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Dalmatian /dælˈmeɪʃən/[2][3] or Dalmatic /dælˈmætɪk/[2] was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia
Dalmatia
region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor
Kotor
in Montenegro. The name refers to a tribe of the Illyrian linguistic group, Dalmatae. The Ragusan dialect
Ragusan dialect
of Dalmatian was the official language of the Republic of Ragusa, although in later times Venetian (representing the Romance language population), then Eastern Herzegovinian dialect
Eastern Herzegovinian dialect
of Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
(for the Slavophone population), came to supersede it.[citation needed] Dalmatian speakers lived in the coastal towns of Zadar
Zadar
(Jadera), Trogir
Trogir
(Tragur, Traù), Spalato (Split; Spalato), Ragusa (Dubrovnik; Raugia, Ragusa), and Kotor
Kotor
(Cattaro), each of these cities having a local dialect, and on the islands of Krk
Krk
(Vikla, Veglia), Cres (Crepsa), and Rab
Rab
(Arba).[citation needed]

Contents

1 Dialects

1.1 Ragusan dialect 1.2 Vegliot dialect

2 History

2.1 Extinction

3 Classification

3.1 Similarities to Romanian

4 Grammar 5 Vocabulary

5.1 Swadesh list

6 Sample

6.1 Parable of the Prodigal Son

7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Dialects[edit] Almost every city developed its own dialect. Most of these became extinct before they were recorded, so the only trace of these ancient dialects is some words borrowed into local dialects of today's Croatia.[citation needed] Ragusan dialect[edit]

Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
before 1808

Ragusan is the Southern dialect, whose name is derived from the Romance name of Dubrovnik, Ragusa. It came to the attention of modern scholars in two letters, from 1325 and 1397, and other mediaeval texts, which show a language influenced heavily by Venetian. The available sources include some 260 Ragusan words including pen 'bread', teta 'father', chesa 'house', and fachir 'to do', which were quoted by the Dalmatian Filippo Diversi, the rector of Ragusa in the 1430s.[citation needed] The Maritime Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
had, at one time, an important fleet, but its influence decreased over time, to the point that, by the 15th century, it had been reduced to only about 300 ships.[4] The language was threatened by the Slav expansion, as the Ragusan Senate decided that all debates had to be held in lingua veteri ragusea (ancient Ragusan language) and the use of the Slav was forbidden. Nevertheless, during the 16th century, Ragusan fell out of use and came to the brink of extinction.[citation needed] Vegliot dialect[edit] Vegliot (the native name being Viklasun)[5] is the Northern dialect. The language's name is derived from the Italian name of Krk, Veglia, an island in Kvarner, called Vikla in Vegliot. On the inscription dating from the beginning of the 4th century
4th century
CE, Krk
Krk
is named as Splendissima civitas Curictarum. The Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
name derives from the Roman name (Curicum, Curicta), whereas the younger name Vecla, Vegla, Veglia (meaning "Old Town") was created in the mediaeval Romanesque period.[citation needed] History[edit]

Areas of Dalmatian dialects.

