VENICE (/ˈvɛnɪs/ _VEN-iss_ ; Italian : _Venezia_, (_ listen );
Venetian : Venesia_, ) is a city in northeastern
Italy and the
capital of the
Veneto region . It is situated across a group of 118
small islands that are separated by canals and linked by bridges.
(The city has 400 bridges.) The islands are located in the shallow
Venetian Lagoon , an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the
Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of
Venice are renowned for the beauty
of their settings, their architecture , and artwork. The lagoon and a
part of the city are listed as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
In 2014, 264,579 people resided in _
Comune di Venezia_, of whom
around 55,000 live in the historic city of
Venice (_Centro storico_).
Treviso , the city is included in the
Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), with a total
population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a statistical metropolitan area
without any degree of autonomy.
The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the
region by the 10th century BC. The city was historically the capital
Republic of Venice .
Venice has been known as the "La
Dominante," "Serenissima," "Queen of the Adriatic ," "City of Water,"
"City of Masks," "City of Bridges," "The Floating City," and "City of
Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power
Middle Ages and
Renaissance , and a staging area for the
Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto , as well as a very important
center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice ) and art in the
13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The City State of
Venice is considered to have been the first real international
financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its
peak in the 14th century. This made
Venice a wealthy city throughout
most of its history.
It is also known for its several important artistic movements,
Renaissance period . After the
Napoleonic Wars and the
Congress of Vienna , the Republic was annexed by the
Austrian Empire ,
until it became part of the Kingdom of
Italy in 1866, following a
referendum held as a result of the
Third Italian War of Independence
Third Italian War of Independence .
Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and
operatic music, and it is the birthplace of
Antonio Vivaldi . Venice
has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016. The
city is facing some major challenges however, including financial
difficulties, erosion, subsidence and an excessive number of tourists
in peak periods.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Origins
* 2.2 Expansion
* 2.3 Decline
* 2.4 Modern age
* 2.5.1 Foundations
* 2.5.2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Sestieri
* 3.2 Climate
* 4 Government
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Tourism
* 6 Transportation
* 6.1 In the historic centre
* 6.1.1 Waterways
* 6.2 Public transport
* 6.2.1 Lagoon area
* 6.2.2 Lido and
* 6.2.3 Mainland
* 6.3 Trains
* 6.4 Airports
* 7 Sport
* 8 Education
* 9 Demographics
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Cinema, media, and popular culture
* 10.1.1 In films
* 10.1.2 In games
* 10.1.3 In literature and adapted works
* 10.1.4 In music
* 10.3 Music
* 10.4 Photography
* 10.5 Interior design
* 10.6 Fashion and shopping
* 10.7 Cuisine
* 10.8 Literature
* 10.9 Art and printing
* 10.10 Glass
* 10.11 Festivals
* 10.12 Foreign words of Venetian origin
* 11 Notable people
* 12 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
* 12.2 Cooperation agreements
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 14.1 Notes
* 14.2 Bibliography
* 15 External links
The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms _Venetia_ and
_Venetiae_, is most likely taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman
name of _Regio X _ of Roman
Italy , but applied to the coastal part of
the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic,
Lombard, and Frankish control. The name _Venetia_, however, derives
from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti , and called by
the Greeks _Eneti_ (Ἐνετοί). The meaning of the word is
uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with
similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti , Baltic Veneti ,
and the Slavic
Wends . Linguists suggest that the name is based on an
Indo-European root *_wen_ ("love"), so that *_wenetoi_ would mean
"beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word
_venetus_, meaning the color 'sea-blue', is also possible. Supposed
connections of _Venetia_ with the Latin verb _venire_ (to come), such
as Marin Sanudo 's _veni etiam_ ("Yet, I have come!"), the supposed
cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or
even with _venia_ ("forgiveness") are fanciful . The alternative
obsolete form is _Vinegia_ ; (Venetian : _Venèxia_ ; Latin :
_Venetiae_; Slovene : _Benetke_).
See also: History of the
Republic of Venice and
Timeline of Venice
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
History of Venice _. (Discuss ) _(May 2017)_
Western Roman Empire 421–476
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Eastern Roman Empire 553–584
Exarchate of Ravenna 584–697
Republic of Venice 697–1797
Habsburg Monarchy 1797–1805
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1815–1866
Republic of San Marco 1848–1849
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1849–1866
Italian Republic 1946–present
Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the
founding of Venice, tradition and the available evidence have led
several historians to agree that the original population of Venice
consisted of refugees from Roman cities near
Venice such as
Treviso , Altino and Concordia (modern
Portogruaro ) and
from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of
Germanic and Hun invasions. Some late Roman sources reveal the
existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons.
They were referred to as _incolae lacunae_ ("lagoon dwellers"). The
traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first
church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of
Rialto (Rivoalto, "High
Shore") — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March
Feast of the Annunciation ).
Beginning as early as AD 166 to 168, the
Quadi and Marcomanni
destroyed the main center in the area, the current
Oderzo . The Roman
defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the
Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the
Huns led by
Attila . The
last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian
peninsula, that of the
Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire
a small strip of coast in the current Veneto, including Venice. The
Byzantine territory was organized as the
Exarchate of Ravenna ,
administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy (the
Exarch ) appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople, but
Venice were connected only by sea routes; and with the Venetians'
isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built,
including those at
Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The
_tribuni maiores_, the earliest central standing governing committee
of the islands in the Lagoon, dated from c. 568.
The traditional first doge of
Paolo Lucio Anafesto , was
Exarch Paul , and his successor,
Marcello Tegalliano , was
Paul's _magister militum _ (General: literally, "Master of Soldiers").
In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion
over the iconoclastic controversy at the urging of
Pope Gregory II
Pope Gregory II .
Exarch was murdered and many officials put to flight in the chaos.
At about this time, the people of the lagoon elected their own leader
for the first time, although the relationship of this to the uprisings
is not clear. Ursus was the first of 117 "doges " (_doge_ is the
Venetian dialect development of the Latin _dux _ ("leader"); the
corresponding word in English is _duke _, in standard Italian _duce
_.) Whatever his original views, Ursus supported Emperor Leo III 's
successful military expedition to recover Ravenna, sending both men
and ships. In recognition of this,
Venice was "granted numerous
privileges and concessions" and Ursus, who had personally taken the
field, was confirmed by Leo as _dux _ and given the added title of
_hypatus _ (Greek for "
In 751 the Lombard King
Aistulf conquered most of the Exarchate of
Venice a lonely and increasingly autonomous Byzantine
outpost. During this period, the seat of the local
(the "duke/dux", later "doge"), was situated in
Malamocco . Settlement
on the islands in the lagoon probably increased with the Lombard
conquest of other
Byzantine territories, as refugees sought asylum
there. In 775/6 the episcopal seat of Olivolo (San Pietro di Castello
; Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke Agnello Particiaco
(811–827) the ducal seat moved from
Malamocco to the highly
protected Rialto, the current location of Venice. The monastery of St
Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St. Mark , as well
as a walled defense (_civitatis murus_) between Olivolo and Rialto,
were subsequently built here.
Charlemagne sought to subdue the city to his own rule. He ordered the
Pope to expel the Venetians from the
Pentapolis along the Adriatic
coast, and Charlemagne's own son Pepin of
Italy , king of the
Lombards under the authority of his father, embarked on a siege of
Venice itself. This, however, proved a costly failure. The siege
lasted six months, with Pepin's army ravaged by the diseases of the
local swamps and eventually forced to withdraw (810). A few months
later, Pepin himself died, apparently as a result of a disease
contracted there. In the aftermath, an agreement between Charlemagne
Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus in 814 recognized
Byzantine territory and granted the city trading rights along the
In 828 the new city's prestige increased with the acquisition of the
claimed relics of St
Mark the Evangelist from
Alexandria , which were
placed in the new basilica. (Winged lions, visible throughout Venice,
symbolise St Mark.) The patriarchal seat also moved to Rialto. As the
community continued to develop and as
Byzantine power waned, its
autonomy grew, leading to eventual independence.
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St Mark\'s Campanile and
Basilica in the background. These
Horses of Saint Mark
Horses of Saint Mark are a
replica of the Triumphal Quadriga_ captured in
Constantinople in 1204
and carried to
Venice as a trophy.
From the 9th to the 12th century,
Venice developed into a city state
(an Italian thalassocracy or _Repubblica Marinara _: the other three
of these were
Pisa , and
Amalfi ). Its strategic position at
the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power
almost invulnerable. With the elimination of pirates along the
Dalmatian coast , the city became a flourishing trade center between
Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the Byzantine
Asia ) with a naval power protecting sea routes from
Republic of Venice seized a number of places on the eastern
shores of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons,
because pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already
carried the titles of
Istria . Later
mainland possessions, which extended across
Lake Garda as far west as
Adda River , were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired
partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee
Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland
wheat, on which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial
empire, the Republic dominated the trade in salt, acquired control of
most of the islands in the Aegean , including
Crete , and
became a major power-broker in the
Near East . By the standards of the
time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively
enlightened and the citizens of such towns as
Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was
threatened by invaders.
