella (which feeds exclusively on the genus) and Schinia regia
Schinia regia
(which feeds exclusively on V. texana). Vernonia
Vernonia
calvoana or bitterleaf, is a common garden plant in many West African and Central African countries. It is a key ingredient in ndolé, a national dish of Cameroon.[9] Species[edit]

Psyche (Leptosia nina) on an ash fleabane or little ironweed (Vernonia cinerea) in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Ironweed, Vernonia
Vernonia
altissima

Vernonia
Vernonia
capensis

Species
Species
of this genus are found in South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and North America. Vernonia
Vernonia
species are well known for hybridizing between similar species in areas of overlapping ranges. There are approximately 1000 species of Vernonia. A partial species list is given below. North America[edit]

Vernonia
Vernonia
acaulis Vernonia
Vernonia
arkansana Vernonia
Vernonia
angustifolia Vernonia
Vernonia
baldwinii Vernonia
Vernonia
blodgettii Vernonia
Vernonia
fasciculata Vernonia
Vernonia
flaccidifolia Vernonia gigantea
Vernonia gigantea
or Vernonia
Vernonia
altissima[10] Vernonia
Vernonia
glauca Vernonia
Vernonia
larseniae Vernonia
Vernonia
lettermannii Vernonia
Vernonia
lindheimeri Vernonia
Vernonia
marginata Vernonia
Vernonia
missurica Vernonia
Vernonia
noveboracensis Vernonia
Vernonia
proctorii Vernonia
Vernonia
pulchella Vernonia
Vernonia
texana

South America[edit]

Vernonia
Vernonia
nonoensis Vernonia
Vernonia
patens Vernonia
Vernonia
scorpioides Vernonia
Vernonia
condensata

Africa[edit]

Vernonia
Vernonia
amygdalina Vernonia
Vernonia
bamendae Vernonia
Vernonia
calvoana Vernonia
Vernonia
colorata Vernonia
Vernonia
galamensis Vernonia
Vernonia
kotschyana Vernonia
Vernonia
staehelinoides Vernonia
Vernonia
cineria

Asia[edit]

Vernonia
Vernonia
arborea Vernonia
Vernonia
cockburniana Vernonia
Vernonia
elaeagnifolia Vernonia
Vernonia
unicata Vernonia
Vernonia
zollingerianoides

See also[edit]

Vernonia
Vernonia
oil

References[edit]

^ Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist ^ Harold Robinson (1999). "Generic and Subtribal Classification of American Vernonieae" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 89. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Flora of North America: Vernonia ^ Herbal medicine--its use in treating some symptoms of AIDS; 9th International AIDS
AIDS
Conference ^ Report:INDIGENOUS APPROACHES TO THE HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
SCOURGE IN UGANDA, Chap. 5 Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ TRADITIONAL MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT FOR MEDICAL AND DENTAL PRIMARY HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM IN AFRICA. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Vol. 2, Num. 1, 2005, pp. 46-61 ^ Jucélia Barbosa da Silva; Vanessa dos Santos Temponi; Carolina Miranda Gasparetto; et al. (2013). " Vernonia
Vernonia
condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants". Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Article ID 698018. doi:10.1155/2013/698018.  ^ "Alamata Pilot Learning Site Diagnosis and Program Design" Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. IPMS Information Resources Portal
Portal
- Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(23 June 2005), p. 12 (accessed 3 March 2009) ^ Veronia calvoana, Plant
Plant
Encyclopedia ^ Flora of North America: Vernonia
Vernonia
gigantea

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vernonia.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Vernonia

" Vernonia
Vernonia
Information System". Arid Land Agricultural Research Center. Retrieved 2006-09-10.  "Crop fact sheet for V. galamensis". Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant
Plant
Products. Retrieved 2006-09-10.  " Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne.  "Effect of Processing and Preservation Methods on Vitamin C and Total Carotenoid Levels of some Vernonia
Vernonia
(Bitter Leaf) Species". Retrieved 2006-09-10. 

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1411311 APDB: 195821 EoL: 50563 EPPO: 1VENG FNA: 134497 FoC: 134497 GBIF: 3123781 GRIN: 12685 iNaturalist: 121959 ITIS: 38615 NCBI: 13753 PLANTS: VERNO

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