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VEDANTA

* Advaita
Advaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita Vedanta * Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda * Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita

HETERODOX

* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta

* Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta

* Tantra

TEACHERS (Acharyas )

NYAYA

* Akṣapāda Gotama * Jayanta Bhatta * Raghunatha Siromani

MīMāṃSā

* Jaimini * Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
* Prabhākara

ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Vācaspati Miśra * Vidyaranya * Sadananda * Madhusūdana Sarasvatī * Vijnanabhiksu * Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Vivekananda * Ramana Maharshi * Siddharudha * Chinmayananda * Nisargadatta

VISHISHTADVAITA

* Nammalvar * Alvars
Alvars
* Yamunacharya * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta Desika * Pillai Lokacharya * Manavala Mamunigal

DVAITA

* Madhvacharya * Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha
* Vyasatirtha * Sripadaraja * Vadirajatirtha * Vijayendra Tirtha * Raghavendra Swami

ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA

* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
* Jiva Goswami * Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
* Prabhupada

* Tantra * Shakta

* Abhinavagupta * Nigamananda Paramahansa * Ramprasad Sen * Bamakhepa * Kamalakanta Bhattacharya * Anandamayi Ma

OTHERS

SAMKHYA

* Kapila

YOGA

* Patanjali
Patanjali

VAISHESHIKA

* Kanada , Prashastapada

DVAITADVAITA

* Nimbarka

SHUDDHADVAITA

* Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya
Acharya

MAJOR TEXTS

* Sruti * Smriti

------------------------- VEDAS

* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Yajurveda * Samaveda * Atharvaveda

UPANISHADS

* Principal Upanishads * Minor Upanishads

Other scriptures

* Bhagavat Gita * Agama (Hinduism)

------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Brahma Sutras * Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras * Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

* Pramana Sutras

* Puranas
Puranas
* Dharma
Dharma
Shastra * Artha
Artha
Śastra * Kamasutra * Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Shiva Samhita

* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Other Indian philosophies

* v * t * e

VEDANTA ( IAST
IAST
, Vedānta, Sanskrit: वेदांत) or UTTARA MīMāṃSā is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy . Vedanta
Vedanta
literally means "end of the Vedas ", reflecting ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads . It does not stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine. Rather it is an umbrella term for many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism , all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
. The Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
is a collective term for the Principal Upanishads , the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
.

All Vedanta
Vedanta
schools, in their deliberations, concern themselves with the following three categories but differ in their views regarding the concept and the relations between them: Brahman
Brahman
– the ultimate metaphysical reality, Ātman / Jivātman – the individual soul or self, and Prakriti – the empirical world, ever-changing physical universe, body and matter.

Some of the better known sub-traditions of Vedanta
Vedanta
include Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
(qualified non-dualism), and Dvaita (dualism). Most other Vedantic sub-traditions are subsumed under the term Bhedabheda (difference and non-difference). Over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox (āstika) schools like Yoga
Yoga
and Nyaya
Nyaya
, and, through this syncretism , became the most prominent school of Hinduism
Hinduism
. Many extant forms of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism have been significantly shaped and influenced by the doctrines of different schools of Vedanta. The Vedanta
Vedanta
school has had a historic and central influence on Hinduism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and nomenclature * 2 Prasthanatrayi, the Three Sources

* 3 History

* 3.1 Before the Brahma Sutras * 3.2 Brahma Sutras * 3.3 Between the Brahma Sutras and Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* 3.4 Gaudapada, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and Advaita Vedanta * 3.5 Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
* 3.6 Madhva and Dvaita
Dvaita

* 4 Overview of the schools of Vedanta
Vedanta

* 4.1 Schools propounding Non-dualism

* 4.1.1 Advaita
Advaita
* 4.1.2 Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* 4.1.3 Shuddhādvaita

* 4.2 School propounding Dualism
Dualism
- Dvaita
Dvaita

* 4.3 Schools propounding Bhedabheda

* 4.3.1 Upadhika * 4.3.2 Dvaitādvaita * 4.3.3 Achintya-Bheda-Abheda

* 5 Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy

* 5.1 Common features

* 5.2 Metaphysics

* 5.2.1 Brahman
Brahman
/ Ishvara
Ishvara
- Conceptions of the Supreme Reality * 5.2.2 Relation between Brahman
Brahman
and Jiva
Jiva
/ Atman

* 5.3 Epistemology
Epistemology

* 5.3.1 Pramana * 5.3.2 Theories of cause and effect

* 6 Influence

* 6.1 Hindu
Hindu
traditions

* 6.2 Neo-Vedanta

* 6.2.1 Criticism of Neo-Vedanta label

* 6.3 Influence on Western thinkers

* 7 Reception * 8 Similarities with Spinoza\'s philosophy * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References

* 12 Sources

* 12.1 Published sources * 12.2 Web-sources

* 13 Further reading

ETYMOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE

The word Vedanta
Vedanta
literally means the end of the Vedas and originally referred to the Upanishads . Vedanta
Vedanta
was concerned with the jñānakāṇḍa or Vedic knowledge part called the Upanishads. The denotation of Vedanta
Vedanta
subsequently widened to include the various philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
.

The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses:

* These were the last literary products of the Vedic period. * These mark the culmination of Vedic thought. * These were taught and debated last, in the Brahmacharya (student) stage.

VEDANTA is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Indian philosophy . It is also called Uttara Mīmāṃsā, the 'latter enquiry' or 'higher enquiry'; and is often contrasted with Pūrva Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
, the 'former enquiry' or 'primary enquiry'. Pūrva Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
deals with the karmakāṇḍa or rituals part (the Samhita and Brahmanas ) in the Vedas.

PRASTHANATRAYI, THE THREE SOURCES

The Upanishads , the Bhagavadgita and the Brahma Sutras constitute the basis of Vedanta. All schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
propound their philosophy by interpreting these texts, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
, literally, three sources.

* The Upanishads , or Śruti prasthāna; considered the Sruti (Vedic scriptures) foundation of Vedanta. * The Brahma Sutras , or Nyaya
Nyaya
prasthana / Yukti prasthana; considered the reason-based foundation of Vedanta. * The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
, or Smriti prasthāna; considered the Smriti (remembered tradition) foundation of Vedanta.

The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads. The diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. This was likely done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana .

All major Vedantic teachers, including Shankara , Bhaskara , Ramanuja , Nimbarka , Vallabha
Vallabha
and Madhva , have composed commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, but also on the Bhagavad Gita. The Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya
Samkhya
, Yoga
Yoga
, and Upanishadic thought, has played a major role in Vedantic thought.

