Vermont (/vərˈmɒnt, vɜːr-/ ( listen))[a] is a state
New England region of the Northeastern United States. It
borders the U.S. states of
Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire
to the east and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of
Quebec to the north.
Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western
border with New York. The
Green Mountains run north-south for the
length of the state.
Vermont is the second smallest by population and the sixth smallest by
area of the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is Montpelier, the least
populous state capital in the United States. The most populous city,
Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in
a state. As of 2015,
Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup
in the United States. It was ranked as the safest state in the
country in 2016.
For thousands of years indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and
the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory that
Vermont and was later claimed by France's colony of New France.
France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in
1763 in the Seven Years' War. For many years, the nearby colonies,
especially the provinces of
New Hampshire and New York, disputed
control of the area (then called the
New Hampshire Grants). Settlers
who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green
Mountain Boys militia, which supported the many settlers whose claims
were based on grants from New Hampshire.
Ultimately, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state,
Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the American
Revolutionary War, it lasted for 14 years. Aside from the original 13
states that were formerly colonies,
Vermont is one of only four U.S.
states that were previously sovereign states (along with California,
Hawaii, and Texas).
Vermont was also the first state to join the
Union, as its 14th member state. While still an independent Republic,
Vermont was the first of any future
U.S. state to partially abolish
2.2 Largest towns
3.1 Native American occupancy
3.4 Revolutionary War
3.5 Admission to the Union
3.6 The Civil War
3.7 Postbellum era to present
3.7.1 Demographic changes
3.7.2 Natural disasters
3.7.3 Political changes
4.1 Population changes
4.1.1 Birth data
4.2 Population characteristics
Vermont speech patterns
5.1 Personal income
5.2.1 Dairy farming
5.10 Non-profits and volunteerism
6.1 Major routes
6.1.1 North–south routes
6.1.2 East–west routes
7.1 Newspapers of record
7.2 Broadcast media
9 Law and government
9.1 Finances and taxation
9.2.1 State politics
9.2.2 Federal politics
10 Public health
11.1 Higher education
12.1.1 Winter sports
13 State symbols
14 Notable Vermonters
14.2 In fiction
16 See also
20 External links
20.4 Maps and demographics
20.5 Tourism and recreation
20.7 Culture and history
The origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but likely comes from
the French Les Verts Monts, meaning "the Green Mountains". Thomas
Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of
Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Verd Mont (green
mountain) may have inspired Young. Another source points out the
predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued
metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason. The Green Mountains
form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state,
slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are
located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake
Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley
is Lake Bomoseen.
See also: List of counties in Vermont, List of towns in Vermont, and
List of mountains of Vermont
Map of Vermont, showing cities, roads, and rivers
Protected land in Vermont
Vermont is located in the
New England region of the Northeastern
United States and comprises 9,614 square miles (24,900 km2),
making it the 45th-largest state. It is the only state that does not
have any buildings taller than 124 feet (38 m). Land
comprises 9,250 square miles (24,000 km2) and water comprises 365
square miles (950 km2), making it the 43rd-largest in land area
and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El
Salvador and smaller than Haiti. It is the only landlocked state in
The west bank of the
Connecticut River marks the state's eastern
border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New
Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the
Connecticut River's watershed.
Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United
Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of
the state. From north to south,
Vermont is 159 miles (256 km)
long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143 km)
at the Canada–U.S. border; the narrowest width is 37 miles
(60 km) at the
Massachusetts line. The width averages 60.5 miles
(97.4 km). The state's geographic center is approximately three
miles (5 km) east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are
fifteen U.S. federal border crossings between
Vermont and Canada.
Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine
ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the
state; Killington Peak, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's
third-highest; and Mount Abraham, the fifth-highest peak. Areas in
Vermont administered by the
National Park Service
National Park Service include the
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (in Woodstock) and
the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.
Vermont has 14 counties, only two (Lamoille and Washington) are
entirely surrounded by
Vermont has nine incorporated cities.
City populations (2010 Census)
The most populous city in
Vermont is Burlington, and its metropolitan
area is also the most populous in the state with an estimate of
214,796 as of 2013.
Population density of Vermont
Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they
are not incorporated as such.
Large town populations (2010 Census)
See also: Climate of New England
Vermont winter landscape
The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F
Vermont has a humid continental climate, with muddy
springs, in general a mild early summer, hot Augusts; it has colorful
autumns: Vermont's hills reveal red, orange, and (on sugar maples)
gold foliage as cold weather approaches. Winters are colder at
higher elevations. It has a
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification of Dfb,
similar to Minsk, Stockholm, and Fargo.
The rural northeastern section known as the "Northeast Kingdom" often
averages 10 °F (5.6 °C) colder than the southern areas of
the state during winter. The annual snowfall averages between 60 and
100 inches (1,500 and 2,500 mm) depending on elevation. Vermont
is the seventh coldest state in the country. In winter, until
El Niño conditions, Vermont's winters are "too cold to snow";
the air is too cold to contain sufficient moisture to prompt
The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (41 °C), at
Vernon, on July 4, 1911. The lowest recorded temperature was
−50 °F (−46 °C), at Bloomfield, on December 30, 1933;
this is the lowest temperature recorded in
New England alongside Big
Black River, also recorded a verified −50 °F (−46 °C)
in 2009. The agricultural growing season ranges from 120 to
180 days. The
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture plant
hardiness zones for the state range between zone 3b, no colder than
−35 °F (−37 °C), in the
Northeast Kingdom and northern
part of the state and zone 5b, no colder than −15 °F
(−26 °C), in the southern part of the state. The state
receives between 2,000 and 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.
Further information: Geology of New England
There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized
by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern
Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain
Lowlands, and the
About 500 million years ago,
Vermont was part of
Laurentia and located
in the tropics. The central and southern Green Mountain range
include the oldest rocks in Vermont, formed about one billion years
ago during the first mountain building period (or orogeny).
Subsequently, about 400 million years ago, the second mountain
building period created Green Mountain peaks that were 15,000–20,000
feet (4,600–6,100 m) tall, three to four times their current
height and comparable to the Himalayas. The geological pressures that
created those peaks remain evident as the Champlain Thrust, running
north–south to the west of the mountains (now the eastern shore of
Lake Champlain). It is an example of geological fault thrusting where
bedrock is pushed over the newer rock formation.
As a result of tectonic formation,
Vermont east of the Green Mountains
tends to be formed from rocks produced in the
Silurian and Devonian
Vermont mainly from the older
Cambrian material. Several large deposits within the state contain
granite. The remains of the
Chazy Formation can be
observed in Isle La Motte. It was one of the first tropical reefs. It
is the site of the limestone Fisk Quarry, which contains a collection
of ancient marine fossils such as stromatoporoids that date back to
200 million years ago. It is believed that at one point,
connected to Africa (Pangaea) and the fossils found and the rock
formations found on the coasts in both Africa and America are further
evidence of the
In the past four centuries,
Vermont has experienced a few earthquakes
rarely centered under Vermont, the highest being a Richter magnitude
scale 6.0 in 1952.
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89 species
of fish, of which 12 are non native; 193 species of breeding
birds, 58 species of mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and
2,000 higher plant species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types
of natural communities.
Vermont contains one species of venomous
snake, the timber rattlesnake, which is confined to a few acres in
western Rutland County.
By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the state
through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Sixteen were
re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000 in
2009. in 2013, hunters killed 6,968 of these. Since 1970,
reduction of farmland has resulted in reduced environment for, and
reduced numbers of various shrubland birds including the American
woodcock, brown thrasher, eastern towhee, willow flycatcher,
golden-winged warbler, blue-winged warbler, field sparrow, and
DDT destroyed the eggshells of ospreys, which
resulted in their disappearance from the state. This species began
reviving in 1998. As of 2010, they were no longer endangered in the
White-nose syndrome killed an estimated two-thirds of all
cave-wintering bats in the state from 2008 to 2010.
New England cottontail disappeared from the state in the early
1970s, out-competed by the eastern cottontail rabbit, imported in the
1800s for hunting, and which is better able to detect predators.
Out of a total of 33 species of bumblebee, there were 19 or 20 in the
state in 2013.
Bombus terricola (the yellow-banded bumblebee),
although once common in Vermont, has not been seen in most of its
range since 1999 and is now absent from Vermont. For honey bees,
colony collapse disorder has affected bee population in the state, as
elsewhere. Invasive species included the Asian spotted-wing
drosophila, which started damaging berry crops in 2012.
the initial point of invasion in New England. Since 2010, the
Vermont Department of Health has worked with the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention to conduct blood serum surveys of the state's
deer and moose populations. Tests for eastern equine encephalitis
virus antibodies were positive in moose or deer in each of Vermont's
counties. In 2012, 12% of deer and 2.4% of moose tested positive.
Vermont is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Much of
the state, in particular the Green Mountains, is covered by the
conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests.
The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain
lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests. The southwest
corner of the state and parts of the
Connecticut River are covered by
Northeastern coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests of mixed oak.
Invasive wild honeysuckle has been deemed a threat to the state's
forests, native species of plants, and wildlife. Many of Vermont's
rivers, including the Winooski River, have been subjected to man-made
barriers to prevent flooding.
Climate change appears to be affecting the maple sugar industry. Sugar
maples have been subject to stress by acid rain, asian longhorn
beetles, pear thrips, and, in 2011, an excessive deer herd that is
forced to eat bark in the winter. These maples need a certain amount
of cold to produce sap for maple syrup. The time to tap these trees
has shrunk to one week in some years. The tree may be replaced by the
more aggressive Norway maples, in effect forcing the sugar maples to
"migrate" north to Canada.
