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Vatican City
City
(/ˈvætɪkən ˈsɪti/ ( listen); Italian: Città del Vaticano [tʃitˈta del vatiˈkaːno]; Latin: Civitas Vaticana),[d] officially Vatican City
City
State or State of Vatican City (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano;[e] Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae),[f] is an independent state located within the city of Rome. With an area of 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of about 1,000,[3] it is the smallest state in the world by both area and population. However, formally it is not sovereign, with sovereignty being held by the Holy See. It is an ecclesiastical[3] or sacerdotal-monarchical[7] state (a type of theocracy) ruled by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
– the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Since the return of the popes from Avignon
Avignon
in 1377, they have generally resided at the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace
Quirinal Palace
in Rome
Rome
or elsewhere. Vatican City
City
is distinct from the Holy See
Holy See
(Latin: Sancta Sedes),[g] which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin
Latin
and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. The independent city-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
between the Holy See
Holy See
and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation,[8] not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States
Papal States
(756–1870), which had previously encompassed much of central Italy. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See
Holy See
has "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" over the city-state.[9] Within Vatican City
City
are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City
City
is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Papal States 2.3 Italian unification 2.4 Lateran treaties 2.5 World War II 2.6 Post-war history

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Gardens

4 Governance

4.1 Political system 4.2 Head of state 4.3 Administration 4.4 Defense and security 4.5 Foreign relations

5 Economy 6 Demographics

6.1 Population
Population
and languages 6.2 Citizenship

7 Culture 8 Sport 9 Infrastructure

9.1 Transport 9.2 Communications 9.3 Recycling

10 Crime 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Footnotes 12.2 Citation notes 12.3 Bibliography

13 External links

13.1 Official websites 13.2 Other websites

Name[edit] The name Vatican city was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, which established the modern city-state. The name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, "Vatican territory"[citation needed]. The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, meaning "Vatican City State". Although the Holy See
Holy See
(which is distinct from the Vatican City) and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
use Ecclesiastical
Ecclesiastical
Latin
Latin
in official documents, the Vatican City
City
officially uses Italian. The Latin
Latin
name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ;[10][11] this is used in official documents by not just the Holy See, but in most official Church and Papal documents. History[edit]

View of St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
from the top of Michelangelo's dome

Early history[edit]

The Vatican obelisk, originally taken from Egypt by Caligula

The name "Vatican" was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder
(14 BC – 18 October AD 33) drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD 40, her son, Emperor Caligula
Caligula
(31 August AD 12–24 January AD 41; r. 37–41) built in her gardens a circus for charioteers (AD 40) that was later completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis,[12] usually called, simply, the Circus of Nero.[13] Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome
Rome
(the ager vaticanus) had long been considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation.[citation needed] A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele
Cybele
and her consort Attis
Attis
remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby.[14] The particularly low quality of Vatican water, even after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial
Martial
(40 – between 102 and 104 AD).[15] Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote, that in AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Vitellius
Vitellius
to power arrived in Rome, "a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery; and the Tiber being close by, the inability of the Gauls and Germans to bear the heat and the consequent greed with which they drank from the stream weakened their bodies, which were already an easy prey to disease".[16] The Vatican Obelisk
Obelisk
was originally taken by Caligula
Caligula
from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant.[17] This area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome
Rome
in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter
Saint Peter
was crucified upside-down.[18] Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries, increasing in frequency during the Renaissance
Renaissance
until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope
Pope
Pius XII from 1939 to 1941. The Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery.[19] From then on, the area became more populated in connection with activity at the basilica. A palace was constructed nearby as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Symmachus (reigned 498–514).[20] Papal States[edit] Main article: Papal States See also: History of the Papacy

The Italian peninsula in 1796. The shaded yellow territory in central Italy
Italy
is the Papal State.

Popes gradually came to have a secular role as governors of regions near Rome. They ruled the Papal States, which covered a large portion of the Italian peninsula, for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when all the territory belonging to the papacy was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For most of this time the popes did not live at the Vatican. The Lateran Palace, on the opposite side of Rome
Rome
was their habitual residence for about a thousand years. From 1309 to 1377, they lived at Avignon
Avignon
in France. On their return to Rome
Rome
they chose to live at the Vatican. They moved to the Quirinal Palace
Quirinal Palace
in 1583, after work on it was completed under Pope
Pope
Paul V (1605–1621), but on the capture of Rome
Rome
in 1870 retired to the Vatican, and what had been their residence became that of the King of Italy. Italian unification[edit] Main article: Roman Question In 1870, the Pope's holdings were left in an uncertain situation when Rome
Rome
itself was annexed by the Piedmont-led forces which had united the rest of Italy, after a nominal resistance by the papal forces. Between 1861 and 1929 the status of the Pope
Pope
was referred to as the "Roman Question". Italy
Italy
made no attempt to interfere with the Holy See
Holy See
within the Vatican walls. However, it confiscated church property in many places. In 1871 the Quirinal Palace
Quirinal Palace
was confiscated by the king of Italy
Italy
and became the royal palace. Thereafter the popes resided undisturbed within the Vatican walls, and certain papal prerogatives were recognized by the Law of Guarantees, including the right to send and receive ambassadors. But the Popes did not recognise the Italian king's right to rule in Rome, and they refused to leave the Vatican compound until the dispute was resolved in 1929; Pope
Pope
Pius IX (1846–78), the last ruler of the Papal States, was referred to as a "prisoner in the Vatican". Forced to give up secular power, the popes focused on spiritual issues.[21] Lateran treaties[edit] Main article: Lateran Treaty This situation was resolved on 11 February 1929, when the Lateran Treaty
Treaty
between the Holy See
Holy See
and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
was signed by Prime Minister and Head of Government Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and by Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
Pietro Gasparri for Pope
Pope
Pius XI.[8][9][22] The treaty, which became effective on 7 June 1929, established the independent state of Vatican City
City
and reaffirmed the special status of Catholicism in Italy.[23] World War II[edit] Main article: Vatican City
City
during World War II

Bands of the British army's 38th Brigade playing in front of St Peter's Basilica, June 1944.