The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
gradually came to occupy the territory of Illyria between 229 and 155 BC. Merchants and authorities settling from Rome brought with them the Latin
Latin
language, and eventually the indigenous inhabitants mostly abandoned their languages (prevalently varieties of Illyrian) for Vulgar Latin[citation needed]. After the Roman capital moved to Constantinople, Greek began to replace Latin
Latin
as the Lingua Franca in the empire (eventually becoming official in 620), but Illyrian towns continued to speak Latin
Latin
(see Illyro-Roman), which evolved over time into regional dialects and eventually into distinct Romance languages.[citation needed] Dalmatian was spoken on the Dalmatian coast from Fiume (now Rijeka) as far south as Cottora (Kotor) in Montenegro. Speakers lived mainly in the coastal towns of Jadera (Zadar), Tragurium (Trogir), Spalatum[6] (Split), Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Acruvium (Kotor), and also on the islands of Curicta (Krk), Crepsa (Cres) and Arba (Rab). Almost every city developed its own dialect, but the most important dialects we know of were Vegliot, a northern dialect spoken on the island of Curicta, and Ragusan, a southern dialect spoken in and around Ragusa (Dubrovnik).[citation needed] The Dalmatian dialect of Ragusa is known from two letters, dated 1325 and 1397, as well as from other mediaeval texts. The oldest preserved documents written in Dalmatian are 13th century inventories in Ragusan. The available sources include roughly 260 Ragusan words. Surviving words include pen 'bread', teta 'father', chesa 'house', and fachir 'to do', which were quoted by the Dalmatian, Filippo Diversi, Rector of the republic of Ragusa in the 1430s. The earliest reference to the Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
dates from the tenth century and it has been estimated that about 50,000 people spoke it at that time, though the main source of this information, the Italian linguist Matteo Bartoli, may have exaggerated his figures.[citation needed] Dalmatian was influenced particularly heavily by Venetian and Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
(despite the latter, the Latin
Latin
roots of Dalmatian remained prominent). A 14th-century letter from Zadar
Zadar
(origin of the Iadera dialect) shows strong influence from Venetian, the language that after years under Venetian rule superseded Iadera and other dialects of Dalmatian. Other dialects met their demise with the settlement of populations of Slavic speakers.[citation needed] Extinction[edit]

Tuone Udaina, the last speaker of Dalmatian

In 1897, the scholar Matteo Bartoli, himself a native of nearby Istria, visited Burbur ('barber' in Dalmatian[citation needed]) Tuone Udaina (Italian: Antonio Udina), the last speaker of any Dalmatian dialect, to study his language, writing down approximately 2,800 words, stories, and accounts of his life, which were published in a book that has provided much information on the vocabulary, phonology, and grammar of the language. Bartoli wrote in Italian and published a translation in German (Das Dalmatische) in 1906. The Italian language manuscripts were reportedly lost, and the work was not re-translated into Italian until 2001.[citation needed] Just one year later, on 10 June 1898, Tuone Udaina
Tuone Udaina
was accidentally killed at 77 in a roadwork explosion.[7][8] Classification[edit] The most recent classification from in 2017 it was classified by the "Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History" with the Istriot Language in the Dalmatian Romance subgroup.[9] Once it was thought to be a language that bridged the gap between the Romanian language
Romanian language
and Italian, it was only distantly related to the nearby Romanian dialects, such as the nearly extinct Istro-Romanian, spoken in nearby Istria, Croatia. Some of its features are quite archaic. Dalmatian is the only Romance language that has palatalised /k/ and /g/ before /i/, but not before /e/ (others have palatalised them in both situations, except Sardinian, which has not palatalised them at all): Latin: civitate > Vegliot: cituot ("city"), Latin: cenare > Vegliot: kenur ("to dine").[citation needed] Some Dalmatian words have been preserved as borrowings in South Slavic languages, mainly in Chakavian.[citation needed] Similarities to Romanian[edit] Among the similarities with Romanian, some consonant shifts can be found among the Romance languages
Romance languages
only in Dalmatian and Romanian:[citation needed]

Origin Result Latin Vegliot Romanian Italian English

/kt/ /pt/ octo guapto opt otto eight

/ŋn/ /mn/ cognatus comnut cumnat cognato brother-in-law

/ks/ /ps/ coxa copsa coapsă coscia thigh

Grammar[edit] Main article: Dalmatian grammar An analytic trend can be observed in Dalmatian: nouns and adjectives began to lose their gender and number inflexions, the noun declension disappeared completely, and the verb conjugations began to follow the same path, but the verb maintained a person and number distinction except in the third person (in common with Romanian and several dialects of Italy).[citation needed] The definite article precedes the noun, unlike in the Eastern Romance languages like Romanian, which have it postposed to the noun.[citation needed] Vocabulary[edit] Dalmatian kept Latin
Latin
words related to urban life, lost (or if preserved, not with the original sense) in Romanian, such as cituot "city" (in old Romanian cetate means "city"; in modern Romanian "fort"; compare also Albanian qytet, borrowed from Latin, which, too, means "city"). The Dalmatians retained an active urban society in their city-states, whereas most Romanians were driven into small mountain settlements during the Great Migrations of 400 to 800 AD.[10] Venetian became a major influence on the language as Venetian commercial influence grew. The Chakavian
Chakavian
dialect and Dubrovnik Shtokavian dialect
Shtokavian dialect
of Serbo-croatian, which were spoken outside the cities since the immigration of the Slavs, gained importance in the cities by the 16th century, and it eventually replaced Dalmatian as the day-to-day language. Nevertheless, some words were loaned into coastal Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
varieties:

