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(i)

There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula . The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages.

Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech. The regionally prevalent variety is learned as the speaker's first language while the formal language is subsequently learned in school. The formal language itself varies between its modern iteration, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(often called MSA in English) and the Classical Arabic
Arabic
that serves as its basis, though Arabic
Arabic
speakers typically do not make this distinction.

The largest differences between the classical/standard and the colloquial Arabic
Arabic
are the loss of grammatical case ; a different and strict word order, the loss of the previous system of grammatical mood , along with the evolution of a new system; the loss of the inflected passive voice , except in a few relic varieties; restriction in the use of the dual number and (for most varieties) the loss of the feminine plural . Many Arabic
Arabic
dialects, Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
in particular also have significant vowel shifts and unusual consonant clusters . Unlike other dialects, in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
first person singular verbs begin with a n- (ن).

Further substantial differences exist between Bedouin
Bedouin
and sedentary speech, the countryside and major cities, ethnicities, religious groups, social classes, men and women, and the young and the old. These differences are to some degree bridgeable. Often, Arabic speakers can adjust their speech in a variety of ways according to the context and to their intentions—for example, to speak with people from different regions, to demonstrate their level of education or to draw on the authority of the spoken language.

CONTENTS

* 1 Language mixing and change

* 2 Regional varieties

* 2.1 Examples of major regional differences * 2.2 Other regional differences

* 3 Formal and vernacular differences

* 4 Sociolinguistic variables

* 4.1 Urbanization * 4.2 Geopolitics * 4.3 Religion * 4.4 Education and social class * 4.5 Age and gender

* 5 Classification

* 5.1 Pre-Islamic varieties

* 5.2 Modern varieties

* 5.2.1 Northern varieties * 5.2.2 Central varieties * 5.2.3 Western varieties * 5.2.4 Southern varieties * 5.2.5 Peripheries * 5.2.6 Jewish varieties * 5.2.7 Creoles * 5.2.8 Pidgins * 5.2.9 Varieties identified with countries * 5.2.10 Diglossic variety

* 6 Sedentary and nomadic differences

* 7 Variation

* 7.1 Morphology and syntax * 7.2 Writing system * 7.3 Phonetics

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading

LANGUAGE MIXING AND CHANGE

See also: Code-switching , Koiné language , Pidgin
Pidgin
, Creole language , Communication Accommodation Theory , Prestige (sociolinguistics) , and Dialect
Dialect
leveling

Arabic
Arabic
is characterized by a wide number of varieties; however, Arabic
Arabic
speakers are often able to manipulate the way they speak based on the circumstances. There can be a number of motivations for changing one's speech: the formality of a situation, the need to communicate with people with different dialects, to get social approval, to differentiate oneself from the listener, when citing a written text, to differentiate between personal and professional or general matters, to clarify a point, and to shift to a new topic.

An important factor in the mixing or changing of Arabic
Arabic
is the concept of a prestige dialect . This refers to the level of respect accorded to a language or dialect within a speech community. The formal Arabic
Arabic
language carries a considerable prestige in most Arabic-speaking communities, depending on the context. This is not the only source of prestige, though. Many studies have shown that for most speakers, there is a prestige variety of vernacular Arabic. In Egypt, for non-Cairenes, the prestige dialect is Cairo
Cairo
Arabic. For Jordanian women from Bedouin
Bedouin
or rural background, it may be the urban dialects of the big cities, especially including the capital Amman. Moreover, in certain contexts, a dialect relatively different from formal Arabic
Arabic
may carry more prestige than a dialect closer to the formal language—this is the case in Bahrain, for example.

Language mixes and changes in different ways. Arabic
Arabic
speakers often use more than one variety of Arabic
Arabic
within a conversation or even a sentence. This process is referred to as code-switching . For example, a woman on a TV program could appeal to the authority of the formal language by using elements of it in her speech in order to prevent other speakers from cutting her off. Another process at work is 'leveling', the "elimination of very localised dialectical features in favour of more regionally general ones." This can affect all linguistic levels—semantic, syntactic, phonological, etc. The change can be temporary, as when a group of speakers with substantially different Arabics communicate, or it can be permanent, as often happens when people from the countryside move to the city and adopt the more prestigious urban dialect, possibly over a couple of generations.