Venice remained closely associated with Constantinople, being twice
granted trading privileges in the Eastern Roman Empire, through the
so-called Golden Bulls or "chrysobulls" in return for aiding the
Eastern Empire to resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first
Venice acknowledged its homage to the Empire; but not in
the second, reflecting the decline of
Byzantium and the rise of
Venice became an imperial power following the
Fourth Crusade , which,
having veered off course, culminated in 1204 by capturing and sacking
Constantinople and establishing the
Latin Empire . As a result of this
Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice.
This plunder included the gilt bronze horses from the Hippodrome of
Constantinople , which were originally placed above the entrance to
the cathedral of Venice, St Mark\'s Basilica , although the originals
have been replaced with replicas and are now stored within the
basilica. After the fall of Constantinople, the former Roman Empire
was partitioned among the Latin crusaders and the Venetians. Venice
subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean
known as the
Duchy of the Archipelago , and captured Crete.
The seizure of
Constantinople proved as decisive a factor in ending
Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after
Manzikert . Although the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged
city a half-century later, the
Byzantine Empire was terminally
weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet
The Conqueror took the city in 1453 . View of San Giorgio
Maggiore Island from St. Mark\'s Campanile .
Situated on the Adriatic Sea,
Venice always traded extensively with
Byzantine Empire and the
Muslim world . By the late 13th century,
Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of
its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships,
dominating Mediterranean commerce. Venice's leading families vied with
each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the
greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great
Council , which was made up of members of the noble families of
Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a
Senate of 200 to 300 individuals. Since this group was too large for
efficient administration, a
Council of Ten (also called the Ducal
Council or the Signoria), controlled much of the administration of the
city. One member of the great council was elected "Doge ", or duke,
the chief executive, who usually held the title until his death;
although several Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical
peers to resign and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt
to have been discredited by political failure.
The Venetian government structure was similar in some ways to the
republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected chief executive
(the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens
with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or
withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various
private properties were tied to military service, although there was
no knight tenure within the city itself. The _Cavalieri di
San Marco _
was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no
citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's
Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period,
and politics and the military were kept separate, except when on
occasion the Doge personally headed the military. War was regarded as
a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early
production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and
later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was
preoccupied with commerce). _
Francesco Guardi , The Grand Canal_,
Art Institute of Chicago ). Photograph of Guardi's
Venice at the Frick Art Reference Library.
Although the people of
Venice generally remained orthodox Roman
Catholics, the state of
Venice was notable for its freedom from
religious fanaticism and executed nobody for religious heresy during
Counter-Reformation . This apparent lack of zeal contributed to
Venice's frequent conflicts with the
Papacy . In this context, the
writings of the Anglican divine
William Bedell are particularly
Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of
occasions, and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most noted,
occasion was in 1606, by order of
Pope Paul V .
Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the
politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating
information to modern historians.
The newly invented German printing press spread rapidly throughout
Europe in the 15th century, and
Venice was quick to adopt it. By 1482,
Venice was the printing capital of the world, and the leading printer
Aldus Manutius , who invented paperback books that could be
carried in a saddlebag. His _Aldine Editions_ included translations of
nearly all the known Greek manuscripts of the era.
The Grand Canal in Venice.
Venice's long decline started in the 15th century, when it first made
an unsuccessful attempt to hold
Thessalonica against the Ottomans
(1423–1430). It also sent ships to help defend Constantinople
against the besieging Turks (1453). After
Constantinople fell to
Sultan Mehmet II , he declared war on Venice. The war lasted thirty
years and cost
Venice much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions.
Next, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. Then
Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the
Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage of 1497–99, destroying
Venice's land route monopoly. France, England and the Dutch Republic
followed. Venice's oared galleys were at a disadvantage when it came
to traversing the great oceans, and therefore
Venice was left behind
in the race for colonies.
Black Death devastated
Venice in 1348 and once again between 1575
and 1577. In three years, the plague killed some 50,000 people. In
Italian plague of 1629–31 killed a third of Venice's
Venice began to lose its position as a center of
international trade during the later part of the
Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with the
East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth; while
Spain fought for hegemony over
Italy in the
Italian Wars ,
marginalising its political influence. However, the Venetian empire
was a major exporter of agricultural products, and until the mid-18th
century, a significant manufacturing center.
1870s panoramic view of Venice.
During the 18th century,
Venice became perhaps the most elegant and
refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture and
literature. But the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon
Venice on 12 May 1797 during the War of the First
Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the
city's Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived
with fewer restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto
and ended the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and
travel in the city.
Venice became Austrian territory when
Napoleon signed the Treaty of
Campo Formio on 12 October 1797. The Austrians took control of the
city on 18 January 1798. But
Venice was taken from
Austria by the
Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of
Italy ; however it was returned to
Austria following Napoleon's defeat
in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of
Lombardy-Venetia . In 1848–9, a revolt briefly re-established the
Venetian Republic under
Daniele Manin . In 1866, after the Third
Italian War of Independence , Venice, along with the rest of the
Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of
During the Second World War , the historic city was largely free from
attack, the only aggressive effort of note being
Operation Bowler , a
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force precision strike on the German naval
operations in the city in March 1945. The targets were destroyed with
virtually no architectural damage inflicted on the city itself.
However the industrial areas in
Marghera and the railway
lines to Padua,
Trento were repeatedly bombed . On 29
April 1945, New Zealand troops under Freyberg of the Eighth Army
Venice and relieved the city and the mainland, which were
already in partisan hands.
Acqua alta , or high water in
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra .
The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Subsidence , the gradual lowering of the surface of Venice, has led
to the seasonal _
Acqua alta _ when much of the city's surface is
occasionally covered at high tide.
The buildings of
Venice are constructed on closely spaced wooden
piles . Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of
submersion. The foundations rest on plates of Istrian limestone placed
on top of the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these
footings. The piles penetrate a softer layer of sand and mud until
they reach a much harder layer of compressed clay .
Submerged by water, in oxygen-poor conditions, wood does not decay as
rapidly as on the surface.
Most of these piles were made from trunks of alder trees, a wood
noted for its water resistance. The alder came from the westernmost
part of today's
Slovenia (resulting in the barren land of the Kras
region), in two regions of Croatia,
Gorski kotar (resulting
in the barren slopes of
Velebit ) and south of
The city is often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the
Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Six hundred years ago,
Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting
all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing
sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an
ever-deeper lagoon environment.
In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief,
Venice introduced what
could be considered the first example of a 'stamp tax '. When the
revenue fell short of expectations in 1608,
Venice introduced paper
with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted instructions, which was to
be used for 'letters to officials'. At first, this was to be a
temporary tax, but it remained in effect until the fall of the
Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of the tax, Spain
produced similar paper for general taxation purposes, and the practice
spread to other countries.
During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the
periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry,
to subside . It was realised that extraction of water from the aquifer
was the cause. The sinking has slowed markedly since artesian wells
were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by
more frequent low-level floods (called _Acqua alta_, "high water")
that creep to a height of several centimetres over its quays,
regularly following certain tides. In many old houses, the former
staircases used to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former
ground floor uninhabitable.
Studies indicate that the city continues sinking at a relatively slow
rate of 1-2mm per annum; therefore, the state of alert has not been
revoked. In May 2003, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi
MOSE project (_Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico_),
an experimental model for evaluating the performance of hollow
floatable gates; the idea is to fix a series of 78 hollow pontoons to
the sea bed across the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are
predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled
with air, causing them to float and block the incoming water from the
Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is due to be completed by 2018.
The project is not guaranteed to be successful and the cost has been
very high, according to a spokesman for the FAI (similar to a National
Trust). "Mose is a pharaonic project that should have cost €800m
but will cost at least €7bn . If the barriers are closed at only
90cm of high water, most of St Mark’s will be flooded anyway; but if
closed at very high levels only, then people will wonder at the logic
of spending such sums on something that didn’t solve the problem.
And pressure will come from the cruise ships to keep the gates open."
Approximately €2 billion of the cost has been lost to corruption.
Sestieri of Venice:
Cannaregio; Castello; Dorsoduro; San Marco; San Polo;
Venice viewed from the International Space
The whole _pensolon_ (municipality) is divided into 6 boroughs. One
of these (the historic city) is divided into six areas called
San Polo ,
Dorsoduro (including the islands
Sacca Fisola ), Santa Croce ,
San Marco (including San
Giorgio Maggiore ) and Castello (including
San Pietro di Castello and
Sant\'Elena ). Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his
staff. Now, each _sestiere_ is a statistical and historical area
without any degree of autonomy. The six fingers or phalanges of the
_ferro_ on the bow of a gondola represent the six _sestieri_.
The _sestieri_ are divided into parishes – initially 70 in 1033,
but reduced under
Napoleon and now numbering just 38. These parishes
predate the _sestieri_, which were created in about 1170. Each parish
exhibited unique characteristics but also belonged to an integrated
network. The community chose its own patron saint, staged its own
festivals, congregated around its own market center, constructed its
own bell towers and developed its own customs.