HISTORY

The Upanishads do not present a rigorous philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and then presenting arguments for or against them. They form the basic texts and Vedanta
Vedanta
interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis . Varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras , led to the development of different schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
over time of which three, four, five or six are prominent.

* Advaita
Advaita
, many scholars of which most prominent are Gaudapada (~500 CE) and Shankara (8th century CE) * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
, prominent scholars are Nathamuni , Yāmuna and Ramanuja
Ramanuja
(1017–1137 CE) * Dvaita
Dvaita
, founded by Madhvacharya (1199–1278 CE) * Suddhadvaita , founded by Vallabha
Vallabha
(1479–1531 CE)

* Bhedabheda , as early as the 7th century CE, or even the 4th century CE. Some scholars are inclined to consider it as a "tradition" rather than a school of Vedanta.

* Upadhika, founded by Bhaskara in the 9th Century CE * Svabhavikabhedabheda or Dvaitādvaita , founded by Nimbarka in the 13th century CE * Achintya Bheda Abheda , founded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534 CE)

The history of Vedanta
Vedanta
is divided into two periods: one prior to the composition of the Brahma Sutras and the other encompassing the schools that developed after the Brahma Sutras were written.

BEFORE THE BRAHMA SUTRAS

Little is known of schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
existing before the composition of the Brahma Sutras (400–450 BCE). It is clear that Badarayana, the writer of Brahma Sutras, was not the first person to systematize the teachings of the Upanishads, as he quotes six Vedantic teachers before him – Ashmarathya, Badari, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna, Karsnajini and Atreya. References to other early Vedanta
Vedanta
teachers – Brahmadatta, Sundara, Pandaya, Tanka and Dravidacharya – are found in secondary literature of later periods. The works of these ancient teachers have not survived, but based on the quotes attributed to them in later literature, Sharma postulates that Ashmarathya and Audulomi were Bhedabheda scholars, Kashakrtsna and Brahmadatta were Advaita scholars, while Tanka and Dravidacharya were either Advaita
Advaita
or Vishistadvaita scholars.

BRAHMA SUTRAS

Main article: Brahma Sutras

Badarayana summarized and interpreted teachings of the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras , also called the Vedanta
Vedanta
Sutra. Badarayana summarized the teachings of the classical Upanishads and refuted the rival philosophical schools in ancient India. The Brahma Sutras laid the basis for the development of Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy.

Though attributed to Badarayana, the Brahma Sutras were likely composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years. The estimates on when the Brahma Sutras were complete vary, with Nicholson in his 2013 review stating, that they were most likely compiled in the present form around 400–450 BCE. Isaeva suggests they were complete and in current form by 200 CE, while Nakamura states that "the great part of the Sutra must have been in existence much earlier than that."

The book is composed of four chapters, each divided into four quarters or sections. These sutras attempt to synthesize the diverse teachings of the Upanishads. However, the cryptic nature of aphorisms of the Brahma Sutras have required exegetical commentaries. These commentaries have resulted in the formation of numerous Vedanta schools, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own commentary.

BETWEEN THE BRAHMA SUTRAS AND ADI SHANKARA

See also: Vedas , Upanishads , and Darsanas

Little with specificity is known of the period between the Brahma Sutras (5th century BCE) and Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
(8th century CE). Only two writings of this period have survived: the Vākyapadīya, written by Bhartṛhari (second half 5th century ), and the Kārikā written by Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(early 6th or 7th century CE).

Shankara mentions 99 different predecessors of his school in his commentaries. A number of important early Vedanta
Vedanta
thinkers have been listed in the Siddhitraya by Yamunācārya (c. 1050), the Vedārthasamgraha by Rāmānuja (c. 1050–1157), and the Yatīndramatadīpikā by Śrīnivāsa Dāsa. At least fourteen thinkers are known to have existed between the composition of the Brahma Sutras and Shankara's lifetime.

A noted scholar of this period was Bhartriprapancha. Bhartriprapancha maintained that the Brahman
Brahman
is one and there is unity, but that this unity has varieties. Scholars see Bhartriprapancha as an early philosopher in the line who teach the tenet of Bhedabheda .

GAUDAPADA, ADI SHANKARA AND ADVAITA VEDANTA

Main articles: Advaita Vedanta and Gaudapada
Gaudapada

Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(c. 6th century CE), was the teacher or a more distant predecessor of Govindapada , the teacher of Adi Shankara. Shankara is widely considered as the founder of Advaita Vedanta . Gaudapada's treatise, the Kārikā—also known as the Māṇḍukya Kārikā or the Āgama Śāstra —is the earliest surviving complete text on Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.

Gaudapada's Kārikā relied on the Mandukya , Brihadaranyaka and Chhandogya Upanishads. In the Kārikā, Advaita
Advaita
(non-dualism) is established on rational grounds (upapatti) independent of scriptural revelation; its arguments are devoid of all religious, mystical or scholastic elements. Scholars are divided on a possible influence of Buddhism
Buddhism
on Gaudapada's philosophy. The fact that Shankara, in addition to the Brahma Sutras , the principal Upanishads and the Bhagvad Gita
Bhagvad Gita
, wrote an independent commentary on the Kārikā proves its importance in Vedāntic literature.

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
(788–820), elaborated on Gaudapada's work and more ancient scholarship to write detailed commentaries on the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
and the Kārikā. The Mandukya Upanishad and the Kārikā have been described by Shankara as containing "the epitome of the substance of the import of Vedanta". It was Shankara who integrated Gaudapada
Gaudapada
work with the ancient Brahma Sutras, "and give it a locus classicus" alongside the realistic strain of the Brahma Sutras. His interpretation, including works ascribed to him, has become the normative interpretation of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta.

A noted contemporary of Shankara was Mandan Mishra , who regarded Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Vedanta
Vedanta
as forming a single system and advocated their combination known as Karma-jnana-samuchchaya-vada. The treatise on the differences between the Vedanta
Vedanta
school and the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school was a contribution of Adi Shankara. Advaita Vedanta rejects rituals in favor of renunciation , for example.

RAMANUJA AND VISHISHTADVAITA VEDANTA

Rāmānuja (1017–1137 CE) was the most influential philosopher in the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
tradition. As the philosophical architect of Vishishtadvaita, he taught qualified non-dualism . Ramanuja's teacher, Yadava Prakasha, followed the Advaita
Advaita
monastic tradition. Tradition has it that Ramanuja
Ramanuja
disagreed with Yadava and Advaita Vedanta, and instead followed Nathamuni and Yāmuna . Ramanuja reconciled the Prasthanatrayi
Prasthanatrayi
with the theism and philosophy of the Vaishnava Alvars
Alvars
poet-saints. Ramanujan wrote a number of influential texts, such as a bhasya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.