The Holy See, which ruled Vatican City, pursued a policy of neutrality during World War II, under the leadership of Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Although German troops occupied the city of Rome
Rome
after the September 1943 Armistice of Cassibile, and the Allies from 1944, they respected Vatican City
City
as neutral territory.[24] One of the main diplomatic priorities of the bishop of Rome
Rome
was to prevent the bombing of the city; so sensitive was the pontiff that he protested even the British air dropping of pamphlets over Rome, claiming that the few landing within the city-state violated the Vatican's neutrality.[25] The British policy, as expressed in the minutes of a Cabinet meeting, was: "that we should on no account molest the Vatican City, but that our action as regards the rest of Rome
Rome
would depend upon how far the Italian government observed the rules of war".[25] After the American entry into the war, the US opposed such a bombing, fearful of offending Catholic members of its military forces, but said that "they could not stop the British from bombing Rome
Rome
if the British so decided". The British uncompromisingly said "they would bomb Rome whenever the needs of the war demanded".[26] In December 1942, the British envoy suggested to the Holy See
Holy See
that Rome
Rome
be declared an "open city", a suggestion that the Holy See
Holy See
took more seriously than was probably meant by the British, who did not want Rome
Rome
to be an open city, but Mussolini rejected the suggestion when the Holy See
Holy See
put it to him. In connection with the Allied invasion of Sicily, 500 American aircraft bombed Rome
Rome
on 19 July 1943, aiming particularly at the railway hub. Some 1,500 people were killed; Pius XII himself, who had been described in the previous month as "worried sick" about the possible bombing, went to the scene of the tragedy. Another raid took place on 13 August 1943, after Mussolini had been ousted from power.[27] On the following day, the new government declared Rome
Rome
an open city, after consulting the Holy See
Holy See
on the wording of the declaration, but the British had decided that they would never recognize Rome
Rome
as an open city.[28] Post-war history[edit] Pius XII had refrained from creating cardinals during the war. By the end of World War II, there were several prominent vacancies: Cardinal Secretary of State, Camerlengo, Chancellor, and Prefect for the Congregation for the Religious among them.[29] Pius XII created 32 cardinals in early 1946, having announced his intentions to do so in his preceding Christmas message. The Pontifical Military Corps, except for the Swiss Guard, was disbanded by will of Paul VI, as expressed in a letter of 14 September 1970.[30] The Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
Corps was transformed into a civilian police and security force. In 1984, a new concordat between the Holy See
Holy See
and Italy
Italy
modified certain provisions of the earlier treaty, including the position of Catholicism as the Italian state religion, a position given to it by a statute of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
of 1848.[23] Construction in 1995 of a new guest house, Domus Sanctae Marthae, adjacent to St Peter's Basilica was criticised by Italian environmental groups, backed by Italian politicians. They claimed the new building would block views of the Basilica from nearby Italian apartments.[31] For a short while the plans strained the relations between the Vatican and the Italian government. The head of the Vatican's Department of Technical Services robustly rejected challenges to the Vatican State's right to build within its borders.[31] Geography[edit]

Map of Vatican City, highlighting notable buildings and the Vatican gardens.

Main article: Geography of Vatican City The name "Vatican" predates Christianity and comes from the Latin
Latin
Mons Vaticanus, meaning Vatican Mount.[32] The territory of Vatican City
City
is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields. It is in this territory that St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV (847–55), and later expanded by the current fortification walls, built under Paul III (1534–49), Pius IV (1559–65) and Urban VIII (1623–44).

Territory of Vatican City
City
State according to the Lateran Treaty.

When the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 1929 that gave the state its form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed. The territory includes St. Peter's Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy
Italy
only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
is reached through the Via della Conciliazione
Via della Conciliazione
which runs from close to the Tiber River to St. Peter's. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.[33][34] These properties, scattered all over Rome
Rome
and Italy, house essential offices and institutions necessary to the character and mission of the Holy See.[34] Castel Gandolfo and the named basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City
City
State and not by Italian police. According to the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
(Art. 3) St. Peter's Square, up to but not including the steps leading to the basilica, is normally patrolled by the Italian police.[33] There are no passport controls for visitors entering Vatican City
City
from the surrounding Italian territory. There is free public access to Saint Peter's Square
Saint Peter's Square
and Basilica and, on the occasion of papal general audiences, to the hall in which they are held. For these audiences and for major ceremonies in Saint Peter's Basilica and Square, tickets free of charge must be obtained beforehand. The Vatican Museums, incorporating the Sistine Chapel, usually charge an entrance fee. There is no general public access to the gardens, but guided tours for small groups can be arranged to the gardens and excavations under the basilica. Other places are open to only those individuals who have business to transact there.

St. Peter's Square, the basilica and obelisk, from Piazza Pio XII

Climate[edit] Vatican City's climate is the same as Rome's: a temperate, Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
Csa with mild, rainy winters from October to mid-May and hot, dry summers from May to September. Some minor local features, principally mists and dews, are caused by the anomalous bulk of St Peter's Basilica, the elevation, the fountains and the size of the large paved square.

