HOME
The Info List - Venice



--- Advertisement ---


(i)

VENICE (/ˈvɛnɪs/ _VEN-iss_ ; Italian : _Venezia_, (_ listen ); Venetian : Venesia_, ) is a city in northeastern Italy
Italy
and the capital of the Veneto
Veneto
region . It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges. (The city has 400 bridges.) The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon , an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice
Venice
are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture , and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
.

In 2014, 264,579 people resided in _ Comune
Comune
di Venezia_, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(_Centro storico_). Together with Padua and Treviso , the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a statistical metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy.

The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice . Venice
Venice
has been known as the "La Dominante," "Serenissima," "Queen of the Adriatic ," "City of Water," "City of Masks," "City of Bridges," "The Floating City," and "City of Canals."

The Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance
, and a staging area for the Crusades
Crusades
and the Battle of Lepanto , as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice ) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The City State of Venice
Venice
is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century. This made Venice
Venice
a wealthy city throughout most of its history.

It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance
Renaissance
period . After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna , the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire , until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence
Third Italian War of Independence
. Venice
Venice
has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi . Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016. The city is facing some major challenges however, including financial difficulties, erosion, subsidence and an excessive number of tourists in peak periods.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Expansion * 2.3 Decline * 2.4 Modern age

* 2.5 Subsidence

* 2.5.1 Foundations * 2.5.2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Sestieri * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Government

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Tourism

* 6 Transportation

* 6.1 In the historic centre

* 6.1.1 Waterways

* 6.2 Public transport

* 6.2.1 Lagoon area * 6.2.2 Lido and Pellestrina islands * 6.2.3 Mainland

* 6.3 Trains * 6.4 Airports

* 7 Sport * 8 Education * 9 Demographics

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Cinema, media, and popular culture

* 10.1.1 In films * 10.1.2 In games * 10.1.3 In literature and adapted works * 10.1.4 In music

* 10.2 Architecture
Architecture
* 10.3 Music * 10.4 Photography * 10.5 Interior design * 10.6 Fashion and shopping * 10.7 Cuisine * 10.8 Literature * 10.9 Art and printing * 10.10 Glass * 10.11 Festivals * 10.12 Foreign words of Venetian origin

* 11 Notable people

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 12.2 Cooperation agreements

* 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Notes * 14.2 Bibliography

* 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms _Venetia_ and _Venetiae_, is most likely taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of _Regio X _ of Roman Italy
Italy
, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic, Lombard, and Frankish control. The name _Venetia_, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti , and called by the Greeks _Eneti_ (Ἐνετοί). The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti , Baltic Veneti , and the Slavic Wends . Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *_wen_ ("love"), so that *_wenetoi_ would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word _venetus_, meaning the color 'sea-blue', is also possible. Supposed connections of _Venetia_ with the Latin verb _venire_ (to come), such as Marin Sanudo 's _veni etiam_ ("Yet, I have come!"), the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or even with _venia_ ("forgiveness") are fanciful . The alternative obsolete form is _Vinegia_ ; (Venetian : _Venèxia_ ; Latin : _Venetiae_; Slovene : _Benetke_).

HISTORY

See also: History of the Republic of Venice and Timeline of Venice

_ It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Venice _. (Discuss ) _(May 2017)_

ORIGINS

Historical affiliations Western Roman Empire 421–476

Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493 Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 Eastern Roman Empire 553–584 Exarchate of Ravenna 584–697 Republic of Venice 697–1797 Habsburg Monarchy 1797–1805 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1805–1815 Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1815–1866 Republic of San Marco 1848–1849 Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1849–1866 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1866–1946 Italian Republic 1946–present

Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice, tradition and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees from Roman cities near Venice
Venice
such as Padua , Aquileia , Treviso , Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro ) and from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as _incolae lacunae_ ("lagoon dwellers"). The traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto
Rialto
(Rivoalto, "High Shore") — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421 (the Feast of the Annunciation ).

Beginning as early as AD 166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo . The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila
Attila
. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire a small strip of coast in the current Veneto, including Venice. The Roman/ Byzantine
Byzantine
territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna , administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy (the Exarch
Exarch
) appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople, but Ravenna
Ravenna
and Venice
Venice
were connected only by sea routes; and with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello
Torcello
in the Venetian lagoon. The _tribuni maiores_, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, dated from c. 568.

The traditional first doge of Venice
Venice
, Paolo Lucio Anafesto , was actually Exarch
Exarch
Paul , and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano , was Paul's _magister militum _ (General: literally, "Master of Soldiers"). In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the iconoclastic controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Pope Gregory II
. The Exarch
Exarch
was murdered and many officials put to flight in the chaos. At about this time, the people of the lagoon elected their own leader for the first time, although the relationship of this to the uprisings is not clear. Ursus was the first of 117 "doges " (_doge_ is the Venetian dialect development of the Latin _dux _ ("leader"); the corresponding word in English is _duke _, in standard Italian _duce _.) Whatever his original views, Ursus supported Emperor Leo III 's successful military expedition to recover Ravenna, sending both men and ships. In recognition of this, Venice
Venice
was "granted numerous privileges and concessions" and Ursus, who had personally taken the field, was confirmed by Leo as _dux _ and given the added title of _hypatus _ (Greek for " Consul
Consul
".)

In 751 the Lombard King Aistulf conquered most of the Exarchate of Ravenna, leaving Venice
Venice
a lonely and increasingly autonomous Byzantine outpost. During this period, the seat of the local Byzantine
Byzantine
governor (the "duke/dux", later "doge"), was situated in Malamocco . Settlement on the islands in the lagoon probably increased with the Lombard conquest of other Byzantine
Byzantine
territories, as refugees sought asylum there. In 775/6 the episcopal seat of Olivolo (San Pietro di Castello ; Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco (811–827) the ducal seat moved from Malamocco to the highly protected Rialto, the current location of Venice. The monastery of St Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark , as well as a walled defense (_civitatis murus_) between Olivolo and Rialto, were subsequently built here.

Charlemagne
Charlemagne
sought to subdue the city to his own rule. He ordered the Pope to expel the Venetians from the Pentapolis along the Adriatic coast, and Charlemagne's own son Pepin of Italy
Italy
, king of the Lombards under the authority of his father, embarked on a siege of Venice
Venice
itself. This, however, proved a costly failure. The siege lasted six months, with Pepin's army ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and eventually forced to withdraw (810). A few months later, Pepin himself died, apparently as a result of a disease contracted there. In the aftermath, an agreement between Charlemagne and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor Nicephorus in 814 recognized Venice
Venice
as Byzantine
Byzantine
territory and granted the city trading rights along the Adriatic coast.

In 828 the new city's prestige increased with the acquisition of the claimed relics of St Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria
Alexandria
, which were placed in the new basilica. (Winged lions, visible throughout Venice, symbolise St Mark.) The patriarchal seat also moved to Rialto. As the community continued to develop and as Byzantine
Byzantine
power waned, its autonomy grew, leading to eventual independence.

EXPANSION

_ Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St Mark\'s Campanile and Basilica in the background. These Horses of Saint Mark
Horses of Saint Mark
are a replica of the Triumphal Quadriga_ captured in Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1204 and carried to Venice
Venice
as a trophy.

From the 9th to the 12th century, Venice
Venice
developed into a city state (an Italian thalassocracy or _Repubblica Marinara _: the other three of these were Genoa
Genoa
, Pisa
Pisa
, and Amalfi ). Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable. With the elimination of pirates along the Dalmatian coast , the city became a flourishing trade center between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine Empire and Asia
Asia
) with a naval power protecting sea routes from piracy.

The Republic of Venice seized a number of places on the eastern shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already carried the titles of Duke
Duke
of Dalmatia and Duke
Duke
of Istria . Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda
Lake Garda
as far west as the Adda River , were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic dominated the trade in salt, acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean , including Cyprus
Cyprus
and Crete
Crete
, and became a major power-broker in the Near East
Near East
. By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as Bergamo , Brescia
Brescia
and Verona
Verona
rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders.

Venice
Venice
remained closely associated with Constantinople, being twice granted trading privileges in the Eastern Roman Empire, through the so-called Golden Bulls or "chrysobulls" in return for aiding the Eastern Empire to resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first chrysobull, Venice
Venice
acknowledged its homage to the Empire; but not in the second, reflecting the decline of Byzantium
Byzantium
and the rise of Venice's power.

Venice
Venice
became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade , which, having veered off course, culminated in 1204 by capturing and sacking Constantinople
Constantinople
and establishing the Latin Empire . As a result of this conquest, considerable Byzantine
Byzantine
plunder was brought back to Venice. This plunder included the gilt bronze horses from the Hippodrome of Constantinople
Constantinople
, which were originally placed above the entrance to the cathedral of Venice, St Mark\'s Basilica , although the originals have been replaced with replicas and are now stored within the basilica. After the fall of Constantinople, the former Roman Empire was partitioned among the Latin crusaders and the Venetians. Venice subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean known as the Duchy of the Archipelago , and captured Crete.

The seizure of Constantinople
Constantinople
proved as decisive a factor in ending the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as the loss of the Anatolian themes after Manzikert . Although the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half-century later, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was terminally weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in 1453 . View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark\'s Campanile .

Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice
Venice
always traded extensively with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Muslim world . By the late 13th century, Venice
Venice
was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Council , which was made up of members of the noble families of Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. Since this group was too large for efficient administration, a Council of Ten (also called the Ducal Council or the Signoria), controlled much of the administration of the city. One member of the great council was elected "Doge ", or duke, the chief executive, who usually held the title until his death; although several Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by political failure.

The Venetian government structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected chief executive (the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various private properties were tied to military service, although there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The _Cavalieri di San Marco
San Marco
_ was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's consent. Venice
Venice
remained a republic throughout its independent period, and politics and the military were kept separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally headed the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce). _ Francesco Guardi , The Grand Canal_, 1760 ( Art Institute of Chicago ). Photograph of Guardi's Regatta in Venice
Venice
at the Frick Art Reference Library.