This process of accommodation sometimes appeals to the formal language, but often does not. For example, villagers in central Palestine may try to use the dialect of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
rather than their own when speaking with people with substantially different dialects, particularly since they may have a very weak grasp of the formal language. In another example, groups of educated speakers from different regions will often use dialectical forms that represent a middle ground between their dialects rather than trying to use the formal language, to make communication easier and more comprehensible. For example, to express the existential 'there is' (as in, 'there is a place where...'), Arabic
Arabic
speakers have access to many different words:

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* Maghrebi group includes:

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
(الدارجة - Darija) * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
(تونسي - Tūnsī) * Algerian Arabic
Arabic
* Libyan Arabic
Arabic
( ليبي - Liːbi) * Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
* Saharan Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese group includes:

* Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* Chadian Arabic
Arabic
* Juba Arabic
Arabic

* Egyptian group includes:

* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(مصرى - Maṣri) * Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Arabian Peninsula group includes:

* Bahrani Arabic
Arabic
* Bareqi Arabic
Arabic
* Gulf Arabic
Arabic
(خليجي - Khalījī) * Najdi Arabic
Arabic
* Omani Arabic
Arabic
* Hejazi Arabic
Arabic
(حجازي) * Hadhrami Arabic
Arabic
* Shihhi Arabic
Arabic
* Dhofari Arabic
Arabic
* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian group includes:

* Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
* North Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
(Moslawi/Qeltu)

* Levantine group includes:

* Levantine Arabic
Arabic
* North Syrian Arabic
Arabic
* Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Arabic
* Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
(اللبنانية) * Jordanian Arabic
Arabic
* Palestinian Arabic
Arabic
* Bedawi Arabic
Arabic

* Andalusian group:

* Included various dialects throughout the Iberian peninsula (extinct in Iberia, surviving among Andalusi communities in North Africa)

These large regional groups do not correspond to borders of modern states. In the western parts of the Arab world
Arab world
, varieties are referred to as الدارجة ad-dārija, and in the eastern parts, as العامية al-ʿāmmiyya. Nearby varieties of Arabic
Arabic
are mostly mutually intelligible , but faraway varieties tend not to be. Varieties west of Egypt
Egypt
are particularly disparate, with Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
speakers claiming difficulty in understanding North African Arabic
Arabic
speakers, while North African Arabic
Arabic
speakers' understanding other Arabic
Arabic
speakers is mostly due to the widespread popularity of Egyptian Standard and to a lesser extent, the Lebanese popular media (this phenomenon is called asymmetric intelligibility ). One factor in the differentiation of the varieties is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, French , Ottoman Turkish , Italian , Spanish , Berber , Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic , Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian
and Old South Arabian in Yemen
Yemen
and Aramaic
Aramaic
in the Levant. Speakers of mutually unintelligible varieties are often able to communicate by switching to Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
.

Modern languages have also typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order. Examples are Turkish and English in Egypt, French in North Africa and Syria, English and French in Lebanon, and English and Hebrew
Hebrew
in Israel. However, a much more significant factor for all five dialect groups is, as Latin among Romance languages , retention (or change of meaning) of the form of Classical Arabic
Arabic
used in the Quran
Quran
.

EXAMPLES OF MAJOR REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

The following example illustrates similarities and differences between the literary, standardized varieties, and major urban dialects of Arabic. Maltese , a distantly related Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
language descended from Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
is also provided; as it.

True pronunciations differ; transliterations used approach an approximate demonstration. Also, the pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
differs significantly from region to region .

VARIETY I LOVE READING A LOT. WHEN I WENT TO THE LIBRARY, I ONLY FOUND THIS OLD BOOK. I WANTED TO READ A BOOK ABOUT THE HISTORY OF WOMEN IN FRANCE.

MODERN STANDARD ARABIC أنا أح ب القراءة كثيرًا ʾanā ʾuḥibbu l-qirāʾata kaṯīran عندما ذهبت إلى المكتبة ʿindamā ḏahabtu ʾila l-maktabati لم أجد سوى هذا الكتا ب القديم lam ʾaǧid siwā hāḏā l-kitābi l-qadīm كنت أريد أن أقرء كتابًا عن تاريخ المرأة في فرنسا kuntu ʾurīdu an ʾaqraʾa kitāban ʿan tārīḫi l-marʾah fī-farānsā

TUNISIAN āna nħəbb năqṛa baṛʃa wăqtəlli raħt l-əl-măktaba ma-lqīt kān ha-l-ktāb lə-qdīm kŭnt nbɣīt năqṛa ktāb ʕla tārīx lə-mṛa fi fṛānsa

ALGERIAN āna nħəbb nəqṛa bəzzāf məlli raħt l-əl-măktaba ma-lqīt ɣīr hād lə-ktāb lə-qdīm kŭnt nbɣīt nəqṛa ktāb ʕla tārīx lə-mṛa fi fṛānsa