Climate data for Vatican City

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.8 (67.6) 21.2 (70.2) 26.6 (79.9) 27.2 (81) 33.0 (91.4) 37.8 (100) 39.4 (102.9) 40.6 (105.1) 38.4 (101.1) 30.0 (86) 25.0 (77) 20.2 (68.4) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 11.9 (53.4) 13.0 (55.4) 15.2 (59.4) 17.7 (63.9) 22.8 (73) 26.9 (80.4) 30.3 (86.5) 30.6 (87.1) 26.5 (79.7) 21.4 (70.5) 15.9 (60.6) 12.6 (54.7) 20.4 (68.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 7.5 (45.5) 8.2 (46.8) 10.2 (50.4) 12.6 (54.7) 17.2 (63) 21.1 (70) 24.1 (75.4) 24.5 (76.1) 20.8 (69.4) 16.4 (61.5) 11.4 (52.5) 8.4 (47.1) 15.2 (59.4)

Average low °C (°F) 3.1 (37.6) 3.5 (38.3) 5.2 (41.4) 7.5 (45.5) 11.6 (52.9) 15.3 (59.5) 18.0 (64.4) 18.3 (64.9) 15.2 (59.4) 11.3 (52.3) 6.9 (44.4) 4.2 (39.6) 10.0 (50)

Record low °C (°F) −11.0 (12.2) −4.4 (24.1) −5.6 (21.9) 0.0 (32) 3.8 (38.8) 7.8 (46) 10.6 (51.1) 10.0 (50) 5.6 (42.1) 0.8 (33.4) −5.2 (22.6) −4.8 (23.4) −11 (12.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 67 (2.64) 73 (2.87) 58 (2.28) 81 (3.19) 53 (2.09) 34 (1.34) 19 (0.75) 37 (1.46) 73 (2.87) 113 (4.45) 115 (4.53) 81 (3.19) 804 (31.65)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7.0 7.6 7.6 9.2 6.2 4.3 2.1 3.3 6.2 8.2 9.7 8.0 79.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 132.8 167.4 201.0 263.5 285.0 331.7 297.6 237.0 195.3 129.0 111.6 2,472.8

Source: Servizio Meteorologico,[35] data of sunshine hours[36]

In July 2007, the Vatican accepted a proposal by two firms based respectively in San Francisco
San Francisco
and Budapest,[37] whereby it would become the first carbon neutral state by offsetting its carbon dioxide emissions with the creation of a Vatican Climate Forest in Hungary,[38] as a purely symbolic gesture[39] to encourage Catholics to do more to safeguard the planet.[40] Nothing came of the project.[41][42] On 26 November 2008, the Vatican itself put into effect a plan announced in May 2007 to cover the roof of the Paul VI Audience Hall with solar panels.[43][44] Gardens[edit] Main article: Gardens of Vatican City Within the territory of Vatican City
City
are the Vatican Gardens (Italian: Giardini Vaticani),[45] which account for more than half of this territory. The gardens, established during the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque era, are decorated with fountains and sculptures. The gardens cover approximately 23 hectares (57 acres) which is most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point is 60 metres (200 ft) above mean sea level. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West. The gardens date back to medieval times when orchards and vineyards extended to the north of the Papal Apostolic Palace.[46] In 1279 Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277–1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
and enclosed this area with walls.[47] He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum) and a garden (viridarium).[47]

Panorama of the gardens from atop St. Peter's Basilica

Governance[edit]

Vatican City

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Vatican City

Sovereign

Pope
Pope
(list)

Francis

Law Constitution

Law of Vatican City

Fundamental Law

Lateran Treaty

Executive

Governorate

President: Giuseppe Bertello

Secretariat of State

Secretary: Pietro Parolin

Legislature

Pontifical Commission

President: Giuseppe Bertello

Judiciary

Court of Cassation

President: Dominique Mamberti

Court of Appeals

President: Pio Vito Pinto

Tribunale

President: G. di Sanguinetto

Elections

Conclave Recent conclaves

2013 2005 1978 (Oct)

See also

Foreign relations Financial Information Authority Military Corps of Gendarmerie

Other countries Atlas

v t e

Main article: Politics of Vatican City The politics of Vatican City
City
takes place in an absolute elective monarchy, in which the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
takes power. The Pope
Pope
exercises principal legislative, executive, and judicial power over the State of Vatican City
City
(an entity distinct from the Holy See), which is a rare case of a non-hereditary monarchy.[48] Vatican City
City
is one of the few widely recognized independent states that has not become a member of the United Nations[49]. The Holy See, which is distinct from Vatican City
City
State, has permanent observer status with all the rights of a full member except for a vote in the UN General Assembly. Political system[edit] The government of Vatican City
City
has a unique structure. The Pope
Pope
is the sovereign of the state. Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
City
State, a body of cardinals appointed by the Pope
Pope
for five-year periods. Executive power is in the hands of the President of that commission, assisted by the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary. The state's foreign relations are entrusted to the Holy See's Secretariat of State and diplomatic service. Nevertheless, the pope has absolute power in the executive, legislative and judicial branches over Vatican City. He is currently the only absolute monarch in Europe. There are specific departments that deal with health, security, telecommunications, etc.[50] The Cardinal Camerlengo presides over the Apostolic Camera to which is entrusted the administration of the property and protection of other papal temporal powers and rights of the Holy See
Holy See
during the period of the empty throne or Sede Vacante (papal vacancy). Those of the Vatican State remain under the control of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. Acting with three other cardinals chosen by lot every three days, one from each order of cardinals (cardinal bishop, cardinal priest, and cardinal deacon), he in a sense performs during that period the functions of head of state of Vatican City.[citation needed] All the decisions these four cardinals take must be approved by the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
as a whole. The nobility that was closely associated with the Holy See
Holy See
at the time of the Papal States
Papal States
continued to be associated with the Papal Court after the loss of these territories, generally with merely nominal duties (see Papal Master of the Horse, Prefecture of the Pontifical Household, Hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, Black Nobility). They also formed the ceremonial Noble Guard. In the first decades of the existence of the Vatican City
City
State, executive functions were entrusted to some of them, including that of Delegate for the State of Vatican City
City
(now denominated President of the Commission for Vatican City). But with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus
Pontificalis Domus
of 28 March 1968,[51] Pope
Pope
Paul VI abolished the honorary positions that had continued to exist until then, such as Quartermaster general and Master of the Horse.[52] Vatican City
City
State, created in 1929 by the Lateran Pacts, provides the Holy See
Holy See
with a temporal jurisdiction and independence within a small territory. It is distinct from the Holy See. The state can thus be deemed a significant but not essential instrument of the Holy See. The Holy See
Holy See
itself has existed continuously as a juridical entity since Roman Imperial times and has been internationally recognized as a powerful and independent sovereign entity since Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
to the present, without interruption even at times when it was deprived of territory (e.g. 1870 to 1929). The Holy See
Holy See
has the oldest active continuous diplomatic service in the world, dating back to at least AD 325 with its legation to the Council of Nicea.[53] Head of state[edit] Main article: Pope See also: List of Sovereigns of the Vatican City
City
State

The Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
(Palazzo Apostolico), the official residence of the Pope. Here, Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
is at the window marked by a maroon banner hanging from the windowsill at centre.

The Pope
Pope
is ex officio head of state[54] of Vatican City, functions dependent on his primordial function as bishop of the diocese of Rome. The term Holy See
Holy See
refers not to the Vatican state but to the Pope's spiritual and pastoral governance, largely exercised through the Roman Curia.[55] His official title with regard to Vatican City
City
is Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City. Pope
Pope
Francis, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio in Buenos Aires, Argentina, was elected on 13 March 2013. His principal subordinate government official for Vatican City
City
is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
City
State, who since 1952 exercises the functions previously belonging to the Governor of Vatican City. Since 2001, the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State also has the title of President of the Governorate of the State of Vatican City. The current President is Italian Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello, who was appointed on 1 October 2011. Administration[edit] Main article: Law of Vatican City Legislative functions are delegated to the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
City
State, led by the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
City
State. Its seven members are cardinals appointed by the Pope
Pope
for terms of five years. Acts of the commission must be approved by the Pope, through the Holy See's Secretariat of State, and before taking effect must be published in a special appendix of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Most of the content of this appendix consists of routine executive decrees, such as approval for a new set of postage stamps. Executive authority is delegated to the Governorate of Vatican City. The Governorate consists of the President of the Pontifical Commission—using the title "President of the Governorate of Vatican City"—a general secretary, and a Vice general secretary, each appointed by the Pope
Pope
for five-year terms. Important actions of the Governorate must be confirmed by the Pontifical Commission and by the Pope
Pope
through the Secretariat of State. The Governorate oversees the central governmental functions through several departments and offices. The directors and officials of these offices are appointed by the Pope
Pope
for five-year terms. These organs concentrate on material questions concerning the state's territory, including local security, records, transportation, and finances. The Governorate oversees a modern security & police corps, the Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano. Judicial functions are delegated to a supreme court, an appellate court, a tribunal (Tribunal of Vatican City
City
State), and a trial judge. At the Vatican's request, sentences imposed can be served in Italy (see the section on crime, below). The international postal country code prefix is SCV, and the only postal code is 00120 – altogether SCV-00120.[56] Defense and security[edit]

A guard of the Vatican at his sentry box.

Pontifical Swiss Guard
Swiss Guard
in his traditional uniform.

Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
car.

Main articles: Military of Vatican City, Pontifical Swiss Guard, Corps of Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
of Vatican City, and Corps of Firefighters of the Vatican City
City
State As the Vatican City
City
is an enclave within Italy, its military defence is provided by the Italian armed forces. However, there is no formal defence treaty with Italy, as the Vatican City
City
is a neutral state. Vatican City
City
has no armed forces of its own, although the Swiss Guard is a military corps of the Holy See
Holy See
responsible for the personal security of the Pope, and resident in the state. Soldiers of the Swiss Guard are entitled to hold Vatican City
City
State passports and nationality. Swiss mercenaries were historically recruited by Popes as part of an army for the Papal States, and the Pontifical Swiss Guard was founded by Pope
Pope
Julius II on 22 January 1506 as the pope's personal bodyguard and continues to fulfill that function. It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
under "Holy See", not under "State of Vatican City". At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland. All recruits must be Catholic, unmarried males with Swiss citizenship who have completed their basic training with the Swiss Armed Forces
Swiss Armed Forces
with certificates of good conduct, be between the ages of 19 and 30, and be at least 174 cm (5 ft 9 in) in height. Members are equipped with small arms and the traditional halberd (also called the Swiss voulge), and trained in bodyguarding tactics. The Palatine Guard
Palatine Guard
and the Noble Guard, the last armed forces of the Vatican City
City
State, were disbanded by Pope
Pope
Paul VI in 1970.[30] As Vatican City
City
has listed every building in its territory on the International Register of Cultural Property under Special
Special
Protection, the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict theoretically renders it immune to armed attack.[57] Civil defence is the responsibility of the Corps of Firefighters of the Vatican City
City
State, the national fire brigade. Dating its origins to the early nineteenth century, the Corps in its present form was established in 1941. It is responsible for fire fighting, as well as a range of civil defence scenarios including flood, natural disaster, and mass casualty management. The Corps is governmentally supervised through the Directorate for Security Services and Civil Defence, which is also responsible for the Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
(see below). The Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
Corps (Corpo della Gendarmeria) is the gendarmerie, or police and security force, of Vatican City
City
and the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See.[58] The corps is responsible for security, public order, border control, traffic control, criminal investigation, and other general police duties in Vatican City
City
including providing security for the Pope
Pope
outside of Vatican City. The corps has 130 personnel and is a part of the Directorate for Security Services and Civil Defence (which also includes the Vatican Fire Brigade), an organ of the Governorate of Vatican City.[59][60] Foreign relations[edit]

Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City
City
State.