Although the people of Venice
Venice
generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice
Venice
was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and executed nobody for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation . This apparent lack of zeal contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy
Papacy
. In this context, the writings of the Anglican divine William Bedell are particularly illuminating. Venice
Venice
was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions, and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most noted, occasion was in 1606, by order of Pope Paul V .

Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.

The newly invented German printing press spread rapidly throughout Europe in the 15th century, and Venice
Venice
was quick to adopt it. By 1482, Venice
Venice
was the printing capital of the world, and the leading printer was Aldus Manutius , who invented paperback books that could be carried in a saddlebag. His _Aldine Editions_ included translations of nearly all the known Greek manuscripts of the era.

DECLINE

The Grand Canal in Venice.

Venice's long decline started in the 15th century, when it first made an unsuccessful attempt to hold Thessalonica
Thessalonica
against the Ottomans (1423–1430). It also sent ships to help defend Constantinople against the besieging Turks (1453). After Constantinople
Constantinople
fell to Sultan Mehmet II , he declared war on Venice. The war lasted thirty years and cost Venice
Venice
much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions. Next, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. Then Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage of 1497–99, destroying Venice's land route monopoly. France, England and the Dutch Republic followed. Venice's oared galleys were at a disadvantage when it came to traversing the great oceans, and therefore Venice
Venice
was left behind in the race for colonies.

The Black Death devastated Venice
Venice
in 1348 and once again between 1575 and 1577. In three years, the plague killed some 50,000 people. In 1630, the Italian plague of 1629–31 killed a third of Venice's 150,000 citizens. Venice
Venice
began to lose its position as a center of international trade during the later part of the Renaissance
Renaissance
as Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with the East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth; while France
France
and Spain
Spain
fought for hegemony over Italy
Italy
in the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
, marginalising its political influence. However, the Venetian empire was a major exporter of agricultural products, and until the mid-18th century, a significant manufacturing center.

MODERN AGE

1870s panoramic view of Venice.

During the 18th century, Venice
Venice
became perhaps the most elegant and refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture and literature. But the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Venice
Venice
on 12 May 1797 during the War of the First Coalition . Napoleon
Napoleon
was seen as something of a liberator by the city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived with fewer restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the city.

Venice
Venice
became Austrian territory when Napoleon
Napoleon
signed the Treaty of Campo Formio on 12 October 1797. The Austrians took control of the city on 18 January 1798. But Venice
Venice
was taken from Austria
Austria
by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy
Italy
; however it was returned to Austria
Austria
following Napoleon's defeat in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia . In 1848–9, a revolt briefly re-established the Venetian Republic under Daniele Manin . In 1866, after the Third Italian War of Independence , Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy
Italy
.

During the Second World War , the historic city was largely free from attack, the only aggressive effort of note being Operation Bowler , a successful Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
precision strike on the German naval operations in the city in March 1945. The targets were destroyed with virtually no architectural damage inflicted on the city itself. However the industrial areas in Mestre
Mestre
and Marghera and the railway lines to Padua, Trieste
Trieste
and Trento
Trento
were repeatedly bombed . On 29 April 1945, New Zealand troops under Freyberg of the Eighth Army reached Venice
Venice
and relieved the city and the mainland, which were already in partisan hands.

SUBSIDENCE

Further information: Acqua alta
Acqua alta
Acqua alta
Acqua alta
, or high water in Venice. Venice
Venice
and surroundings in false colour, from Terra . The picture is oriented with North at the top.

Subsidence , the gradual lowering of the surface of Venice, has led to the seasonal _ Acqua alta
Acqua alta
_ when much of the city's surface is occasionally covered at high tide.

Foundations

The buildings of Venice
Venice
are constructed on closely spaced wooden piles . Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on plates of Istrian limestone placed on top of the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. The piles penetrate a softer layer of sand and mud until they reach a much harder layer of compressed clay .

Submerged by water, in oxygen-poor conditions, wood does not decay as rapidly as on the surface.

Most of these piles were made from trunks of alder trees, a wood noted for its water resistance. The alder came from the westernmost part of today's Slovenia
Slovenia
(resulting in the barren land of the Kras region), in two regions of Croatia, Lika
Lika
and Gorski kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit ) and south of Montenegro
Montenegro
.

History

The city is often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an ever-deeper lagoon environment.

In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief, Venice
Venice
introduced what could be considered the first example of a 'stamp tax '. When the revenue fell short of expectations in 1608, Venice
Venice
introduced paper with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted instructions, which was to be used for 'letters to officials'. At first, this was to be a temporary tax, but it remained in effect until the fall of the Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of the tax, Spain produced similar paper for general taxation purposes, and the practice spread to other countries.

During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice
Venice
began to subside . It was realised that extraction of water from the aquifer was the cause. The sinking has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (called _Acqua alta_, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimetres over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses, the former staircases used to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable.

Studies indicate that the city continues sinking at a relatively slow rate of 1-2mm per annum; therefore, the state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the MOSE project (_Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico_), an experimental model for evaluating the performance of hollow floatable gates; the idea is to fix a series of 78 hollow pontoons to the sea bed across the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air, causing them to float and block the incoming water from the Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2018.

The project is not guaranteed to be successful and the cost has been very high, according to a spokesman for the FAI (similar to a National Trust). "Mose is a pharaonic project that should have cost €800m but will cost at least €7bn . If the barriers are closed at only 90cm of high water, most of St Mark’s will be flooded anyway; but if closed at very high levels only, then people will wonder at the logic of spending such sums on something that didn’t solve the problem. And pressure will come from the cruise ships to keep the gates open." Approximately €2 billion of the cost has been lost to corruption.

GEOGRAPHY

SESTIERI

Sestieri of Venice: Cannaregio; Castello; Dorsoduro; San Marco; San Polo; Santa Croce. Venice
Venice
viewed from the International Space Station.

The whole _pensolon_ (municipality) is divided into 6 boroughs. One of these (the historic city) is divided into six areas called _sestieri _: Cannaregio , San Polo , Dorsoduro (including the islands Giudecca and Sacca Fisola ), Santa Croce , San Marco
San Marco
(including San Giorgio Maggiore ) and Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant\'Elena ). Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Now, each _sestiere_ is a statistical and historical area without any degree of autonomy. The six fingers or phalanges of the _ferro_ on the bow of a gondola represent the six _sestieri_.

The _sestieri_ are divided into parishes – initially 70 in 1033, but reduced under Napoleon
Napoleon
and now numbering just 38. These parishes predate the _sestieri_, which were created in about 1170. Each parish exhibited unique characteristics but also belonged to an integrated network. The community chose its own patron saint, staged its own festivals, congregated around its own market center, constructed its own bell towers and developed its own customs.

Other islands of the Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the _sestieri_, having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy.

Each _sestiere_ has its own house numbering system. Each house has a unique number in the district, from one to several thousand, generally numbered from one corner of the area to another, but not usually in a readily understandable manner.

CLIMATE

According to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Venice
Venice
has a Humid subtropical climate (_Cfa_), with cool winters and very warm summers. The 24-hour average in January is 3.3 °C (37.9 °F), and for July this figure is 23.0 °C (73.4 °F). Precipitation
Precipitation
is spread relatively evenly throughout the year, and averages 748 millimetres (29.4 in).

CLIMATE DATA FOR VENICE (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 8.6 (47.5) 12.5 (54.5) 16.1 (61) 21.5 (70.7) 24.9 (76.8) 27.7 (81.9) 27.5 (81.5) 23.5 (74.3) 18.0 (64.4) 11.6 (52.9) 7.4 (45.3) 17.2 (63)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 3.3 (37.9) 4.7 (40.5) 8.3 (46.9) 12.0 (53.6) 17.1 (62.8) 20.5 (68.9) 23.0 (73.4) 22.6 (72.7) 18.9 (66) 13.8 (56.8) 7.8 (46) 4.0 (39.2) 13.0 (55.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.1 (31.8) 0.8 (33.4) 4.1 (39.4) 7.8 (46) 12.7 (54.9) 16.1 (61) 18.3 (64.9) 17.7 (63.9) 14.3 (57.7) 9.6 (49.3) 4.0 (39.2) 0.6 (33.1) 8.8 (47.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 47.0 (1.85) 48.3 (1.902) 48.8 (1.921) 70.0 (2.756) 66.0 (2.598) 78.0 (3.071) 63.9 (2.516) 64.8 (2.551) 72.0 (2.835) 73.5 (2.894) 65.5 (2.579) 50.6 (1.992) 748.4 (29.465)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 6.0 5.2 5.7 8.3 8.2 8.6 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.7 5.8 5.9 78.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 81 77 75 75 73 74 71 72 75 77 79 81 75.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 80.6 107.4 142.6 174.0 229.4 243.0 288.3 257.3 198.0 151.9 87.0 77.5 2,037

Source: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961–1990)

Average sea temperature: JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

9.9 °C (49.8 °F) 8.7 °C (47.7 °F) 9.9 °C (49.8 °F) 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) 25.4 °C (77.7 °F) 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) 17.2 °C (63.0 °F)

GOVERNMENT

See also: Mayor of Venice

*

The 6 boroughs of the whole _comune_ of Venice
Venice
*

The whole _comune_ (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice *

_Ca' Loredan_, Venice's City Hall

The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council (_Consiglio Comunale_), which is composed of 45 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (_Giunta Comunale_), composed of 12 assessors nominated and presided over by a directly elected Mayor
Mayor
.

Venice
Venice
was governed by center-left parties from the 1990s until the 2010s, when the mayor started to be elected directly. This is remarkable because Veneto
Veneto
has long been a conservative stronghold, with the coalition between the regionalist Lega Nord and the center-right Forza Italia winning absolute majorities of the electorate in many elections at communal, national, and regional levels.

After a corruption scandal that forced the center-left mayor Giorgio Orsoni to resign, Venice
Venice
voted for the first time in June 2015 for a conservative directly elected mayor: the center-right businessman Luigi Brugnaro won the election in the second round of voting with the 53% of the votes against the leftist magistrate and member of the Italian Senate Felice Casson , who led in the first round with 38% of the votes.