Main article: History of Vermont
Native American occupancy
Between 8500 and 7000 BCE, at the time of the Champlain Sea, Native
Americans inhabited and hunted in present-day Vermont. During the
Archaic period, from the 8th millennium
BCE to 1000 BCE,
Native Americans migrated year-round. During the Woodland period, from
BCE to 1600 CE, villages and trade networks were
established, and ceramic and bow and arrow technology was developed.
During colonial times, the state was mainly occupied by an Abenaki
tribe known as the Sokoki, or Missiquois. However, the eastern part of
the state may have also been home to the Androscoggin and Pennacook
peoples. Also, Vermont's western border is only a rough approximation
of their borders with the Iroquoian Mohawk and the Algonquin Mohican
peoples. Many of the tribes later formed the Wabanaki Confederacy
during King Philip's War, after which most
Abenaki tribes were
scattered and defeated. The population in 1500 CE was estimated to be
around 10,000 people.
See also: List of forts in Vermont
Old Constitution House
Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of
Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The first European to see
Vermont is thought to have been Jacques
Cartier in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain
Vermont as part of New France. In 1666, French settlers
erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte, the first European
settlement in Vermont.
The "violent" 1638
New Hampshire earthquake was felt throughout New
England, centered in the St. Lawrence Valley. This was the first
seismic event noted in Vermont. In 1690, a group of Dutch-British
settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at
Chimney Point 8 miles (13 km) west of present-day
Addison. During Dummer's War, the first permanent
British settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of
Fort Dummer. It was to protect the nearby settlements of Dummerston
From 1731 to 1734, the French constructed Fort St. Frédéric, which
gave them control of the New France–
Vermont frontier region in the
Lake Champlain Valley. With the outbreak of the French and Indian War
in 1754, the North American front of the
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War between the
French and British, the French began construction of Fort Carillon at
Ticonderoga, New York
Ticonderoga, New York in 1755. The British failed to take
Fort St. Frédéric
Fort St. Frédéric or Fort Carillon between 1755 and 1758. In 1759 a
combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under
Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon, after which the French
abandoned Fort St. Frédéric. Amherst constructed Fort Crown Point
next to the remains of the Fort St. Frédéric, securing British
control over the area.
Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, through the 1763
Treaty of Paris they ceded control of the land to the British.
Colonial settlement was limited by the Crown to lands east of the
Appalachians, in order to try to end encroachment on Native American
lands. The territory of
Vermont was divided nearly in half in a jagged
line running from
Fort William Henry
Fort William Henry in Lake George diagonally
north-eastward to Lake Memphremagog. With the end of
the war, new settlers arrived in Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire and New York all claimed this frontier area.[citation
On July 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary
New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the
Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 degrees
north latitude. New York refused to recognize the land titles
known as the
New Hampshire Grants (towns created by land grants sold
New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth) and dissatisfied New
Hampshire settlers organized in opposition. In 1770 Ethan Allen, his
brothers Ira and Levi, and the Allens' cousins
Seth Warner and
Remember Baker, recruited an informal militia known as the Green
Mountain Boys to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire
settlers against newcomers from New York.
In 1775, after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, the
Green Mountain Boys
Green Mountain Boys assisted a force from Connecticut, led by Benedict
Arnold, in capturing the British fort at Ticonderoga. Thereafter, the
Continental Congress in
Philadelphia directed the New York colony's
revolutionary congress to fund and equip Allen's militia as a ranger
regiment of the Continental Army, which it did.
Seth Warner was chosen
by the men of the regiment to lead, while
Ethan Allen went on to serve
as a colonel in Schuyler's Army of Northern New York.
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical
Vermont State House
Vermont State House (Capitol)
On January 15, 1777, representatives of the
New Hampshire Grants
declared the independence of Vermont. For the first six months of
its existence, it was called the Republic of New Connecticut.
On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met and adopted
the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly
Pennsylvanian, Dr. Thomas Young, friend and mentor of Ethan Allen, who
wrote to them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent
United States of America as the 14th state. On July 4, they
completed the drafting of the
Constitution of Vermont
Constitution of Vermont at the Windsor
Tavern, and adopted it on July 8. This was the first written
constitution in North America to ban adult slavery, saying male
slaves become free at the age of 21 and females at 18. It provided for
universal adult male suffrage and required support of public schools.
It was in effect from 1777 to 1786. The revised constitution of
1786, which established a greater separation of powers, continued in
effect until 1793, two years after Vermont's admission to the Union.
Slavery was fully banned by state law on November 25, 1858, less than
three years before the American Civil War.
an important geographical role in the Underground Railroad, which
helped American slaves escape to Canada.
1791 Act of Congress, admitting
Vermont to the federal union.
Main article: Battle of Bennington
The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal
event in the history of the state of
Vermont and the United States. A
combined American force, under General John Stark's command, attacked
the Hessian column at Hoosick, New York, just across the border from
Bennington. It killed or captured virtually the entire Hessian
detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and
eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at
Saratoga, New York, on October 17 that year.
The battles of Bennington and Saratoga together are recognized as the
turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first
major defeat of a British army. The anniversary of the battle is still
Vermont as a legal holiday.
Battle of Hubbardton
Battle of Hubbardton (July 7, 1777) was the only Revolutionary
battle within the present boundaries of Vermont. Although the
Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were
damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans
(retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further.
Admission to the Union
Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the
eastern town of Windsor for 14 years. The independent state of Vermont
issued its own coinage from 1785 to 1788 and operated a statewide
Thomas Chittenden was the Governor in 1778–89 and in
Because the state of New York continued to assert a disputed claim
Vermont was a part of New York,
Vermont could not be admitted to
the Union under Article IV, Section 3 of the Constitution until the
legislature of New York consented. On March 6, 1790, the legislature
made its consent contingent upon a negotiated agreement on the precise
boundary between the two states. When commissioners from New York and
Vermont met to decide on the boundary, Vermont's negotiators insisted
on also settling the property ownership disputes with New Yorkers,
rather than leaving that to be decided later in a federal court.
The negotiations were successfully concluded in October 1790 with an
Vermont would pay $30,000 to New York to be distributed
among New Yorkers who claimed land in
Vermont under New York land
patents. In January 1791, a convention in
105–4 to petition Congress to become a state in the federal
union. Congress acted on February 18, 1791 to admit
Vermont to the
Union as the 14th state as of March 4, 1791.
Vermont became the
first to enter the Union after the original 13 states.
The Civil War
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Vermont in the American Civil War
From the mid-1850s on, some Vermonters became activists opposing
slavery, which they had previously worked to contain in the South.
Thaddeus Stevens was born in
Vermont and later
represented a district in
Pennsylvania in Congress. He developed as a
national leader and later promoted Radical Republican goals after the
American Civil War. While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican
Vermont supported Republican candidates. In 1860 it
Abraham Lincoln for US President, giving him the largest
margin of victory of any state.
During the American Civil War,
Vermont sent 33,288 men into United
States service. 5,224 Vermonters, over 15%, were killed or mortally
wounded in action or died of disease.
The northernmost land/battle action of the war, the St. Albans Raid,
took place in Vermont. However, the raiders were forced to return the
possessions after the Canadians captured them at their border.
Postbellum era to present
Beginning in the mid-19th century,
Vermont attracted numerous Irish,
Scots-Irish and Italian immigrants, adding to its residents of mostly
English and French-Canadian ancestry. Many migrated to Barre, where
the men worked as stonecutters of granite, for which there was a
Vermont granite was used in major public buildings in
many states. Many Italian and Scottish women operated boarding houses
in the late 19th century to support their families. Such facilities
helped absorb new residents, who peaked between 1890 and 1900.
Typically immigrants boarded with people of their own language and
ethnicity, but sometimes they boarded with others.
The state has suffered some natural disasters in the 20th and 21st
centuries related to hurricanes, extensive rain and flooding.
Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this
incident, 84 people died, including the state's lieutenant
New England hurricane in the fall of that year blew down
15,000,000 acres (61,000 km2) of trees, one-third of the total
forest at the time in New England. Three billion board feet were
salvaged. Today many of the older trees in
Vermont are about 75 years
old, dating from after this storm.
Another flood occurred in 1973, causing the deaths of two people and
millions of dollars in property damage.
The state suffered severe flooding in late August 2011 caused by
Tropical Storm Irene. Heavy rains caused flooding in many towns built
in narrow river valleys. The governor described it as one of the worst
natural disasters of the 20th and 21st centuries, second only to the
flood of 1927.
Vermont approved women's suffrage decades before it became part of the
national constitution. Women were first allowed to vote in the
elections of December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited
suffrage. They were first allowed to vote in town elections, and later
in state legislative races.
In 1964 the U.S. Supreme Court decision in
Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims required
"one-man, one-vote" redistricting in all states; this resulted in
major changes in Vermont. This ruling required city residents to be
given an equitable share of apportionment in both houses in every
Vermont had long been dominated by rural districts, as were
several Southern states in those years. Until that time,
apportionment was based on county jurisdictions, which had given more
power to rural counties and decreased representation of urban
residents. This arrangement had meant that urban issues were not
considered in proportion to the number of people affected by them.
In July 2000
Vermont became the first state to introduce civil unions.
Vermont became the first state to legislate same-sex marriage
unforced by court challenge or ruling. On January 22, 2018 Vermont
became the first of the United States to legalize cannabis for
recreational use by legislative action, and the ninth state in the
United States to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes. This
law was signed by Republican Governor Phil Scott.