MOROCCAN ana nbɣi bezzaf nəqṛa məlli mʃit lmăktaba ma-lqīt-ʃ mən-ɣīr hād lə-ktāb lə-qdīm kŭnt bāɣi nəqṛa ktāb ʕla tārīx lə-mṛa fə-fṛansa

EGYPTIAN ana baħebb el-ʔerāya awi lamma roħt el-maktaba ma-lʔet-ʃ ella l-ketāb el-ʔadīm da ana kont ʕāyez aʔra ketāb ʕan tarīx es-settāt fe faransa

LEBANESE āna ktīr bħebb il-ʔirēye lamma reħit ʕal-mektebe ma lʔēt illa hal-i-ktēb li-ʔdīm kēn bedde ʔra ktēb ʕan tērīx l-mara b-frēnse

MESOPOTAMIAN (BAGHDADI) āni kolish aħeb el-qra'a laman reħit lil-maktaba ma ligēt gheer hatha el-ketab el-qadeem redet aqra ketāb ʕan tareekh l-imrayyāt be-fransa

GULF ʔāna kulliʃ aħibb aqrā lamman ruħt el-maktaba ma ligēt illa hal ketāb al-qadīm kunt abī aqra kitāb ʕan tarīx al-ħarīm eb-fransa

HEJAZI ana marra aħubb al-girāya lamma ruħt al-maktaba ma ligīt ɣēr hāda al-kitāb al-gadīm kunt abɣa aɡra kitāb ʕan tārīx al-ħarīm fi faransa

SANAANI ARABIC ˈʔana bajn aˈħibb el-geˈrāje ˈgawi ˈħīn ˈsert saˈlā el-ˈmaktabe ma leˈgēt-ʃ ˈðajje al-keˈtāb el-gaˈdīm kont ˈaʃti ˈʔagra keˈtāb ʕan taˈrīx al-ˈmare wastˤ faˈrānsa

MALTESE jien inħobb naqra ħafna meta mort il-librerija Sibt biss hu dan il-ktieb il-qadim Ridt naqra ktieb dwar l-istorja tan-nisa fi Franza.

For the sake of comparison, consider the same sentence in German and Dutch:

* German: Ich lese sehr gerne. Als ich zur Bibliothek ging, fand ich nur dieses alte Buch, obwohl ich ein Buch über die Geschichte der Frauen in Frankreich lesen wollte. * Dutch: Ik lees zeer graag. Toen ik naar de bibliotheek ging, vond ik slechts dit oude boek, hoewel ik een boek over de geschiedenis van de vrouwen in Frankrijk had willen lezen.

Or in Spanish and Portuguese:

* Spanish: Me gusta mucho la lectura. Cuando fui a la biblioteca, encontré solamente este libro viejo. Quería leer un libro sobre la historia de las mujeres en Francia. * Portuguese: Gosto muito da leitura. Quando fui à biblioteca, encontrei somente este livro velho. Queria ler um livro sobre a história das mulheres na França.

Some linguists do argue that the varieties of Arabic
Arabic
are different enough to qualify as separate languages in the way that Spanish and Portuguese or German and Dutch do. However, as Reem Bassiouney points out, perhaps the difference between 'language' and 'dialect' is to some degree political rather than linguistic .

OTHER REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

"Peripheral" varieties of Arabic
Arabic
– that is, varieties spoken in countries where Arabic
Arabic
is not a dominant language and a lingua franca (e.g., Turkey
Turkey
, Iran
Iran
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, Chad
Chad
, and Nigeria
Nigeria
) – are particularly divergent in some respects, especially in their vocabularies, since they are less influenced by classical Arabic. However, historically they fall within the same dialect classifications as the varieties that are spoken in countries where Arabic
Arabic
is the dominant language. But because most of these peripheral dialects are located in Muslim
Muslim
majority countries, they are now influenced by Classical Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Standard Arabic, the languages used in Quran.

Probably the most divergent non-creole Arabic
Arabic
variety is Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Arabic
, a nearly extinct variety that has been heavily influenced by Greek , and written in Greek and Latin alphabets.

Maltese is descended from Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
. Its vocabulary has acquired a large number of loanwords from Sicilian , Italian and recently English , and it uses only a Latin-based alphabet. It is the only Semitic language among the official languages of the European Union
European Union
.