The municipality of Venice
Venice
is subdivided into six administrative Boroughs (_Municipalità_). Each Borough is governed by a Council (_Consiglio_) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor
Mayor
with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics (environment, construction, public health, local markets) and exercise the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with autonomous funding to finance local activities. The Boroughs are:

_Lagoon area:_

* Venezia (_historic city_)- Murano
Murano
Burano
Burano
(also known as _Venezia insulare_); population: 69,136; * Lido – Pellestrina (also known as _Venezia litorale_); population: 21,664.

_Mainland (terraferma)_, annexed with a Royal Decree, in 1926, to the municipality of Venezia:

* Favaro Veneto
Veneto
; population: 23,615; * Mestre
Mestre
-Carpenedo (also known as _ Mestre
Mestre
centro_); population: 88,952; * Chirignago-Zelarino; population: 38;179; * Marghera ; population: 28;466.

After the 2015 elections, five of the six boroughs are governed by the Democratic Party and its allies, and one by the center-right mayoral majority.

ECONOMY

Venice\'s economy has changed throughout history. Although there is little specific information about the earliest years, it is likely that an important source of the city's prosperity was the trade in slaves, captured in central Europe and sold to North Africa and the Levant. Venice's location at the head of the Adriatic, and directly south of the terminus of the Brenner Pass over the Alps, would have given it a distinct advantage as a middleman in this important trade. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
, Venice
Venice
was a major center for commerce and trade, as it controlled a vast sea-empire, and became an extremely wealthy European city, a leader in political and economic affairs and a centre for trade and commerce. From the 11th century until the 15th century, pilgrimages to the Holy Land were offered in Venice. Other ports such as Genoa
Genoa
, Pisa
Pisa
, Marseille
Marseille
, Ancona and Dubrovnik were hardly able to make any competition to the well organized transportation of pilgrims from Venice. Like Murano, Burano
Burano
is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto

This all changed by the 17th century, when Venice's trade empire was taken over by other countries such as Portugal, and its naval importance was reduced. In the 18th century, then, it became a major agricultural and industrial exporter. The 18th century's biggest industrial complex was the Venice Arsenal , and the Italian Army still uses it today (even though some space has been used for major theatrical and cultural productions, and spaces for art). Since World War II many Venetians have moved to Mestre
Mestre
and Marghera seeking employment as well as affordable housing.

Today, Venice's economy is mainly based on tourism, shipbuilding (mainly done in the neighboring cities of Mestre
Mestre
and Porto Marghera ), services, trade and industrial exports. Murano
Murano
glass production in Murano
Murano
and lace production in Burano
Burano
are also highly important to the economy.

The city is facing financial challenges. In late 2016, it had a major deficit in its budget and debts in excess of €400 million. "In effect, the place is bankrupt", according to a report by The Guardian . Many locals are leaving the historic center due to rapidly increasing rental costs. The declining native population affects the character of the city as an October 2016 National Geographic article pointed out in its subtitle: "Residents are abandoning the city, which is in danger of becoming an overpriced theme park".

In June 2017, Italy
Italy
was required to bail out two banks in Venice
Venice
to prevent bankruptcies of the Banca Popolare di Vicenza and Veneto
Veneto
Banca . Both companies will be wound down and their assets with value will be taken over by another Italian bank, Intesa Sanpaolo which received €5.2 billion as compensation. The Italian government will be responsible for losses from any uncollectible loans from the now closed banks. The cost may be as high as €5.2 billion but the guarantees to cover bad loans total €12 billion.

TOURISM

Piazza San Marco. Doge's Palace.

Venice
Venice
is an important tourist destination for its celebrated art and architecture. The city gets up to 60,000 tourists per day (2017 estimate). Estimates as to the annual number of tourists vary from 22 million to 30 million. This creates overcrowding and environmental problems in its canal ecosystem. By 2017, UNESCO
UNESCO
was considering the addition of Venice
Venice
to its "In-Danger" list which includes historical ruins in war-torn countries. To reduce the number of visitors that are causing irreversible changes in Venice, the agency supports limiting the number of cruise ships.

Tourism has been a major sector of Venetian industry since the 18th century, when it was a major center for the Grand Tour , with its beautiful cityscape, uniqueness, and rich musical and artistic cultural heritage. In the 19th century, it became a fashionable centre for the "rich and famous", often staying or dining at luxury establishments such as the Danieli Hotel and the Caffè Florian . It continued being a fashionable city in vogue right into the early 20th century. In the 1980s, the Carnival of Venice was revived and the city has become a major centre of international conferences and festivals, such as the prestigious Venice Biennale and the Venice
Venice
Film Festival , which attract visitors from all over the world for their theatrical, cultural, cinematic, artistic, and musical productions.

Today, there are numerous attractions in Venice, such as St Mark\'s Basilica , the Doge\'s Palace , the Grand Canal , and the Piazza San Marco . The Lido di Venezia is also a popular international luxury destination, attracting thousands of actors, critics, celebrities, and mainly people in the cinematic industry. The city also relies heavily on the cruise business. The Cruise Venice
Venice
Committee has estimated that cruise ship passengers spend more than 150 million euros (US $193 million) annually in the city according to a 2015 report. Other reports, however, point out that such day trippers spend relatively little in the few hours of their visits to the city. Cruiseship passing bacino San Marco
San Marco
Venise

Venice
Venice
is regarded by some as a tourist trap, and by others as a "living museum". Unlike most other places in Western Europe, and the world, Venice
Venice
has become widely known for its element of elegant decay . The competition for foreigners to buy homes in Venice
Venice
has made prices rise so high that numerous inhabitants are forced to move to more affordable areas of Veneto
Veneto
and Italy, the most notable being Mestre
Mestre
. Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the vaporetti)

The need to balance cruise tourism revenues with the protection of the city's fragile canals has seen the Italian Transport Ministry attempt to introduce a ban on large cruise ships visiting the city. The ban would have allowed only cruise ships smaller than 40,000-gross tons to enter Venice's Giudecca Canal and St Mark's basin. In January, a regional court scrapped the ban, but global cruise lines indicated that they would continue to respect it until a long-term solution for the protection of Venice
Venice
is found. The city considered a ban on wheeled suitcases , but settled on banning hard wheels for cargo from May 2015. P"> Gondoliers on the Grand Canal

In addition to accelerating erosion of the ancient city's foundations and creating some pollution in the lagoon, cruise ships dropping an excessive number of day trippers can make St. Marks Square and other popular attractions too crowded to walk through during the peak season. Having failed in its bid to ban oversized cruise ships, the city decided in mid 2017 to ban the creation of any additional hotels; currently there are over 24,000 hotel rooms. (The ban does not affect short term rentals in the historic center which is causing an increase in rent for the native residents of Venice.) The city had already banned any additional fast food "take-away" outlets to retain the historic character of the city; this is another reason for freezing the number of hotel rooms. Less than half the millions of annual visitors stay overnight, however. Some locals are more aggressively lobbying for methods that would reduce the number of cruise ship passengers; their estimate indicates that there are up to 30,000 such sightseers per day at peak periods.

TRANSPORTATION

IN THE HISTORIC CENTRE

_ Aerial view of Venice
Venice
including the Ponte della Libertà _ bridge to the mainland. Giudecca canal. View from St Mark\'s Campanile . Sandolo in a picture of Paolo Monti
Paolo Monti
of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC . P for some years there were seven such boats but by 2017, only three remained.

There are approximately 400 licensed gondoliers in Venice
Venice
in their distinctive regalia and a similar number of the boats, down from 10,000 that travelled the canals two centuries ago. Many gondolas are lushly appointed with crushed velvet seats and Persian rugs. Less well-known is the smaller sandolo . At the front of each gondola that works in the city, there is a large piece of metal called the _fèro_ (iron). Its shape has evolved through the centuries, as documented in many well-known paintings. Its form, topped by a likeness of the Doge's hat, became gradually standardized, and was then fixed by local law. It consists of six bars pointing forward representing the Sestieri of the city, and one that points backward representing the Giudecca .

Waterways

Rialto
Rialto
Bridge

Venice
Venice
is a city of small islands, enhanced during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by the dredging of soils to raise the marshy ground above the tides. The resulting canals encouraged the flourishing of a nautical culture which proved central to the economy of the city. Today those canals still provide the means for transport of goods and people within the city. Gondolas in one of many canals

The maze of canals threaded through the city requires the use of more than 400 bridges to permit the flow of foot traffic. In 2011, the city opened Ponte della Costituzione , the fourth bridge across the Grand Canal, connecting the Piazzale Roma bus terminal area with the Stazione Ferroviaria (train station), the others being the original Ponte di Rialto
Rialto
, the Ponte dell\'Accademia , and the Ponte degli Scalzi .

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Azienda del Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano (ACTV) is a public company responsible for public transportation in Venice.

Lagoon Area

The main public transportation means are motorised waterbuses (_vaporetti _) which ply regular routes along the Grand Canal and between the city's islands. The only gondole still in common use by Venetians are the _traghetti_, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. Other gondole target tourists on an hourly basis. Three of the vaporetto (water bus) boats carrying passengers

The Venice People Mover (managed by ASM) is a cable -operated public transit system connecting Tronchetto island with Piazzale Roma. Water taxis are also active.

Lido And Pellestrina Islands

Lido and Pellestrina are two islands forming a barrier between the southern Venetian Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. In those islands, road traffic is allowed. There are bus services on islands and waterbus services linking islands with other islands (Venice, Murano
Murano
, Burano
Burano
) and with the peninsula of Cavallino-Treporti .

Mainland

The mainland of Venice
Venice
is composed of 5 boroughs: Mestre
Mestre
-Carpenedo, Marghera , Chirignago-Zelarino and Favaro Veneto. Mestre
Mestre
is the center and the most populated urban area of the mainland of Venice. There are several bus routes and two Translohr tramway lines . Several bus routes and one of the above tramway lines link the mainland with _ Piazzale Roma _, the main bus station in Venice, via Ponte della Libertà , a road bridge connecting the mainland with the group of islands that comprise the historic center of Venice.

*

Vaporetti provide the primary means of transportation *

People Mover in Venice
Venice
*

Bus in Mestre
Mestre
*

Tram in Mestre
Mestre

TRAINS

Venice
Venice
has regional and national trains, including trains to Rome (3.5 hours) and Milan
Milan
(2.5 hours). Treviso is 35 minutes away. Florence
Florence
and Padua are two of the stops between Rome
Rome
and Venice. There are two main stations:

* The St Lucia station is a few steps away from a vaporetti stop in the historic city next to _Piazzale Roma_. As well as many more local trains, this station is the terminus of the Venice
Venice
Simplon Orient Express from Paris and London. * The Mestre
Mestre
station is on the mainland, on the border between the boroughs of Mestre
Mestre
and Marghera.