Dubrovnik: CL antemna > otijemna "sail pole"; columna > kelomna "pillar, column"; ficatum > pìkat "liver"; lucerna > lùk(i)jerna "oil lamp"; lixivum > lìksija "lye"; oculata > úkljata "black-tail sparus, Sparus melanurus"; recessa > rèkesa "ebb tide"; Standard Croatian: arbor(em) > jȃrbor, jarbol (Slovenian jambor) "mast"; aurata > òvrata, obrata "gilt-head bream"; canaba > kònoba "(wine) cellar, cellar bar"; lolligo, -inem > òliganj, lȉganj, lȉgnja "squid"; margo, -inem > mr̀gin(j), mrganj "furrow or ditch marking a border"; tracta > trakta "dragnet, trawl", etc.[11]

Swadesh list[edit]

No. English Dalmatian

1 I ju

2 you (singular) te

3 he jal

4 we nu, noi

5 you (plural) vu, voi

6 they jali, jale

7 this cost

8 that cost

9 here kauk

10 there luk

11 who ko

12 what ce

13 where jo

14 when kand

15 how kal

16 not na, naun

17 all tot

18 many un maur

19 some certioin

20 few un pauk

21 other jultro, jiltri

22 one join

23 two doi

24 three tra

25 four kuatro

26 five cenk

27 big maur, luarg

28 long luang

29 wide luarg

30 thick dais

31 heavy pesunt

32 small pedlo

33 short kort

34 narrow *strant

35 thin *subtir

36 woman femia

37 man (adult male) jomno, vair

38 man (human being) jomno

39 child kratoir

40 wife mulier

41 husband marait

42 mother njena

43 father tuota

44 animal *namail

45 fish pask

46 bird paserain

47 dog kun

48 louse pedoklo

49 snake *sarpa

50 worm viarm

51 tree jarbul

52 forest buask

53 stick stal

54 fruit froit

55 seed grun

56 leaf fualja

57 root radaika

58 bark (of a tree) *scorta

59 flower fiaur

60 grass jarba

61 rope kanapial

62 skin pial

63 meat kuarne

64 blood suang

65 bone vuas

66 fat (noun) gruas

67 egg juf, juv

68 horn kuarno

69 tail kauda

70 feather *puana

71 hair kapei

72 head kup

73 ear orakla

74 eye vaklo

75 nose nuas

76 mouth buka

77 tooth diant

78 tongue (organ) langa

79 fingernail jongla

80 foot pi

81 leg *jamba

82 knee denaklo

83 hand mun

84 wing jal

85 belly viantro

86 guts alaite

87 neck kual

88 back duas

89 breast *san

90 heart kuor

91 liver fekuat

92 to drink bar

93 to eat mancuor

94 to bite moscuar

95 to suck *suger

96 to spit spoit

97 to vomit gomituor

98 to blow sublar

99 to breathe *respirar

100 to laugh redro

101 to see vedar

102 to hear senter

103 to know sapar

104 to think imisuarmer

105 to smell *urdoarer

106 to fear taimo

107 to sleep dormer

108 to live *vivar

109 to die morer

110 to kill *ucider

111 to fight *luptar

112 to hunt *vaunar

113 to hit botur

114 to cut taljur

115 to split spartar

116 to stab *oinguar

117 to scratch *scarpinur

118 to dig pasnur

119 to swim *nuotar

120 to fly blairer

121 to walk kaminur

122 to come venir

123 to lie (as in a bed) *jaurer

124 to sit stur

125 to stand stur

126 to turn (intransitive) *girar

127 to fall kadar

128 to give duor

129 to hold tenar

130 to squeeze shtrengar

131 to rub jongar

132 to wash *lavar

133 to wipe *sterger

134 to pull truar

135 to push *pingar

136 to throw *trubar

137 to tie lijuar

138 to sew koser

139 to count embruar

140 to say dekro

141 to sing kantur

142 to play jukur

143 to float *plutir

144 to flow *scarer

145 to freeze glazir

146 to swell craseror

147 sun saul

148 moon loina

149 star stala

150 water jakva

151 rain pluaja

152 river fluaim

153 lake lak

154 sea mur

155 salt suol

156 stone pitra

157 sand sablaun, salbaun

158 dust pulvro

159 earth tiara

160 cloud *nueba

161 fog *cieta

162 sky cil