According to the United States Census Bureau, as of April 15, 2015,
Vermont has an estimated population of 626,042, which was an
increase of 297, since April 15, 2010. This includes a natural
increase 3,178 (31,716 births minus 28,538 deaths) and a decrease due
to net migration of 2,432 people out of the state. In 2006 it had
the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women. The
center of population of
Vermont is located in Washington County, in
the town of Warren.
As of 2014, 51.3% of Vermont's population was born in the state
(compared with 58.7% for the United States). The changing
demographics between those with multi-generational ties to the state
and those who are newcomers, bringing different values with them, has
resulted in a degree of tension between the two perspectives. This
tension is expressed in the terms, "Woodchuck", being applied to those
established in the state, and "Flatlander", applied to the
Vermont is the least populous
New England state. As of
Vermont was one of only two states in the U.S. with fewer people
than the District of Columbia—the other was Wyoming.
From 2010 to 2013, 16 out of Vermont's 251 towns experienced an
increase in population. All towns in Chittenden increased with the
exception of Burlington. More than 180 towns experienced a decrease,
which hadn't happened since the mid-19th century.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both
by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live births by race/ethnicity of mother
> Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic (of any race)
94.3% of the population identified as white not of Hispanic or Latino
origin in a 2013 US Census estimate. As of the 2010 census,
Vermont was the second-whitest state in the Union after Maine.
In 2009, 12.6% of people over 15 were divorced. This was the fifth
highest percentage in the nation. As of 2008 the median age of
Vermonters was 40.6 and that of the work force was 43.7, compared with
the national average of 41.1 years.
Vermont leads US states with the highest rates of LGBT identification,
at 5.3%. Its LGBT population density is second in the US only to
the District of Columbia.
Following national trends for opioid use which has roughly tripled,
addicts seeking treatment in
Vermont have increased from 650 in 2011
to 7,500 in 2016.
Vermont speech patterns
Main articles: Western
New England English and Eastern New England
Linguists have identified speech patterns found among Vermonters as
belonging to Western
New England English, a dialect of New England
English, which features of full pronunciation of all r sounds,
pronouncing horse and hoarse the same, and pronouncing vowels in
father and bother the same, none of which are features traditionally
shared in neighboring Eastern
New England English. Some rural
speakers realize the t as a glottal stop (mitten sounds like "mi'in"
Vermont like "Vermon' "[a]). A dwindling segment of the
Vermont population, generally both rural and male—especially in
northwestern Vermont, pronounces certain vowels in a distinctive
manner (e.g. cows sounds like "cayows," fight like "foight," calf
like "caaf," there like "thair," hand like "hay-nd," and back
New England English—also found in New Hampshire,
eastern Massachusetts—was common in eastern
Vermont in the
mid-twentieth century and before, but has become rare. There the
practice of dropping the r sound in words ending in r (farmer sounds
like "farm-uh") and adding an r sound to words ending in a vowel (idea
sounds like "idee-er") was common. Those characteristics in
Vermont appear to have been inherited from West Country
and Scots-Irish ancestors.
Vermont was ranked by
Forbes magazine as the 42nd best state
in which to do business. It was 32nd in 2007, and 30th in
2006. In 2008 an economist said that the state had "a really
stagnant economy, which is what we are forecasting for
Vermont for the
next 30 years." In May 2010 Vermont's 6.2% unemployment rate was
the fourth lowest in the nation. This rate reflects the second
sharpest decline among the 50 states since the prior May.
According to the 2010 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report,
Vermont's gross state product (GSP) was $26 billion. Not
accounting for size, this places the state 50th among the 50 states.
It stood 34th in per capita GSP.
Components of GSP were:
Government – $3 billion (13.4%)
Real estate, rental, and leasing – $2.6 billion (11.6%)
Durable goods manufacturing – $2.2 billion (9.6%)
Health care and social assistance – $2.1 billion (9.4%)
Retail trade – $1.9 billion (8.4%)
Finance and insurance – $1.3 billion (5.9%)
Construction – $1.2 billion (5.5%)
Professional and technical services – $1.2 billion (5.5%)
Wholesale trade – $1.1 billion (5.1%)
Accommodations and food services – ~$1 billion (4.5%)
Information – $958 million (4.2%)
Non-durable goods manufacturing – $711 million (3.1%)
Other services – $563 million (2.4%)
Utilities – $553 million (2.4%)
Educational services – $478 million (2.1%)
Transportation and warehousing – $484 million (2.1%)
Administrative and waste services – $436 million (1.9%)
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting – $375 million (1.6%)
Arts, entertainment, and recreation – $194 million (.8%)
Mining – $100 million (.4%)
Management of companies – $35 million (.2%)
Canada was Vermont's largest foreign trade partner in 2007. The
state's second-largest foreign trade partner was Taiwan. The
state had $4 billion worth of commerce with Quebec.
One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had $5.2
billion in 2007. In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in
Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007.
Vermont locations by per capita income
The median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $45,692. This was
15th nationally. The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31
hourly or $31,845 annually. In 2007 about 80% of the 68,000
Vermonters who qualify for food stamps received them. 40% of
seniors 75 years or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or
less. In 2011, 15.2% of Vermonters received food stamps. This
compares to 14.8% nationally.
In 2011, 91,000 seniors received an annual average of $14,000 from
Social Security. This was 59% of the average senior's income. This
contributed $1.7 billion to the state's economy.
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Agriculture contributed 2.2% of the state's domestic product in
2000. In 2000 about 3% of the state's working population engaged
in agriculture. As of 2014, the Pew Research Center estimated
that farms in the state employed fewer than 5,000 illegal
immigrants. In 2017,
Vermont Governor Phil Scott announce that
the state was "exploring a legal challenge" to the executive order
signed by President
Donald Trump for
Vermont law enforcement
authorities to cooperate with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
and “perform the functions of immigration officers in relation to
the investigation, apprehension, or detention of aliens”.
Dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income. In the
last half of the 20th century, developers had plans to build condos
and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's
government responded with a series of laws controlling development and
with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's
dairy industry. Still, the number of
Vermont dairy farms has declined
more than 85% from the 11,206 dairy farms operating in 1947. In 2003
there were fewer than 1,500 dairy farms in the state; in 2006 there
were 1,138; and in 2007 there were 1,087. The number of dairy farms
has been diminishing by 10% annually.
The number of cattle in
Vermont had declined by 40%; however, milk
production has doubled in the same period due to tripling the
production per cow. While milk production rose, Vermont's market
share declined. Within a group of states supplying the
Boston and New
York City markets,
Vermont was third in market share, with 10.6%;
New York has 44.9% and
Pennsylvania has 32.9%. In 2007 dairy
farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45 kg) of milk.
This dropped in 2008 to $17. The average dairy farm produced 1.3
million pounds of milk annually in 2008.
The dairy barn remains an iconic image of Vermont, but the 87%
decrease in active dairy farms between 1947 and 2003 means that
preservation of the dairy barns has increasingly become dependent upon
a commitment to maintaining a legacy rather than basic need in the
agricultural economy. The
Vermont Barn Census, organized by a
collaboration of educational and nonprofit state and local historic
preservation programs, has developed educational and administrative
systems for recording the number, condition, and features of barns
In 2009 there were 543 organic farms. Twenty percent of the dairy
farms were organic and 23% (128) vegetable farms were organic. Organic
farming increased in 2006–07, but leveled off in 2008–09.
A significant amount of milk is shipped into the
Therefore the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts certifies that Vermont
Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this
certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the
Forest products have always been a staple to the economy, comprising
1% of the total gross state output and 9% of total manufacturing as of
2013. In 2007 Windham County contained the largest concentration
of kilns for drying lumber east of the
Mississippi River. The decline
of farms has resulted in a regrowth of Vermont's forests due to
ecological succession. Today, most of Vermont's forests are secondary.
The state and non-profit organizations are actively encouraging
regrowth and careful forest management. Over 78% of the land area of
the state is forested compared to only 37% forest in 1880s when sheep
farming was at its peak and large amounts of acreage were cleared for
grazing land. Over 85% of that area is non-industrial, private
forestland owned by individuals or families. In 2013 73.054 million
cubic feet of wood was harvested in Vermont. A large amount of
Vermont forest products are exports with 21.504 million feet being
shipped overseas plus an additional 16.384 million cubic feet to
Canada. Most of it was processed within the state. In this
century the manufacture of wood products has fallen by almost half.
The annual net growth has been estimated at 172.810 million cubic
feet. The USDA estimates that 8.584 billion cubic feet remain in
the state. Forest products also add to carbon sequestration since
lumber and timber used in houses and furniture hold carbon for long
periods of time while the trees that were removed are replaced
overtime with new growing stock. While wood pellets are replacing
coal in European power plants reducing CO2 emissions by up to 90% and
preventing mountaintop removal for coal mining.
in 2017, the price of wood products had either plummeted or remained
the same when compared to previous decades. Workers are discouraged.
For example, in 1994, the price of a thousand board feet was $300, the
same as it was in 2017. The price of wood chips has halved in the same
timeframe. In 1980, the price for a cord of wood was $50; in 2017,
$25. For lack of demand, Vermont's forests are growing twice as fast
as they are being cut.
An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture
and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in
part upon the
Vermont "brand," which the state manages and defends.
Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont
Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe,
Vermont Butter and Cheese
Company, several microbreweries, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards,
King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream.
There were about 2,000 maple products producers in 2010.
Production rose to 920,000 US gallons (3,500,000 l;
770,000 imp gal) in 2009. The state's share of the
nation's production rose to 42% in 2013. It had the second lowest
price at $33.40/gallon.
The wine industry in
Vermont started in 1985. As of 2007 there were 14
As of 2015,
GlobalFoundries was the largest private employer in the
state and provides jobs to 3,000 employees at its plant in the village
of Essex Junction within Chittenden County.