Both stations are managed by Grandi Stazioni; they are linked by the _Ponte della Libertà_ (Liberty Bridge) between the mainland and the islands.

Others small stations in the municipality are: Venezia Porto Marghera, Venezia Carpenedo, Venezia Mestre
Mestre
Ospedale, Venezia Mestre Porta Ovest. Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto, Italy. by Rafail Sergeevich Levitsky .(1896) The Di Rocco Wieler Private Collection, Toronto, Canada.

AIRPORTS

Venice
Venice
is served by the Marco Polo International Airport (_Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo _), named in honor of its noted citizen. The airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast. Public transport from the airport takes one to:

* Venice
Venice
Piazzale Roma by ATVO (provincial company) buses and by ACTV (city company) buses (route 5 _aerobus_); * Venice, Lido and Murano
Murano
by Alilaguna (private company) motor boats; * Mestre, the mainland and Venice
Venice
Mestre
Mestre
railway station (convenient for connections to Milan
Milan
, Padova , Trieste
Trieste
, Verona
Verona
and the rest of Italy) by ACTV lines (route 15 and 45) and by ATVO lines; * regional destinations (Treviso, Padua, the beach, ...) by ATVO buses and by Busitalia Sita Nord buses (national company).

Some airlines market Treviso Airport in Treviso , 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Venice, as a Venice
Venice
gateway. Some simply advertise flights to "Venice", while naming the actual airport only in small print. There are public buses from this airport to Venice.

Venezia-Lido "Giovanni Nicelli", a public airport suitable for smaller aircraft, is at the NE end of Lido di Venezia . It has a 994-metre grass runway.

SPORT

The main football club in the city is Venezia F.C. , founded in 1907, which currently plays in the Serie B . Their ground, the Stadio Pierluigi Penzo situated in Sant\'Elena , is one of the oldest venues in Italy.

The local basketball club is Reyer Venezia Mestre
Mestre
, founded in 1872 as gymnastics club _Società Sportiva Costantino Reyer_, and in 1907 as basketball club. Reyer currently plays in the Lega Basket Serie A . The men's team won the Italian Championships in 1942, 1943 and 2017. Their arena is the Palasport Giuseppe Taliercio situated in Mestre
Mestre
. Luigi Brugnaro is both the president of the club and the mayor of the city.

EDUCATION

Venice
Venice
is a major international centre for higher education. The city hosts the Ca\' Foscari University of Venice
Venice
, founded in 1868; the IUAV University of Venice
Venice
, founded in 1926; the Venice
Venice
International University , an international research center, founded in 1995 and located on the island of San Servolo ; and the EIUC-European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation, located on the island of Lido di Venezia.

Other Venetian institutions of higher education are: the "Accademia di Belle Arti" (Academy of Fine Arts), established in 1750, whose first Chairman was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta ; and the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory of Music , which, established in 1876 as High School and Musical Society, later (1915) became "Liceo Musicale" and finally (1940), when its Director was Gian Francesco Malipiero , State Conservatory of Music.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1000 60,000 —

1200 80,000 +33.3%

1300 180,000 +125.0%

1400 110,000 −38.9%

1423 150,000 +36.4%

1500 100,000 −33.3%

1560 170,000 +70.0%

1600 200,000 +17.6%

1700 140,000 −30.0%

1800 140,000 +0.0%

The city was one of the largest in Europe in the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, with a population of 60,000 in AD 1000; 80,000 in 1200; and rising up to 110,000–180,000 in 1300. In the mid 1500s the city's population was 170,000, and by 1600 almost 200,000.

In 2009, there were 270,098 people residing in Venice's comune (the population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune
Comune
of Venezia; around 60,000 in the historic city of Venice
Venice
(Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland); and 31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon), of whom 47.4% were male and 52.6% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) were 14.36% of the population compared to pensioners who numbered 25.7%. This compared with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The average age of Venice
Venice
residents was 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Venice
Venice
declined by 0.2%, while Italy
Italy
as a whole grew by 3.85%. The population in the historic old city declined much faster: from about 120,000 in 1980 to about 60,000 in 2009, and to below 55,000 in 2016.

As of 2009 , 91% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations: ( Romanians , the largest group: 3%, South Asia: 1.3%, and East Asia: 0.9%).

Venice
Venice
is predominantly Roman Catholic (92.7% of resident population in the area of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice in 2012 ), but because of the long-standing relationship with Constantinople
Constantinople
, there is also a noticeable Orthodox presence, and as a result of immigration, there are now some Muslim , Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist inhabitants. There is also a historic Jewish community in Venice. The Venetian Ghetto was the area in which Jews were compelled to live under the Venetian Republic. The word _ghetto_, originally Venetian , is now used in many languages. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
's play _The Merchant of Venice
Venice
_, written in the late 16th century, features Shylock , a Venetian Jew. The first complete and uncensored printed edition of the Talmud
Talmud
was printed in Venice
Venice
by Daniel Bomberg in 1523. In more modern times, Venice
Venice
has an eruv , used by the Jewish community.

CULTURE

Typical masks worn during the Carnival of Venice .

CINEMA, MEDIA, AND POPULAR CULTURE

See also: Venice in media

Venice
Venice
has been the setting or chosen location of numerous films, games, works of fine art and literature (including essays, fiction, non-fiction, and poems), music videos, television shows, and other cultural references.

In Films

Examples of films set or at least partially filmed in Venice
Venice
include:

* _The Comfort of Strangers _ (1990) * _The Italian Job _ (2003) * Luchino Visconti 's _ Death in Venice _ (1971) * Three James Bond
James Bond
films: _From Russia with Love _, _Moonraker _, and _Casino Royale _ (2006) * _The Tourist _ (2010) * _Summertime _ (1955), starring Katharine Hepburn * _Fellini\'s Casanova
Casanova
_ * Woody Allen 's _ Everyone Says I Love You _ (1996) * Nicolas Roeg
Nicolas Roeg
's _Don\'t Look Now _ * _ The Wings of the Dove _ * _ Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade _ * _The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen _ * _ A Little Romance _ * _Lara Croft: Tomb Raider _ * _The Talented Mr. Ripley _ (1999) * _ Dangerous Beauty _ (1988), the biography of Veronica Franco, the 16th century beauty * _ Penguins of Madagascar _ * _Pokémon: Heroes (2005) _ * _ Blame it on the Bellboy _

In Games

The city is the setting for parts of such video games as _Assassin\'s Creed II _ and _ Tomb Raider II
Tomb Raider II
_. It has also served as inspiration for the fictional city of _Altissia _, in _ Final Fantasy XV _. The city also serves as a setting for The House of the Dead 2 .

In Literature And Adapted Works

The city is a particularly popular setting for essays, novels, and other works of fictional or non-fictional literature. Examples of these include:

* Casanova
Casanova
's autobiographical _History of My Life_, * Ben Jonson 's _ Volpone _ (1605–6), * Donna Leon 's Commissario Guido Brunetti crime fiction series and cookbook, and the German television seriws based on the novels * Anne Rice 's _ Cry to Heaven _ (1982), * Jacqueline Carey 's _Kushiel\'s Chosen _ (historical fantasy or alternate history ) A large portion of the novel takes place in a city known as La Serenissima. It is an alternative-history version of Venice, complete with masquerades, canals and a Doge. * Shakespeare
Shakespeare
's _ Merchant of Venice _ (ca. 1596–1598) and _ Othello
Othello
_, * Philippe Sollers ' _ Watteau in Venice _, and * Voltaire
Voltaire
's _ Candide _.

Additionally, Thomas Mann 's novella, _ Death in Venice _ (1912), was the basis for Benjamin Britten's eponymous opera .

In Music

The city has been the setting for music videos of such songs as Madonna 's "Like a Virgin " and Siouxsie and the Banshees ' "Dear Prudence " .

ARCHITECTURE

See also: Venetian Gothic architecture , 8th International Architecture
Architecture
Exhibition , 9th International Architecture
Architecture
Exhibition , 10th International Architecture
Architecture
Exhibition , and 11th International Architecture
Architecture
Exhibition The Baroque
Baroque
Ca\' Rezzonico . Hotel Danieli . La Fenice
La Fenice
operahouse in the city.

Venice
Venice
has a rich and diverse architectural style , the most prominent of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine
Byzantine
and Ottoman influences. The style originated in 14th-century Venice, where the confluence of Byzantine style from Constantinople
Constantinople
met Arab influence from Islamic Spain . Chief examples of the style are the Doge\'s Palace and the Ca\' d\'Oro in the city. The city also has several Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque buildings, including the Ca\' Pesaro and the Ca\' Rezzonico .

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Venice See also: Venetian polychoral style , Music of Veneto
Veneto
, and Venetian School (music)

The city of Venice
Venice
in Italy
Italy
has played an important role in the development of the music of Italy
Italy
. The Venetian state – i.e., the medieval Maritime Republic of Venice – was often popularly called the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th century is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music everywhere."

During the 16th century, Venice
Venice
became one of the most important musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of composition (the Venetian school ) and the development of the Venetian polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert , who worked at St Mark\'s Basilica . Venice
Venice
was the early center of music printing; Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to attract composers from all over Europe, especially from France
France
and Flanders
Flanders
. By the end of the century, Venice
Venice
was known for the splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli , which used multiple choruses and instrumental groups. Venice
Venice
was also the home of many noted composers during the baroque period , such as Antonio Vivaldi , Ippolito Ciera , Giovanni Picchi , and Girolamo Dalla Casa , to name but a few.

PHOTOGRAPHY

Its splendid architecture, artworks, landscapes, gondolas , the alternance of high and low tides, the reflections of light and colors, and the unusual daily scenes in a city living on water, make of Venice and its islands a paradise for photographers both professionals and amateurs. Fulvio Roiter has probably been the pioneer in artistic photography in Venice, followed by a number of authors whose works are often reproduced on postcards, thus reaching a widest international popular exposure.