Other islands of the
Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the
_sestieri_, having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of
Each _sestiere_ has its own house numbering system. Each house has a
unique number in the district, from one to several thousand, generally
numbered from one corner of the area to another, but not usually in a
readily understandable manner.
According to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification ,
Venice has a Humid
subtropical climate (_Cfa_), with cool winters and very warm summers.
The 24-hour average in January is 3.3 °C (37.9 °F), and for July
this figure is 23.0 °C (73.4 °F).
Precipitation is spread relatively
evenly throughout the year, and averages 748 millimetres (29.4 in).
CLIMATE DATA FOR VENICE (1971–2000)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961–1990)
Average sea temperature:
9.9 °C (49.8 °F)
8.7 °C (47.7 °F)
9.9 °C (49.8 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
25.4 °C (77.7 °F)
25.4 °C (77.7 °F)
23.6 °C (74.5 °F)
19.3 °C (66.7 °F)
16.0 °C (60.8 °F)
13.2 °C (55.8 °F)
17.2 °C (63.0 °F)
Mayor of Venice
The 6 boroughs of the whole _comune_ of
The whole _comune_ (red) in the
Metropolitan City of Venice
_Ca' Loredan_, Venice's City Hall
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council
(_Consiglio Comunale_), which is composed of 45 councillors elected
every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the
mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (_Giunta
Comunale_), composed of 12 assessors nominated and presided over by a
Venice was governed by center-left parties from the 1990s until the
2010s, when the mayor started to be elected directly. This is
Veneto has long been a conservative stronghold,
with the coalition between the regionalist
Lega Nord and the
center-right Forza Italia winning absolute majorities of the
electorate in many elections at communal, national, and regional
After a corruption scandal that forced the center-left mayor Giorgio
Orsoni to resign,
Venice voted for the first time in June 2015 for a
conservative directly elected mayor: the center-right businessman
Luigi Brugnaro won the election in the second round of voting with the
53% of the votes against the leftist magistrate and member of the
Felice Casson , who led in the first round with 38% of
The municipality of
Venice is subdivided into six administrative
Boroughs (_Municipalità_). Each Borough is governed by a Council
(_Consiglio_) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor.
The urban organization is governed by the Italian Constitution (art.
114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the
Mayor with nonbinding
opinions on a large spectrum of topics (environment, construction,
public health, local markets) and exercise the functions delegated to
them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with
autonomous funding to finance local activities. The Boroughs are:
* Venezia (_historic city_)-
Burano (also known as _Venezia
insulare_); population: 69,136;
* Lido –
Pellestrina (also known as _Venezia litorale_);
_Mainland (terraferma)_, annexed with a Royal Decree, in 1926, to the
municipality of Venezia:
Veneto ; population: 23,615;
Mestre -Carpenedo (also known as _
Mestre centro_); population:
* Chirignago-Zelarino; population: 38;179;
Marghera ; population: 28;466.
After the 2015 elections, five of the six boroughs are governed by
the Democratic Party and its allies, and one by the center-right
Venice\'s economy has changed throughout history. Although there is
little specific information about the earliest years, it is likely
that an important source of the city's prosperity was the trade in
slaves, captured in central Europe and sold to North Africa and the
Levant. Venice's location at the head of the Adriatic, and directly
south of the terminus of the Brenner Pass over the Alps, would have
given it a distinct advantage as a middleman in this important trade.
Middle Ages and the
Venice was a major center for
commerce and trade, as it controlled a vast sea-empire, and became an
extremely wealthy European city, a leader in political and economic
affairs and a centre for trade and commerce. From the 11th century
until the 15th century, pilgrimages to the
Holy Land were offered in
Venice. Other ports such as
Dubrovnik were hardly able to make any competition to the well
organized transportation of pilgrims from Venice. Like Murano,
Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto
This all changed by the 17th century, when Venice's trade empire was
taken over by other countries such as Portugal, and its naval
importance was reduced. In the 18th century, then, it became a major
agricultural and industrial exporter. The 18th century's biggest
industrial complex was the
Venice Arsenal , and the Italian Army still
uses it today (even though some space has been used for major
theatrical and cultural productions, and spaces for art). Since World
War II many Venetians have moved to
employment as well as affordable housing.
Today, Venice's economy is mainly based on tourism, shipbuilding
(mainly done in the neighboring cities of
Mestre and Porto
services, trade and industrial exports.
Murano glass production in
Murano and lace production in
Burano are also highly important to the
The city is facing financial challenges. In late 2016, it had a major
deficit in its budget and debts in excess of €400 million. "In
effect, the place is bankrupt", according to a report by The Guardian
. Many locals are leaving the historic center due to rapidly
increasing rental costs. The declining native population affects the
character of the city as an October 2016 National Geographic article
pointed out in its subtitle: "Residents are abandoning the city, which
is in danger of becoming an overpriced theme park".
In June 2017,
Italy was required to bail out two banks in
prevent bankruptcies of the
Banca Popolare di Vicenza and
. Both companies will be wound down and their assets with value will
be taken over by another Italian bank, Intesa Sanpaolo which received
€5.2 billion as compensation. The Italian government will be
responsible for losses from any uncollectible loans from the now
closed banks. The cost may be as high as €5.2 billion but the
guarantees to cover bad loans total €12 billion.
Piazza San Marco. Doge's Palace.
Venice is an important tourist destination for its celebrated art and
architecture. The city gets up to 60,000 tourists per day (2017
estimate). Estimates as to the annual number of tourists vary from 22
million to 30 million. This creates overcrowding and environmental
problems in its canal ecosystem. By 2017,
UNESCO was considering the
Venice to its "In-Danger" list which includes historical
ruins in war-torn countries. To reduce the number of visitors that are
causing irreversible changes in Venice, the agency supports limiting
the number of cruise ships.
Tourism has been a major sector of Venetian industry since the 18th
century, when it was a major center for the
Grand Tour , with its
beautiful cityscape, uniqueness, and rich musical and artistic
cultural heritage. In the 19th century, it became a fashionable centre
for the "rich and famous", often staying or dining at luxury
establishments such as the Danieli Hotel and the
Caffè Florian . It
continued being a fashionable city in vogue right into the early 20th
century. In the 1980s, the
Carnival of Venice was revived and the
city has become a major centre of international conferences and
festivals, such as the prestigious
Venice Biennale and the
Festival , which attract visitors from all over the world for their
theatrical, cultural, cinematic, artistic, and musical productions.
Today, there are numerous attractions in Venice, such as St Mark\'s
Basilica , the Doge\'s Palace , the Grand Canal , and the Piazza San
Marco . The
Lido di Venezia is also a popular international luxury
destination, attracting thousands of actors, critics, celebrities, and
mainly people in the cinematic industry. The city also relies heavily
on the cruise business. The Cruise
Venice Committee has estimated
that cruise ship passengers spend more than 150 million euros (US $193
million) annually in the city according to a 2015 report. Other
reports, however, point out that such day trippers spend relatively
little in the few hours of their visits to the city. Cruiseship
San Marco Venise
Venice is regarded by some as a tourist trap, and by others as a
"living museum". Unlike most other places in Western Europe, and the
Venice has become widely known for its element of elegant decay
. The competition for foreigners to buy homes in
Venice has made
prices rise so high that numerous inhabitants are forced to move to
more affordable areas of
Veneto and Italy, the most notable being
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft
(including the vaporetti)
The need to balance cruise tourism revenues with the protection of
the city's fragile canals has seen the Italian Transport Ministry
attempt to introduce a ban on large cruise ships visiting the city.
The ban would have allowed only cruise ships smaller than 40,000-gross
tons to enter Venice's
Giudecca Canal and St Mark's basin. In
January, a regional court scrapped the ban, but global cruise lines
indicated that they would continue to respect it until a long-term
solution for the protection of
Venice is found. The city considered a
ban on wheeled suitcases , but settled on banning hard wheels for
cargo from May 2015. P"> Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
In addition to accelerating erosion of the ancient city's foundations
and creating some pollution in the lagoon, cruise ships dropping an
excessive number of day trippers can make St. Marks Square and other
popular attractions too crowded to walk through during the peak
season. Having failed in its bid to ban oversized cruise ships, the
city decided in mid 2017 to ban the creation of any additional hotels;
currently there are over 24,000 hotel rooms. (The ban does not affect
short term rentals in the historic center which is causing an increase
in rent for the native residents of Venice.) The city had already
banned any additional fast food "take-away" outlets to retain the
historic character of the city; this is another reason for freezing
the number of hotel rooms. Less than half the millions of annual
visitors stay overnight, however. Some locals are more aggressively
lobbying for methods that would reduce the number of cruise ship
passengers; their estimate indicates that there are up to 30,000 such
sightseers per day at peak periods.
IN THE HISTORIC CENTRE
_ Aerial view of
Venice including the
Ponte della Libertà _
bridge to the mainland.