The Ingresso di Sant'Anna, an entrance to Vatican City
City
from Italy.

See also: Foreign relations of the Holy See
Holy See
and List of diplomatic missions of the Holy See Vatican City
City
State is a recognized national territory under international law, but it is the Holy See
Holy See
that conducts diplomatic relations on its behalf, in addition to the Holy See's own diplomacy, entering into international agreements in its regard. Vatican City thus has no diplomatic service of its own. Because of space limitations, Vatican City
City
is one of the few countries in the world that is unable to host embassies. Foreign embassies to the Holy See
Holy See
are located in the city of Rome; only during the Second World War were the staff of some embassies accredited to the Holy See given what hospitality was possible within the narrow confines of Vatican City—embassies such as that of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
while Rome was held by the Axis Powers and Germany's when the Allies controlled Rome. The size of Vatican City
City
is thus unrelated to the large global reach exercised by the Holy See
Holy See
as an entity quite distinct from the state.[61] However, Vatican City
City
State itself participates in some international organizations whose functions relate to the state as a geographical entity, distinct from the non-territorial legal persona of the Holy See. These organizations are much less numerous than those in which the Holy See
Holy See
participates either as a member or with observer status. They include the following eight, in each of which Vatican City
City
State holds membership:[62][63]

European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) European Telecommunications Satellite Organization ( Eutelsat
Eutelsat
IGO) International Grains Council (IGC) International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS) International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(ITSO) Interpol[64] Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(UPU)

It also participates in:[62]

World Medical Association World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO)

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Vatican City The Vatican City
City
State budget includes the Vatican Museums
Vatican Museums
and post office and is supported financially by the sale of stamps, coins, medals and tourist mementos; by fees for admission to museums; and by publications sales.[h] The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.[65] Other industries include printing, the production of mosaics, and the manufacture of staff uniforms. There is a Vatican Pharmacy. The Institute for Works of Religion
Institute for Works of Religion
(IOR, Istituto per le Opere di Religione), also known as the Vatican Bank, and with the acronym IOR (Istituto per le Opere di Religione), is a financial agency situated in the Vatican that conducts worldwide financial activities. It has multilingual ATMs with instructions in Latin, possibly the only ATM in the world with this feature.[66] Vatican City
City
issues its own coins and stamps. It has used the euro as its currency since 1 January 1999, owing to a special agreement with the European Union
European Union
(council decision 1999/98). Euro
Euro
coins and notes were introduced on 1 January 2002—the Vatican does not issue euro banknotes. Issuance of euro-denominated coins is strictly limited by treaty, though somewhat more than usual is allowed in a year in which there is a change in the papacy.[67] Because of their rarity, Vatican euro coins are highly sought by collectors.[68] Until the adoption of the Euro, Vatican coinage and stamps were denominated in their own Vatican lira
Vatican lira
currency, which was on par with the Italian lira. Vatican City
City
State, which employs nearly 2,000 people, had a surplus of 6.7 million euros in 2007 but ran a deficit in 2008 of over 15 million euros.[69] In 2012, the U.S. State Department's International Narcotics Control Strategy Report listed Vatican City
City
for the first time among the nations of concern for money-laundering, placing it in the middle category, which includes countries such as Ireland, but not among the most vulnerable countries, which include the United States itself, Germany, Italy
Italy
and Russia.[70] On 24 February 2014 the Vatican announced it was establishing a secretariat for the economy, to be responsible for all economic, financial and administrative activities of the Holy See
Holy See
and the Vatican City
City
State, headed by Cardinal George Pell. This followed the charging of two senior clerics including a monsignor with money laundering offenses. Pope Francis
Pope Francis
also appointed an auditor-general authorized to carry out random audits of any agency at any time, and engaged a US financial services company to review the Vatican's 19,000 accounts to ensure compliance with international money laundering practices. The pontiff also ordered that the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See would be the Vatican's central bank, with responsibilities similar to other central banks around the world.[71] Demographics[edit] See also: Women in Vatican City Population
Population
and languages[edit] Further information: Languages of Vatican City

The Seal of Vatican City. Note the use of the Italian language.