INTERIOR DESIGN

It can be argued that Venice
Venice
produced the best and most refined rococo designs. At the time, Venice
Venice
was in trouble. It had lost most of its maritime power, was lagging behind its rivals in political importance, and society had become decadent, with nobles wasting their money in gambling and partying. But Venice
Venice
remained Italy's fashion capital, and was a serious contender to Paris in terms of wealth, architecture, luxury, taste, sophistication, trade, decoration, style, and design. Venetian rococo was well known as rich and luxurious, with usually very extravagant designs. Unique Venetian furniture pieces included the _divani da portego_, and long rococo couches and _pozzetti_, objects meant to be placed against the wall. Bedrooms of rich Venetians were usually sumptuous and grand, with rich damask, velvet, and silk drapery and curtains, and beautifully carved rococo beds with statues of putti , flowers and angels. Venice
Venice
was especially known for its beautiful girandole mirrors , which remained among, if not the, finest in Europe. Chandeliers were usually very colourful, using Murano
Murano
glass to make them look more vibrant and stand out from others, and precious stones and materials from abroad were used, since Venice
Venice
still held a vast trade empire. Lacquer was very common, and many items of furniture were covered with it, the most noted being _lacca povera_ (poor lacquer), in which allegories and images of social life were painted. Lacquerwork and Chinoiserie were particularly common in bureau cabinets.

FASHION AND SHOPPING

Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto
Rialto
Bridge .

In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The Venetian Senate passed sumptuary laws , but these merely resulted in changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden colours resulting in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in the 15th century.

Today, Venice
Venice
is a major fashion and shopping centre, not as important as Milan
Milan
, Florence
Florence
, and Rome, but on a par with Verona
Verona
, Turin
Turin
, Vicenza
Vicenza
, Naples
Naples
, and Genoa
Genoa
. Roberta di Camerino is the only major Italian fashion brand to be based in Venice. Founded in 1945, it is renowned for its innovative handbags featuring hardware by Venetian artisans and often covered in locally woven velvet, and has been credited with creating the concept of the easily recognisable status bag . Many of the fashion boutiques and jewelry shops in the city are located on or near the Rialto
Rialto
Bridge and in the Piazza San Marco . There are Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
and Ermenegildo Zegna flagship stores in the city. If shopping for venetian and Italian food specialties and wine you can head to Mascari or Casa del Parmigiano near Rialto
Rialto
and I Tre Mercanti flagship store near Piazza San Marco .

CUISINE

Main articles: Venetian cuisine and Venetian wine Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice
Venice
during the 1770s and 1780s.

Venetian cuisine is characterized by seafood, but also includes garden products from the islands of the lagoon, rice from the mainland, game, and polenta . Venice
Venice
is not known for a peculiar cuisine of its own: it combines local traditions with influences stemming from age-old contacts with distant countries. These include _sarde in saór_ (sardines marinated to preserve them for long voyages); _bacalà mantecato_ (a recipe based on Norwegian stockfish and extra-virgin olive oil); _bisàto_ (marinated eel); _risi e bisi_, rice, peas and (not smoked) bacon; _fegato alla veneziana_, Venetian-style veal liver; _risòto col néro de sépe_ (risotto with cuttlefish, blackened by their ink); _cichéti_, refined and delicious tidbits (akin to _tapas_); _antipasti_ (appetizers); and _prosecco _, an effervescent, mildly sweet wine.

In addition, Venice
Venice
is known for the golden, oval-shaped cookies called _baicoli _, and for other types of sweets, such as: _pan del pescatore_ (bread of the fisherman); cookies with almonds and pistachio nuts; cookies with fried Venetian cream, or the _bussolài_ (butter biscuits and shortbread made in the shape of a ring or of an "S") from the island of Burano; the _galàni_ or _cróstoli_ (angel wings ); the _frìtole_ (fried spherical doughnuts); the _fregolòtta_ (a crumbly cake with almonds); a milk pudding called _rosada_; and cookies called _zaléti_, whose ingredients include yellow maize flour.

The dessert tiramisu is generally thought to have been invented in Treviso in the 1970s, and is popular in the Veneto
Veneto
area.

LITERATURE

Main article: Venetian literature Portrait of Giacomo Casanova.

Venice
Venice
has long been a source of inspiration for authors, playwrights, and poets, and at the forefront of the technological development of printing and publishing.

Two of the most noted Venetian writers were Marco Polo in the Middle Ages and later Giacomo Casanova
Casanova
. Polo (1254–1324) was a merchant who voyaged to the Orient . His series of books, co-written by Rustichello da Pisa
Pisa
and titled _Il Milione _ provided important knowledge of the lands east of Europe, from the Middle East to China, Japan, and Russia. Giacomo Casanova
Casanova
(1725–1798) was a prolific writer and adventurer best remembered for his autobiography, _Histoire De Ma Vie_ (_Story of My Life_), which links his colourful lifestyle to the city of Venice.

Venetian playwrights followed the old Italian theatre tradition of _Commedia dell\'arte _. Ruzante (1502–1542), Carlo Goldoni (1707–1793), and Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806) used the Venetian dialect extensively in their comedies. book printed by Aldus Manutius.

Venice
Venice
has also inspired writers from abroad. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
set _ Othello
Othello
_ and _ The Merchant of Venice _ in the city, as did Thomas Mann with his novel, _ Death in Venice _ (1912). The French writer Philippe Sollers spent most of his life in Venice
Venice
and published _A Dictionary For Lovers Of Venice_ in 2004.

The city features prominently in Henry James
Henry James
' _ The Aspern Papers _ and _ The Wings of the Dove _. It is also visited in Evelyn Waugh 's _ Brideshead Revisited _ and Marcel Proust 's _In Search of Lost Time _. Perhaps the most known children's book set in Venice
Venice
is _The Thief Lord_, written by the German author Cornelia Funke .

The poet Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), born in Zante , an island that at the time belonged to the Republic of Venice, was also a revolutionary who wanted to see a free republic established in Venice
Venice
following its fall to Napoleon
Napoleon
.

Venice
Venice
also inspired the poetry of Ezra Pound , who wrote his first literary work in the city. Pound died in 1972, and his remains are buried in Venice's cemetery island of San Michele .

Venice
Venice
is also linked to the technological aspects of writing. The city was the location of one of Italy's earliest printing presses, established by Aldus Manutius (1449–1515). From this beginning Venice
Venice
developed as an important typographic center and even as late as the 18th century was responsible for printing half of Italy's published books.

ART AND PRINTING

Main article: List of painters and architects of Venice See also: Venetian School (art) _ From the Gondola_ by John Singer Sargent . An 18th-century view of Venice
Venice
by Venetian artist Canaletto
Canaletto
.

Venice, especially during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
periods, was a major centre of art and developed a unique style known as the Venetian School . In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance, Venice, along with Florence
Florence
and Rome, became one of the most important centres of art in Europe, and numerous wealthy Venetians became patrons of the arts. Venice
Venice
at the time was a rich and prosperous Maritime Republic , which controlled a vast sea and trade empire.

By the end of the 15th century, Venice
Venice
had become the European capital of printing, being one of the first cities in Italy
Italy
(after Subiaco and Rome) to have a printing press after those established in Germany, having 417 printers by 1500. The most important printing office was the Aldine Press of Aldus Manutius , which in 1499 printed the _ Hypnerotomachia Poliphili _, considered the most beautiful book of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and established modern punctuation , the page format and italic type , and the first printed work of Aristotle
Aristotle
.

In the 16th century, Venetian painting was developed through influences from the Paduan School and Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina
, who introduced the oil painting technique of the Van Eyck
Van Eyck
brothers. It is signified by a warm colour scale and a picturesque use of colour. Early masters were the Bellini and Vivarini families, followed by Giorgione and Titian
Titian
, then Tintoretto
Tintoretto
and Veronese . In the early 16th century, there was rivalry in Venetian painting between the _disegno_ and _colorito_ techniques.

Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in Venice
Venice
during the early Renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough.

In the 18th century, Venetian painting had a revival with Tiepolo 's decorative painting and Canaletto
Canaletto
's and Guardi
Guardi
's panoramic views.

GLASS

Main articles: Venetian glass and Murano
Murano
glass A Venetian glass goblet .

Venice
Venice
is known for its ornate glass-work, known as Venetian glass . It is world-renowned for being colourful, elaborate, and skilfully made.

Many of the important characteristics of these objects had been developed by the 13th century. Toward the end of that century, the center of the Venetian glass industry moved to Murano
Murano
, an offshore island in Venice. The glass made there is known as Murano
Murano
glass .

Byzantine
Byzantine
craftsmen played an important role in the development of Venetian glass, an art form for which the city is well known. When Constantinople
Constantinople
was sacked in the Fourth Crusade in 1204, some fleeing artisans came to Venice. This happened again when the Ottomans took Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453, supplying Venice
Venice
with still more glassworkers. By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques. Murano
Murano
glass chandelier Ca\' Rezzonico

Despite efforts to keep Venetian glassmaking techniques within Venice, they became known elsewhere, and Venetian-style glassware was produced in other Italian cities and other countries of Europe.

Some of the most important brands of glass in the world today are still produced in the historical glass factories on Murano. They are: Venini, Barovier & Toso, Pauly , Millevetri, Seguso. Barovier "> Masks at Carnival of Venice.

The Carnival of Venice is held annually in the city, It lasts for around two weeks and ends on Shrove Tuesday . Venetian masks are worn.

The Venice Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts calendar. In 1895 an _Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale_ (biennial exhibition of Italian art) was inaugurated. The activities of the Biennale were interrupted by the war in September 1942, but resumed in 1948.

The Festa del Redentore is held in mid July. It began as a feast to give thanks for the end of the plague of 1576. A bridge of barges is built connecting Giudecca to the rest of Venice, and fireworks play an important role.

The Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
(Italian _Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica di Venezia_) is the oldest film festival in the world. Founded by Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata in 1932 as the _Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica_, the festival has since taken place every year in late August or early September on the island of the Lido . Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. It is one of the world's most prestigious film festivals and is part of the Venice
Venice
Biennale.