Giudecca canal. View from St Mark\'s
Sandolo in a picture of
Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo
Paolo Monti, BEIC . P for some years there were seven such
boats but by 2017, only three remained.
There are approximately 400 licensed gondoliers in
Venice in their
distinctive regalia and a similar number of the boats, down from
10,000 that travelled the canals two centuries ago. Many gondolas
are lushly appointed with crushed velvet seats and Persian rugs. Less
well-known is the smaller sandolo . At the front of each gondola that
works in the city, there is a large piece of metal called the _fèro_
(iron). Its shape has evolved through the centuries, as documented in
many well-known paintings. Its form, topped by a likeness of the
Doge's hat, became gradually standardized, and was then fixed by local
law. It consists of six bars pointing forward representing the
Sestieri of the city, and one that points backward representing the
Venice is a city of small islands, enhanced during the
Middle Ages by
the dredging of soils to raise the marshy ground above the tides. The
resulting canals encouraged the flourishing of a nautical culture
which proved central to the economy of the city. Today those canals
still provide the means for transport of goods and people within the
Gondolas in one of many canals
The maze of canals threaded through the city requires the use of more
than 400 bridges to permit the flow of foot traffic. In 2011, the city
Ponte della Costituzione , the fourth bridge across the Grand
Canal, connecting the
Piazzale Roma bus terminal area with the
Stazione Ferroviaria (train station), the others being the original
Rialto , the Ponte dell\'Accademia , and the Ponte degli
Azienda del Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano (ACTV) is a public company
responsible for public transportation in Venice.
The main public transportation means are motorised waterbuses
(_vaporetti _) which ply regular routes along the Grand Canal and
between the city's islands. The only gondole still in common use by
Venetians are the _traghetti_, foot passenger ferries crossing the
Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. Other gondole target
tourists on an hourly basis. Three of the vaporetto (water bus)
boats carrying passengers
Venice People Mover (managed by ASM) is a cable -operated public
transit system connecting
Tronchetto island with Piazzale Roma. Water
taxis are also active.
Pellestrina are two islands forming a barrier between the
Venetian Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. In those islands, road
traffic is allowed. There are bus services on islands and waterbus
services linking islands with other islands (Venice,
and with the peninsula of
The mainland of
Venice is composed of 5 boroughs:
Marghera , Chirignago-Zelarino and Favaro Veneto.
Mestre is the center
and the most populated urban area of the mainland of Venice. There are
several bus routes and two
Translohr tramway lines . Several bus
routes and one of the above tramway lines link the mainland with
Piazzale Roma _, the main bus station in Venice, via Ponte della
Libertà , a road bridge connecting the mainland with the group of
islands that comprise the historic center of Venice.
Vaporetti provide the primary means of transportation
People Mover in
Venice has regional and national trains, including trains to Rome
(3.5 hours) and
Milan (2.5 hours).
Treviso is 35 minutes away.
Padua are two of the stops between
Rome and Venice. There
are two main stations:
* The St Lucia station is a few steps away from a vaporetti stop in
the historic city next to _Piazzale Roma_. As well as many more local
trains, this station is the terminus of the
Venice Simplon Orient
Express from Paris and London.
Mestre station is on the mainland, on the border between the
Mestre and Marghera.
Both stations are managed by Grandi Stazioni; they are linked by the
_Ponte della Libertà_ (Liberty Bridge) between the mainland and the
Others small stations in the municipality are: Venezia Porto
Marghera, Venezia Carpenedo, Venezia
Mestre Ospedale, Venezia Mestre
Porta Ovest. Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto,
Rafail Sergeevich Levitsky .(1896) The Di Rocco Wieler
Private Collection, Toronto, Canada.
Venice is served by the
Marco Polo International Airport (_Aeroporto
Marco Polo _), named in honor of its noted citizen. The
airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast. Public
transport from the airport takes one to:
Piazzale Roma by ATVO (provincial company) buses and by
ACTV (city company) buses (route 5 _aerobus_);
* Venice, Lido and
Murano by Alilaguna (private company) motor
* Mestre, the mainland and
Mestre railway station (convenient
for connections to
Verona and the rest of
Italy) by ACTV lines (route 15 and 45) and by ATVO lines;
* regional destinations (Treviso, Padua, the beach, ...) by ATVO
buses and by Busitalia Sita Nord buses (national company).
Some airlines market
Treviso Airport in
Treviso , 30 kilometres (19
mi) from Venice, as a
Venice gateway. Some simply advertise flights to
"Venice", while naming the actual airport only in small print. There
are public buses from this airport to Venice.
Venezia-Lido "Giovanni Nicelli", a public airport suitable for
smaller aircraft, is at the NE end of
Lido di Venezia . It has a
994-metre grass runway.
The main football club in the city is
Venezia F.C. , founded in 1907,
which currently plays in the
Serie B . Their ground, the Stadio
Pierluigi Penzo situated in Sant\'Elena , is one of the oldest venues
The local basketball club is Reyer Venezia
Mestre , founded in 1872
as gymnastics club _Società Sportiva Costantino Reyer_, and in 1907
as basketball club. Reyer currently plays in the
Lega Basket Serie A .
The men's team won the Italian Championships in 1942, 1943 and 2017.
Their arena is the
Palasport Giuseppe Taliercio situated in
Luigi Brugnaro is both the president of the club and the mayor of the
Venice is a major international centre for higher education. The city
hosts the Ca\' Foscari University of
Venice , founded in 1868; the
IUAV University of
Venice , founded in 1926; the
University , an international research center, founded in 1995 and
located on the island of
San Servolo ; and the EIUC-European
Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation, located
on the island of Lido di Venezia.
Other Venetian institutions of higher education are: the "Accademia
di Belle Arti" (Academy of Fine Arts), established in 1750, whose
first Chairman was
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta ; and the Benedetto
Marcello Conservatory of Music , which, established in 1876 as High
School and Musical Society, later (1915) became "Liceo Musicale" and
finally (1940), when its Director was
Gian Francesco Malipiero , State
Conservatory of Music.
The city was one of the largest in Europe in the High
Middle Ages ,
with a population of 60,000 in AD 1000; 80,000 in 1200; and rising up
to 110,000–180,000 in 1300. In the mid 1500s the city's population
was 170,000, and by 1600 almost 200,000.
In 2009, there were 270,098 people residing in Venice's comune (the
population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of
Comune of Venezia; around 60,000 in the historic city of
Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland); and
31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon), of whom 47.4% were male
and 52.6% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) were
14.36% of the population compared to pensioners who numbered 25.7%.
This compared with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94%
(pensioners). The average age of
Venice residents was 46 compared to
the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007,
the population of
Venice declined by 0.2%, while
Italy as a whole grew
by 3.85%. The population in the historic old city declined much
faster: from about 120,000 in 1980 to about 60,000 in 2009, and to
below 55,000 in 2016.
As of 2009 , 91% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant
group came from other European nations: (
Romanians , the largest
group: 3%, South Asia: 1.3%, and East Asia: 0.9%).
Venice is predominantly Roman Catholic (92.7% of resident population
in the area of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice in 2012 ), but
because of the long-standing relationship with
Constantinople , there
is also a noticeable Orthodox presence, and as a result of
immigration, there are now some Muslim ,
Hindu and Buddhist
inhabitants. There is also a historic Jewish community in Venice. The
Venetian Ghetto was the area in which Jews were compelled to live
under the Venetian Republic. The word _ghetto_, originally Venetian ,
is now used in many languages.
Shakespeare 's play _The Merchant of
Venice _, written in the late 16th century, features
Shylock , a
Venetian Jew. The first complete and uncensored printed edition of the
Talmud was printed in
Daniel Bomberg in 1523. In more modern
Venice has an eruv , used by the Jewish community.
Typical masks worn during the
Carnival of Venice .
CINEMA, MEDIA, AND POPULAR CULTURE
Venice in media
Venice has been the setting or chosen location of numerous films,
games, works of fine art and literature (including essays, fiction,
non-fiction, and poems), music videos, television shows, and other
Examples of films set or at least partially filmed in
* _The Comfort of Strangers _ (1990)
* _The Italian Job _ (2003)
Luchino Visconti 's _
Death in Venice _ (1971)
James Bond films: _From Russia with Love _, _Moonraker _,
and _Casino Royale _ (2006)
* _The Tourist _ (2010)
* _Summertime _ (1955), starring
Woody Allen 's _
Everyone Says I Love You _ (1996)
Nicolas Roeg 's _Don\'t Look Now _
The Wings of the Dove _
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade _
* _The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen _
A Little Romance _
* _Lara Croft: Tomb Raider _
* _The Talented Mr. Ripley _ (1999)
Dangerous Beauty _ (1988), the biography of Veronica Franco, the
16th century beauty
Penguins of Madagascar _
* _Pokémon: Heroes (2005) _
Blame it on the Bellboy _
The city is the setting for parts of such video games as _Assassin\'s
Creed II _ and _
Tomb Raider II
Tomb Raider II _. It has also served as inspiration
for the fictional city of _Altissia _, in _
Final Fantasy XV _. The
city also serves as a setting for
The House of the Dead 2 .