University of Connecticut
University of Connecticut study reported that Vermont, Rhode
New Hampshire tied as the most costly states in the U.S.
Vermont § Public health
An increasingly aging population is expected to improve the position
of aging services and health care in the state economy. In 2013,
Fletcher Allen Health Care, with 7,100 employees, was the
second-largest employer of people in the state and the largest private
In 2010, all of Vermont's hospitals billed patients $3.76 billion, and
collected $2 billion. 92,000 people are enrolled in Medicare. In
2011, Medicare spent $740 million on health care in the state.
Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage
affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed
within plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to a
Housing prices did not rise much during the early 2000s. As a result,
the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either.
While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood
50th—the most favorable—in ratio of foreclosure filings to
households. While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to
2008, prices continued to rise.
Vermont was best in the country for construction of new
energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental
Protection Agency under the
Energy Star program. However, about
Vermont homes were heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008
the cost in
Vermont of various heating sources per 1 million BTU
ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.
While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in
2004 to 8,120 in 2005, 6,919 in 2006, and 5,820 in 2007, the average
price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in
In 2009, the average rent for a two-bedroom apartment was $920 per
month. Rental vacancy was 5.4%, the lowest in the nation. 2,800 people
were counted as homeless in January 2010, 22% more than in 2008.
Vermont was fifth among the states with the greatest backlog
of foreclosures needing court processing, taking an estimated 18
years. The national average was eight years.
In 2009, the state attained a high of 361,290 workers.
As of 2006 there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. Eleven percent of
these are unionized. Out of a workforce of 299,200 workers,
52,000 were government jobs, federal, state and local.
A modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. A
modern low of 2.4% was measured in February 2000. As of September
2010 the unemployment rate was 5.8%.
Employment grew 7.5% from 2000 to 2006. From 1980 to 2000, employment
grew by 3.4%; nationally it was up 4.6%. Real wages were $33,385 in
2006 constant dollars and remained there in 2010; the nation,
Captive insurance plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's
economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations
or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure
their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance
premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of
risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be
gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance
companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont
in 2009 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance
Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. In 2009
there were 560 such companies. In 2010 the state had 900 such
Stowe Resort Village
Tourism is an important industry to the state. Some of the largest ski
New England are located in Vermont. Skiers and snowboarders
Burke Mountain Ski Area, Bolton Valley, Smugglers' Notch,
Killington Ski Resort, Mad River Glen, Stowe Mountain Resort,
Sugarbush, Stratton, Jay Peak, Okemo, Suicide Six, Mount Snow,
Bromley, and Magic Mountain Ski Area. Summer visitors tour resort
towns like Stowe, Manchester, Quechee, Wilmington and Woodstock.
Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists,
employ people year-round. Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist
Visitors participate in trout fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing.
Some hike the Long Trail.
In winter, Nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of
the state on the Catamount Trail. Several horse shows are annual
events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses,
and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.
According to the 2000 Census, almost 15% of all housing units in
Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or
occasional use".[clarification needed] This was the second
highest percentage nationwide, after Maine. In some
vacation homes owned by wealthy residents of
New England and New York
constitute the bulk of all housing stock. According to one estimate,
as of 2009, 84% of all houses in Ludlow were owned by out-of-state
residents. Other notable vacation-home resorts include Manchester
In 2005 visitors made an estimated 13.4 million trips to the state,
spending $1.57 billion. In 2012 fall accounted for $460 million
of income, about one-quarter of all tourism.
In 2011 the state government earned $274 million in taxes and fees
from tourism. 89% of the money came from out-of-state visitors.
Tourism supported over 26,000 jobs, 7.2% of total employment.
In 2000–01 there were 4,579,719 skier and snowboarder visits to the
state. There were 4,125,082 visits in 2009–2010, a rise from recent
Autumn in Vermont
In 2008 there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in
Vermont. The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles
(9,700 km) of trail often over private lands. The industry is
said to generate "hundreds of millions of dollars worth of
Hunting is controlled for black bear, wild turkeys, deer, and
moose. There are 5,500 bears in the state. The goal is to keep
the numbers between 4,500 and 6,000. In 2010 there were about
141,000 deer in the state, which is in range of government goals.
However, these are distributed unevenly and when in excess of 10–15
per square mile, negatively impact timber growth.
In 2012 hunting of migratory birds was limited to October 13 to
Waterfowl hunting is also controlled by federal law.
The towns of Rutland and Barre are the traditional centers of marble
and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont
was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the
Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble
quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset.
The granite industry attracted numerous skilled stonecutters in the
late 19th century from Italy, Scotland, and Ireland. Barre is the
location of the Rock of Ages quarry, the largest dimension stone
granite quarry in the United States.
Vermont is the largest producer
of slate in the country. The highest quarrying revenues result from
the production of dimension stone. The Rock of Ages
quarry in Barre is one of the leading exporters of granite in the
country. The work of the sculptors of this corporation can be seen 3
miles (4.8 km) down the road at the Hope Cemetery, where there
are gravestones and mausoleums.
Non-profits and volunteerism
There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in
Vermont in 2008, with
$2.8 billion in revenue. The state ranked ninth in the country
for volunteerism for the period 2005–08. 35.6% of the population
volunteered during this period. The national average was 26.4%.
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York
border over the Champlain Bridge
Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. 5.7% of Vermont
households did not own a car in 2008. In 2012 there were 605,000
motor vehicles registered, nearly one car for every person in the
state. This is similar to average car ownership nationwide. In
2012 about half the carbon emissions in the state resulted from
On average, 20–25 people die each year from drunk driving incidents;
as well as 70–80 people in fatal car crashes in the state.
Motorists have the highest insurance rates in the country, 93%, tied
Vermont owned 2,840 miles (4,570 km) of highway. This
was the third smallest quantity among the 50 states. 2.5% of the
highways were listed as "congested," the 5th lowest in the country.
The highway fatality rate was 1 per 100,000,000 miles
(160,000,000 km), tenth lowest in the nation. The highways cost
$28,669 per 1 mile (1.6 km) to maintain, the 17th highest in the
states. 34.4% of its bridges were rated deficient or obsolete, the 8th
worst in the nation.
Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their
breadth of coverage is frequently limited.
Greyhound Lines services a
number of small towns. Two
Amtrak trains serve Vermont, the
Vermonter and the
Ethan Allen Express. In 2011 Amtrak
evaluated the track used by the
Ethan Allen Express between Rutland
and Whitehall as the worst in the nation.
Trucks weighing less than 80,000 pounds (36,000 kg) can use
Vermont's interstate highways. The limit for state roads is 99,000
pounds (45,000 kg). This means that vehicles too heavy for the
turnpikes can legally only use secondary roads.
Vermont outlawed the use of billboards for advertisement
along its roads. It is one of four states in the U.S. to have done
this, along with Hawaii, Maine, and Alaska.
Main article: List of state highways in Vermont
The state has 2,843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its
Interstate 89 – Runs northwestward from White River Junction to
serve both Montpelier and Burlington en route to the Canada–U.S.
Interstate 91 – Runs northward from the
Massachusetts border to the
Canada–U.S. border, connecting Brattleboro, White River Junction,
St. Johnsbury, and Newport.
Interstate 93 – Has its northern terminus at I-91 in St. Johnsbury
and connects the northern part of the state with
New Hampshire and
U.S. Route 5
U.S. Route 5 – Travels south to north along the eastern border of
the state, parallel to I-91 for its entire length in the state.
U.S. Route 7
U.S. Route 7 – Runs south to north along the western border of the
state connecting Burlington, Middlebury, Rutland, and Bennington. U.S.
7 parallels I-89 from Burlington northward to the Canada–U.S.
border. Between Dorset and Bennington, it is generally a Super 2
Vermont Route 100
Vermont Route 100 – Runs south to north almost directly through the
center of the state, providing a route along the full length of the
U.S. Route 2
U.S. Route 2 – Crosses northern
Vermont from west to east and
connects the population centers of Burlington, Montpelier, and St.
Johnsbury. It generally parallels
Interstate 89 between Colchester and
U.S. Route 4
U.S. Route 4 – Crosses south-central
Vermont from west to east. It
connects with the New York border, in the town of Fair Haven, with the
city of Rutland and continues running through Killington and White
River Junction before continuing into New Hampshire. Between Fair
Haven and Rutland, it is a four lane freeway that is mostly up to
Interstate design standards.
U.S. Route 302
U.S. Route 302 – Travels eastward from Montpelier and Barre, into
New Hampshire and Maine.
Vermont Route 9
Vermont Route 9 – A route across the southern part of the state
that connects Bennington to Brattleboro.
Vermont Route 105
Vermont Route 105 – Crosses the northernmost parts of Vermont
(sometimes within a few miles of the Canada–U.S. border) and
connects the cities of St. Albans and Newport.
A 2005–06 study ranked
Vermont 37th out of the states for
"cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places since
Federal data indicates that 16% of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been
rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. In 2007
Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient
bridges in the country.
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The state is served by Amtrak's Vermonter and
Ethan Allen Express, the
New England Central Railroad, the
Vermont Railway, and the Green
Ethan Allen Express serves Castleton and Rutland, while the
Vermonter serves St. Albans, Essex Junction, Waterbury, Montpelier,
Randolph, White River Junction, Windsor, Bellows Falls, and
Greyhound Lines stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington,
Montpelier, and White River Junction. Megabus, as of November
2014, stops in Burlington and Montpelier.