FOREIGN WORDS OF VENETIAN ORIGIN

Some words with a Venetian etymology include arsenal, ciao, ghetto, gondola, imbroglio, lagoon, lazaret, lido, Montenegro, and regatta. The name "Venezuela" is a Spanish diminutive of Venice. Many additional places around the world are named after Venice, e.g., Venice, Los Angeles , home of Venice
Venice
Beach.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

_ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (January 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

_For people from Venice, see Category:People from Venice
Venice
._ Others closely associated with the city include:

* Pietro Cesare Alberti
Pietro Cesare Alberti
(1608–1655), considered the first Italian-American, arriving in New Amsterdam in 1635. * Tomaso Albinoni (8 June 1671 – 17 January 1751), a baroque composer. * Claudio Ambrosini (9 April 1948), composer and conductor. * Pietro Bembo (20 May 1470 – 18 January 1547), cardinal and scholar. * Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
(c. 1430–1516), Renaissance
Renaissance
painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of painters. * Francesco Borgato (5 September 1990, Venice), Italian recording artist and dancer. * Marco Antonio Bragadin (d.1571), general, flayed alive by the Turks after a fierce resistance during the siege of Famagusta . * Sebastian Cabot (c. 1484–1557, or soon after), explorer . * Rosalba Carriera (7 October 1675 – 15 April 1757), known for her pastel works. * Canaletto
Canaletto
(28 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), known for his landscapes or _vedute _ of Venice, but not only. * Giacomo Casanova
Casanova
(1725–1798 in Dux
Dux
, Bohemia
Bohemia
, (now Duchcov , Czech Republic)), a Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer . * Francesco Cavalli (14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676), a baroque composer. * Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749–1838), opera librettist and poet, wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart . * Enrico Dandolo (_c_. 1107, 1205), Doge of Venice from 1192 to his death, played a direct role in the Sack of Constantinople
Constantinople
during the Fourth Crusade . * Vincenzo Dandolo (1758–1819), chemist, agronomist and politician of the Enlightenment Era . * Ludovico de Luigi (November 1933), Venetian Surrealistic artist. * Pellegrino Ernetti , Catholic priest and exorcist. * Dominic DeNucci , (1932–) Professional wrestler * Veronica Franco (1546–1591), poet and courtesan during the Renaissance. * Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1510–1586), Italian composer and organist at St Mark's Basilica. * Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/1557–1612), composer and organist at St Mark's Basilica. * Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Goldoni
(25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793). Along with Pirandello , Goldoni is probably the most notable name in Italian theatre, in his country and abroad. * Carlo Gozzi (13 December 1720 – 4 April 1806), excellent dramatist of the 18th century. * Pietro Guarneri (14 April 1695 – 7 April 1762), left Cremona in 1718, settled in Venice. "Peter of Venice" from the family of great luthiers. * Baldassare Longhena (1598–18 February 1682), one of the greatest exponents of Baroque
Baroque
architecture. * Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480–Loreto, 1556), painter, draughtsman, and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school . * Bruno Maderna (21 April 1920 – 13 November 1973), an Italian-German orchestra director and 20th-century music composer. * Diogo Mainardi (22 September 1962, São Paulo), Brazilian writer, journalist and TV commentator. * Aldus Manutius (1449–1515), one of the most important printers in history. * Leon Modena (1571–1648) preacher, author, poet, active in the Venetian ghetto and beyond. * Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer, opera pioneer, and director of music at San Marco
San Marco
. * Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990), a leading composer of instrumental and electronic music. * Joseph Pardo (c. 1561–1619), rabbi and merchant. * Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), the first woman in the world to receive a doctorate degree. * Marco Polo (c. 1254–8 January 1324), trader and explorer , one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China. While a prisoner in Genoa, he dictated in the tale of his travels known as _Il Milione_ (_The Travels of Marco Polo _). * Virgilio Ranzato (7 May 1883 – 20 April 1937), composer. * Frederick Rolfe (22 July 1860 – 25 October 1913), English author of the Venetian novel _The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole_. * Carlo Scarpa (2 June 1906 – 1978, Sendai, Japan ), an architect with a profound understanding of materials. * Romano Scarpa (27 September 1927, Venice–23 April 2005, Málaga), was one of the most noted Italian creators of Disney comics. * Giuseppe Sinopoli (2 November 1946 – 20 April 2001), conductor and composer. * Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
(5 March 1696 – 27 March 1770), the last "Grand Manner" fresco painter from the Venetian Republic. * Tintoretto
Tintoretto
(1518–31 May 1594), probably the last great painter of Italian Renaissance. * Titian
Titian
(_c_. 1488–90–27 August 1576), leader of the 16th-century Venetian school of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
(he was born in Pieve di Cadore ). * Elisabetta Caminèr Turra (1751–1796), writer. * Emilio Vedova (9 August 1919 – 25 October 2006), one of the most important modern painters of Italy. * Sebastiano Venier , (c. 1496–3 March 1578), Doge of Venice from 11 June 1577 to 1578. * Antonio Vivaldi (4 March 1678–28 July (or 27), 1741, Vienna
Vienna
), composer and violinist of the Baroque
Baroque
Era.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The City of Venice
Venice
and the Central Association of Cities and Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.) Marco Polo System to promote and realise European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field, particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage preservation and safeguard.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Italy

Venice
Venice
is twinned with:

* Suzhou
Suzhou
, China, since 1980 * Sarajevo
Sarajevo
, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1994 * Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia, since 2011 * Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia * Fort Lauderdale , United States, since 2007 * Dubrovnik , Croatia, since 2012

In 2013, Venice
Venice
ended the sister city relationship with St. Petersburg in opposition to laws Russia had passed against homosexuals and those who support gay rights.

COOPERATION AGREEMENTS

Venice
Venice
has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki , the German city of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
, signed on 25 September 1999, and the Turkish city of Istanbul
Istanbul
, signed on 4 March 1993, within the framework of the 1991 Istanbul
Istanbul
Declaration. It is also a Science and Technology Partnership City with Qingdao
Qingdao
, China.

SEE ALSO

* _ Geography portal * Europe portal * European Union portal * Italy
Italy
portal * Venice
Venice
portal

* History of the Jews in Venice * List of buildings and structures in Venice * List of painters and architects of Venice * List of places called Venice of the East * Outline of Italy
Italy
* Republic of Venice * Su e zo per i ponti _ * Veneti and Venetic language (the ancient spoken language of the region) * Venetian Blinds * Venetian Ghetto * Venetian language (the modern spoken vernacular of the region) * Venezia F.C. * Venezia Mestre
Mestre
Rugby FC – rugby team * Venice of the North

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/394 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Venice
Venice
and its Lagoon". _UNESCO_. Retrieved April 17, 2012. * ^ https://venicegondola.com/en/the-bridges-of-venice-what-are-the-most-famous-bridges-list-bridges-in-venice/ * ^ "Patreve, l\'attuale governance non funziona" (PDF). Corriere Della Sera. March 6, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2016. * ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 11 June 2010. * ^ Richard Stephen Charnock (1859). _Local etymology: a derivative dictionary of geographical names_. Houlston and Wright. p. 288. * ^ Coispeau, Olivier (2016-08-10). _Finance Masters: A Brief History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium_. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813108844 . * ^ "Venetian Music of the Renaissance". Vanderbilt.edu. 11 October 1998. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ Chambers, David (1992). _Venice: A Documentary History_. England: Oxford. p. 78. ISBN 0-8020-8424-9 . * ^ http://www.themeshnews.com/top-10-most-beautiful-cities-in-the-world-2016/ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/10/if-venice-dies-salvatore-settis-tourism-flood/ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/02/when-will-venice-sink-google * ^ "Dizionario d\'ortografia e di pronunzia". _rai.it_. * ^ "Imperciocchè nascendi i principati", begins Apostolo Zeno , _Compendio della storia Veneta di Apostolo Zeno continuata fino alla caduta della repubblica_ 1847:9. * ^ Bosio, _Le origini di Venezia_ * ^ Zeno, _Compendio_ 1847:10. * ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1 January 1996). _International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe_. Taylor & Francis. p. 745. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2 . Retrieved 24 March 2011. * ^ Traditional date as given in William J. Langer, ed. _An Encyclopedia of World History_. * ^ John Julius Norwich , _A History of Venice_ ( Alfred A. Knopf : New York, 1982) p. 13. * ^ Alethea Wiel, _A History of Venice,_ (London) 1898, reprinted Barnes & Noble Books (New York) 1995, pp. 26–27. * ^ Langer * ^ Thomas F. Madden, Venice: A New History, Penguin, 2013, ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8 . * ^ "Piracy as an Islamic-Christian Interface in the Thirteenth Century". * ^ Richard Cowen, The importance of salt * ^ Herrin, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire, Penguin, Harmondsworth, ISBN 978-0-14-103102-6 * ^ "History of Venice". Historyworld.net. Retrieved 28 March 2009.