In Literature And Adapted Works
The city is a particularly popular setting for essays, novels, and
other works of fictional or non-fictional literature. Examples of
Casanova 's autobiographical _History of My Life_,
Ben Jonson 's _
Volpone _ (1605–6),
Donna Leon 's Commissario Guido Brunetti crime fiction series and
cookbook, and the German television seriws based on the novels
Anne Rice 's _
Cry to Heaven _ (1982),
Jacqueline Carey 's _Kushiel\'s Chosen _ (historical fantasy or
alternate history ) A large portion of the novel takes place in a city
known as La Serenissima. It is an alternative-history version of
Venice, complete with masquerades, canals and a Doge.
Shakespeare 's _
Merchant of Venice _ (ca. 1596–1598) and
Philippe Sollers ' _
Watteau in Venice _, and
Voltaire 's _
Thomas Mann 's novella, _
Death in Venice _ (1912), was
the basis for Benjamin Britten's eponymous opera .
The city has been the setting for music videos of such songs as
Madonna 's "Like a Virgin " and
Siouxsie and the Banshees ' "Dear
Prudence " .
Venetian Gothic architecture , 8th International
Architecture Exhibition , 9th International
Architecture Exhibition ,
Architecture Exhibition , and 11th International
Architecture Exhibition The
Baroque Ca\' Rezzonico .
Hotel Danieli .
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
Venice has a rich and diverse architectural style , the most
prominent of which is the Gothic style. Venetian Gothic architecture
is a term given to a Venetian building style combining use of the
Gothic lancet arch with
Byzantine and Ottoman influences. The style
originated in 14th-century Venice, where the confluence of Byzantine
Constantinople met Arab influence from
Islamic Spain .
Chief examples of the style are the Doge\'s Palace and the Ca\' d\'Oro
in the city. The city also has several
Renaissance and Baroque
buildings, including the Ca\' Pesaro and the Ca\' Rezzonico .
Music of Venice See also:
Venetian polychoral style ,
Veneto , and
Venetian School (music)
The city of
Italy has played an important role in the
development of the music of
Italy . The Venetian state – i.e., the
Republic of Venice – was often popularly called
the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th
century is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is
playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music everywhere."
During the 16th century,
Venice became one of the most important
musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of
composition (the Venetian school ) and the development of the Venetian
polychoral style under composers such as
Adrian Willaert , who worked
at St Mark\'s Basilica .
Venice was the early center of music
Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as
this technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to
attract composers from all over Europe, especially from
Flanders . By the end of the century,
Venice was known for the
splendor of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of
Giovanni Gabrieli , which used multiple choruses and
Venice was also the home of many noted composers
during the baroque period , such as
Antonio Vivaldi ,
Ippolito Ciera ,
Giovanni Picchi , and
Girolamo Dalla Casa , to name but a few.
Its splendid architecture, artworks, landscapes, gondolas , the
alternance of high and low tides, the reflections of light and colors,
and the unusual daily scenes in a city living on water, make of Venice
and its islands a paradise for photographers both professionals and
Fulvio Roiter has probably been the pioneer in artistic
photography in Venice, followed by a number of authors whose works
are often reproduced on postcards, thus reaching a widest
international popular exposure.
It can be argued that
Venice produced the best and most refined
rococo designs. At the time,
Venice was in trouble. It had lost most
of its maritime power, was lagging behind its rivals in political
importance, and society had become decadent, with nobles wasting their
money in gambling and partying. But
Venice remained Italy's fashion
capital, and was a serious contender to Paris in terms of wealth,
architecture, luxury, taste, sophistication, trade, decoration, style,
and design. Venetian rococo was well known as rich and luxurious,
with usually very extravagant designs. Unique Venetian furniture
pieces included the _divani da portego_, and long rococo couches and
_pozzetti_, objects meant to be placed against the wall. Bedrooms of
rich Venetians were usually sumptuous and grand, with rich damask,
velvet, and silk drapery and curtains, and beautifully carved rococo
beds with statues of putti , flowers and angels.
especially known for its beautiful girandole mirrors , which remained
among, if not the, finest in Europe. Chandeliers were usually very
Murano glass to make them look more vibrant and stand
out from others, and precious stones and materials from abroad were
Venice still held a vast trade empire. Lacquer was very
common, and many items of furniture were covered with it, the most
noted being _lacca povera_ (poor lacquer), in which allegories and
images of social life were painted. Lacquerwork and
particularly common in bureau cabinets.
FASHION AND SHOPPING
Luxury shops and boutiques along the
Rialto Bridge .
In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing
tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the
Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The
Venetian Senate passed sumptuary laws , but these merely resulted in
changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were
worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden
colours resulting in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in
the 15th century.
Venice is a major fashion and shopping centre, not as
Florence , and Rome, but on a par with
Naples , and
Roberta di Camerino is the only
Italian fashion brand to be based in Venice. Founded in 1945,
it is renowned for its innovative handbags featuring hardware by
Venetian artisans and often covered in locally woven velvet, and has
been credited with creating the concept of the easily recognisable
status bag . Many of the fashion boutiques and jewelry shops in the
city are located on or near the
Rialto Bridge and in the Piazza San
Marco . There are
Louis Vuitton and
Ermenegildo Zegna flagship stores
in the city. If shopping for venetian and Italian food specialties and
wine you can head to Mascari or Casa del Parmigiano near
Rialto and I
Tre Mercanti flagship store near
Piazza San Marco .
Venetian cuisine and
Venetian wine Hot chocolate
was a fashionable drink in
Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.
Venetian cuisine is characterized by seafood, but also includes
garden products from the islands of the lagoon, rice from the
mainland, game, and polenta .
Venice is not known for a peculiar
cuisine of its own: it combines local traditions with influences
stemming from age-old contacts with distant countries. These include
_sarde in saór_ (sardines marinated to preserve them for long
voyages); _bacalà mantecato_ (a recipe based on Norwegian stockfish
and extra-virgin olive oil); _bisàto_ (marinated eel); _risi e bisi_,
rice, peas and (not smoked) bacon; _fegato alla veneziana_,
Venetian-style veal liver; _risòto col néro de sépe_ (risotto with
cuttlefish, blackened by their ink); _cichéti_, refined and delicious
tidbits (akin to _tapas_); _antipasti_ (appetizers); and _prosecco _,
an effervescent, mildly sweet wine.
Venice is known for the golden, oval-shaped cookies
called _baicoli _, and for other types of sweets, such as: _pan del
pescatore_ (bread of the fisherman); cookies with almonds and
pistachio nuts; cookies with fried Venetian cream, or the _bussolài_
(butter biscuits and shortbread made in the shape of a ring or of an
"S") from the island of Burano; the _galàni_ or _cróstoli_ (angel
wings ); the _frìtole_ (fried spherical doughnuts); the
_fregolòtta_ (a crumbly cake with almonds); a milk pudding called
_rosada_; and cookies called _zaléti_, whose ingredients include
yellow maize flour.
The dessert tiramisu is generally thought to have been invented in
Treviso in the 1970s, and is popular in the
Venetian literature Portrait of Giacomo Casanova.
Venice has long been a source of inspiration for authors,
playwrights, and poets, and at the forefront of the technological
development of printing and publishing.
Two of the most noted Venetian writers were
Marco Polo in the Middle
Ages and later Giacomo
Casanova . Polo (1254–1324) was a merchant
who voyaged to the Orient . His series of books, co-written by
Pisa and titled _Il Milione _ provided important
knowledge of the lands east of Europe, from the Middle East to China,
Japan, and Russia. Giacomo
Casanova (1725–1798) was a prolific
writer and adventurer best remembered for his autobiography, _Histoire
De Ma Vie_ (_Story of My Life_), which links his colourful lifestyle
to the city of Venice.
Venetian playwrights followed the old Italian theatre tradition of
_Commedia dell\'arte _. Ruzante (1502–1542), Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806) used the Venetian dialect
extensively in their comedies. book printed by Aldus Manutius.
Venice has also inspired writers from abroad.
Othello _ and _
The Merchant of Venice _ in the city, as did Thomas
Mann with his novel, _
Death in Venice _ (1912). The French writer
Philippe Sollers spent most of his life in
Venice and published _A
Dictionary For Lovers Of Venice_ in 2004.
The city features prominently in
Henry James ' _
The Aspern Papers _
The Wings of the Dove _. It is also visited in
Evelyn Waugh 's
Brideshead Revisited _ and
Marcel Proust 's _In Search of Lost Time
_. Perhaps the most known children's book set in
Venice is _The Thief
Lord_, written by the German author
Cornelia Funke .
Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), born in Zante , an island that at
the time belonged to the Republic of Venice, was also a revolutionary
who wanted to see a free republic established in
Venice following its
Venice also inspired the poetry of
Ezra Pound , who wrote his first
literary work in the city. Pound died in 1972, and his remains are
buried in Venice's cemetery island of San Michele .