Vermont Translines, an
intercity bus company started by Premier Coach in 2013 partnering with
Greyhound and starting service on June 9, 2014, serves Milton,
Colchester, Burlington, Middlebury, Brandon, Rutland, Wallingford,
Manchester and Bennington on its Burlington to Albany line, and
Rutland, Killington, Bridgewater, Woodstock, Queechee and White River
Junction along the
US Route 4
US Route 4 corridor. The town of Bennington
also has the weekday-operating Albany-Bennington Shuttle, an intercity
bus operated by Yankee Trails World Travel.
Other transportation includes:
Addison County Transit Resources (ACTR) services Addison County,
including the college town of Middlebury, Bristol, and Vergennes.
Bennington County has the
Green Mountain Community Network (GMCN) out
Brattleboro in Windham County is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro
Town Bus), which is part of
Connecticut River Transit ("the Current").
Southern Windham County and southern Bennington County is served, out
of West Dover, by the MOOver (Southeast
Vermont Transit or SEVT,
Deerfield Valley Transit Association
Deerfield Valley Transit Association or DVTA).
Chittenden County Transportation Authority
Chittenden County Transportation Authority (CCTA) and
University of Vermont
University of Vermont Campus Area Transportation System).
Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special
Services Transportation Agency).
Rutland County has "the Bus" (
Marble Valley Regional Transit District,
MVRTD) out of Rutland.
Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal
The Current (CRT) division of Southeast
Vermont Transit (SEVT), out of
Rockingham, serves parts of Windham and Windsor County.
In parts of Windsor County, including Norwich and Hartford, as well as
in White River Junction and in parts of
New Hampshire there is a free
public transportation service called Advance Transit. It has
routes and many different lines all throughout the Upper Valley
Stowe in Lamoille County is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System,
Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
Stagecoach Transportation Services (STS) out of Randolph in Orange
County also serves parts of Windsor County.
In Washington County, the
Green Mountain Transit Authority
Green Mountain Transit Authority (GMTA) runs
out of the capital city, Montpelier.
The Network (Northwest
Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running
out of Saint Albans services Franklin and Grand Isle counties.
Rural Community Transportation
Rural Community Transportation (RCT) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and
services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties. There is a
shuttle bus linking the various local networks.
There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte,
Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by
the LCTC (
Lake Champlain Transportation Company).
Vermont is served by two commercial airports:
Burlington International Airport
Burlington International Airport is the largest in the state, with
regular flights to Atlanta, Charlotte, Chicago, Detroit, Washington
Dulles, JFK, LaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Philadelphia, and Reagan
National as well as winter seasonal flights to Toronto.
Rutland Southern Vermont Regional Airport
Rutland Southern Vermont Regional Airport has regular flights to
Boston via Cape Air.
Newspapers of record
Vermont statute requires the
Vermont Secretary of State to
designate newspapers that provide general coverage across the state as
the "Newspapers of Record." On June 30, 2010, the secretary of state
designated the following newspapers for publishing administrative rule
notices during the period of July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011:
Burlington Free Press
Newport Daily Express
News & Citizen / The Transcript
St. Albans Messenger
White River Valley Herald (a.k.a. Herald of Randolph)
Further information: List of newspapers in Vermont
List of radio stations in Vermont and List of
television stations in Vermont
Vermont hosts 93 radio broadcast stations. The top categories are
talk/information (11), country (9) and classic rock (9). The top owner
of radio broadcast stations is
Vermont Public Radio (11 broadcast
frequencies and 13 low-power, local transmitters). Other
companies had five or fewer stations. The state has 15 online radio
Vermont hosts 10 high-power television broadcast stations, three of
which are satellites of a primary station. Represented are the
following networks and number of high-power transmitters, ABC (1), CBS
(1), Fox (1),
NBC (2), PBS (4), and RTV (1). In addition, it has 17
low-power television broadcast stations, which in several cases are
satellites of the high-power stations.
Main article: Energy in Vermont
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW).
In May 2009
Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy
feed-in law. In 2010 there were about 150 methane digesters in
Vermont led the nation with six online.
Vermont paid the lowest rates in
New England for power in 2007,
it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the nation; that
is, about 16% higher than the national average.
In 2009 the state paid the highest rates for energy (including
heating) in the U.S. and had the worst affordability gap
In 2009 the state received one-third (400 MW) of its power from
Hydro-Québec and one-third from
Vermont Yankee. In total, the
state got half its power from
Canada and other states. It received 75%
of the power it generated in the state from
Vermont Yankee. The
state is part of the
Northeast Power Coordinating Council
Northeast Power Coordinating Council for the
distribution of electricity.
The state's largest electric utility, Green Mountain Power
Corporation, serves 80% of
The state has 78 hydropower dams. They generate 143 MW, about 12% of
the state's total requirement.
Vermont experts estimate that the
state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175
megawatts of electricity from hydro power.
In 2006 the total summer generating capacity of
Vermont was 1,117
megawatts. In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average
of 5,883 kilowatt-hours (21,180 MJ) of electricity per
capita. Another source says that each household consumed 7,100
kilowatt-hours (26,000 MJ) annually in 2008.
Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant was shut down in 2014,
Vermont had the highest rate of nuclear-generated power in the nation,
Vermont is one of two states with no coal-fired power
Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New
England. Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these
lines. Vermont's share is about 4.5%.
A 2013 survey found that of 18,790 miles (30,240 km) of roads
surveyed, all but 3,118 mi had cellular coverage by at least one
carrier. The roads surveyed are concentrated in the more heavily
A June 2013 survey found that of nearly 249,976 addresses surveyed,
84.7% had fixed (as opposed to mobile) broadband available. It was
projected that all but 29 addresses would have fixed broadband
available by the end of 2013.
Law and government
Main article: Government of Vermont
Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont is federally represented in the
United States Congress
United States Congress by two
senators and one representative.
The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental
duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont
General Assembly, the
Governor of Vermont
Governor of Vermont and the
Court. The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms
including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits for
any office. The state capital is in Montpelier.
There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont:
towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight
provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats
are merely convenient repositories for various government services
such as state courts, with several elected officers such as a state's
Attorney and sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the
state of Vermont. The next effective governmental level below state
government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.
Finances and taxation
Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget
Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since
1991. In 2007 Moody's gave its top bond credit rating (Aaa) to
The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to
private business enterprises. The
Vermont Lottery Commission, the
Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund, are
the largest of the State's enterprise funds.
Vermont was the 14th highest out of 50 states and the District
of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of
$3,681. The national average was $3,447. However, CNNMoney ranked
Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita
income. The rankings showed
Vermont had a per capita tax load of
$5,387, 14.1% of the per capita income of $38,306.
Vermont collects a state personal income tax in a progressive
structure of five different income brackets, with marginal tax rates
ranging from 3.6% to 9.5%. In 2008, the top 1% of
provided 30% of the income tax revenue; around 2,000 people had
sufficient income to be taxed at the highest marginal rate of
Vermont's general state sales tax rate is 6%, which is imposed on
sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication
charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts. Some
towns and cities impose an additional 1% Local Option Tax. There are
46 exemptions from the sales tax, including exemptions for food,
medical items, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel,
residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. A use tax is
imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays
the use tax when the seller fails to collect the sales tax or the
items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use
tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax.
Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes, but does impose a state
estate tax; a
Vermont estate tax return must be filed if the estate
must file a federal estate tax return (the requirement for which
depends on federal law).
Vermont does not collect a state gift tax.
Property taxes are levied by municipalities for the support of
education and municipal services.
Vermont does not assess tax on
personal property. Property taxes are based on appraisal of the
fair market value of real property. Rates vary from 0.97% on
homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72% on
nonresidents' property in Barre City. Statewide, towns average
1.77% to 1.82% tax rate. In 2007,
Vermont counties were among the
highest in the country for property taxes. Chittenden ($3,809 median),
Windham ($3,412), Addison ($3,352), and Windsor ($3,327) ranked in the
top 100, out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations greater
than 20,000. Twelve of the state's 14 counties stood in the top
20%. Median annual property taxes as a percentage of median
homeowners income, 5.4%, was rated as the third highest in the nation
To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to
send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school
districts lacking adequate support.
Main article: Politics of Vermont
Political party strength in Vermont and United States
Congressional Delegations from Vermont
Vermont is one of four states that were once independent nations (the
others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). Notably,
Vermont is the
only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the
Anti-Masonic Party, and
Vermont was one of only two states to vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential
campaigns (the other was Maine).
Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to
movements for the establishment of the Second
Vermont Republic and
other plans advocating secession.
Vermont is the only state in the United States that requires voters to
be sworn in, having established the voter's oath or affirmation
Gubernatorial election results
Republicans dominated local
Vermont politics from the party's founding
in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Before the 1960s, rural interests
dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older
sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into
decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.
Vermont was for many years a stronghold of the Republican Party.
Ethno-political culture of the last century has seen a dramatic shift
in voter turnout in the Green Mountain State. Since 1992,
voted for the Democrat in every Presidential election. Before 1992,
Vermont voted for the Republican in every single Presidential election
with the exception of 1964.
A series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States
Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative
districts to accurately reflect population. As a result, urban areas
Vermont gained political power.
Much of the business of local government in
Vermont towns takes place
each March at a town meeting held at a meetinghouse, such as this one
The legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the
1960s It passed the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970 to
discourage suburban sprawl and to limit major growth to already
developed areas. The law, the first of its kind in the nation, created
nine District Environmental Commissions appointed by the Governor, who
judged land development and subdivision plans that would have a
significant impact on the state's environment and many small
communities. As a result of Act 250,
Vermont was the last state to get
Wal-Mart (there are now six Wal-Marts in the state, as of November
2017, but only three – in Williston, St. Albans and Derby – were
newly built from the ground up). Because of the successful attempts to
dilute what is perceived as the original intent of Act 250, and
other development pressures,
Vermont has been designated one of
America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for
In 1995 the state banned the spreading of manure from December 15 to
April 1, to prevent runoff and protect the water. Therefore farms must
have environmentally approved facilities to store manure during this
While the state voted largely Democratic, Republican Governor Douglas
won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election.