Almost all of Vatican City's more than 450[72] citizens either live inside the Vatican's walls or serve in the Holy See's diplomatic service in embassies (called "nunciature"; a papal ambassador is a "nuncio") around the world. The Vatican citizenry consists almost entirely of two groups: clergy, most of whom work in the service of the Holy See, and a very few as officials of the state; and the Swiss Guard. Most of the 2,400 lay workers who comprise the majority of the Vatican workforce reside outside the Vatican and are citizens of Italy, while a few are citizens of other nations. As a result, all of the City's actual citizens are Catholic as are all the places of worship. Vatican City
City
has no formally enacted official language, but, unlike the Holy See
Holy See
which most often uses Latin
Latin
for the authoritative version of its official documents, Vatican City
City
uses only Italian in its legislation and official communications.[73] Italian is also the everyday language used by most of those who work in the state. In the Swiss Guard, Swiss German is the language used for giving commands, but the individual guards take their oath of loyalty in their own languages: German, French, Romansh or Italian. Vatican City's official website languages are Italian, English, French, German, and Spanish. (This site should not be confused with that of the Holy See, which uses all these languages, along with Portuguese, with Latin
Latin
since 9 May 2008 and Chinese since 18 March 2009.) Citizenship[edit] Unlike citizenship of other states, which is based either on jus sanguinis (birth from a citizen, even outside the state's territory) or on jus soli (birth within the territory of the state), citizenship of Vatican City
City
is granted jus officii, namely on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See. It usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is extended also to the spouse, parents and descendants of a citizen, provided they are living with the person who is a citizen.[74][75] The Holy See, not being a country, issues only diplomatic and service passports, whereas Vatican City
City
issues normal passports for its citizens. Anyone who loses Vatican citizenship and does not possess other citizenship automatically becomes an Italian citizen as provided in the Lateran Treaty.[33] As of 31 December 2005, there were, apart from the Pope
Pope
himself, 557 people with Vatican citizenship, while there were 246 residents in the state who did not have its citizenship. Of the 557 citizens, 74% were clergy:

58 cardinals, resident in Rome, mostly outside the Vatican; 293 clergy, members of the Holy See's diplomatic missions, resident in other countries, and forming well over half the total of the citizens; 62 other clergy, working but not necessarily living in the Vatican.

The 101 members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard
Swiss Guard
constituted 18% of the total, and there were only 55 other lay persons with Vatican citizenship.[76][77] On 22 February 2011, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
promulgated a new "Law concerning citizenship, residency and access" to Vatican City, which became effective on 1 March. It replaced the 1929 "Law concerning citizenship and residence".[78] There are 16 articles in the new law, whereas the old law had 33 articles.[77] It updated the old law by incorporating changes made after 1929, such as the 1940 granting of Vatican City
City
citizenship, durante munere, to the members of the Holy See's diplomatic service.[79] It also created a new category, that of official Vatican "residents", i.e., people living in Vatican City; these are not necessarily Vatican citizens.[77] On 1 March 2011, only 220 of the over 800 people living in Vatican City
City
were citizens. There was a total of 572 Vatican citizens, of whom 352 were not residents, mainly apostolic nuncios and diplomatic staff.[77] As of 2013[update], there were about 30 female citizens.[80]

360-degree view from the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, looking over the Vatican's Saint Peter's Square
Saint Peter's Square
(centre) and out into Rome, showing Vatican City
City
in all directions.

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Vatican City See also: Music of Vatican City

The Vatican Museums
Vatican Museums
(Musei Vaticani) display works from the extensive collection of the Catholic Church.

Vatican City
City
is home to some of the most famous art in the world. St. Peter's Basilica, whose successive architects include Bramante, Michelangelo, Giacomo della Porta, Maderno and Bernini, is a renowned work of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture. The Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
is famous for its frescos, which include works by Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
and Botticelli as well as the ceiling and Last Judgment
Last Judgment
by Michelangelo. Artists who decorated the interiors of the Vatican include Raphael
Raphael
and Fra Angelico. The Vatican Apostolic Library and the collections of the Vatican Museums are of the highest historical, scientific and cultural importance. In 1984, the Vatican was added by UNESCO
UNESCO
to the List of World Heritage Sites; it is the only one to consist of an entire state.[81] Furthermore, it is the only site to date registered with the UNESCO
UNESCO
as a centre containing monuments in the "International Register of Cultural Property under Special
Special
Protection" according to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.[81]

Michelangelo's Pietà, in the Basilica, is one of the Vatican's best known artworks. 

Michelangelo's frescos on the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
ceiling, "an artistic vision without precedent".[82] 

The elaborately decorated Sistine Hall in the Vatican Library. 

Sport[edit] There is a football championship, called the Vatican City Championship, with eight teams, including, for example, the Swiss Guard's FC Guardia
FC Guardia
and police and museum guard teams.[83] Infrastructure[edit] Transport[edit]

The shortest national railway system in the world.

Main article: Transport in Vatican City Vatican City
City
has a reasonably well-developed transport network considering its size (consisting mostly of a piazza and walkways). A state that is 1.05 kilometres (0.65 miles) long and 0.85 kilometres (0.53 miles) wide,[84] it has a small transportation system with no airports or highways. The only aviation facility in Vatican City
City
is the Vatican City
City
Heliport. Vatican City
City
is one of the few independent countries without an airport, and is served by the airports that serve the city of Rome, Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport, and to a lesser extent Ciampino Airport.[85] There is a standard gauge railway, mainly used to transport freight, connected to Italy's network at Rome's Saint Peter's station by an 852-metre-long (932 yd) spur, 300 metres (330 yd) of which is within Vatican territory.[85] Pope
Pope
John XXIII was the first Pope
Pope
to make use of the railway; Pope
Pope
John Paul II rarely used it.[85] The closest metro station is Ottaviano – San Pietro – Musei Vaticani.[86] Communications[edit]

The Vatican's post office was established on the 11 February 1929.