* ^ Thomas F. Madden, Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-8539-6 * ^ James Burke, _Connections_ (Little, Brown and Co., 1978/1995, ISBN 978-0-316-11672-5 , p.105 * ^ William J. Bernstein (2009). "_A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World_". Grove Press. p.143. ISBN 0-8021-4416-0 * ^ State of Texas, Texas Department of State Health Services. "History of Plague". Dshs.state.tx.us. Retrieved 28 March 2009. * ^ "_Medicine and society in early modern Europe_". Mary Lindemann (1999). Cambridge University Press . p.41. ISBN 0-521-42354-6 * ^ "Group Captain George Westlake". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2013. * ^ Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (6 May 2005). "US Army Air Force Operations Mediterranean Theater". Milhist.net. Retrieved 27 July 2010. * ^ Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (21 July 1945). "New Zealand troops relieve Venice". Milhist.net. Retrieved 28 March 2009. * ^ Standish, Dominic (2003). "Barriers to barriers: why environmental precaution has delayed mobile floodgates to protect Venice". In Okonski, Kendra. _Adapt or die: the science, politics and economics of climate change_. London: Profile Books. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-86197-795-3 . Retrieved 28 November 2014. * ^ Kendall, Paul (25 August 2010). "Mythology and Folklore of the Alder". Trees for life. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011. * ^ " Alder
Alder
– Alnus glutinosa". Conservation Volunteers Northern Ireland. Retrieved 6 August 2011. * ^ http://sciences.blogs.liberation.fr/files/venise-senfonce.pdf * ^ "City of Venice
Venice
Subsidence and eustatism". _comune.venezia.it_. * ^ http://www.pitt.edu/~budny/papers/42.pdf * ^ "\'Moses project\' to secure future of Venice". _The Daily Telegraph_. London. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012. * ^ http://www.natgeotraveller.co.uk/destinations/europe/italy/is-venice-going-under/ * ^ Ferraro, Joanne (2012). _Venice: History Of The Floating City_. New York: Cambridge University Press. * ^ "Venezia/Tessera" (PDF). Italian Air Force National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 5 December 2013. * ^ "Tabella CLINO". MeteoAM. Retrieved 22 June 2013. * ^ Venice
Venice
Sea Temperature – seatemperature.org * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/15/venice-mayoral-poll-cruise-ships-luigi-brugnaro * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The economy of Venice, Italy". Aboutvenice.org. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ Pilgerreisen von Venedig nach Jerusalem im späten Mittelalter- Die Verträge mit dem Schiffspatron, Seite 2, Fabian H. Flöper, GRIN Verlag, 2011. ISBN 978-3-656-04783-4 * ^ Venice, page 71, Beryl D. De Sélincourt, May (Sturge) Gretton, Chatto & Windus, London 1907., reprinted BiblioBazaar 2010, ISBN 978-1-177-40448-8 * ^ " Venice
Venice
(Italy) :: Economy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ _Venice_. Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2016. p. 1. * ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40400210 * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/jun/26/italy-bank-eu-rescue-veneto-banca-banca-popolare-di-vicenza * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ " Venice
Venice
(Italy) :: Economy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/italy/veneto/venice/articles/venice-bans-new-hotels-as-crackdown-on-tourism-continues/ * ^ _A_ _B_ http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/venice-bans-new-hotels-authorities-tourist-crackdown-italy-a7781221.html * ^ _A_ _B_ https://www.theguardian.com/world/shortcuts/2016/sep/27/dont-look-now-venice-tourists-locals-sick-of-you-cruise-liners * ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/ceciliarodriguez/2017/05/29/blacklisting-venice-to-save-it-from-too-many-tourists-and-too-few-venetians/#65ec92e61e50 * ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/30/opinion/can-we-save-venice-before-its-too-late.html * ^ "Tourism overwhelms vanishing Venice". _DW.de_. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ " Italy
Italy
to ban large cruise ships in Venice". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ "CLIA says cruise lines will continue to respect Venice
Venice
cruise ship ban despite new ruling". _Cruise Arabia & Africa_. Retrieved 13 January 2015. * ^ "Turistby indfører forbud mod larmende kufferthjul". _jyllands-posten.dk_. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/cruises/articles/cruise-ships-and-venice-what-does-it-all-mean-for-the-city/ * ^ http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/11/25/503038911/as-tourists-crowd-out-locals-venice-faces-endangered-list * ^ http://money.cnn.com/2017/05/10/news/venice-italy-takeout-fast-food-tourism/index.html * ^ " Venice
Venice
Study Abroad". Retrieved 6 October 2010. * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/italy/veneto/venice/articles/venice-attractions/ * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2016/aug/11/the-right-stripes-how-fashion-fell-for-the-gondolier * ^ https://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/read/articles/the-gondolas-of-venice * ^ https://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/read/articles/the-gondolas-of-venice * ^ http://www.hotelsantelena.com/blog/visit-venice-through-gondolas-symbolism/ * ^ https://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/read/articles/the-gondolas-of-venice * ^ _Thomas Cook European Timetables _ * ^ "ATVO". Atvo.it. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Linee Urbane". www.actv.it. Retrieved 26 August 2012. * ^ http://www.fsbusitalia.it/cms-instance/documenti/fsbusitalia/Montegrotto-AeropMarcoPolo.pdf * ^ Home Page Archived 15 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine .", _ Wizz Air
Wizz Air
_ * ^ www.enav.it * ^ DEPARTMENTS: Asian and North African Studies; Economics; Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics; Humanities; Linguistics and Comparative Cultural Studies; Management; Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems; Philosophy and Cultural Heritage. INTERDEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS: School of Asian Studies and Business Management; School of Cultural Production and Conservation of the Cultural Heritage; School of International Relations; School of Social Work and Public Policies. OTHER SCHOOLS: School of Economics; CFCS – Ca’ Foscari Challenge School; CFSIE – Ca’ Foscari School for International Education; Ca' Foscari Graduate School. * ^ DEPARTMENTS: DACC – Architecture, Construction and Conservation; DCP – Architecture
Architecture
and Arts; DPPAC – Design and Planning in Complex Environments. * ^ Courses. ITALY: History of Venice; Italian Contemporary History in Films; Art and Architecture
Architecture
in Renaissance
Renaissance
Venice; Italian Fashion and Design. CULTURES OF THE WORLD: Intercultural Communication; Gender Studies; Comparing East and West. GLOBAL CHALLENGES: Identity, Heritage and Globalization; Globalization, Ethics, Welfare and Human Rights; Global governance for peace and security, cooperation and development. * ^ European Master's Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation. * ^ DEPARTMENTS: Visual arts (Painting; Sculpture; Graphic Art; Decoration); Scenography and Applied Arts (Scenography; New Technologies for the Arts). * ^ DEPARTMENTS: Theory and Analysis, Composition and Conducting: Pre-polyphonic Music, Choral Music and Choir Conducting, Composition, Experimental Composition, Conducting. New Technologies and Musical Languages: Jazz, Electronic Music. Wind instruments: Recorder, Flute, Trumpet, French Horn, Clarinet, Saxophone, Oboe, Bassoon. Singing and Musical Theatre: Singing. Teaching: Teaching. Keyboards and Percussion Instruments: Organ, Harpsichord, Piano, Percussion instruments. Stringed Instruments: Harp, Lute, Guitar, Viola da Gamba, Baroque violin, Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass. * ^ "Urban World History". _google.dk_. * ^ A Companion to Venetian History, 1400–1797 Google Books. * ^ "Pre-Industrial Cities and Technology". _google.dk_. * ^ Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350 By Janet L. Abu-Lughod. * ^ The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems Change By Hendrik Spruyt. * ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 28 March 2009. * ^ Cathy Newman, "_Vanishing Venice_", National Geographic, August 2009 * ^ " Venice
Venice
#Venexodus protesters oppose tourist numbers". BBC News. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016. * ^ Catholic Hierarchy. Archdiocese of Venezia * ^ " Venetian Ghetto Eruv in Venice". Retrieved 2 August 2010. * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/italy/galleries/venice-in-the-movies-filming-locations/venicefilm4/ * ^ " Death in Venice and a cocktail". _The Venice
Venice
Lido_. August 2011. * ^ http://www.push-start.co.uk/all/platform/pc/assassins-creed-and-the-real-italia-venezia-part-2/ * ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dnLLCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA38&lpg=PA38&dq=tomb+raider+venice&source=bl&ots=dogkuBMkz3&sig=X9WQxXw764dQiScT-257S75RqVc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjEsIewwubUAhWPIlAKHQyEDLo4MhDoAQgwMAU#v=onepage&q=tomb%20raider%20venice&f=false * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-23. * ^ Touring Club p. 79 * ^ Stefano Biolchini (19 April 2016). "Addio a Fulvio Roiter. Era sua la più bella Venezia in bianco nero". _ Il Sole 24 Ore _. Retrieved 19 April 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Miller (2005) p.82 * ^ Miller (2005) p.83 * ^ _A_ _B_ Patner, Josh (26 February 2006). "From Bags to Riches". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 14 May 2010. * ^ Ranieri da Mosto, _Il Veneto
Veneto
in cucina_, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 57; Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, _A tola co i nostri veci. La cucina veneziana_, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, p. 63 * ^ In other areas of Italy
Italy
similar sweets are known by many other names, e.g. _cénci_ (rags) (Florence), _frappe_ (flounces) (Rome), _bugìe_ (lies) (Turin, Genoa, etc.), _chiàcchiere_ (chatter) (Milan and many other places in northern, central and southern Italy). Vid.: Pellegrino Artusi, _La Scienza in cucina e l'Arte di mangiar bene_, 93ª ristampa, Firenze, Giunti, 1960, p. 387, #595; Ranieri da Mosto, _Il Veneto
Veneto
in cucina_, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 364; Luigi Veronelli (edited by), _Il Carnacina_, 10th ed., Milano, Garzanti, 1975, p. 656, #2013; to name but a few. * ^ Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, _A tola co i nostri veci. La cucina veneziana_, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, pp. 449–450 * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/17/italian-regions-battle-over-who-invented-tiramisu-in-long-runnin/ * ^ "The Renaissance
Renaissance
in Venice
Venice
– Art History Basics on the Venetian School – ca 1450–1600". Arthistory.about.com. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ "Venetian art around 1500". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 22 April 2010. * ^ Carl I. Gable, _ Murano
Murano
Magic: Complete Guide to Venetian Glass, its History and Artists_ (Schiffer, 2004). ISBN 978-0-7643-1946-4 . * ^ "The Venice
Venice
Biennale: History of the Venice
Venice
Biennale". Labiennale.org. Retrieved 28 March 2009. * ^ "The Venice
Venice
Biennale: History From the beginnings until the Second World War (1893–1945)". Labiennale.org. Retrieved 28 March 2009. * ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Twin Towns & Sister Cities". _ Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality Official Website_. © 2005–2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 4 November 2013. * ^ http://archive.comune.venezia.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/EN/IDPagina/55952 * ^ Morgan, Glennisha (30 January 2013). " Venice
Venice
To Cut Ties With St. Petersburg Over Anti-Gay Law". _The Huffington Post_. Retrieved 17 October 2013. Venice_Russia