Arabic-based pidgins (which have a limited vocabulary consisting mostly of Arabic
Arabic
words, but lack most Arabic
Arabic
morphological features) are in widespread use along the southern edge of the Sahara, and have been for a long time. In the eleventh century, the medieval geographer al-Bakri records a text in an Arabic-based pidgin, probably one that was spoken in the region corresponding to modern Mauritania
Mauritania
. In some regions, particularly around the southern Sudan, the pidgins have creolized (see the list below).

Even within countries where the official language is Arabic, different varieties of Arabic
Arabic
are spoken. For example, within Syria, the Arabic
Arabic
spoken in Homs is recognized as different from the Arabic spoken in Damascus, but both are considered to be varieties of 'Levantine' Arabic. And within Morocco, the Arabic
Arabic
of the city of Fes is considered different from the Arabic
Arabic
spoken elsewhere in the country.

FORMAL AND VERNACULAR DIFFERENCES

Another way that varieties of Arabic
Arabic
differ is that some are formal and others are colloquial (that is, vernacular). There are two formal varieties, or اللغة الفصحى al-lugha(t) al-fuṣḥā, One of these, known in English as Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA), is used in contexts such as writing, broadcasting, interviewing, and speechmaking. The other, Classical Arabic, is the language of the Qur'an. It is rarely used except in reciting the Qur'an
Qur'an
or quoting older classical texts. ( Arabic
Arabic
speakers typically do not make an explicit distinction between MSA and Classical Arabic.) Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
was deliberately developed in the early part of the 19th century as a modernized version of Classical Arabic.

People often use a mixture of both colloquial and formal Arabic. For example, interviewers or speechmakers generally use MSA in asking prepared questions or making prepared remarks, then switch to a colloquial variety to add a spontaneous comment or respond to a question. The ratio of MSA to colloquial varieties depends on the speaker, the topic, and the situation – amongst other factors. Today even the least educated citizens are exposed to MSA through public education and exposure to mass media, and so tend to use elements of it in speaking to others. (This an example of what linguistics researchers call "diglossia ").

Egyptian linguist Al-Said Badawi proposed the following distinctions between the different 'levels of speech' involved when speakers of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
switch between vernacular and formal Arabic
Arabic
varieties:

* فصحى التراث fuṣḥā at-turāṯ, 'heritage classical': The Classical Arabic
Arabic
of Arab literary heritage and the Qur'an. This is primarily a written language, but it is heard in spoken form at the mosque or in religious programmes on television, but with a modernized pronunciation . * فصحى العصر fuṣḥā al-ʿaṣr, 'contemporary classical' or 'modernized classical': This is what Western linguists call Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA). It is a modification and simplification of Classical Arabic
Arabic
that was deliberately created for the modern age. Consequently, it includes many newly coined words, either adapted from Classical Arabic
Arabic
(much as European scholars during the Renaissance coined new English words by adapting words from Latin), or borrowed from foreign, chiefly European, languages. Although it is principally a written language, it is spoken when people read aloud from prepared texts. Highly skilled speakers can also produce it spontaneously, though this typically occurs only in the context of media broadcasts – particularly in talk and debate programs on pan-Arab television networks such as Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya – where the speakers want to be simultaneously understood by Arabic
Arabic
speakers in all the various countries where these networks' target audiences live. It is also used as another version of literary form of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and in modernized revisions of writings from Arab literary heritage. * عامية المثقفين ʿāmmiyyat al-muṯaqqafīn, 'colloquial of the cultured': This is a vernacular dialect that has been heavily influenced by MSA, i.e. borrowed words from MSA (the analogy is similar to Romance languages , wherein scores of words were borrowed directly from Classical Latin ); loanwords from MSA replace or sometimes used alongside native words evolved from Classical Arabic in colloquial dialects. It tends to be used in serious discussions by well-educated people, but is generally not used in writing (mostly used in informal writing). It includes a large number of foreign loanwords, chiefly relating to the technical and theoretical subjects it is used to discuss, sometimes used in non-intellectual topics. Because it can generally be understood by listeners who speak varieties of Arabic
Arabic
different from those of the speaker's country of origin, it is often used on television, and it is also becoming the language of instruction at universities. * عامية المتنورين ʿāmmiyyat al-mutanawwarīn 'colloquial of the basically educated': This is the everyday language that people use in informal contexts, and that is heard on television when non-intellectual topics are being discussed. It is characterized, according to Badawi, by high levels of borrowing. Educated speakers usually code-switch between ʿāmmiyyat al-muṯaqqafīn and ʿāmmiyyat al-mutanawwarīn. * عامية الأميين ʿāmmiyyat al-ʾummiyyīn, 'colloquial of the illiterates': This is very colloquial speech characterized by the absence of any influence from MSA and by relatively little foreign borrowing. These varieties are the almost entirely naturally evolved direct descendants of Classical Arabic.