Venice is also linked to the technological aspects of writing. The
city was the location of one of Italy's earliest printing presses,
Aldus Manutius (1449–1515). From this beginning
Venice developed as an important typographic center and even as late
as the 18th century was responsible for printing half of Italy's
ART AND PRINTING
List of painters and architects of Venice See also:
Venetian School (art) _ From the Gondola_ by John Singer Sargent
. An 18th-century view of
Venice by Venetian artist
Venice, especially during the
Middle Ages and the
Baroque periods, was a major centre of art and developed a unique
style known as the Venetian School . In the
Middle Ages and the
Renaissance, Venice, along with
Florence and Rome, became one of the
most important centres of art in Europe, and numerous wealthy
Venetians became patrons of the arts.
Venice at the time was a rich
and prosperous Maritime Republic , which controlled a vast sea and
By the end of the 15th century,
Venice had become the European
capital of printing, being one of the first cities in
Subiaco and Rome) to have a printing press after those established in
Germany, having 417 printers by 1500. The most important printing
office was the
Aldine Press of
Aldus Manutius , which in 1499 printed
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili _, considered the most beautiful book
Renaissance , and established modern punctuation , the page
format and italic type , and the first printed work of
In the 16th century, Venetian painting was developed through
influences from the Paduan School and
Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina , who
introduced the oil painting technique of the
Van Eyck brothers. It is
signified by a warm colour scale and a picturesque use of colour.
Early masters were the Bellini and Vivarini families, followed by
Titian , then
Tintoretto and Veronese . In the early
16th century, there was rivalry in Venetian painting between the
_disegno_ and _colorito_ techniques.
Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in
the early Renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough.
In the 18th century, Venetian painting had a revival with Tiepolo 's
decorative painting and
Canaletto 's and
Guardi 's panoramic views.
Venetian glass and
Murano glass A Venetian glass
Venice is known for its ornate glass-work, known as
Venetian glass .
It is world-renowned for being colourful, elaborate, and skilfully
Many of the important characteristics of these objects had been
developed by the 13th century. Toward the end of that century, the
center of the
Venetian glass industry moved to
Murano , an offshore
island in Venice. The glass made there is known as
Murano glass .
Byzantine craftsmen played an important role in the development of
Venetian glass, an art form for which the city is well known. When
Constantinople was sacked in the
Fourth Crusade in 1204, some fleeing
artisans came to Venice. This happened again when the
Constantinople in 1453, supplying
Venice with still more glassworkers.
By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control
over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a
variety of decorative techniques.
Murano glass chandelier Ca\'
Despite efforts to keep Venetian glassmaking techniques within
Venice, they became known elsewhere, and Venetian-style glassware was
produced in other Italian cities and other countries of Europe.
Some of the most important brands of glass in the world today are
still produced in the historical glass factories on Murano. They are:
Venini, Barovier & Toso, Pauly , Millevetri, Seguso. Barovier ">
Masks at Carnival of Venice.
Carnival of Venice is held annually in the city, It lasts for
around two weeks and ends on
Shrove Tuesday . Venetian masks are worn.
Venice Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts
calendar. In 1895 an _Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale_
(biennial exhibition of Italian art) was inaugurated. The activities
of the Biennale were interrupted by the war in September 1942, but
resumed in 1948.
Festa del Redentore is held in mid July. It began as a feast to
give thanks for the end of the plague of 1576. A bridge of barges is
Giudecca to the rest of Venice, and fireworks play an
Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival (Italian _Mostra Internazionale d'Arte
Cinematografica di Venezia_) is the oldest film festival in the world.
Founded by Count
Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata in 1932 as the
_Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica_, the festival has
since taken place every year in late August or early September on the
island of the Lido . Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del
Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. It is one of the world's most
prestigious film festivals and is part of the
FOREIGN WORDS OF VENETIAN ORIGIN
Some words with a Venetian etymology include arsenal, ciao, ghetto,
gondola, imbroglio, lagoon, lazaret, lido, Montenegro, and regatta.
The name "Venezuela" is a Spanish diminutive of Venice. Many
additional places around the world are named after Venice, e.g.,
Venice, Los Angeles , home of
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_For people from Venice, see Category:People from
Venice ._ Others
closely associated with the city include:
Pietro Cesare Alberti
Pietro Cesare Alberti (1608–1655), considered the first
Italian-American, arriving in New Amsterdam in 1635.
Tomaso Albinoni (8 June 1671 – 17 January 1751), a baroque
Claudio Ambrosini (9 April 1948), composer and conductor.
Pietro Bembo (20 May 1470 – 18 January 1547), cardinal and
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516),
Renaissance painter, probably
the best known of the Bellini family of painters.
Francesco Borgato (5 September 1990, Venice), Italian recording
artist and dancer.
Marco Antonio Bragadin (d.1571), general, flayed alive by the
Turks after a fierce resistance during the siege of
* Sebastian Cabot (c. 1484–1557, or soon after), explorer .
Rosalba Carriera (7 October 1675 – 15 April 1757), known for her
Canaletto (28 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), known for his
landscapes or _vedute _ of Venice, but not only.
Casanova (1725–1798 in
Bohemia , (now
Czech Republic)), a Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer .
Francesco Cavalli (14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676), a
Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749–1838), opera librettist and poet, wrote
the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart .
Enrico Dandolo (_c_. 1107, 1205),
Doge of Venice from 1192 to his
death, played a direct role in the Sack of
Constantinople during the
Fourth Crusade .
Vincenzo Dandolo (1758–1819), chemist, agronomist and politician
Enlightenment Era .
Ludovico de Luigi (November 1933), Venetian Surrealistic artist.
Pellegrino Ernetti , Catholic priest and exorcist.
Dominic DeNucci , (1932–) Professional wrestler
Veronica Franco (1546–1591), poet and courtesan during the
Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1510–1586), Italian composer and organist at
St Mark's Basilica.
Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/1557–1612), composer and organist at St
Carlo Goldoni (25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793). Along with
Pirandello , Goldoni is probably the most notable name in Italian
theatre, in his country and abroad.
Carlo Gozzi (13 December 1720 – 4 April 1806), excellent
dramatist of the 18th century.
Pietro Guarneri (14 April 1695 – 7 April 1762), left Cremona in
1718, settled in Venice. "Peter of Venice" from the family of great
Baldassare Longhena (1598–18 February 1682), one of the greatest
Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480–Loreto, 1556), painter, draughtsman, and
illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school .
Bruno Maderna (21 April 1920 – 13 November 1973), an
Italian-German orchestra director and 20th-century music composer.
Diogo Mainardi (22 September 1962, São Paulo), Brazilian writer,
journalist and TV commentator.
Aldus Manutius (1449–1515), one of the most important printers
Leon Modena (1571–1648) preacher, author, poet, active in the
Venetian ghetto and beyond.
Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer, opera pioneer, and
director of music at
San Marco .
* Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990), a leading composer of
instrumental and electronic music.
* Joseph Pardo (c. 1561–1619), rabbi and merchant.
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684),
the first woman in the world to receive a doctorate degree.
Marco Polo (c. 1254–8 January 1324), trader and explorer , one
of the first Westerners to travel the
Silk Road to China. While a
prisoner in Genoa, he dictated in the tale of his travels known as _Il
Milione_ (_The Travels of
Marco Polo _).
Virgilio Ranzato (7 May 1883 – 20 April 1937), composer.
Frederick Rolfe (22 July 1860 – 25 October 1913), English author
of the Venetian novel _The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole_.
Carlo Scarpa (2 June 1906 – 1978, Sendai, Japan ), an architect
with a profound understanding of materials.
Romano Scarpa (27 September 1927, Venice–23 April 2005,
Málaga), was one of the most noted Italian creators of Disney comics.
Giuseppe Sinopoli (2 November 1946 – 20 April 2001), conductor
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (5 March 1696 – 27 March 1770), the
last "Grand Manner" fresco painter from the Venetian Republic.
Tintoretto (1518–31 May 1594), probably the last great painter
of Italian Renaissance.
Titian (_c_. 1488–90–27 August 1576), leader of the
16th-century Venetian school of the Italian
Renaissance (he was born
in Pieve di
Elisabetta Caminèr Turra (1751–1796), writer.
Emilio Vedova (9 August 1919 – 25 October 2006), one of the most
important modern painters of Italy.
Sebastiano Venier , (c. 1496–3 March 1578),
Doge of Venice from
11 June 1577 to 1578.
Antonio Vivaldi (4 March 1678–28 July (or 27), 1741,
composer and violinist of the
The City of
Venice and the Central Association of Cities and
Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in
pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic
Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.)
Marco Polo System to promote and realise
European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field,
particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage
preservation and safeguard.
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
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help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
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how and when to remove this template message )_
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Venice is twinned with:
Suzhou , China, since 1980
Sarajevo , Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1994
Yerevan , Armenia, since 2011
Tallinn , Estonia
* Fort Lauderdale , United States, since 2007
Dubrovnik , Croatia, since 2012
Venice ended the sister city relationship with St.