A controversy dating from 1999 has been over the adoption of civil
unions, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the
rights and privileges of marriage at the state, but not federal,
Baker v. Vermont (1999), the
Vermont Supreme Court
Vermont Supreme Court ruled
that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must either allow
same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them. The
state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution
of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into
law by Governor Howard Dean. In April 2009 the state legislature
overrode governor Jim Douglas's veto to allow same-sex marriage,
becoming the first state in the nation to legalize same-sex marriage
through legislation. In September 2009
Vermont became the fourth
state in which same-sex couples could marry.
In 2007 the state's House of Representatives rejected a measure which
would have legalized assisted suicide for the terminally ill, by a
vote of 82–63. Then with the governor's signature on May 20,
Vermont became the fourth state to pass a "death with dignity"
law—the first to be passed through legislation rather than by ballot
Minor parties and Independents flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller
parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a
result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections.
Among others, this more open policy enabled independents like Bernie
Sanders to win election as mayor of Burlington, U.S. Congressman and
A political issue has been Act 60, which balances taxation for
education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying
to secede from
Vermont and join
New Hampshire due to what the locals
say is an unfair tax burden.
Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person
to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That is,
trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically
The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. In 2007, through the
Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over $14 million from
the sale and distribution of liquor.
Vermont became the 17th state to decriminalize marijuana. The
statute makes possession of less than an ounce of the drug punishable
by a small fine rather than arrest and possible jail time.
Vermont became the first state to call for a constitutional
convention to overturn the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United
Vermont became the first state to mandate labeling of
genetically modified organisms in the retail food supply.
In January 2018, Governor Phil Scott opted to sign H.511, the Vermont
marijuana legalization bill, which allows adults 21 and older to
possess up to one ounce of marijuana and grow up to two mature plants
starting July 1, 2018.
Presidential election results
Vermont was considered one of the most reliably
Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. From
1856 to 1988,
Vermont voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon B.
Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry M. Goldwater. It was
also one of only two states—the other being Maine—where Franklin
D. Roosevelt was completely shut out in all four of his presidential
bids. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Republican
presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70% of the
In the 1980s and 1990s many people moved in from out of
state. Much of this immigration included the arrival of
more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and
the rest of
New England in Vermont. The brand of Republicanism in
Vermont has historically been a moderate one, and combined with the
newcomers from out of state, this made
Vermont friendlier to Democrats
as the national GOP moved to the right. As evidence of this, in 1990
Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, was elected to
Vermont's lone seat in the House as an independent. Sanders became the
state's junior Senator in 2007. However, for his entire career in the
House and Senate, Sanders has caucused with the Democrats and is
counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments and
voting for party leadership.
After narrowly supporting
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush in 1988, it gave Democrat
Bill Clinton a 16-point margin in 1992—the first time the state had
gone Democratic since 1964.
Vermont has voted Democratic in every
presidential election since.
Vermont has been one of the Democrats' most loyal states.
John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in the
presidential campaign against George W. Bush; he won the state's
popular vote by 20 percentage points, taking almost 59% of the vote.
(Kerry, from neighboring Massachusetts, also became the first Northern
Democrat ever to carry Vermont; Johnson was from Texas, Clinton from
Arkansas and Al Gore, triumphant in the Green Mountain State in 2000,
from Tennessee.) Essex County in the state's northeastern section was
the only county to vote for Bush.
Vermont is the only state that did
not receive a visit from
George W. Bush
George W. Bush during his tenure as President
of the United States. Indeed,
George W. Bush
George W. Bush and
Donald Trump are
the only Republicans to win the White House without carrying Vermont.
Barack Obama his third-largest margin of victory
(37 percentage points) and third-largest vote share in the nation by
his winning the state 68% to 31%. Only Obama's birth state of Hawaii
Washington, D.C. were stronger Democratic victories. The same held
true in 2012, when Obama carried
Vermont 67% of the vote vs 31% for
Romney, and in 2016, when Clinton won with 55.7% of the vote vs 29.8%
Vermont's two Senators are Democrat Patrick Leahy, the longest-serving
member of the Senate, and independent Bernie Sanders. The state is
represented by an at-large member of the House, Democrat Peter Welch,
who succeeded Sanders in 2007.
Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a
study by Gallup and Healthways. In 2010 the state stood third in
physical well-being of children.
Vermont was ranked the highest in the country for health
In 2000 the state implemented the
Vermont Child Health Improvement
Program to improve preventive services and management of chronic
conditions. In 2011, the state ranked third in the nation in child
health system performance. In 2011, the March of Dimes gave
Vermont an "A," ranking it number one in the country on its
Prematurity Report Card.
Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest
place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included
low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate
in the country, and 18 other factors. The state scored well in
cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities,
prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. A problem
area was a high prevalence of binge drinking. While ranking sixth
from best for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22% obese
with a rate of 27% for children 10–17. The ranking for children was
ninth best in the nation. In 1993, the obesity rate for adults
was 12%. Vermonters spend $141 million annually in medical costs
related to obesity. The combined figures for overweight and obese
adults rose from 40.7% in 1990 to 58.4% in 2010. This is better than
most other states.
Vermont led the nation in the rate of young people who had
consumed alcohol in the past month; one-third of people aged 11
through 20. One-fifth of that group had binged during that time. The
state was second for the use of marijuana by young people; 30% of
adults 18 to 25 in the past month.
Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Crime
statistics on violence were used for the criteria.
Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the
country. A permit or license is not required for purchasing or
carrying firearms. concealed carry and open carry of a firearm is
legal over the age of 16, with those below 16 requiring parental
Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country
for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The
rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing
Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway
fatalities. In 2007 a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken
driver. In 2008,
Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest
uninsured motorists – 6%.
Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28
occasions from 1963 to 2008.
In 2007 the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and
Bennington as counties with 70 parts per billion of smog which is
Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in
urban areas. They constitute a traffic threat since they are
unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from
automobiles striking moose.
In 2008 about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the
federal government, Medicare, Tri-Care and the Veteran's
Administration. An additional 10,000 work for employers who provide
insurance under federal law under ERISA. About 20% of Vermonters
receive health care outside of Vermont; 20% of the care provided
within the state is to non-Vermonters. In 2008 the state had an
estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005.
In 2008 the
Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured
adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. A "Catamount Health"
premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who do not
qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to
$393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible. Insured paid $10
toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were
uninsured, the highest group.
Health care spending increased from $2.3 billion in 2000 to $4.8
billion in 2009. In 2009, adult day care services cost more in
Vermont than any other state – $150 daily.
The state started air drops of rabies bait for raccoons in 1997. Known
rabies cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. The program is in
cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.
Main article: Education in Vermont
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006.
In 2006 there was a gap between state testing standards and national,
which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30%, on average.
Vermont 11th-best in the nation. Most states have a higher
bias. However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US
Government list of test scores shows
Vermont white fourth graders
performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for math
(247). White eighth graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th
for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered
statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored
significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students
were not reliable because of their small representation in the
In 2017, spending $1.6 billion on education for 76,000 public school
children, represents more than $21,000 per student.
Education Week ranked the state second in high school graduation
rates for 2007.
In 2011, 91% of the population had graduated from high school compared
with 85% nationally. Almost 34% have at least an undergraduate degree
compared with 28% nationally.
In 2013 the ratio of pupils to teachers was the lowest in the
Main article: List of colleges and universities in Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Experimentation at the
University of Vermont
University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh,
and later the influence of Vermont-born philosopher and educator John
Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing.
Vermont has five colleges within the
Vermont State Colleges
Vermont State Colleges system,
University of Vermont
University of Vermont (UVM), and fourteen other private,
degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College, Burlington
College, Champlain College, Goddard College, Marlboro College,
Middlebury College, Saint Michael's College, the
Vermont Law School,
and Norwich University.
In 2016, the
University of Vermont
University of Vermont charged the second highest tuition
in the nation for four years, $61,000 for in-state students, to
$147,000 for out-of-state students. This compares with an average of
34,800 nationally for in-state students.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010
Vermont festivals include the
Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the
Vermont Dairy Festival in Enosburg Falls, the
Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music
Festival, and the
Vermont Brewers Festival. The
Orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout the area.
Since 1973 the Sage City Symphony, formed by composer Louis Calabro,
has performed in the Bennington area. In 1988 a number of
Vermont-based composers including
Gwyneth Walker formed the Vermont
Composers Consortium, which was recognized by the governor
proclaiming 2011 as The Year of the Composer.
Burlington, Vermont's largest city, hosts the annual Vermont
International Film Festival in October, that presents 10 days of
independent film from the US and around the world. The
Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer
Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling
of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's dairy culture. The
Green Mountain Film Festival is held in Montpelier.
In the Northeast Kingdom, the
Bread and Puppet Theatre
Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly
shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group Phish,
whose members met while attending school in
Vermont and spent much of
their early years playing at venues across the state.
The Vermont-based House of LeMay performs several shows a year,
hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball," and performs for
Examples of folk art found in
Vermont include the
Post Mills, a community in Thetford.
The rate of volunteerism in
Vermont was eighth in the nation with 37%
in 2007. The state stood first in New England. In 2011 Vermont
residents were ranked as the healthiest in the country. Also in
Vermont was ranked as the fourth most peaceful state in the
United States. In 2011
Vermont residents were ranked as the sixth
most fit/leanest in the country. Vermonters were the second most
active citizens of state with 55.9% meeting the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention's physical activity requirements. Vermont
was ranked as the 12th happiest state in the country.