Almost everyone in Egypt
Egypt
is able to use more than one of these levels of speech, and people often switch between them, sometimes within the same sentence. This is generally true in other Arabic-speaking countries as well.

The spoken dialects of Arabic
Arabic
have occasionally been written, usually in the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet . Vernacular Arabic
Arabic
was first recognized as a written language distinct from Classical Arabic
Arabic
in 17th century Ottoman Egypt , when the Cairo
Cairo
elite began to trend towards colloquial writing. A record of the Cairo
Cairo
vernacular of the time is found in the dictionary compiled by Yusuf al-Maghribi . More recently, many plays and poems, as well as a few other works (even translations of Plato) exist in Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
and Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
; books of poetry, at least, exist for most varieties. In Algeria
Algeria
, colloquial Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, and some textbooks exist. Mizrahi Jews throughout the Arab world
Arab world
who spoke Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
dialects rendered newspapers, letters, accounts, stories, and translations of some parts of their liturgy in the Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet , adding diacritics and other conventions for letters that exist in Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
but not Hebrew. The Latin alphabet was advocated for Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
by Said Aql , whose supporters published several books in his transcription. In 1944, Abdelaziz Pasha Fahmi , a member of the Academy of the Arabic
Arabic
Language in Egypt
Egypt
proposed the replacement of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet with the Latin alphabet. His proposal was discussed in two sessions in the communion but was rejected, and faced strong opposition in cultural circles. Latin alphabet is used by Arabic
Arabic
speakers over the Internet
Internet
or for sending messages via cellular phones when the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet is unavailable or difficult to use for technical reasons; this is also used in Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
when Arabic
Arabic
speakers of different dialects communicate each other.

SOCIOLINGUISTIC VARIABLES

Sociolinguistics is the study of how language usage is affected by societal factors, e.g., cultural norms and contexts (see also pragmatics ). The following sections examine some of the ways that modern Arab societies influence how Arabic
Arabic
is spoken.

URBANIZATION

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GEOPOLITICS

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RELIGION

The religion of Arabic
Arabic
speakers is sometimes involved in shaping how they speak Arabic. Of course, as is the case with other variables, religion cannot be seen in isolation. It is generally connected with the political systems in the different countries. Unlike that which is often the case in the West, religion in the Arab world
Arab world
is not usually seen as an individual choice. Rather, it is matter of group affiliation: one is born a Muslim
Muslim
(and even either Sunni
Sunni
or Shiite among them), Christian
Christian
or Jew
Jew
, and this becomes a bit like one's ethnicity. Religion as a sociolinguistic variable should be understood in this context.

Bahrain
Bahrain
provides an excellent illustration. A major distinction can be made between the Shiite Bahraini, who are the oldest population of Bahrain, and the Sunni
Sunni
population that began to immigrate to Bahrain in the eighteenth century. The Sunni
Sunni
form a minority of the population. The ruling family of Bahrain
Bahrain
is Sunni. The colloquial language represented on TV is almost invariably that of the Sunni population. Therefore, power, prestige and financial control are associated with the Sunni
Sunni
Arabs. This is having a major effect on the direction of language change in Bahrain.

The case of Iraq
Iraq
also illustrates how there can be significant differences in how Arabic
Arabic
is spoken on the basis of religion. (Note that the study referred to here was conducted before the Iraq
Iraq
War .) In Baghdad
Baghdad
, there are significant linguistic differences between Arabic
Arabic
Christian
Christian
and Muslim
Muslim
inhabitants of the city. The Christians of Baghdad
Baghdad
are a well-established community, and their dialect has evolved from the sedentary vernacular of urban medieval Iraq. The typical Muslim
Muslim
dialect of Baghdad
Baghdad
is a more recent arrival in the city and comes from Bedouin
Bedouin
speech instead. In Baghdad, as elsewhere in the Arab world, the various communities share MSA as a prestige dialect, but the Muslim
Muslim
colloquial dialect is associated with power and money, given that that community is the more dominant. Therefore, the Christian
Christian
population of the city learns to use the Muslim
Muslim
dialect in more formal situations, for example, when a Christian
Christian
school teacher is trying to call students in the class to order.

EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CLASS

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AGE AND GENDER

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CLASSIFICATION

PRE-ISLAMIC VARIETIES

* Ancient North Arabian

* Oasis North Arabian

* Dumaitic * Taymanitic * Dadanitic * Dispersed Oasis North Arabian

* Safaitic * Hismaic * Thamudic * Hasaitic

* Classical Arabic
Arabic

MODERN VARIETIES

Northern Varieties

Northern varieties are influenced by the Aramaic language .