Ramanuja
Ramanuja
presented the epistemological and soteriological importance of bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God ( Vishnu
Vishnu
in Ramanuja's case) as a means to spiritual liberation. His theories assert that there exists a plurality and distinction between Atman (souls) and Brahman
Brahman
(metaphysical, ultimate reality), while he also affirmed that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman. Vishishtadvaiata provides the philosophical basis of Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
.

Ramanuja
Ramanuja
was influential in integrating Bhakti
Bhakti
, the devotional worship, into Vedanta
Vedanta
premises.

MADHVA AND DVAITA

Dvaita
Dvaita
was propounded by Madhvacharya (1238–1317 CE). He presented the opposite interpretation of Shankara in his Dvaita, or dualistic system. In contrast to Shankara's non-dualism and Ramanuja's qualified non-dualism, he championed unqualified dualism. Madhva wrote commentaries on the chief Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Brahma Sutra.

Madhva started his Vedic studies at age seven, joined an Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
monastery in Dwarka (Gujarat), studied under guru Achyutrapreksha, frequently disagreed with him, left the Advaita monastery, and founded Dvaita. Madhva and his followers Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, were critical of all competing Hindu
Hindu
philosophies, Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism, but particularly intense in their criticism of Advaita Vedanta and Adi Shankara.

Dvaita Vedanta is theistic and it identifies Brahman
Brahman
with Narayana, or more specifically Vishnu, in a manner similar to Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta. But it is more explicitly pluralistic. Madhva's emphasis for difference between soul and Brahman
Brahman
was so pronounced that he taught there were differences (1) between material things; (2) between material things and souls; (3) between material things and God; (4) between souls; and (5) between souls and God. He also advocated for a difference in degrees in the possession of knowledge. He also advocated for differences in the enjoyment of bliss even in the case of liberated souls, a doctrine found in no other system of Indian philosophy.

OVERVIEW OF THE SCHOOLS OF VEDANTA

SCHOOLS PROPOUNDING NON-DUALISM

Advaita

Shankaracharya Main article: Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta ( IAST
IAST
Advaita
Advaita
Vedānta; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: अद्वैत वेदान्त) espouses non-dualism and monism. Brahman
Brahman
is held to be the sole unchanging metaphysical reality and identical to Atman. The physical world, on the other hand, is always-changing empirical Maya . The absolute and infinite Atman- Brahman
Brahman
is realized by a process of negating everything relative, finite, empirical and changing. The school accepts no duality, no limited individual souls (Atman / Jivatman), and no separate unlimited cosmic soul. All souls and existence across space and time is considered as the same oneness (i.e. monism). Spiritual liberation in Advaita
Advaita
is the full comprehension and realization of oneness, that one's unchanging Atman (soul) is the same as the Atman in everyone else, as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.

Vishishtadvaita

Main article: Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Ramanujacharya depicted with Vaishnava Tilaka and Vishnu
Vishnu
statue.

Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
asserts that Jivatman (human souls) and Brahman
Brahman
(as Vishnu) are different, a difference that is never transcended. With this qualification, Ramanuja
Ramanuja
also affirmed monism by saying that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman. Vishishtadvaita, like Advaita, is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta
Vedanta
in a qualified way, and both begin by assuming that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation. On the relation between the Brahman
Brahman
and the world of matter (Prakriti), Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
states both are two different absolutes, both metaphysically true and real, neither is false or illusive, and that saguna Brahman
Brahman
with attributes is also real. Ramanuja
Ramanuja
states that God, like man, has both soul and body, and the world of matter is the glory of God's body. The path to Brahman (Vishnu), according to Ramanuja, is devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of the personal god (bhakti of saguna Brahman).

Shuddhādvaita

Main article: Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
Vallabhacharya

Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
(pure non-dualism) states that the entire universe is real and is subtly Brahman
Brahman
only in the form of Krishna
Krishna
. Vallabhacharya, the propounder of this philosophy, agreed with Advaita Vedanta's ontology , but emphasized that prakriti (empirical world, body) is not separate from the Brahman, but just another manifestation of the latter. Everything, everyone, everywhere—soul and body, living and non-living, jiva and matter—is the eternal Krishna
Krishna
. The way to Krishna, in this school, is bhakti . Vallabha
Vallabha
opposed renunciation of monistic sannyasa as ineffective and advocates the path of devotion (bhakti) rather than knowledge (jnana). The goal of bhakti is to turn away from ego, self-centered-ness and deception, and to turn towards the eternal Krishna
Krishna
in everything continually offering freedom from samsara .

SCHOOL PROPOUNDING DUALISM - DVAITA

Main article: Dvaita
Dvaita
Madhvacharya

This school is based on the premise of dualism. Atman (soul) and Brahman
Brahman
(as Vishnu) are understood as two completely different entities. Brahman
Brahman
is the creator of the universe, perfect in knowledge, perfect in knowing, perfect in its power, and distinct from souls, distinct from matter. In Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta, an individual soul must feel attraction, love, attachment and complete devotional surrender to Vishnu
Vishnu
for salvation, and it is only His grace that leads to redemption and salvation. Madhva believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned, a view not found in Advaita
Advaita
and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta. While the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
asserted "qualitative monism and quantitative pluralism of souls", Madhva asserted both "qualitative and quantitative pluralism of souls".

SCHOOLS PROPOUNDING BHEDABHEDA

Main article: Bhedabheda

Bhedābheda means "difference and non–difference" and is more a tradition than a school of Vedanta. The schools of this tradition emphasize that the individual self (Jīvatman) is both different and not different from Brahman. Notable figures in this school are Bhartriprapancha, Bhāskara (8th–9th century), Ramanuja's teacher Yādavaprakāśa, Nimbārka (13th century) who founded the Dvaitadvaita school, Caitanya (1486–1534) who founded the Achintya Bheda Abheda school and Vijñānabhikṣu (16th century).

Upadhika

Bhaskara, in postulating Upadhika, considers both identity and difference to be equally real. As the causal principle, Brahman
Brahman
is considered non-dual and formless pure being and intelligence. The same Brahman, manifest as events, becomes the world of plurality. Jīva is Brahman
Brahman
limited by the mind. Matter and its limitations are considered real, not a manifestation of ignorance. Bhaskara advocated bhakti as dhyana (meditation) directed toward the transcendental Brahman. He refuted the idea of Maya and denied the possibility of liberation in bodily existence.