163 wind viant

164 snow nai

165 ice glaz

166 smoke *fuma

167 fire fuok

168 ash kanaisa

169 to burn ardar

170 road kale

171 mountain muant

172 red ruas

173 green viart

174 yellow zuola

175 white jualb

176 black fosk, niar

177 night nuat

178 day dai

179 year jan

180 warm cuold

181 cold gheluat

182 full plain

183 new nuv

184 old vieklo

185 good bun

186 bad mul, ri

187 rotten muas, ri

188 dirty spuark

189 straight drat

190 round *runt

191 sharp (as a knife) *acu

192 dull (as a knife) *obtus

193 smooth *gliscio

194 wet joit

195 dry sak

196 correct drat, jost

197 near alic

198 far distuont

199 right diastro

200 left *sanest

201 at saupra

202 in in

203 with kon

204 and e

205 if *sa

206 because perko

207 name naum

[12] Sample[edit]

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The following are examples of the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
in Latin, Dalmatian, Serbo-Croatian, Friulian, Italian, Istro-Romanian and Romanian:

Latin Dalmatian Serbo-Croatian Friulian Italian Istro-Romanian Romanian English Spanish

Pater noster, qui es in caelis, Tuota nuester, che te sante intel sil, Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima, Pari nestri, che tu sês in cîl, Padre nostro, che sei nei cieli, Ciace nostru car le ști en cer, Tatăl nostru care ești în ceruri, Our Father, who art in heaven, Padre nuestro, que estás en los cielos,

sanctificetur Nomen Tuum. sait santificuot el naun to. sveti se ime tvoje. che al sedi santifiât il to nom. sia santificato il tuo nome. neca se sveta nomelu teu. sfințească-se numele tău. hallowed be thy name. santificado sea tu nombre.

Adveniat Regnum Tuum. Vigna el raigno to. Dođi kraljevstvo tvoje. Che al vegni il to ream. Venga il tuo regno. Neca venire craliestvo to. Vie împărăția ta. Thy kingdom come. Venga a nosotros tu reino.

Fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Sait fuot la voluntuot toa, coisa in sil, coisa in tiara. Budi volja tvoja, kako na nebu tako i na zemlji. Che e sedi fate la tô volontât sicu in cîl cussì ancje in tiere. Sia fatta la tua volontà, come in cielo così in terra. Neca fie volia ta, cum en cer, așa și pre pemânt. Facă-se voia ta, precum în cer, așa și pe pământ. Thy will be done, on Earth as it is in heaven. Hágase tu voluntad, en la tierra como en el cielo.

Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. Duote costa dai el pun nuester cotidiun. Kruh naš svagdanji daj nam danas. Danus vuê il nestri pan cotidian. Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano. Pera nostre saca zi de nam astez. Pâinea noastră cea de toate zilele, dă-ne-o nouă astăzi. Give us this day our daily bread. Danos hoy nuestro pan de cada día.

Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, E remetiaj le nuestre debete, I otpusti nam duge naše, E pardoninus i nestris debits, E rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, Odproste nam dutzan, Și ne iartă nouă păcatele noastre, And forgive us our trespasses, Perdona nuestras ofensas.

Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Coisa nojiltri remetiaime a i nuestri debetuar. Kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim. Sicu ancje nô ur ai pardonìn ai nestris debitôrs. Come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori. Ca și noi odprostim a lu nostri dutznici. Precum și noi le iertăm greșiților noștri. As we forgive those who trespass against us. Como también nosotros perdonamos a los que nos ofenden.

Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, E naun ne menur in tentatiaun, I ne uvedi nas u napast, E no stâ menânus in tentazion, E non ci indurre in tentazione, Neca nu na tu vezi en napastovanie, Și nu ne duce pe noi în ispită, And lead us not into temptation, No nos dejes caer en tentación.

sed libera nos a Malo. miu deleberiajne dal mal. nego izbavi nas od zla. ma liberinus dal mâl. ma liberaci dal male. neca na zbăvește de zvaca slabe. ci ne izbăvește de cel rău. but deliver us from evil. y líbranos del mal.

Amen! Amen! Amen! Amen! Amen! Amen! Amin! Amen! ¡Amén!

Parable of the Prodigal Son[edit]

Dalmatian: E el daic: Jon ciairt jomno ci avaja doi feil, e el plé pedlo de louro daic a soa tuota: Tuota duoteme la puarte de moi luc, che me toca, e jul spartait tra louro la sostuanza e dapù pauch dai, mais toich indajoi el feil ple pedlo andait a la luorga, e luoc el dissipuat toich el soo, viviand malamiant. Muà el ju venait in se stiass, daic: quinci jomni de journata Cn cuassa da me tuota i ju bonduanza de puan e cua ju muor de fum.

English: And He said: There was a man who had two sons, and the younger of them said to his father: "Father give me the share of his property that will belong to me." So he divided the property between them. A few days later the younger son gathered all he had and travelled to a distant country, and there he squandered his property in dissolute living. But when he came to himself he said: "How many of my father's hired hands have bread enough and to spare, but here I am dying of hunger."

See also[edit]

Istriot language

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dalmatian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180  ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532  ^ Notizie Istorico-Critiche Sulla Antichita, Storia, e Letteratura de' Ragusei, Francesco Maria Appendini, 1803. ^ Bartoli, 2000 ^ Colloquia Maruliana, Vol. 12 Travanj 2003. Zarko Muljacic — On the Dalmato-Romance in Marulić's Works (hrcak.srce.hr). Split Romance (Spalatin) are extant by the author. Zarko Muljacic has set off in the only way possible, the indirect way of attempting to trace the secrets of its historical phonology by analysing any lexemes of possible Dalmato-Romance origin that have been preserved in Marulić's Croatian works. ^ Eugeen Roegiest (2006). Vers les sources des langues romanes: un itinéraire linguistique à travers la Romania. ACCO. p. 138. ISBN 90-334-6094-7.  ^ William B Brahms (2005). Notable Last Facts: A Compendium of Endings, Conclusions, Terminations and Final Events throughout History. Original from the University of Michigan: Reference Desk Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-9765325-0-7.  ^ " Glottolog
Glottolog
3.1 - Dalmatian Romance". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.  ^ Florin Curta (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge medieval textbooks. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0. Retrieved November 20, 2009.  ^ Manfred Trummer, “Südosteuropäische Sprachen und Romanisch”, Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik, vol. 7: Kontakt, Migration und Kunstsprachen. Kontrastivität, Klassifikation und Typologie, eds. Günter Holtus, Michael Metzeltin & Christian Schmitt (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1998), 162. ^ l antico dialetto di veglia - l antico dialetto di veglia.pdf

Bibliography[edit]

Bartoli, Matteo Giulio. (1906). Das Dalmatische: Altromanische Sprachreste von Veglia bis Ragusa und ihre Stellung in der Apennino-balkanischen Romania. 2 vols. Vienna: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Italian translation: Il Dalmatico: Resti di un'antica lingua romanza parlata da Veglia a Ragusa e sua collocazione nella Romània appennino-balcanica. Trans. Aldo Duro. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000.

Fisher, John. (1975). Lexical Affiliations of Vegliote. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0-8386-7796-7. Hadlich, Roger L. (1965). The phonological history of Vegliote, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press Maiden, Martin. “Dalmatian”, in The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages, eds. Adam Ledgeway & Martin Maiden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 126–38. Price, Glanville. (2000). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-22039-9. Ive, Antonio. L' Antico dialetto di Veglia

External links[edit]

Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dalmatian language.

Dalmatian website Dalmatian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database Dalmatian language
Dalmatian language
learning ebook for begginers

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