There are a number of museums in the state.
Winter sports are popular in New England, and Vermont's winter sports
attractions are a big part of
Vermont tourism. Some well known
Burke Mountain ski area, Jay Peak Resort,
Killington Ski Resort, Stowe Mountain Resort, the Quechee Club Ski
Smugglers' Notch Resort.
Vermont natives in the snowboarding profession include Kevin Pearce,
Ross Powers, Hannah Teter, and Kelly Clark. Others learned
snowboarding in the state, such as
Louie Vito and Ellery
Vermont Olympic gold medalists include Barbara Cochran, Hannah
Kearney, Kelly Clark, Ross Powers, and Hannah
The largest professional franchise is the
Vermont Lake Monsters, a
single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Oakland Athletics,
based in Burlington. They were named the
Vermont Expos before
2006. Up until the 2011 season, they were the affiliate of the
Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos).
Currently the highest teams in basketball, representing
Vermont Catamounts – male and female.
Vermont Frost Heaves, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball
Association national champions, were a franchise of the Premier
Basketball League, and were based in Barre and Burlington from the
fall of 2006 through the winter of 2011.
Vermont Bucks, an indoor football team, was based in Burlington
and began play in 2017 as the founding team in the Can-Am Indoor
Football League. For 2018, it joined the American Arena League
but folded prior to playing in the new league.
Vermont Voltage is a
USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League soccer club
that plays in St. Albans.
Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against
New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.
Vermont also has a few auto racing venues. The most popular of them is
Thunder Road International Speedbowl in Barre, Vermont. It is well
known for its tight racing and has become well known in short track
stock car racing. Other racing circuits include the USAC sanctioned
Bear Ridge Speedway, and the
NASCAR sanctioned Devil's Bowl Speedway.
NASCAR Cup drivers have come to
Vermont circuits to compete
against local weekly drivers such as Tony Stewart, Clint Bowyer, Kevin
Harvick, Kenny Wallace, and Joe Nemechek.
Kevin Lepage from Shelburne,
Vermont is one of a few professional drivers from Vermont. Racing
NASCAR Whelen All-American Series, American
Canadian Tour, and Vermont's own Tiger Sportsman Series.
Main article: List of
Vermont state symbols
The hermit thrush is Vermont's state bird.
State symbols include:
State song – "These Green Mountains"
Unofficial popular state song – "Moonlight in Vermont"
State beverage – milk
State pie – apple pie
State fruit – apple
State flower – red clover
State mammal – Morgan horse
State rock – granite, marble, and slate
State tree – sugar maple
State butterfly – monarch butterfly
State fish cold water – brook trout
State fish warm water – walleye pike
State fossil – white whale (beluga whale)
State bird – hermit thrush
Calvin Coolidge as he appears at the National Portrait
Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Main article: List of people from Vermont
Vermont is the birthplace of former U.S. Presidents Chester A. Arthur
and Calvin Coolidge.
The following were either born in
Vermont or resided there for a
substantial period during their lives.
Pearl S. Buck, author
Evans Carlson, United States Marine Corps general officer and leader
of "Carlson's Raiders" during World War II
Jake Burton Carpenter, inventor of the modern snowboard
John Deere, inventor of steel plow, founder of agricultural equipment
manufacturer Deere & Company
George Dewey, Admiral of the Navy, best known for his victory at the
Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish–American War
John Dewey, philosopher, psychologist, and educator
Stephen Douglas, represented
Illinois in the House of Representatives,
the United States Senate, and was the Democratic Party nominee for
president in the 1860 election
Baseball Hall of Fame
Baseball Hall of Fame catcher
James Fisk, financier
Richard Morris Hunt, architect
Rudyard Kipling, author
Bill McKibben, environmentalist
Samuel Morey, steam-powered paddle wheel boat inventor
Norman Rockwell, painter, author, and illustrator
Bernie Sanders, United States senator and representative from Vermont,
and 2016 presidential candidate
Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement
Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian author and Soviet dissident
Rudy Vallée, singer and actor
Brigham Young, second prophet and president of The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints
Vermont was also the home of Dick Loudon, Bob Newhart's character on
the 1980s sitcom Newhart. All action supposedly took place in Vermont.
Vermont was the home of
Pollyanna and her Aunt Polly in the novel
Pollyanna, later made into the 1960 Disney film starring Hayley Mills
and Jane Wyman.
Marvel Comics shared universe,
Vermont is home of the superhero
team the Garrison.
In the Marvel Cinematic Universe's
Karen Page (Deborah
Ann Woll) is from the fictitious town of Fagan Corners, Vermont.
In H. P. Lovecraft's The Whisperer in Darkness,
Vermont is the home of
folklorist Henry Akeley (and the uninhabited hills of
Vermont serve as
one of the earth bases of the extraterrestrial Mi-Go).
Donna Tartt's novel
The Secret History
The Secret History is a story set mostly in the
fictitious town of Hampden, Vermont, the location of Hampden College,
where five students conspire to murder a classmate.
Sinclair Lewis' 1935 anti-fascist novel
It Can't Happen Here
It Can't Happen Here is
largely set in Vermont, as local newspaper editor Doremus Jessup
opposes a newly elected dictatorial government.
College Hall in Montpelier—Vermont's capital city
Mount Mansfield—Vermont's highest mountain
Church Street in Burlington—Vermont's largest city
Burke Mountain from Lyndonville—in the state's "Northeast Kingdom"
New England portal
Outline of Vermont
Outline of Vermont – organized list of topics about Vermont
Index of Vermont-related articles
^ a b Often pronounced [vəɹˈmɑ̃ʔ] in rural areas of the state.
^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June
21, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family
Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
^ "Mt Mansfield Highest Point". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic
Survey. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States
Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012.
Retrieved October 24, 2011.
^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
^ "Senators of the 114th Congress". www.senate.gov. U.S. Senate.
Retrieved December 31, 2015. Sanders, Bernard – (I – VT)
^ Perkins Geology Museum, University of Vermont.
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University
Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library
^ "US Department of Agriculture – Economic Research Service". 'Table
44—U.S. maple syrup production and value, by state, calendar years.
Archived from the original on June 7, 2003. Retrieved July 13,
^ "The Safest States in America – 24/7 Wall St". WordPress.com.
January 12, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
Vermont Constitution of 1777". Chapter I, Section I: State of
Vermont. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved
February 12, 2014. Therefore, no male person, born in this country, or
brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person,
as a servant, slave, or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of
twenty-one years; nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the
age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent,
after they arrive to such age, or bound by law for the payment of
debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.
^ Lee Ann, Cox. "UVM historian examines Vermont's mixed history of
slavery and abolition". University of Vermont. Retrieved February 12,
^ Van DeWater; Frederic F. (1974) . The Reluctant Republic,
Vermont 1724–1791.. The Countryman Press. pp. 195, 218–219.
^ Senecal, Joseph-Andre (Fall 1996). "The Name Vermont". LINKS.
Burlington, VT: The Journal of the
Vermont French Canadian
Genealogical Society. 1 (1). Retrieved 2018-02-13.
^ Bailey, Guy W. (1913). "Vermont: The Land of Green Mountains".
Vermont Bureau of Publicity. Essex Junction, Vermont: Vermont
Secretary of State: 202. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
^ Ballard, Lisa Densmore (176). Hiking the Green Mountains: A Guide to
35 of the Region's Best Hiking Adventures. Regional Hiking. Guilford,
Connecticut: Morris Book Publishing. p. 2009.
^ Edward Day Collins (1903). A History of Vermont: With Geological and
Geographical Notes, Bibliography, Chronology, Maps, and Illustrations.
Ginn. p. 1.
^ "Burlington high rise gets facelift", Burlington Free Press.
New Hampshire 289 U.S. 593 (1933)
^ "Fast Facts about the
Connecticut River". Crjc.org (October 9,
2008). Retrieved April 12, 2014.
^ Green Mountain Club (April 24, 2007). "Alpine Tundra". Archived from
the original on November 19, 2015.
^ "Vermont". National Park Service. Archived from the original on June
16, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
^ "Vermont". 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
^ "Study in Vermont. Universities & Colleges in Vermont".
^ "accessed September 15, 2007". Academics.smcvt.edu. July 4, 1911.
Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "wedding.net: The Leading Wedding Site on the Net".
Vermont.wedding.net. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
^ "Average Annual Temperatures by State". Current Results. Retrieved
January 25, 2012.
^ Wooster, Chuck (December 7, 2011). "La Nina should bring plenty of
snow this year". the Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. p. 39.
^ Though this was tied by Big Black River, Maine, in 2009
^ Adams, Glenn (February 11, 2009).
Maine ties Vt. for record low
temperature. Burlington Free Press.
^ "National Gardening Association". Garden.org. Retrieved July 31,
Vermont USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Retrieved March 21,
^ "united states annual sunshine map". HowStuffWorks, Inc. Archived
from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
^ "Academics Content Server at Saint Michael's". The Physiographic
Regions of Vermont. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
^ Baird, Joel Banner (July 24, 2011). "Tremors of discovery".
Burlington Free Press. Burlington, Vermont. pp. 1–3D. Archived
from the original on July 23, 2012.
^ "Generalized geologic map of Vermont" (PDF). Retrieved February 23,
^ "Geology and Mineral Resources –
Vermont Geological Survey".
Anr.state.vt.us. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
^ Slayton, Thomas (December 1, 2009). "The Outside Story Vermont's
Farmers Have Geology to Thank". Northern Woodlands. Retrieved January
^ "Report" (PDF). uvm.edu.