Dvaitādvaita

Nimbarkacharya's icon at Ukhra, West Bengal Main article: Dvaitadvaita

Nimbārka propounded Dvaitādvaita , based upon Bhedābheda as was taught by Bhāskara . Brahman
Brahman
(God), souls (chit) and matter or the universe (achit) are considered as three equally real and co-eternal realities. Brahman
Brahman
is the controller (niyantr), the soul is the enjoyer (bhoktr), and the material universe is the object enjoyed (bhogya). The Brahman
Brahman
is Krishna
Krishna
, the ultimate cause who is omniscient, omnipotent, all-pervading Being. He is the efficient cause of the universe because, as Lord of Karma
Karma
and internal ruler of souls, He brings about creation so that the souls can reap the consequences of their karma. God is considered to be the material cause of the universe because creation was a manifestation of His powers of soul (chit) and matter (achit); creation is a transformation (parinama) of God's powers. He can be realized only through a constant effort to merge oneself with His nature through meditation and devotion.

Achintya-Bheda-Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Main article: Achintya Bhedabheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
was the prime exponent of Achintya-Bheda-Bheda. In Sanskrit
Sanskrit
achintya means 'inconceivable'. Achintya-Bheda-Abheda represents the philosophy of "inconceivable difference in non-difference", in relation to the non-dual reality of Brahman-Atman which it calls ( Krishna
Krishna
), svayam bhagavan. The notion of "inconceivability" (acintyatva) is used to reconcile apparently contradictory notions in Upanishadic teachings. This school asserts that Krishna
Krishna
is Bhagavan
Bhagavan
of the bhakti yogins, the Brahman
Brahman
of the jnana yogins, and has a divine potency that is inconceivable. He is all-pervading and thus in all parts of the universe (non-difference), yet he is inconceivably more (difference). This school is at the foundation of the Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition.

VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY

The important approaches followed by the most noted proponents of different schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
are summarized below:

* To theorize that the soul (Ātman / Jivātman ) and the physical universe ( Prakriti ) are both identical with and different from Brahman
Brahman
. This view is held by Bhartriprapancha. * To place non-dualistic ideas in the most important place, relegating dualistic ideas to an interim position. This approach is followed by Shankara. * To theorize that non-dualism is qualified by difference. This is Ramanuja's approach. * To emphasize dualism, discrediting and offering an alternative explanation of non-dualistic ideas. This is from Madhva.

Sivananda gives the following explanation:

Madhva said, "Man is the servant of God," and established his Dvaita philosophy. Ramanuja
Ramanuja
said, "Man is a ray or spark of God," and established his Visishtadvaita philosophy. Sankara said, "Man is identical with Brahman
Brahman
or the Eternal Soul," and established his Kevala Advaita
Advaita
philosophy.

COMMON FEATURES

Despite their differences, all schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
share some common features:

* Brahman
Brahman
exists as the unchanging material cause and instrumental cause of the world. * The Upanishads are a reliable source of knowledge ( Sruti Śabda in Pramana ); Vedanta
Vedanta
is the pursuit of knowledge into the Brahman
Brahman
and the Ātman. * Belief in rebirth and the desirability of release from the cycle of rebirths, (mokşa). * The self (Ātman / Jivātman ) is the agent of its own acts (karma ) and the recipient of the consequences of these actions. * Rejection of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
and conclusions of the other Vedic schools (Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya
Samkhya
, Yoga
Yoga
, and, to some extent, the Purva Mimamsa
Mimamsa
.

METAPHYSICS

Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophies discuss three fundamental metaphysical categories and the relations between the three.

* Brahman
Brahman
or Ishvara
Ishvara
: the ultimate reality * Ātman or Jivātman : the individual soul, self * Prakriti /Jagat: the empirical world, ever–changing physical universe, body and matter

Brahman
Brahman
/ Ishvara
Ishvara
- Conceptions Of The Supreme Reality

Shankara, in formulating Advaita, talks of two conceptions of Brahman: the higher Brahman
Brahman
as undifferentiated Being, and a lower Brahman
Brahman
endowed with qualities as the creator of the universe.

* Parā or Higher Brahman: the undifferentiated, absolute, infinite, transcendental, supra-relational Brahman
Brahman
beyond all thought and speech is defined as parā Brahman, nirviśeṣa Brahman
Brahman
or nirguṇa Brahman and is the Absolute of metaphysics. * Aparā or Lower Brahman: the Brahman
Brahman
with qualities defined as aparā Brahman
Brahman
or saguṇa Brahman. The saguṇa Brahman
Brahman
is endowed with attributes and represents the personal God of religion.

Ramanuja, in formulating Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta, rejects nirguṇa—that the undifferentiated Absolute is inconceivable—and adopts a theistic interpretation of the Upanishads, accepts Brahman
Brahman
as Ishvara, the personal God who is the seat of all auspicious attributes, as the One reality. The God of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
is accessible to the devotee, yet remains the Absolute, with differentiated attributes.

Madhva, in expounding Dvaita
Dvaita
philosophy, maintains that Vishnu
Vishnu
is the supreme God, thus identifying the Brahman, or absolute reality, of the Upanishads with a personal god, as Ramanuja
Ramanuja
had done before him. Nimbarka, in his dvaitadvata philosophy, accepted the Brahman
Brahman
both as nirguṇa and as saguṇa. Vallabha, in his shuddhadvaita philosophy, not only accepts the triple ontological essence of the Brahman, but also His manifestation as personal God (Ishvara), as matter and as individual souls.

Relation Between Brahman
Brahman
And Jiva
Jiva
/ Atman

The schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
differ in their conception of the relation they see between Ātman / Jivātman and Brahman
Brahman
/ Ishvara:

* According to Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, Ātman is identical with Brahman
Brahman
and there is no difference. * According to Vishishtadvaita, Jīvātman is different from Ishvara, though eternally connected with Him as His mode. The oneness of the Supreme Reality is understood in the sense of an organic unity (vishistaikya). Brahman
Brahman
/ Ishvara
Ishvara
alone, as organically related to all Jīvātman and the material universe is the one Ultimate Reality. * According to Dvaita, the Jīvātman is totally and always different from Brahman
Brahman
/ Ishvara. * According to Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
(pure monism), the Jīvātman and Brahman
Brahman
are identical; both, along with the changing empirically-observed universe being Krishna
Krishna
.

EPISTEMOLOGY

Main article: Pramana Epistemology
Epistemology
in Dvaita
Dvaita
and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta.