Petersburg in opposition to laws Russia had passed against homosexuals
and those who support gay rights.
Venice has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki
, the German city of
Nuremberg , signed on 25 September 1999, and the
Turkish city of
Istanbul , signed on 4 March 1993, within the
framework of the 1991
Istanbul Declaration. It is also a Science and
Technology Partnership City with
Qingdao , China.
* _ Geography portal
* Europe portal
* European Union portal
History of the Jews in Venice
List of buildings and structures in Venice
List of painters and architects of Venice
List of places called Venice of the East
* Outline of
Republic of Venice
Su e zo per i ponti _
* Veneti and
Venetic language (the ancient spoken language of the
* Venetian Blinds
Venetian language (the modern spoken vernacular of the region)
Mestre Rugby FC – rugby team
Venice of the North
* ^ _A_ _B_ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/394
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "
Venice and its Lagoon". _UNESCO_. Retrieved April
* ^ "Patreve, l\'attuale governance non funziona" (PDF). Corriere
Della Sera. March 6, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
* ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 11 June 2010.
* ^ Richard Stephen Charnock (1859). _Local etymology: a derivative
dictionary of geographical names_. Houlston and Wright. p. 288.
* ^ Coispeau, Olivier (2016-08-10). _Finance Masters: A Brief
History of International Financial Centers in the Last Millennium_.
World Scientific. ISBN 9789813108844 .
* ^ "Venetian Music of the Renaissance". Vanderbilt.edu. 11 October
1998. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 22 April
* ^ Chambers, David (1992). _Venice: A Documentary History_.
England: Oxford. p. 78. ISBN 0-8020-8424-9 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_
* ^ "Dizionario d\'ortografia e di pronunzia". _rai.it_.
* ^ "Imperciocchè nascendi i principati", begins
Apostolo Zeno ,
_Compendio della storia Veneta di
Apostolo Zeno continuata fino alla
caduta della repubblica_ 1847:9.
* ^ Bosio, _Le origini di Venezia_
* ^ Zeno, _Compendio_ 1847:10.
* ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1 January 1996).
_International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe_. Taylor
& Francis. p. 745. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2 . Retrieved 24 March 2011.
* ^ Traditional date as given in William J. Langer, ed. _An
Encyclopedia of World History_.
John Julius Norwich , _A History of Venice_ (
Alfred A. Knopf :
New York, 1982) p. 13.
* ^ Alethea Wiel, _A History of Venice,_ (London) 1898, reprinted
Barnes & Noble Books (New York) 1995, pp. 26–27.
* ^ Langer
* ^ Thomas F. Madden, Venice: A New History, Penguin, 2013, ISBN
* ^ "Piracy as an Islamic-Christian Interface in the Thirteenth
* ^ Richard Cowen, The importance of salt
* ^ Herrin, Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire,
Penguin, Harmondsworth, ISBN 978-0-14-103102-6
* ^ "History of Venice". Historyworld.net. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
* ^ Thomas F. Madden,
Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice, Johns
Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-8539-6
* ^ James Burke, _Connections_ (Little, Brown and Co., 1978/1995,
ISBN 978-0-316-11672-5 , p.105
* ^ William J. Bernstein (2009). "_A Splendid Exchange: How Trade
Shaped the World_". Grove Press. p.143. ISBN 0-8021-4416-0
* ^ State of Texas, Texas Department of State Health Services.
"History of Plague". Dshs.state.tx.us. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
* ^ "_Medicine and society in early modern Europe_". Mary Lindemann
Cambridge University Press . p.41. ISBN 0-521-42354-6
* ^ "Group Captain George Westlake". _The Daily Telegraph_. London.
26 January 2006. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
* ^ Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (6 May 2005). "US Army Air Force
Operations Mediterranean Theater". Milhist.net. Retrieved 27 July
* ^ Patrick G. Skelly, Pocasset MA (21 July 1945). "New Zealand
troops relieve Venice". Milhist.net. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
* ^ Standish, Dominic (2003). "Barriers to barriers: why
environmental precaution has delayed mobile floodgates to protect
Venice". In Okonski, Kendra. _Adapt or die: the science, politics and
economics of climate change_. London: Profile Books. p. 40. ISBN
978-1-86197-795-3 . Retrieved 28 November 2014.
* ^ Kendall, Paul (25 August 2010). "Mythology and Folklore of the
Alder". Trees for life. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011.
Retrieved 6 August 2011.
* ^ "
Alder – Alnus glutinosa". Conservation Volunteers Northern
Ireland. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
* ^ http://sciences.blogs.liberation.fr/files/venise-senfonce.pdf
* ^ "City of
Subsidence and eustatism".
* ^ http://www.pitt.edu/~budny/papers/42.pdf
* ^ "\'Moses project\' to secure future of Venice". _The Daily
Telegraph_. London. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
* ^ Ferraro, Joanne (2012). _Venice: History Of The Floating City_.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
* ^ "Venezia/Tessera" (PDF). Italian Air Force National
Meteorological Service. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
* ^ "Tabella CLINO". MeteoAM. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
Venice Sea Temperature – seatemperature.org
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The economy of Venice, Italy". Aboutvenice.org.
Retrieved 22 April 2010.
* ^ Pilgerreisen von Venedig nach Jerusalem im späten Mittelalter-
Die Verträge mit dem Schiffspatron, Seite 2, Fabian H. Flöper, GRIN
Verlag, 2011. ISBN 978-3-656-04783-4
* ^ Venice, page 71, Beryl D. De Sélincourt, May (Sturge) Gretton,
Chatto & Windus, London 1907., reprinted BiblioBazaar 2010, ISBN
* ^ "
Venice (Italy) :: Economy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia".
Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
* ^ _Venice_. Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2016. p. 1.
* ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40400210
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "
Venice (Italy) :: Economy – Britannica
Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_
* ^ _A_ _B_
* ^ _A_ _B_
* ^ "Tourism overwhelms vanishing Venice". _DW.de_. Retrieved 13
* ^ "
Italy to ban large cruise ships in Venice". _The Telegraph_.
Retrieved 13 January 2015.
* ^ "CLIA says cruise lines will continue to respect
ship ban despite new ruling". _Cruise Arabia & Africa_. Retrieved 13
* ^ "Turistby indfører forbud mod larmende kufferthjul".
_jyllands-posten.dk_. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015.
* ^ "
Venice Study Abroad". Retrieved 6 October 2010.
* ^ _Thomas Cook European Timetables _
* ^ "ATVO". Atvo.it. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Linee Urbane". www.actv.it. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
* ^ Home Page Archived 15 December 2007 at the
Wayback Machine .",
Wizz Air _
* ^ www.enav.it
* ^ DEPARTMENTS: Asian and North African Studies; Economics;
Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics; Humanities;
Linguistics and Comparative Cultural Studies; Management; Molecular
Sciences and Nanosystems; Philosophy and Cultural Heritage.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS: School of Asian Studies and Business
Management; School of Cultural Production and Conservation of the
Cultural Heritage; School of International Relations; School of Social
Work and Public Policies. OTHER SCHOOLS: School of Economics; CFCS –
Ca’ Foscari Challenge School; CFSIE – Ca’ Foscari School for
International Education; Ca' Foscari Graduate School.
* ^ DEPARTMENTS: DACC – Architecture, Construction and
Conservation; DCP –
Architecture and Arts; DPPAC – Design and
Planning in Complex Environments.
* ^ Courses. ITALY: History of Venice; Italian Contemporary History
in Films; Art and
Renaissance Venice; Italian Fashion
and Design. CULTURES OF THE WORLD: Intercultural Communication; Gender
Studies; Comparing East and West. GLOBAL CHALLENGES: Identity,
Heritage and Globalization; Globalization, Ethics, Welfare and Human
Rights; Global governance for peace and security, cooperation and
* ^ European Master's Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation.
* ^ DEPARTMENTS: Visual arts (Painting; Sculpture; Graphic Art;
Decoration); Scenography and Applied Arts (Scenography; New
Technologies for the Arts).
* ^ DEPARTMENTS: Theory and Analysis, Composition and Conducting:
Pre-polyphonic Music, Choral Music and Choir Conducting, Composition,
Experimental Composition, Conducting. New Technologies and Musical
Languages: Jazz, Electronic Music. Wind instruments: Recorder, Flute,
Trumpet, French Horn, Clarinet, Saxophone, Oboe, Bassoon. Singing and
Musical Theatre: Singing. Teaching: Teaching. Keyboards and Percussion
Instruments: Organ, Harpsichord, Piano, Percussion instruments.
Stringed Instruments: Harp, Lute, Guitar, Viola da Gamba, Baroque
violin, Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass.
* ^ "Urban World History". _google.dk_.
* ^ A Companion to Venetian History, 1400–1797 Google Books.
* ^ "Pre-Industrial Cities and Technology". _google.dk_.
* ^ Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350 By
Janet L. Abu-Lughod.
* ^ The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems
Change By Hendrik Spruyt.
* ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 28
* ^ Cathy Newman, "_Vanishing Venice_", National Geographic, August
* ^ "
Venice #Venexodus protesters oppose tourist numbers". BBC
News. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
* ^ Catholic Hierarchy. Archdiocese of Venezia
* ^ "
Venetian Ghetto –
Eruv in Venice". Retrieved 2 August 2010.
* ^ "
Death in Venice and a cocktail". _The
Venice Lido_. August
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
* ^ Touring Club p. 79
* ^ Stefano Biolchini (19 April 2016). "Addio a Fulvio Roiter. Era
sua la più bella Venezia in bianco nero". _
Il Sole 24 Ore _.
Retrieved 19 April 2016.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Miller (2005) p.82
* ^ Miller (2005) p.83
* ^ _A_ _B_ Patner, Josh (26 February 2006). "From Bags to Riches".
_The New York Times_. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
* ^ Ranieri da Mosto, _Il
Veneto in cucina_, Firenze, Aldo
Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 57; Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, _A tola co
i nostri veci. La cucina veneziana_, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, p.
* ^ In other areas of
Italy similar sweets are known by many other
names, e.g. _cénci_ (rags) (Florence), _frappe_ (flounces) (Rome),
_bugìe_ (lies) (Turin, Genoa, etc.), _chiàcchiere_ (chatter) (Milan
and many other places in northern, central and southern Italy). Vid.:
Pellegrino Artusi, _La Scienza in cucina e l'Arte di mangiar bene_,
93ª ristampa, Firenze, Giunti, 1960, p. 387, #595; Ranieri da Mosto,
Veneto in cucina_, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 364;
Luigi Veronelli (edited by), _Il Carnacina_, 10th ed., Milano,
Garzanti, 1975, p. 656, #2013; to name but a few.
* ^ Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, _A tola co i nostri veci. La
cucina veneziana_, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, pp. 449–450
* ^ "The
Venice – Art History Basics on the
Venetian School – ca 1450–1600". Arthistory.about.com. 29 October
2009. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
* ^ "Venetian art around 1500". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 22 April
* ^ Carl I. Gable, _
Murano Magic: Complete Guide to Venetian Glass,
its History and Artists_ (Schiffer, 2004). ISBN 978-0-7643-1946-4 .
* ^ "The
Venice Biennale: History of the
Labiennale.org. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
* ^ "The
Venice Biennale: History From the beginnings until the
Second World War (1893–1945)". Labiennale.org. Retrieved 28 March
* ^ "
Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". _
Official Website_. © 2005–2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 4 November
* ^ Morgan, Glennisha (30 January 2013). "
Venice To Cut Ties With
St. Petersburg Over Anti-Gay Law". _The Huffington Post_. Retrieved 17
October 2013. Venice_Russia
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Bosio, Luciano. _Le origini di Venezia_. Novara: Istituto
Geografico De Agostini.
* Brown, Horatio , _Venice_, chapter 8 of _Cambridge Modern History
_ vol. I _The Renaissance_ (1902)
* Brown, Horatio, _Calendar of State Papers (Venetian):
1581–1591_, 1895; _1592–1603_, 1897; _1603–1607_, 1900;
_1607–1610_, 1904; _1610–1613_, 1905
* Brown, Horatio, _Studies in the history of Venice_ (London, 1907)
* Chambers, D.S. (1970). _The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380–1580._
London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English, still
* Contarini, Gasparo (1599). _The Commonwealth and Gouernment of
Venice._ Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E.
Mattes." The most important contemporary account of Venice's
governance during the time of its blossoming. Also available in
various reprint editions.
* Da Canal, Martin, "Les estoires de Venise" (13th-century
chronicle), translated by Laura Morreale. Padua, Unipress 2009.
* Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "
Venice Misappropriated." _Trames_
6(2), pp. 192–201. A scathing review of Martin also a good summary
on the most recent economic and political thought on Venice.
* Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised
edition of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
* Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of
Venetian Historiography." _Journal of Modern History_ 58, pp. 43–94.
The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of Venice.
* Lane, Frederic Chapin. _Venice: Maritime Republic_ (1973) (ISBN
978-0-8018-1445-7 ) standard scholarly history; emphasis on economic,
political and diplomatic history
* Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in
Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life
Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the
life of women more generally.
* Madden, Thomas F. _
Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice_ Johns
Hopkins University Press. Probably the best book in English on
* Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds). _Venice
Reconsidered. The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State,
Johns Hopkins University Press . The most recent
collection on essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
* Muir, Edward (1981). _Civic Ritual in
Princeton UP. The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly
* Oppenheimer, Gerald J. (2010). _Venetian_ Palazzi _and_ Case: _A
Guide to the Literature._ University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved
from http://faculty.washington.edu/gerryo/venice.html 7 February 2010.
* Rösch, Gerhard (2000). _Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik._
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief
history of Venice.
* Miller, Judith (2005). _Furniture: world styles from classical to
contemporary_. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-1340-2 .
Ackroyd, Peter . _Venice: Pure City_. London, Chatto revised ed.
1894; further eds. 1900, 1904, 1909.
* Cole, Toby. _Venice: A Portable Reader_, Lawrence Hill, 1979. ISBN
978-0-88208-097-0 (hardcover); ISBN 978-0-88208-107-6 (softcover).
* Madden, Thomas , _Venice: A New History_. New York: Viking, 2012.
ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8 . A fascinating and approachable history by a
* Morris, Jan (1993), _Venice_. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber,
ISBN 978-0-571-16897-2 . A subjective and passionate written
introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated.
* Ruskin, John (1853) . _The Stones of
Venice _. Abridged edition
Links, JG (Ed), Penguin Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-14-139065-9 . Seminal
work on architecture and society
* di Robilant, Andrea (2004). _A Venetian Affair_. HarperCollins.
ISBN 978-1-84115-542-5 Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover, from
correspondence in the 1750s.
* Sethre, Janet. _The Souls of Venice_ McFarland padding:0.75em;
background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutVENICEat's sister
* _Definitions from Wiktionary
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* Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Official Site of the City of Venice
* Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia (Italian/English)
Islands of the
* Buel del Lovo
* Cason Montiron
* Isola dei Laghi
* La Cura
* Madonna del Monte
* Monte dell\'Oro
* Motta dei Cunicci
* Motta di San Lorenzo
San Francesco del Deserto
* San Giàcomo in Paludo
* San Michele
* Lazzaretto Nuovo
* Santa Cristina
San Giorgio Maggiore
San Pietro di Castello
* San Secondo
Lido di Venezia
* San Clemente
San Giorgio in Alga
San Lazzaro degli Armeni
San Marco in Boccalama
* Sant\'Angelo della Polvere
Santa Maria della Grazia
Comuni _ of the
Metropolitan City of Venice
* Fiesso d\'Artico
Fossalta di Piave
* Fossalta di
Musile di Piave
Noventa di Piave
* Quarto d\'Altino
San Donà di Piave
San Michele al Tagliamento
San Stino di Livenza
Santa Maria di Sala
Torre di Mosto
Regional capitals of
L\'Aquila , ABRUZZO
Aosta , AOSTA VALLEY
Bari , APULIA
Potenza , BASILICATA
Catanzaro , CALABRIA
Naples , CAMPANIA
Bologna , EMILIA-ROMAGNA
Trieste , FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA
Rome , LAZIO
Genoa , LIGURIA
Milan , LOMBARDY
Ancona , MARCHE
Campobasso , MOLISE
Turin , PIEDMONT
Cagliari , SARDINIA
Palermo , SICILY
Trento , TRENTINO-ALTO ADIGE/SüDTIROL
Florence , TUSCANY
Perugia , UMBRIA
World Heritage Sites in
* Crespi d\'Adda
Monte San Giorgio 1
Porto Venere , Palmaria , Tino and
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
* Royal Palace of
* Palazzo Madama,
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
* _Sacri Monti_ of
* Santa Maria delle Grazie,
* Vineyard Landscape of
Roero and Monferrato
Modena Cathedral ,
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande,
* Orto botanico di
* City of
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the
* Basilica of Saint Francis of
* Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
* Hadrian\'s Villa
* Piazza del Duomo,
* Val d\'Orcia
* Villa d\'Este
* Castel del Monte,
Vallo di Diano National Park ,
Certosa di Padula
Palace of Caserta ,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
* Sassi of
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and
* Archaeological Area of Agrigento
* Barumini nuraghes
* Syracuse and
Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
* Militello in Val di
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus located at
Campello sul Clitunno
Campello sul Clitunno
* Santa Sofia located at
* Sanctuary of Monte Sant\'Angelo located at Monte Sant\'Angelo
* Prehistoric pile dwellings around the
* Primeval Beech Forests of Europe 4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries 5
Peschiera del Garda
* 1 Shared with
* 2 Shared with the
* 3 Shared with
Slovenia , and
* 4 Shared with
* 5 Shared with
Italy by population
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 141323348
* LCCN : n79018142
* GND : 4062501-1
* BNF : cb11933474v (data)
* HDS : 6646
* NDL : 00629183
Venice additional terms
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