The City
City
is served by an independent, modern telephone system named the Vatican Telephone Service,[87] and a postal system that started operating on 13 February 1929. On 1 August, the state started to release its own postal stamps, under the authority of the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City
City
State.[88] The City's postal service is sometimes said to be "the best in the world",[89] and faster than the postal service in Rome.[89] The Vatican also controls its own Internet
Internet
TLD, which is registered as (.va). Broadband service is widely provided within Vatican City. Vatican City
City
has also been given a radio ITU prefix, HV, and this is sometimes used by amateur radio operators. Vatican Radio, which was organized by Guglielmo Marconi, broadcasts on short-wave, medium-wave and FM frequencies and on the Internet.[90] Its main transmission antennae are located in Italian territory, and exceed Italian environmental protection levels of emission. For this reason, the Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
has been sued. Television services are provided through another entity, the Vatican Television Center.[91] L'Osservatore Romano
L'Osservatore Romano
is the multilingual semi-official newspaper of the Holy See. It is published by a private corporation under the direction of Roman Catholic laymen, but reports on official information. However, the official texts of documents are in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, the official gazette of the Holy See, which has an appendix for documents of the Vatican City
City
State. Vatican Radio, the Vatican Television Center, and L'Osservatore Romano are organs not of the Vatican State but of the Holy See, and are listed as such in the Annuario Pontificio, which places them in the section "Institutions linked with the Holy See", ahead of the sections on the Holy See's diplomatic service abroad and the Diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See, after which is placed the section on the State of Vatican City. Recycling[edit] In 2008, the Vatican began an "ecological island" for renewable waste and has continued the initiative throughout the papacy of Francis. Crime[edit] Main article: Crime in Vatican City Crime in Vatican City
City
consists largely of purse snatching, pickpocketing and shoplifting by outsiders.[92] The tourist foot-traffic in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
is one of the main locations for pickpockets in Vatican City.[93] If crimes are committed in Saint Peter's Square, the perpetrators may be arrested and tried by the Italian authorities, since that area is normally patrolled by Italian police.[94] Under the terms of article 22 of the Lateran Treaty,[95] Italy
Italy
will, at the request of the Holy See, punish individuals for crimes committed within Vatican City
City
and will itself proceed against the person who committed the offense, if that person takes refuge in Italian territory. Persons accused of crimes recognized as such both in Italy
Italy
and in Vatican City
City
that are committed in Italian territory will be handed over to the Italian authorities if they take refuge in Vatican City
City
or in buildings that enjoy immunity under the treaty.[95][96] Vatican City
City
has no prison system, apart from a few detention cells for pre-trial detention.[97] People convicted of committing crimes in the Vatican serve terms in Italian prisons (Polizia Penitenziaria), with costs covered by the Vatican.[98] See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe
Europe
portal Vatican City
City
portal

Index of Vatican City-related articles Law of Vatican City News.va Outline of Vatican City Passetto di Borgo Pope2you Sovereign Military Order of Malta

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Many other languages are used by institutions situated within the state, such as the Holy See, the Pontifical Swiss Guard, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The Holy See
Holy See
uses Latin
Latin
as its main official language, Italian as its main working language and French as its main diplomatic language; in addition, its Secretariat of State uses English, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. The Swiss Guard, in which commands on parade are given in German, also uses French and Italian, the other two official Swiss languages, in its official ceremonies, such as the annual swearing in of the new recruits on 6th May.[1] ^ Visitors and tourists are not permitted to drive inside the Vatican without specific permission, which is normally granted only to those on official business in the Vatican. ^ ITU-T assigned code 379 to Vatican City. However, Vatican City
City
is included in the Italian telephone numbering plan and uses the Italian country code 39, followed by 06 (for Rome) and 698. ^ The Ecclesiastical, and therefore official, pronunciation is [ˈtʃivitas vatiˈkana], the Classical one is [ˈkiːwɪtaːs waːtɪˈkaːna]. ^ "Stato della Città del Vaticano" (Italian) is the name used in the text of the state's Fundamental Law and in the state's official website. ^ In the languages used by the Secretariat of State of the Holy See (except English and Italian as already mentioned above):

French: Cité du Vatican—État de la Cité du Vatican German: Vatikanstadt, cf. Vatikan—Staat Vatikanstadt (in Austria: Staat der Vatikanstadt) Polish: Miasto Watykańskie, cf. Watykan—Państwo Watykańskie Portuguese: Cidade do Vaticano—Estado da Cidade do Vaticano Spanish: Ciudad del Vaticano—Estado de la Ciudad del Vaticano

^ The Holy See
Holy See
is the central governing body of the Catholic Church and a sovereign entity recognized by international law, consisting of the Pope
Pope
and the Roman Curia. It is also commonly referred to as "the Vatican", especially when used as a metonym for the hierarchy of the Catholic Church. ^ The Holy See's budget, which is distinct from that of Vatican City State, is supported financially by a variety of sources, including investments, real estate income, and donations from Catholic individuals, dioceses, and institutions; these help fund the Roman Curia (Vatican bureaucracy), diplomatic missions, and media outlets. Moreover, an annual collection taken up in dioceses and direct donations go to a non-budgetary fund known as Peter's Pence, which is used directly by the Pope
Pope
for charity, disaster relief and aid to churches in developing nations.

Citation notes[edit]

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City
State Website: A Visit to the Vatican Gardens". 2007–08 Uffici di Presidenza S.C.V. Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008.  ^ "Vatican City
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Holy See
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listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
is "Sovereign of Vatican City
City
State" (page 23* in recent editions). ^ "Code of Canon Law: text – IntraText CT".  ^ "International postal code: SCV-00120." www.vatican .va
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Holy See Press Office – General Information. Retrieved 23 October 2009. ^ Duursma, Jorri C. (1996). Fragmentation and the International Relations of Micro-states: Self-determination and Statehood. Cambridge University Press. p. 396. ISBN 9780521563604.  ^ "Corpo della Gendarmeria" (in Italian). Stato della Città del Vaticano. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2013.  ^ "Gendarme Corps". Office of the President of Vatican City
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State. 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.  ^ "Administrations and Central Offices". Office of the President of Vatican City
City
State. 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.  ^ The Holy See
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and Diplomacy, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Archived 21 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Vatican City
City
State: Participation in International Organizations Archived 10 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ See also appendix at end of Bilateral Relations of the Holy See. vatican.va ^ "Membership Vatican City
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State. 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.  ^ Vatican City
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and Residence, 7 June 1992". Unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ "Cittadinanza vaticana". Vatican.va. 31 December 2001. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ "Vatican citizenship". Holy See
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Bibliography[edit]