Pramana

Pramāṇa ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: प्रमाण) literally means "proof", "that which is the means of valid knowledge". It refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies, and encompasses the study of reliable and valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge. The focus of Pramana is the manner in which correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows or does not know, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired. Ancient and medieval Indian texts identify six pramanas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths:

* Pratyakṣa (perception) * Anumāṇa (inference) * Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) * Arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances) * Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) * Śabda (scriptural testimony/ verbal testimony of past or present reliable experts).

The different schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
have historically disagreed as to which of the six are epistemologically valid. For example, while Advaita Vedanta accepts all six pramanas, Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
and Dvaita accept only three pramanas (perception, inference and testimony).

Advaita
Advaita
considers Pratyakṣa (perception) as the most reliable source of knowledge, and Śabda , the scriptural evidence, is considered secondary except for matters related to Brahman, where it is the only evidence. In Vishistadvaita and Dvaita, Śabda , the scriptural testimony, is considered the most authentic means of knowledge instead.

Theories Of Cause And Effect

All schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
subscribe to the theory of Satkāryavāda, which means that the effect is pre-existent in the cause. But there are two different views on the status of the "effect", that is, the world. Most schools of Vedanta, as well as Samkhya, support Parinamavada , the idea that the world is a real transformation (parinama) of Brahman. According to Nicholson (2010 , p. 27), "the Brahma Sutras espouse the realist Parinamavada position, which appears to have been the view most common among early Vedantins". In contrast to Badarayana, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and Advaita
Advaita
Vedantists hold a different view, Vivartavada , which says that the effect, the world, is merely an unreal (vivarta) transformation of its cause, Brahman.

INFLUENCE

HINDU TRADITIONS

Vedanta, adopting ideas from other orthodox (āstika) schools, became the most prominent school of Hinduism
Hinduism
. Vedanta
Vedanta
traditions led to the development of many traditions in Hinduism. Sri Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
of south and southeastern India
India
is based on Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta. Ramananda led to the Vaishnav Bhakti
Bhakti
Movement in north, east, central and west India. This movement draws its philosophical and theistic basis from Vishishtadvaita. A large number of devotional Vaishnavism traditions of east India, north India
India
(particularly the Braj region), west and central India
India
are based on various sub-schools of Bhedabheda Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta influenced Krishna
Krishna
Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in the northeastern state of Assam
Assam
. The Madhva school of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
found in coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
is based on Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta.

Āgamas , the classical literature of Shaivism
Shaivism
, though independent in origin, show Vedanta
Vedanta
association and premises. Of the 92 Āgamas, ten are (dvaita ) texts, eighteen (bhedabheda ), and sixty-four (advaita ) texts. While the Bhairava Shastras are monistic, Shiva Shastras are dualistic. Isaeva (1995 , pp. 134–135) finds the link between Gaudapada's Advaita Vedanta and Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
evident and natural. Tirumular , the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta scholar, credited with creating "Vedanta–Siddhanta" ( Advaita Vedanta and Shaiva Siddhanta synthesis), stated, "becoming Shiva is the goal of Vedanta
Vedanta
and Siddhanta; all other goals are secondary to it and are vain."

Shaktism , or traditions where a goddess is considered identical to Brahman
Brahman
, has similarly flowered from a syncretism of the monist premises of Advaita Vedanta and dualism premises of Samkhya–Yoga school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, sometimes referred to as Shaktadavaitavada (literally, the path of nondualistic Shakti).

NEO-VEDANTA

Main articles: Neo-Vedanta , Hindu nationalism , and Hindu
Hindu
reform movements

Neo-Vedanta, variously called as " Hindu
Hindu
modernism", "neo-Hinduism", and "neo-Advaita", is a term that denotes some novel interpretations of Hinduism
Hinduism
that developed in the 19th century, presumably as a reaction to the colonial British rule. King (2002 , pp. 129–135) writes that these notions accorded the Hindu
Hindu
nationalists an opportunity to attempt the construction of a nationalist ideology to help unite the Hindus to fight colonial oppression. Western orientalists , in their search for its "essence", attempted to formulate a notion of "Hinduism" based on a single interpretation of Vedanta
Vedanta
as a unified body of religious praxis. This was contra-factual as, historically, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Vedanta
Vedanta
had always accepted a diversity of traditions. King (1999 , pp. 133–136) asserts that the neo-Vedantic theory of "overarching tolerance and acceptance" was used by the Hindu
Hindu
reformers, together with the ideas of Universalism and Perennialism , to challenge the polemic dogmatism of Judaeo-Christian-Islamic missionaries against the Hindus.

The neo-Vedantins argued that the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy were perspectives on a single truth, all valid and complementary to each other. Halbfass (2007 , p. 307) sees these interpretations as incorporating western ideas into traditional systems, especially Advaita Vedanta . It is the modern form of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, states King (1999 , p. 135), the neo-Vedantists subsumed the Buddhist philosophies as part of the Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition and then argued that all the world religions are same "non-dualistic position as the philosophia perennis", ignoring the differences within and outside of Hinduism. According to Gier (2000 , p. 140), neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
is Advaita Vedanta which accepts universal realism:

Ramakrishna, Vivekananda and Aurobindo have been labeled neo-Vedantists (the latter called it realistic Advaita), a view of Vedanta
Vedanta
that rejects the Advaitins' idea that the world is illusory. As Aurobindo phrased it, philosophers need to move from 'universal illusionism' to 'universal realism', in the strict philosophical sense of assuming the world to be fully real.

A major proponent in the popularization of this Universalist and Perennialist interpretation of Advaita Vedanta was Vivekananda , who played a major role in the revival of Hinduism
Hinduism
. He was also instrumental in the spread of Advaita Vedanta to the West via the Vedanta Society , the international arm of the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Order .

Criticism Of Neo-Vedanta Label

Nicholson (2010 , p. 2) writes that the attempts at integration which came to be known as neo- Vedanta
Vedanta
were evident as early as between the 12th and the 16th century−

... certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.

Matilal criticizes Neo- Hinduism
Hinduism
as an oddity developed by West-inspired Western Indologists and attributes it to the flawed Western perception of Hinduism
Hinduism
in modern India. In his scathing criticism of this school of reasoning, Matilal (2002 , pp. 403–404) says:

The so-called 'traditional' outlook is in fact a construction. Indian history shows that the tradition itself was self-conscious and critical of itself, sometimes overtly and sometimes covertly. It was never free from internal tensions due to the inequalities that persisted in a hierarchical society, nor was it without confrontation and challenge throughout its history. Hence Gandhi, Vivekananda and Tagore were not simply 'transplants from Western culture, products arising solely from confrontation with the west.