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Venice
Venice
Academic

* Bosio, Luciano. _Le origini di Venezia_. Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. * Brown, Horatio , _Venice_, chapter 8 of _Cambridge Modern History _ vol. I _The Renaissance_ (1902) * Brown, Horatio, _Calendar of State Papers (Venetian): 1581–1591_, 1895; _1592–1603_, 1897; _1603–1607_, 1900; _1607–1610_, 1904; _1610–1613_, 1905 * Brown, Horatio, _Studies in the history of Venice_ (London, 1907) * Chambers, D.S. (1970). _The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380–1580._ London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still completely reliable. * Contarini, Gasparo (1599). _The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice._ Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes." The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during the time of its blossoming. Also available in various reprint editions. * Da Canal, Martin, "Les estoires de Venise" (13th-century chronicle), translated by Laura Morreale. Padua, Unipress 2009. * Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). " Venice
Venice
Misappropriated." _Trames_ 6(2), pp. 192–201. A scathing review of Martin also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice. * Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001). * Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of Venetian Historiography." _Journal of Modern History_ 58, pp. 43–94. The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice. * Lane, Frederic Chapin. _Venice: Maritime Republic_ (1973) (ISBN 978-0-8018-1445-7 ) standard scholarly history; emphasis on economic, political and diplomatic history * Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance
Renaissance
Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of Renaissance
Renaissance
nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the life of women more generally. * Madden, Thomas F. _ Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice_ Johns Hopkins University Press. Probably the best book in English on medieval Venice. * Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). _Venice Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297–1797._ (2002) Johns Hopkins University Press . The most recent collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice. * Muir, Edward (1981). _Civic Ritual in Renaissance
Renaissance
Venice._ Princeton UP. The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated. * Oppenheimer, Gerald J. (2010). _Venetian_ Palazzi _and_ Case: _A Guide to the Literature._ University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/gerryo/venice.html 7 February 2010. * Rösch, Gerhard (2000). _Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik._ Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief history of Venice. * Miller, Judith (2005). _Furniture: world styles from classical to contemporary_. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-1340-2 .

Popular

* Ackroyd, Peter . _Venice: Pure City_. London, Chatto revised ed. 1894; further eds. 1900, 1904, 1909. * Cole, Toby. _Venice: A Portable Reader_, Lawrence Hill, 1979. ISBN 978-0-88208-097-0 (hardcover); ISBN 978-0-88208-107-6 (softcover). * Madden, Thomas , _Venice: A New History_. New York: Viking, 2012. ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8 . A fascinating and approachable history by a distinguished historian. * Morris, Jan (1993), _Venice_. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-16897-2 . A subjective and passionate written introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated. * Ruskin, John (1853) . _The Stones of Venice
Venice
_. Abridged edition Links, JG (Ed), Penguin Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-14-139065-9 . Seminal work on architecture and society * di Robilant, Andrea (2004). _A Venetian Affair_. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-1-84115-542-5 Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover, from correspondence in the 1750s. * Sethre, Janet. _The Souls of Venice_ McFarland padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutVENICEat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* Official Site of the City of Venice * Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia (Italian/English)

* v * t * e

Islands of the Venetian Lagoon

NORTHERN LAGOON

* Buel del Lovo * Burano
Burano
* Crevan * Cason Montiron * Isola dei Laghi * La Certosa * La Cura * Madonna del Monte * Mazzorbo * Mazzorbetto * Monte dell\'Oro * Motta dei Cunicci * Motta di San Lorenzo * Murano
Murano
* Salina * San Francesco del Deserto * San Giàcomo in Paludo * San Michele * Lazzaretto Nuovo * Santa Cristina * Sant\'Andrea * Sant\'Ariano * Sant\'Erasmo * Torcello
Torcello
* Vignole

CENTRAL GROUP

* Giudecca * Sacca Fisola * San Giorgio Maggiore * San Pietro di Castello * San Secondo * Sant\'Elena * Tronchetto * Venice

SOUTHERN LAGOON

* Lazzaretto Vecchio * Lido di Venezia * Pellestrina * Poveglia * Sacca Sessola * San Clemente * San Giorgio in Alga * San Lazzaro degli Armeni * San Marco
San Marco
in Boccalama * San Servolo * Sant\'Angelo della Polvere * Santa Maria della Grazia * Sottomarina

* v * t * e

Comuni _ of the Metropolitan City of Venice

* Annone Veneto
Veneto
* Campagna Lupia * Campolongo Maggiore * Camponogara * Caorle * Cavallino-Treporti * Cavarzere * Ceggia
Ceggia
* Chioggia
Chioggia
* Cinto Caomaggiore * Cona * Concordia Sagittaria * Dolo
Dolo
* Eraclea * Fiesso d\'Artico * Fossalta di Piave * Fossalta di Portogruaro * Fossò * Gruaro * Jesolo * Marcon * Martellago * Meolo * Mira * Mirano * Musile di Piave * Noale * Noventa di Piave * Pianiga * Portogruaro * Pramaggiore * Quarto d\'Altino * Salzano * San Donà di Piave * San Michele al Tagliamento * San Stino di Livenza * Santa Maria di Sala * Scorzè * Spinea * Stra * Teglio Veneto
Veneto
* Torre di Mosto * Venice * Vigonovo

* v * t * e

Regional capitals of Italy
Italy

L\'Aquila , ABRUZZO Aosta
Aosta
, AOSTA VALLEY Bari
Bari
, APULIA Potenza , BASILICATA

Catanzaro , CALABRIA Naples
Naples
, CAMPANIA Bologna
Bologna
, EMILIA-ROMAGNA Trieste
Trieste
, FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA

Rome
Rome
, LAZIO Genoa
Genoa
, LIGURIA Milan
Milan
, LOMBARDY Ancona , MARCHE

Campobasso
Campobasso
, MOLISE Turin
Turin
, PIEDMONT Cagliari
Cagliari
, SARDINIA Palermo
Palermo
, SICILY

Trento
Trento
, TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE/SüDTIROL Florence
Florence
, TUSCANY Perugia
Perugia
, UMBRIA Venice, VENETO

* v * t * e

World Heritage Sites in Italy
Italy

NORTHWEST

* Crespi d\'Adda * Genoa
Genoa
* Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta * Monte San Giorgio 1

* Porto Venere , Palmaria , Tino and Tinetto , Cinque Terre

* Corniglia * Manarola * Monterosso al Mare * Riomaggiore * Vernazza

* Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

* Castle of Moncalieri * Castle of Racconigi * Castle of Rivoli * Castello del Valentino * Royal Palace of Turin
Turin
* Palazzo Carignano
Palazzo Carignano
* Palazzo Madama, Turin
Turin
* Palace of Venaria * Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi * Villa della Regina

* Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 * Rock Drawings in Valcamonica * _Sacri Monti_ of Piedmont and Lombardy
Lombardy
* Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Milan
* Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont : Langhe - Roero and Monferrato

NORTHEAST

* Aquileia * The Dolomites
Dolomites
* Ferrara * Modena Cathedral , Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Modena
* Orto botanico di Padova * Ravenna
Ravenna
* Venice * Verona
Verona
* City of Vicenza
Vicenza
and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Veneto

CENTRAL

* Assisi
Assisi
* Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Assisi
* Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia * Florence
Florence
* Hadrian\'s Villa * Medici villas * Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Pisa
* Pienza * Rome
Rome
2 * San Gimignano
San Gimignano
* Siena
Siena
* Urbino
Urbino
* Val d\'Orcia * Villa d\'Este

SOUTH

* Alberobello * Amalfi Coast * Castel del Monte, Apulia * Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano National Park , Paestum and Velia
Velia
, Certosa di Padula * Herculaneum * Oplontis and Villa Poppaea * Naples
Naples
* Palace of Caserta , Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and San Leucio Complex * Pompeii
Pompeii
* Sassi of Matera

ISLANDS

* Aeolian Islands * Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale * Archaeological Area of Agrigento * Barumini nuraghes * Mount Etna * Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica

* Val di Noto

* Caltagirone
Caltagirone
* Catania
Catania
* Militello in Val di Catania
Catania
* Modica * Noto * Palazzolo Acreide * Ragusa * Scicli

* Villa Romana del Casale

COUNTRYWIDE

* Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

* Brescia
Brescia
* Cividale del Friuli
Cividale del Friuli
* Castelseprio * Spoleto
Spoleto
* Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Campello sul Clitunno
* Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Benevento
* Sanctuary of Monte Sant\'Angelo located at Monte Sant\'Angelo

* Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps
Alps
3 * Primeval Beech Forests of Europe 4

* Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries 5

* Bergamo * Palmanova * Peschiera del Garda

* 1 Shared with Switzerland
Switzerland
* 2 Shared with the Holy See
Holy See
* 3 Shared with Austria
Austria
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, and Switzerland
Switzerland
* 4 Shared with Albania
Albania
, Austria
Austria
, Belgium
Belgium
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Croatia
Croatia
, Germany
Germany
, Poland
Poland
, Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine
Ukraine
* 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro
Montenegro

* v * t * e

Maritime republics

* Amalfi * Ancona * Gaeta * Genoa
Genoa
* Noli * Pisa
Pisa
* Ragusa * Venice
Venice

* v * t * e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

* Rome
Rome
* Milan
Milan

500,000+

* Naples
Naples
* Turin
Turin
* Palermo
Palermo
* Genoa
Genoa

200,000+

* Bari
Bari
* Bologna
Bologna
* Catania
Catania
* Florence
Florence
* Messina
Messina
* Padua * Trieste
Trieste
* Venice * Verona
Verona

100,000+

* Ancona * Andria * Arezzo
Arezzo
* Bergamo * Bolzano
Bolzano
* Brescia
Brescia
* Cagliari
Cagliari
* Ferrara * Foggia * Forlì * Giugliano * Latina * Livorno
Livorno
* Modena
Modena
* Monza
Monza
* Novara * Parma
Parma
* Perugia
Perugia
* Pescara * Piacenza * Prato
Prato
* Ravenna
Ravenna
* Reggio Calabria
Calabria
* Reggio Emilia * Rimini * Salerno
Salerno
* Sassari * Syracuse * Taranto
Taranto
* Terni * Trento
Trento
* Udine
Udine
* Vicenza
Vicenza

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 141323348 * LCCN : n79018142 * GND : 4062501-1 * BNF : cb11933474v (data) * HDS : 6646 * NDL : 00629183

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Venice
Venice
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Help:IPA/English /wiki/Help:Pronunciation_respelling_key /wiki/Italian_language /wiki/Help:IPA/Italian /wiki/File:It-Venezia.ogg //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/