* Levantine Arabic
Arabic

* North Levantine Arabic
Arabic

* North Syrian Arabic
Arabic
* Syrian Arabic
Arabic
* Lebanese Arabic
Arabic

* South Levantine Arabic
Arabic

* Jordanian Arabic
Arabic
* Palestinian Arabic
Arabic

* Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:acy) * Bedawi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:avl)

* Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:acm)

* gelet varieties

* Baghdad
Baghdad
Arabic
Arabic
* Khuzestani Arabic
Arabic

* qeltu varieties

* North Mesopotamian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ayp)

Central Varieties

Central varieties are influenced by the Coptic language and spoken in Nubia
Nubia
.

* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:arz) * Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:aec) * Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:apd)

Western Varieties

Western varieties are influenced by the Berber languages
Berber languages
, Punic or Phoenician and by Romance languages .

* Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Koines

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ary) * Algerian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:arq) * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:aeb) * Libyan Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ayl)

* Fully pre-Hilalian

* Jebli Arabic
Arabic
* Jijel Arabic
Arabic

* Siculo- Arabic
Arabic
(mostly extinct)

* Maltese language (ISO 639-3:mlt)

* Bedouin
Bedouin

* Saharan Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:aao) * Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:mey)

* Andalusian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 693-3: xaa), extinct

Southern Varieties

Peninsular Arabic
Arabic

* Gulf Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:afb) * Bahrani Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:abv) * Najdi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ars) * Hijazi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:acw)

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic

* Hadhrami Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ayh) * Sanaani Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ayn) * Ta\'izzi-Adeni Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:acq)

* Dhofari Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:adf) * Omani Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:acx) * Shihhi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ssh)

Peripheries

* Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

* Tajiki Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:abh) * Uzbeki Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:auz)

* Shirvani Arabic
Arabic
(extinct) * Chadian Arabic
Arabic
(Baggara, Shuwa Arabic) (ISO 639-3:shu) * Nigerian Arabic
Arabic
* Khuzestani Arabic
Arabic

Jewish Varieties

Jewish varieties are influenced by the Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic
Aramaic
languages.

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:jrb)

* Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:yhd)

* Judeo-Baghdadi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:aju) * Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:yud) * Judeo-Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:ajt) * Judeo-Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:jye)

Creoles

* Nubi Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Sudanese Creole Arabic
Arabic
(Juba Arabic)

Pidgins

* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Turku Arabic
Arabic

Varieties Identified With Countries

* Algerian Arabic
Arabic
* Bahrani Arabic
Arabic
* Chadian Arabic
Arabic
* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
* Emirati Arabic
Arabic
* Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
* Jordanian Arabic
Arabic
* Kuwaiti Arabic
Arabic
* Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
* Libyan Arabic
Arabic
* Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
(Mauritanian Arabic) * Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
* Nigerian Arabic
Arabic
* Omani Arabic
Arabic
* Palestinian Arabic
Arabic
* Qatari Arabic
Arabic
* Sahrawi Arabic
Arabic
* Somali Arabic
Arabic
* Sudanese Arabic
Arabic
* Syrian Arabic
Arabic
* Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic

Diglossic Variety

* Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(ISO 639-3:arb)

SEDENTARY AND NOMADIC DIFFERENCES

A basic distinction that cuts across the entire geography of the Arabic-speaking world is between sedentary and nomadic varieties (often misleadingly called Bedouin
Bedouin
). The distinction stems from the settlement patterns in the wake of the Arab conquests. As regions were conquered, army camps were set up that eventually grew into cities, and settlement of the rural areas by Nomadic
Nomadic
Arabs gradually followed thereafter. In some areas, sedentary dialects are divided further into urban and rural variants.

The most obvious phonetic difference between the two groups is the pronunciation of the letter ق
ق
qaf , which is pronounced as a voiced /ɡ/ in the Urban varieties of the Arabian Peninsula (like the Hejazi dialect in the ancient urban cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
) as well as in the Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects across all Arabic-Speaking Countries, but it is pronounced voiceless mainly in the post-Arabized Urban centers as a 1. /q/ with being an allophone in few words mostly in North African Cities or as a 2. /ʔ/ (merging ⟨ ق
ق
⟩ with ⟨ء ⟩) in the urban centers of Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant
Levant
, all of which were mostly Arabized after the Islamic Conquests .