...It is rather odd that, although the early Indologists' romantic dream of discovering a pure (and probably primitive, according to some) form of Hinduism
Hinduism
(or Buddhism
Buddhism
as the case may be) now stands discredited in many quarters; concepts like neo- Hinduism
Hinduism
are still bandied about as substantial ideas or faultless explanation tools by the Western 'analytic' historians as well as the West-inspired historians of India.

INFLUENCE ON WESTERN THINKERS

An exchange of ideas has been taking place between the western world and Asia since the late 18th century as a result of colonization of parts of Asia by Western powers. This also influenced western religiosity. The first translation of Upanishads, published in two parts in 1801 and 1802, significantly influenced Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
, who called them the consolation of his life. He drew explicit parallels between his philosophy, as set out in The World as Will and Representation, and that of the Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy as described in the work of Sir William Jones. Early translations also appeared in other European languages. Influenced by Śaṅkara's concepts of Brahman
Brahman
(God) and māyā (illusion), Lucian Blaga often used the concepts marele anonim (the Great Anonymous) and cenzura transcendentă (the transcendental censorship) in his philosophy.

RECEPTION

According to Nakamura (1950 , p. 3), the Vedanta
Vedanta
school has had a historic and central influence on Hinduism:

The prevalence of Vedanta
Vedanta
thought is found not only in philosophical writings but also in various forms of ( Hindu
Hindu
) literature, such as the epics, lyric poetry, drama and so forth. ...the Hindu
Hindu
religious sects, the common faith of the Indian populace, looked to Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy for the theoretical foundations for their theology. The influence of Vedanta
Vedanta
is prominent in the sacred literatures of Hinduism, such as the various Puranas, Samhitas, Agamas and Tantras...

Frithjof Schuon summarizes the influence of Vedanta
Vedanta
on Hinduism
Hinduism
as follows:

The Vedanta
Vedanta
contained in the Upanishads, then formulated in the Brahma Sutra, and finally commented and explained by Shankara, is an invaluable key for discovering the deepest meaning of all the religious doctrines and for realizing that the Sanatana Dharma secretly penetrates all the forms of traditional spirituality.

Flood (1996 , pp. 231–232, 238) states,

..the most influential school of theology in India
India
has been Vedanta, exerting enormous influence on all religious traditions and becoming the central ideology of the Hindu
Hindu
renaissance in the nineteenth century. It has become the philosophical paradigm of Hinduism
Hinduism
"par excellence".

SIMILARITIES WITH SPINOZA\'S PHILOSOPHY

German Sanskritist Theodore Goldstücker was among the early scholars to notice similarities between the religious conceptions of the Vedanta
Vedanta
and those of the Dutch Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza, writing that Spinoza's thought was

... so exact a representation of the ideas of the Vedanta, that we might have suspected its founder to have borrowed the fundamental principles of his system from the Hindus, did his biography not satisfy us that he was wholly unacquainted with their doctrines comparing the fundamental ideas of both we should have no difficulty in proving that, had Spinoza been a Hindu, his system would in all probability mark a last phase of the Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy.

Max Müller noted the striking similarities between Vedanta
Vedanta
and the system of Spinoza, saying,

The Brahman, as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza's 'Substantia'."

Helena Blavatsky
Helena Blavatsky
, a founder of the Theosophical Society
Theosophical Society
, also compared Spinoza's religious thought to Vedanta, writing in an unfinished essay,

As to Spinoza's Deity—natura naturans—conceived in his attributes simply and alone; and the same Deity—as natura naturata or as conceived in the endless series of modifications or correlations, the direct outflowing results from the properties of these attributes, it is the Vedantic Deity pure and simple.

SEE ALSO

* Monistic idealism * List of teachers of Vedanta * Self-consciousness (Vedanta)

NOTES

* ^ Historically, Vedanta
Vedanta
has been called by various names. The early names were the Upanishadic ones (Aupanisada), the doctrine of the end of the Vedas (Vedanta-vada), the doctrine of Brahman (Brahma-vada), and the doctrine that Brahman
Brahman
is the cause (Brahma-karana-vada). * ^ The Upanishads were many in number and developed in the different schools at different times and places, some in the Vedic period and others in the medieval or modern era (the names of up to 112 Upanishads have been recorded). All major commentators have considered twelve to thirteen oldest of these texts as the Principal Upanishads and as the foundation of Vedanta. * ^ Sivananda also mentions Meykandar and the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy. * ^ Proponents of other Vedantic schools continue to write and develop their ideas as well, although their works are not widely known outside of smaller circles of followers in India
India
. * ^ Nicholson (2010 , p. 26) considers the Brahma Sutras as a group of sutras composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years. The precise date is disputed. Nicholson (2010 , p. 26) estimates that the book was composed in its current form between 400 and 450 BCE. * ^ The Vedanta–sūtra are known by a variety of names, including (1) Brahma–sūtra, (2) Śārīraka–sutra, (3) Bādarāyaṇa–sūtra and (4) Uttara–mīmāṁsā. * ^ Estimates of the date of Bādarāyana's lifetime differ. * ^ Bhartŗhari (c. 450–500), Upavarsa (c. 450–500), Bodhāyana (c. 500), Tanka (Brahmānandin) (c. 500–550), Dravida (c. 550), Bhartŗprapañca (c. 550), Śabarasvāmin (c. 550), Bhartŗmitra (c. 550–600), Śrivatsānka (c. 600), Sundarapāndya (c. 600), Brahmadatta (c. 600–700), Gaudapada
Gaudapada
(c. 640–690), Govinda (c. 670–720), Mandanamiśra (c. 670–750). * ^ There is ample evidence, however, to suggest that Advaita
Advaita
was a thriving tradition by the start of the common era or even before that. Shankara mentions 99 different predecessors of his Sampradaya. Scholarship since 1950 suggests that almost all Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads have a strong Advaita Vedanta outlook. Six Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads – Aruni, Kundika, Kathashruti, Paramahamsa, Jabala and Brahma – were composed before the 3rd Century CE, likely in the centuries before or after the start of the common era; the Asrama Upanishad is dated to the 3rd Century. The strong Advaita Vedanta views in these ancient Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads may be, states Patrick Olivelle , because major Hindu
Hindu
monasteries of this period belonged to the Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta tradition. * ^ Scholars like Raju (1972 , p. 177), following the lead of earlier scholars like Sengupta, believe that Gaudapada
Gaudapada
co-opted the Buddhist doctrine that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra) . Raju (1972 , pp. 177–178) states, "Gaudapada wove into a philosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara." Nikhilananda (2008 , pp. 203–206) states that the whole purpose of Gaudapada
Gaudapada
was to present and demonstrate the ultimate reality of Atman, an idea denied by Buddhism
Buddhism
. According to Murti (1955 , pp. 114–115), Gaudapada's doctrines are unlike Buddhism. Gaudapada's influential text consists of four chapters; Chapter One, Two and Three of which are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor. Chapter Four uses Buddhist terminology and incorporates Buddhist doctrines but Vedanta scholars who followed Gaudapada
Gaudapada
through the 17th century, state both Murti and Richard King, never referenced nor used Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three. While there is shared terminology, the doctrines of Gaudapada
Gaudapada
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are fundamentally different, states Murti (1955 , pp. 114–115) * ^ Nicholson (2010 , p. 27) writes: "The Brahmasutras themselves espouse the realist Parinamavada position, which appears to have been the view most common among early Vedantins." * ^ Shankara synthesized the Advaita–vāda which had previously existed before him, and, in this synthesis, became the restorer text-decoration: none">māyā) is not to say that it is unreal; it is to say, instead, that it is not what it seems to be, that it is something constantly being made. Maya not only deceives people about the things they think they know; more basically, it limits their knowledge." * ^ The concept of Brahman
Brahman
in Dvaita Vedanta is so similar to the monotheistic eternal God, that some early colonial–era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson suggested Madhva was influenced by early Christians who migrated to India, but later scholarship has rejected this theory. * ^ According to Nakamura and Dasgupta, the Brahmasutras reflect a Bhedabheda point of view, the most influential tradition of Vedanta before Shankara. Numerous Indologists, including Surendranath Dasgupta, Paul hacker, Hajime Nakamura, and Mysore Hiriyanna, have described Bhedabheda as the most influential school of Vedanta
Vedanta
before Shankara. * ^ A few Indian scholars such as Vedvyasa discuss ten, Krtakoti discusses eight, but six is most widely accepted; see Nicholson (2010 , pp. 149–150) * ^ Anantanand Rambachan (1991 , pp. xii–xiii) states, "According to these studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the Śruti (Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source (pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti, therefore, is only secondary." Sengaku Mayeda (2006 , pp. 46–47) concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in Śruti (codanatantra) as secondary. Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana–janya) in section 1.18.133 of Upadesasahasri and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra–bhasya. * ^ Nicholson (2010 , p. 27) writes of Advaita
Advaita
Vedantin position of cause and effect - Although Brahman
Brahman
seems to undergo a transformation, in fact no real change takes place. The myriad of beings are essentially unreal, as the only real being is Brahman, that ultimate reality which is unborn, unchanging, and entirely without parts. * ^ Vivekananda, clarifies Richard King, stated, "I am not a Buddhist, as you have heard, and yet I am"; but thereafter Vivekananda explained that "he cannot accept the Buddhist rejection of a self, but nevertheless honors the Buddha's compassion and attitude towards others". * ^ The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu
Hindu
identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other", which started well before 1800.

