Varisulca is a proposed basal Podiate taxon.[1]

Cavalier-Smith has proposed the new subphylum Varisulca which consists of the Classes Hilomonadea, Diphyllatea and Glissodiscea.[2] The validity of this proposed taxonomy has yet to ruled upon by the Society of Protistologists.

Varisulca appear to be paraphyletic stem Podiata. So the other basal Podiata such as Malawimonas, Metamonada and/or Amoebozoa and unikonts may have emerged in the Varisulca.[3][4] Some groups of Apusozoa are now considered Varisulca. The Apusomonadida (e.g. Thecamonas) now not directly associated with Varisulca but are considered sister of the Opisthokonts. Sulcozoa (originally only Varisulca and Apusozoa) now encompasses the Unikonta/Amorphea and becomes equivalent to Podiata and Sarcomastigota.[5]















Mantamonadida appear to be sister to Apusomonadida in the Apusozoa.[6][7]


Subphylum Varisulca Cavalier-Smith 2012


  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Snell, Elizabeth A.; Berney, Cédric; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Lewis, Rhodri (2014-12-01). "Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 81: 71–85. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.012. PMID 25152275. 
  2. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (2013). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". Eur J Protistol. 49 (2): 115–78. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. PMID 23085100. 
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2017-02-05). "Origin of animal multicellularity: precursors, causes, consequences—the choanoflagellate/sponge transition, neurogenesis and the Cambrian explosion". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 372 (1713): 20150476. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0476. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 5182410Freely accessible. PMID 27994119. 
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri. "187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 99: 275–296. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.023. 
  5. ^ Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M. (2015-04-29). "A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0119248. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  6. ^ Glücksman E, Snell EA, Berney C, Chao EE, Bass D, Cavalier-Smith T (September 2010). "The Novel Marine Gliding Zooflagellate Genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa)". Protist. 162 (2): 207–221. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2010.06.004. PMID 20884290. 
  7. ^ Orr, Russell J. S.; Zhao, Sen; Klaveness, Dag; Yabuki, Akinori; Ikeda, Keiji; Makoto, Watanabe M.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran (2017-10-08). "Enigmatic Diphyllatea eukaryotes: Culturing and targeted PacBio RS amplicon sequencing reveals a higher order taxonomic diversity and global distribution". bioRxiv 199125Freely accessible. 
  8. ^ Glücksman, Snell & Cavalier-Smith (2013). "Phylogeny and evolution of Planomonadida (Sulcozoa): Eight new species and new genera Fabomonas and Nutomonas". European Journal of protistology. 49 (2): 179–200. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.08.007.