Chadwick, Owen (1988). Britain and the Vatican During the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36825-1.  Kent, Peter C. (2002). The Lonely Cold War
Cold War
of Pope
Pope
Pius XII: The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Division of Europe, 1943–1950. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2326-X.  Morley, John F. (1980). Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews During the Holocaust, 1939–1943. New York: Ktav Pub. House. ISBN 0-87068-701-8.  Nichols, Fiona (2006). Rome
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and the Vatican. London: New Holland. pp. 85–96. ISBN 978-1-84537-500-3.  Ricci, Corrado; Begni, Ernesto (2003) [1914]. The Vatican: Its History, Its Treasures. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3941-7. 

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Holy See
(Vatican City)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Holy See
Holy See
(Vatican City) from UCB Libraries GovPubs Vatican City
City
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Vatican from BBC News The Vatican: spirit and art of Christian Rome, a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
(fully available on the Internet
Internet
as PDF)

‹ The template below (Vatican City
City
topics) is being considered for merging. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

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Vatican City articles

Sovereign territory of the  Holy See

History

History of the papacy Papal States Duchy of Rome Donation of Sutri Donation of Pepin "Prisoner in the Vatican" Lateran Palace Circus of Nero Old St. Peter's Basilica Savoyard era First Vatican Council Lateran Treaty Second Vatican Council

Geography

Apostolic Palace

Papal Apartments Raphael
Raphael
Rooms

Castel Gandolfo Domus Sanctae Marthae
Domus Sanctae Marthae
( Pope
Pope
Francis' residence) Gardens Mater Ecclesiae Monastery ( Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI's residence) Paul VI Audience Hall

The Resurrection

Passetto di Borgo St. Peter's Basilica St. Peter's Square Saint Peter's tomb Sistine Chapel

ceiling

Vatican Hill Vatican Museums

Historical Museum Modern Religious Art

Vatican Necropolis St. Peter's Baldachin Cortile del Belvedere Bramante
Bramante
Staircase

Politics

Politics Pope

List of sovereigns

Elections Foreign relations Pontifical Commission Pontifical Council Government Roman Curia Secretariat of State Vicar General Law

Fundamental Law of Vatican City
City
State Crime

Military

Corpo della Gendarmeria Swiss Guard

Economy

Banking Communications

.va
.va
[ Internet
Internet
domain]

Secretariat for the Economy Tourism Transport

rail

Culture

Academy of Sciences

AT telescope observatory

Anthem Catholic Church Coats of arms Demographics Flag Languages Media

Holy See
Holy See
Press Office Secretariat for Communications Annuario Pontificio newspaper radio television information service News.va

Music National football team Philatelic and Numismatic Office Public holidays Vatican Cricket Team Vatican Library

film secret archives

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
City
portal Catholicism portal

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Decoration of the Sistine Chapel

Life of Moses

Moses
Moses
Leaving to Egypt 1 Youth of Moses
Moses
2 The Crossing of the Red Sea 3/4/5 The Descent from Mount Sinai 3/6 The Punishment of the Rebels
Punishment of the Rebels
2 The Testament and Death of Moses
Moses
7/8

Life of Christ

The Baptism of Christ
Christ
1 The Temptations of Christ
Christ
2 The Vocation of the Apostles
Vocation of the Apostles
4 The Sermon on the Mount
Sermon on the Mount
3 The Delivery of the Keys 1 The Last Supper 3

Ceiling 9 (Gallery)

Scenes from Genesis

The Separation of Light from Darkness The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Vegetation The Separation of Land and Water The Creation of Adam The Creation of Eve The Fall of Man and the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden The Sacrifice of Noah The Flood The Drunkenness of Noah

Prophets

Jonah Jeremiah Ezekiel Joel Zechariah Isaiah Daniel

Sibyls

Persian Sibyl Erythraean Sibyl Delphic Sibyl Cumaean Sibyl Libyan Sibyl

Altar wall

The Last Judgment
Last Judgment
9

Tapestries

The Lives of Saints Peter and Paul 10

Key: 1 Pietro Perugino 2 Sandro Botticelli 3 Cosimo Rosselli 4 Domenico Ghirlandaio 5 Biagio d'Antonio 6 Piero di Cosimo 7 Luca Signorelli 8 Bartolomeo della Gatta 9 Michelangelo 10 Raphael Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV Art patronage of Julius II Restoration of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
frescoes

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
City
portal Catholicism portal

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Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
(2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

Links to related articles

Geographic locale

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Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter
Saint Peter
Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

International membership

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Monarchies

List of current sovereign monarchs List of current constituent monarchs

Type

Absolute Constitutional Diarchy Elective Federal Hereditary

By region or entity

Africa

Lesotho Morocco Swaziland

Asia

Bahrain Bhutan Brunei Cambodia Japan Jordan Kuwait Malaysia Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Thailand United Arab Emirates

Europe

Andorra Belgium Denmark Luxembourg Liechtenstein Monaco Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Vatican City United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia Tonga New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

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History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic Europe Neolithic Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136038551 LCCN: n80053295 GND: 4062404-3 SELIBR: 162153 SUDOC: 027255123 BNF: cb15336233z (d

.