REFERENCES

* ^ Chatterjee Flood 1996 , p. 231,232,238 * ^ Koller 2013 , pp. 100–106; Sharma 1960 , p. 211; Hiriyanna 1948 , pp. 19,21–25,150–152 * ^ Chatterjee Raju 1972 , pp. 176–177; Isaeva 1992 , p. 35 with footnote 30 * ^ Raju 1972 , pp. 176–177. * ^ Chatterjee Scharfe 2002 , pp. 58–59,115–120,282–283 * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 231,232,238. * ^ Clooney 2000 , pp. 147–158. * ^ Mohan Lal Sandal 1925 , p. 16, Sutra 30. * ^ King 1995 , p. 268 with note 2. * ^ Ranganathan ; Hiriyanna 1948 , pp. 19,21–25,150–152; Grimes 1990 , pp. 6–7 * ^ Dasgupta 1922 , pp. 28. * ^ A B C Hiriyanna 1948 , pp. 19,21–25,150–152. * ^ Pasricha 2008 , p. 95. * ^ Balasubramanian 2000 , p. xxx–xxxiiii; Deutsch & Dalvi 2004 , pp. 95–96 * ^ Chatterjee Nakamura 1949 , p. 436 * ^ Balasubramanian 2000 , p. xxxiii; Sharma 1996 , pp. 124–125 * ^ Nakamura 1950 , p. 3; Sharma 1996 , pp. 124–125 * ^ Sharma 1996 , pp. 124–125. * ^ Hiriyanna 1948 , pp. 19,21–25,151–152; Sharma 1960 , pp. 239–241; Nicholson 2010 , p. 26 * ^ Satischandra Chatterjee, Dhirendramohan Dutta (1939). AN INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN PHILOSOPHY. Rupa Publications India
India
Pvt. Limited (2007 Reprint). p. 317. ISBN 978-81-291-1195-1 . * ^ Sharma, Chandramohan (2009). A Critical Summary of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 239–241. ISBN 978-81-208-0365-7 . * ^ Pandey 2000 , p. 4. * ^ "Indian Philosophy - Historical Development of Indian Philosophy Britannica.com". * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798 , page 746 * ^ A B Nakamura 1949 , p. 436. * ^ Nicholson 2013 , p. 26, Quote: "From a historical perspective, the Brahmasutras are best understood as a group of sutras composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years, most likely composed in its current form between 400 and 450 BCE.". * ^ NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7 , page 36 * ^ Hiriyanna 1948 , pp. 151–152. * ^ Nicholson 2010 , pp. 26–27; Mohanty & Wharton 2011 * ^ Nakamura 1950 , p. 426. * ^ A B Roodurmum 2002 . * ^ Hiriyanna, M. (1948). The Essentials of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). pp. 19, 21–25, 150–152. 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FURTHER READING

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Jain Agamas
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Mimamsa
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Nyāya Sūtras
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* Upanishads

* Minor

* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Vedangas * Vedas * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
* Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha * More...

PHILOSOPHERS

* Avatsara * Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
* Gargi Vachaknavi * Patanjali
Patanjali
* Kanada * Kapila * Brihadratha Ikshvaku * Jaimini * Vyasa
Vyasa
* Chanakya
Chanakya
* Akshapada Gotama
Akshapada Gotama
* Nagarjuna * Padmasambhava * Vasubandhu * Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Swami Vivekananda * Dayananda Saraswati
Dayananda Saraswati
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta Desika * Raikva * Sadananda * Sakayanya * Satyakama Jabala * Madhvacharya * Vidyaranya * More...