The other major phonetic difference is that the rural varieties preserve the Classical Arabic
Arabic
(CA) interdentals /θ/ ث and /ð/ ذ, and merge the CA emphatic sounds /dˤ/ ض and /ðˤ/ ظ into /ðˤ/ rather than sedentary /dˤ/.

The most significant differences between rural Arabic
Arabic
and non-rural Arabic
Arabic
are in syntax. The sedentary varieties in particular share a number of common innovations from CA. This has led to the suggestion, first articulated by Charles Ferguson , that a simplified koiné language developed in the army staging camps in Iraq, from whence the remaining parts of the modern Arab world
Arab world
were conquered.

In general the rural varieties are more conservative than the sedentary varieties and the rural varieties within the Arabian peninsula are even more conservative than those elsewhere. Within the sedentary varieties, the western varieties (particularly, Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
) are less conservative than the eastern varieties.

A number of cities in the Arabic
Arabic
world speak a 'Bedouin' variety, which acquires prestige in that context.

VARIATION

MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX

All varieties, sedentary and nomadic, differ in the following ways from Classical Arabic
Arabic
(CA)

* The order subject–verb–object may be more common than verb–subject–object .

* Verbal agreement between subject and object is always complete.

* In CA, there was no number agreement between subject and verb when the subject was third-person and the subject followed the verb.

* Loss of case distinctions ( ʾIʿrab ).

* Loss of original mood distinctions other than the indicative and imperative (i.e., subjunctive, jussive, energetic I, energetic II).

* The dialects differ in how exactly the new indicative was developed from the old forms. The sedentary dialects adopted the old subjunctive forms (feminine /iː/, masculine plural /uː/), while many of the Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects adopted the old indicative forms (feminine /iːna/, masculine plural /uːna/). * The sedentary dialects developed new mood distinctions; see below.

* Loss of dual marking everywhere except on nouns.

* A frozen dual persists as the regular plural marking of a small number of words that normally come in pairs (e.g., eyes, hands, parents). * In addition, a productive dual marking on nouns exists in most dialects (Tunisian and Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
are exceptions). This dual marking differs syntactically from the frozen dual in that it cannot take possessive suffixes. In addition, it differs morphologically from the frozen dual in various dialects, such as Levantine Arabic
Arabic
. * The productive dual differs from CA in that its use is optional, whereas the use of the CA dual was mandatory even in cases of implicitly dual reference. * The CA dual was marked not only on nouns, but also on verbs, adjectives, pronouns and demonstratives.

* Development of an analytic genitive construction to rival the constructed genitive .

* Compare the similar development of shel in Modern Hebrew
Hebrew
. * The Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects make the least use of the analytic genitive. Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
makes the most use of it, to the extent that the constructed genitive is no longer productive, and used only in certain relatively frozen constructions.

* The relative pronoun is no longer inflected (In CA, it took gender, number and case endings).

* Pronominal clitics ending in a short vowel moved the vowel before the consonant.

* Hence, second singular /-ak/ and /-ik/ rather than /-ka/ and /-ki/; third singular masculine /-uh/ rather than /-hu/. * Similarly, the feminine plural verbal marker /-na/ became /-an/. * Because of the absolute prohibition in all Arabic
Arabic
dialects against having two vowels in hiatus, the above changes occurred only when a consonant preceded the ending. When a vowel preceded, the forms either remained as-is or lost the final vowel, becoming /-k/, /-ki/, /-h/ and /-n/, respectively. Combined with other phonetic changes, this resulted in multiple forms for each clitic (up to three), depending on the phonetic environment. * The verbal markers /-tu/ (first singular) and /-ta/ (second singular masculine) both became /-t/, while second singular feminine /-ti/ remained. Mesopotamian dialects in southeastern Turkey
Turkey
are an exception for they retain the ending /-tu/ for first person singular. * In the dialect of southern Nejd
Nejd
(including Riyadh
Riyadh
), the second singular masculine /-ta/ has been retained, but takes the form of a long vowel rather than a short one as in Classical Arabic. * The forms given here were the original forms, and have often suffered various changes in the modern dialects. * All of these changes were triggered by the loss of final short vowels (see below).

* Various simplifications have occurred in the range of variation in verbal paradigms.

* Third-weak verbs with radical /w/ and radical /j/ (traditionally transliterated y) have merged in the form I perfect tense (They had already merged in CA, except in form I). * Form I perfect faʕula verbs have disappeared, often merging with faʕila. * Doubled verbs now have the same endings as third-weak verbs. * Some endings of third-weak verbs have been replaced by those of the strong verbs (or vice versa, in some dialects).