^ a b "
Canada quake shakes Vt". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free
Press. June 24, 2010. pp. 1A,4A.
^ Gresser, Joseph (November 24, 2010). "How all those fish got to
Vermont". Barton, Vermont: the chronicle. p. 17.
Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department". Vtfishandwildlife.com.
Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved July 31,
^ Page, Candace (July 9, 2009). "Sightings of milk snakes, rattlesnake
mimics, shake residents". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press.
^ Editors (September 2009). "Hunting Wild Turkeys". Newport, Vermont:
Newport Daily Express. pp. THREE, HUNTING GUIDE.
^ Fish and Wildlife (January 15, 2014). "Turkey hunters had record
year". The Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. pp. 31A.
^ Page, Candace (July 6, 2010). "Saving shrubland". Burlington,
Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 1B.
^ Diblasio, Natalie (July 30, 2010). "Lake Arrowhead failure is first
in 12 years". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press.
pp. 1B. [permanent dead link]
^ Page, Candace (July 27, 2010). "Bats struggle to survive".
Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press.
pp. 1B,4B. [permanent dead link]
^ Macalaster, Elizabeth (April 11, 2012). "
New England cottontail:
Rabbit, come back!". the Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. p. 15.
^ Editors. "Bumble bees: yellowbanded bumble bee (Bombus terricola)".
Xerces Society. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
^ Dunbar, Bethany (April 24, 2013). "Keep an eye out for rare
bumblebees". the Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. pp. 2C.
^ Gresser, Joseph (April 24, 2013). "Tiny pest cuts through New
England fruit". The Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. pp. 1B.
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politics, Accessed May 5, 2014, "...
Vermont became the first state to
call for a convention to amend the U.S. Constitution to reverse the
U.S. Supreme Court's Citizens United decision ... Monetta is the
organizing director for Wolf PAC...
^ Ledbetter, Stewart. "
Vermont governor will sign marijuana
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^ "State Partnership Supports Quality Improvement in Pediatric
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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2, 2013. Retrieved
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^ "State Partnership Supports Quality Improvement in Pediatric
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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 5, 2013. Retrieved
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^ "Healthiest States 2007 – AOL Money & Finance". Money.aol.com.
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^ Remsen, Nancy (December 4, 2008).
Vermont tops healthy list again.
Burlington Free Press.
^ Staff (July 2, 2009). "Fairly fit
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^ Baird, Joel Banner (June 30, 2010). "Study:
Vermont among least
obsese states". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press.
^ Remsen, Nancy (July 8, 2011). "
Vermont is getting fatter".
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^ "Study:Alcohol, pot use high among Vt. youths". Burlington Free
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^ "Morgan Quitno Press". Money.aol.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
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^ "Law Center to prevent Gun Violence". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
^ "South Lags In Report Card on Health Care – AOL Body".
Body.aol.com. November 30, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
Vermont information Times Daily. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
^ Sutkowski, Matt (December 7, 2008). Mixed drinks, mixed feelings.
Burlington Free Press.
^ staff, wire reports (January 23, 2009). Vt. has few uninsured
motorists. Burlington Free Press.
^ Sutkowski, Matt (August 16, 2008). Disaster declarations in Vermont.
Burlington Free Press.
^ Overberg, Paul, Hundreds of counties would fail smog standards, USA
Today, June 22, 2007
^ Burlington Free Press[dead link]. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
^ Moore, Mark (October 31, 2008). Letter to the editor:Question
credibility of single-payer plans. Burlington Free Press.
^ Hallenbeck, Terri (December 23, 2008).
Vermont uninsured rate falls
to 7.6%, survey shows. Burlington Free Press.
^ Green Mountain Care ProgramsGreen Mountain Care Archived May 14,
2010, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Remsen, Nancy (January 24, 2009). HEALTH: Changes are among budget's
most controversial. Burlington Free Press.
^ Remsen, Nancy (August 10, 2009). "Health reform criticized".
Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 6A.
^ "Long term care costs rise across the board from 2008 to 2009"
(PDF). metlife.com. October 27, 2009.
Vermont Department of Health (September 2, 2009). "Aircraft to drop
rabies vaccines". Barton, Vermont: the Chronicle. p. 25.
^ Walsh, Molly (June 8, 2007).
Vermont doing better than most.
Burlington Free Press.
^ King, Ledyard (June 8, 2007). State tests put image ahead of
performance. Burlington Free Press.
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^ "Lawmaker's education tax overhaul aims to slow spending -
VTDigger". vtdigger.org. January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 14,
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Vermont is No. 2 in grad rates". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington
Free Press. June 19, 2010. pp. 1A.
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population". The Chronicle. Barton, Vermont. p. 11.
^ Lefebvre, Paul (March 13, 2013). "
Vermont has lowest
student-to-teacher ratio in U.S.". the chronicle. Barton, Vermont.
^ "Higher education in Britain is still good value compared with
America". Economist. March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
^ "Middlebury Festival on the Green". Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "The Official Home of the
Vermont Dairy Festival". June 6, 2010.
Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "Welcome to
Vermont Brewers Festival". Retrieved July 31,
^ Bathory-Kitsz, Dennis. "Article on Composers Consortium". New Music
Box. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
^ "List of members".
Vermont Composers Consortium. July 1997.
Retrieved October 4, 2011.
^ Shumlin, Gov Peter. "Proclamation for Year of the Composer".
Governor's Proclamation. The government of Vermont. Archived from the
original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
^ Hallenbeck, Brent (October 20, 2016). "10 days, 70 events at VT
International Film Festival". burlingtonfreepress.com. Burlington Free
Press. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
^ "The Babes of Beaver Pond, Cathy Resmer, Seven Days, February 7,
2006". 7dvt.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "Slideshow: Winter is a Drag Ball 2009, Seven Days, February 16,
2009". 7dvt.com. February 14, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
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Mississippi is the fattest state for 6th straight year, Colorado
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^ Book Review. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
Albers, Jan (2000), Hands on the Land: A History of the Vermont
Landscape, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-01175-1 .
Allen, Ira (1969) . The natural and political history of the
State of Vermont, one of the United States of America. Charles E
Tuttle Co. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2.
Bryan, Frank; McClaughry, John (1989), The
Vermont Papers: Recreating
Democracy on a Human Scale, Chelsea Green,
ISBN 0-930031-19-9 .
Burlington (city) QuickFacts, US: Census Bureau, October 18, 2011,
archived from the original on March 27, 2012 .
Cohen, David Elliot; Smolan, Rick (2004),
Vermont 24/7, DK,
ISBN 0-7566-0086-3 .
Coffin, Howard (1995), Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War, The
Countryman, ISBN 0-88150-349-5 .
Doyle, William T (1987), The
Vermont Political Tradition and Those Who
Helped Make It, Doyle, ISBN 0-9615486-1-4 .
Duffy, John J (2000), Vermont: An Illustrated History, American
Historical Press, ISBN 1-892724-08-1 .
Duffy, John J.; Hand, Samuel B.; Orth, Ralph H., eds. (2003), The
Vermont Encyclopedia, Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New
England, ISBN 1-58465-086-9 .
Editors (1937), "Vermont: A guide to the Green Mountain State",
Federal Writers' Project
Federal Writers' Project of the
Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration for the
State of Vermont, Houghton Mifflin .
Grant, Kim; et al. (2002), Vermont: An Explorer's Guide, The
Countryman, ISBN 0-88150-519-6 .
Klyza, Christopher McGrory; Trombulak, Stephen C (1999), The Story of
Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History, University Press of New
England, ISBN 0-87451-936-5 .
Potash, P Jeffrey; et al. (2004), Freedom and Unity: A History of
Vermont Historical Society, ISBN 0-934720-49-5 .
Hall, Benjamin Homer (1858), History of eastern Vermont,
p. 480 .
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Press, ISBN 0-933050-40-2 .
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McGraw-Hill, ISBN 1-56626-195-3 .
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Van Deusen, David (2014). "Neither Washington Nor Stowe—Common Sense
For The Working Vermonter". Green Mountain Anarchist Collective.
Montpelier, Vermont: Catamount Tavern Press. Retrieved January 11,
Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic:
Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press.
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Vermont at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Energy Data and Statistics for Vermont
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Vermont State Facts
Roads compared to other states
Rodinia to Pangea: The Lithotectonic Record of the Appalachian Region
Laurentia-Gondwana connections before Pangea
Bedrock Geologic Map of
Vermont United States Geological Survey
Maps and demographics
Earthquake History of Vermont
USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Vermont
Geographic data related to
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Tourism and recreation
Vermont Living Magazine
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Culture and history
Vermont Native American Museum & Cultural Center
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List of U.S. states
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Admitted on March 4, 1791 (14th)
Places adjacent to Vermont
Saint Lawrence River
Vermont: Outline • Index
Topics related to Vermont
The Green Mountain State
State of Vermont
Burlington (metropolitan area)
Towns (pop. >5000)
Vermont State Fair
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Green Mountain Eagles
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New England Colonies
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Place names of Native-American origin
MBTA (MA, RI)
Northeast Corridor (CT, MA, RI)
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Vermonter (CT, MA, NH, VT)
Shore Line East
Shore Line East (CT)
Hartford Line (CT, MA; under construction)
New England (proposed)
I-84 (CT, MA)
I-89 (NH, VT)
I-90 (Mass Pike) (MA)
I-91 (CT, MA, VT)
I-93 (MA, NH, VT)
I-95 (CT, RI, MA, NH, ME)
New England road marking system
T. F. Green (RI)
Northeastern United States
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Coordinates: 44°00′N 72°42′W / 44°N 72.7°W / 44;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0422 5151