CONCEPTS

* Abhava * Abhasavada * Abheda * Adarsana * Adrishta
Adrishta
* Advaita
Advaita
* Aham * Aishvarya * Akrodha
Akrodha
* Aksara * Anatta
Anatta
* Ananta * Anavastha * Anupalabdhi * Apauruṣheyā * Artha
Artha
* Asiddhatva * Asatkalpa * Ātman * Avyakta * Brahman
Brahman
* Brahmi sthiti * Bhuman * Bhumika * Chaitanya * Chidabhasa * Cittabhumi * Dāna
Dāna
* Devatas * Dharma
Dharma
* Dhi * Dravya
Dravya
* Dhrti * Ekagrata * Guṇa * Hitā
Hitā
* Idam * Ikshana * Ishvaratva * Jivatva * Kama
Kama
* Karma
Karma
* Kasaya * Kshetrajna * Lakshana * Mithyatva * Mokṣa * Nididhyasana * Nirvāṇa * Niyama * Padārtha * Paramatman * Paramananda * Parameshashakti * Parinama-vada * Pradhana
Pradhana
* Prajna * Prakṛti * Pratibimbavada * Pratītyasamutpāda * Puruṣa * Rājamaṇḍala * Ṛta * Sakshi * Samadhi * Saṃsāra * Sankalpa * Satya * Satkaryavada * Shabda Brahman
Brahman
* Sphoṭa * Sthiti * Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Sutram * Svātantrya * Iccha-mrityu * Syādvāda * Taijasa * Tajjalan * Tanmatra * Tyāga * Uparati * Upekkhā * Utsaha * Vivartavada * Viraj
Viraj
* Yamas
Yamas
* Yoga
Yoga
* More...

* v * t * e

Philosophy of religion

CONCEPTS IN RELIGION

* Afterlife
Afterlife
* Euthyphro dilemma * Faith
Faith
* Intelligent design * Miracle
Miracle
* Problem of evil * Religious belief * Soul
Soul
* Spirit
Spirit
* Theodicy * Theological veto

CONCEPTIONS OF GOD

* Aristotelian view * Brahman
Brahman
* Demiurge
Demiurge
* Divine simplicity
Divine simplicity
* Egoism * Holy Spirit
Spirit
* Misotheism * Pandeism * Personal god * Process theology * Supreme Being * Unmoved mover

GOD IN

* Abrahamic religions * Buddhism
Buddhism
* Christianity * Hinduism
Hinduism
* Islam * Jainism
Jainism
* Judaism * Mormonism * Sikhism * Bahá\'í Faith
Faith
* Wicca

EXISTENCE OF GOD

FOR

* Beauty * Christological * Consciousness

* Cosmological

* Kalam * Contingency

* Degree * Desire * Experience * Fine-tuning of the Universe * Love * Miracles * Morality * Necessary existent * Ontological * Pascal\'s Wager * Proper basis * Reason

* Teleological

* Natural law * Watchmaker analogy

* Transcendental

AGAINST

* 747 gambit * Atheist\'s Wager * Evil * Free will * Hell * Inconsistent revelations * Nonbelief * Noncognitivism * Occam\'s razor * Omnipotence * Poor design * Russell\'s teapot

THEOLOGY

* Acosmism * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Animism
Animism
* Antireligion * Atheism
Atheism
* Creationism * Dharmism * Deism * Demonology * Divine command theory * Dualism
Dualism
* Esotericism * Exclusivism

* Existentialism
Existentialism

* Christian
Christian
* Agnostic * Atheistic

* Feminist theology

* Thealogy * Womanist theology

* Fideism * Fundamentalism * Gnosticism * Henotheism

* Humanism
Humanism

* Religious * Secular * Christian
Christian

* Inclusivism * Theories about religions * Monism
Monism
* Monotheism
Monotheism
* Mysticism
Mysticism

* Naturalism

* Metaphysical * Religious * Humanistic

* New Age * Nondualism
Nondualism
* Nontheism * Pandeism * Panentheism * Pantheism
Pantheism
* Perennialism * Polytheism
Polytheism
* Process theology * Religious skepticism * Spiritualism * Shamanism * Taoic * Theism
Theism
* Transcendentalism * more...

RELIGIOUS LANGUAGE

* Eschatological verification * Language-game * Logical positivism * Apophatic theology * Verificationism

PROBLEM OF EVIL

* Augustinian theodicy * Best of all possible worlds * Euthyphro dilemma * Inconsistent triad * Irenaean theodicy * Natural evil * Theodicy

Philosophers of religion (by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

* Anselm of Canterbury * Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
* Avicenna
Avicenna
* Averroes * Boethius
Boethius
* Erasmus
Erasmus
* Gaunilo of Marmoutiers * Pico della Mirandola * Heraclitus
Heraclitus
* King James VI and I
James VI and I
* Marcion of Sinope * Thomas Aquinas * Maimonides
Maimonides

ENLIGHTENMENT

* Augustin Calmet * René Descartes
René Descartes
* Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
* Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
* Nicolas Malebranche * Gottfried W Leibniz * William Wollaston * Thomas Chubb * David Hume
David Hume
* Baron d\'Holbach * Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
* Johann G Herder

1800 1850

* Friedrich Schleiermacher
Friedrich Schleiermacher
* Karl C F Krause * Georg W F Hegel

* William Whewell
William Whewell
* Ludwig Feuerbach * Søren Kierkegaard * Karl Marx
Karl Marx
* Albrecht Ritschl

1880 1900

* Ernst Haeckel * W. K. Clifford * Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
* Harald Høffding * William James
William James

* Vladimir Solovyov * Ernst Troeltsch * Rudolf Otto * Lev Shestov * Sergei Bulgakov * Pavel Florensky * Ernst Cassirer
Ernst Cassirer
* Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

* George Santayana * Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
* Martin Buber
Martin Buber
* René Guénon * Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
* Karl Barth * Emil Brunner * Rudolf Bultmann * Gabriel Marcel
Gabriel Marcel
* Reinhold Niebuhr
Reinhold Niebuhr

* Charles Hartshorne * Mircea Eliade * J L Mackie * Walter Kaufmann * Martin Lings * Peter Geach * George I Mavrodes * William Alston * Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

* William L Rowe * Dewi Z Phillips * Alvin Plantinga * Anthony Kenny * Nicholas Wolterstorff * Richard Swinburne
Richard Swinburne
* Robert Merrihew Adams

* Peter van Inwagen * Daniel Dennett * Loyal Rue * Jean-Luc Marion * William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig
* Ali Akbar Rashad

* Alexander Pruss

RELATED TOPICS

* Criticism of religion * Ethics in religion * Exegesis * History of religions * Religion
Religion
* Religious language * Religious philosophy * Relationship between religion and science * Political science of religion * Faith
Faith
and rationality * more...

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