All dialects except some Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects of the Arabian peninsula share the following innovations from CA

* Loss of the inflected passive (i.e., marked through internal vowel change) in finite verb forms.

* New passives have often been developed by co-opting the original reflexive formations in CA, particularly verb forms V, VI and VII (In CA these were derivational, not inflectional, as neither their existence nor exact meaning could be depended upon; however, they have often been incorporated into the inflectional system, especially in more innovative sedentary dialects). * Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
contains a newly developed inflected passive that looks somewhat like the old CA passive. * Najdi Arabic
Arabic
has retained the inflected passive up to the modern era, though this feature is on its way to extinction as a result of the influence of other dialects.

* Loss of the indefinite /n/ suffix (tanwiin) on nouns.

* When this marker still appears, it is variously /an/, /in/, or /en/. * In some Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects it still marks indefiniteness on any noun, although this is optional and often used only in oral poetry. * In other dialects it marks indefiniteness on post-modified nouns (by adjectives or relative clauses). * All Arabic
Arabic
dialects preserve a form of the CA adverbial accusative /an/ suffix, which was originally a tanwiin marker.

* Loss of verb form IV, the causative.

* Verb form II sometimes gives causatives, but it is not productive.

* Uniform use of /i/ in imperfect verbal prefixes.

* CA had /u/ before form II, III and IV active, and before all passives, and /a/ elsewhere. * Some Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects in the Arabian peninsula have uniform /a/. * Najdi Arabic
Arabic
has /a/ when the following vowel is /i/, and /i/ when the following vowel is /a/.

All sedentary dialects share the following additional innovations

* Loss of a separately distinguished feminine plural in verbs, pronouns and demonstratives. This is usually lost in adjectives as well.

* Development of a new indicative-subjunctive distinction.

* The indicative is marked by a prefix, while the subjunctive lacks this. * The prefix is /b/ or /bi/ in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
and Levantine Arabic , but /ka/ or /ta/ in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
. It is not infrequent to encounter /ħa/ as an indicative prefix in some Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
states; and, in South Arabian Arabic
Arabic
(viz. Yemen), /ʕa/ is used in the north around the San'aa region, and /ʃa/ is used in the southwest region of Ta'iz. * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
(except some rural dialects which use the prefix /ta/), and therefore does not have this distinction, along with Maltese and at least some varieties of Algerian and Libyan Arabic
Arabic
.

* Loss of /h/ in the third-person masculine enclitic pronoun, when attached to a word ending in a consonant.

* The form is usually /u/ or /o/ in sedentary dialects, but /ah/ or /ih/ in Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects.

* After a vowel, the bare form /h/ is used, but in many sedentary dialects the /h/ is lost here as well. In Egyptian Arabic, for example, this pronoun is marked in this case only by lengthening of the final vowel and concomitant stress shift onto it, but the "h" reappears when followed by another suffix.

* ramā "he threw it" * maramaHūʃ "he didn't throw it"

The following innovations are characteristic of many or most sedentary dialects

* Agreement (verbal, adjectival) with inanimate plurals is plural, rather than feminine singular, as in CA.

* Development of a circumfix negative marker on the verb, involving a prefix /ma-/ and a suffix /-ʃ/.

* In combination with the fusion of the indirect object and the development of new mood markers, this results in verbal complexes that are approaching polysynthetic languages in their complexity.

* An example from Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
is

* /ma-bi-t-ɡib-u-ha-lnaː-ʃ/ * ---bring--to.us- * "You (plural) aren't bringing her (them) to us."

* (NOTE: Versteegh glosses /bi/ as continuous.)

* In Egyptian , Tunisian and Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, the distinction between active and passive participles has disappeared except in form I and in some Classical borrowings.

* These dialects tend to use form V and VI active participles as the passive participles of forms II and III.

The following innovations are characteristic of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
(in North Africa
North Africa
, west of Egypt)

* In the imperfect, Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
has replaced first person singular /ʔ-/ with /n-/, and the first person plural, originally marked by /n-/ alone, is also marked by the /-u/ suffix of the other plural forms.

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
has greatly rearranged the system of verbal derivation, so that the traditional system of forms I through X is not applicable without some stretching. It would be more accurate to describe its verbal system as consisting of two major types, triliteral and quadriliteral , each with a mediopassive variant marked by a prefixal /t-/ or /tt-/.

* The triliteral type encompasses traditional form I verbs (strong: /ktəb/ "write"; geminate: /ʃəmm/ "smell"; hollow: /biʕ/ "sell", /qul/ "say", /xaf/ "fear"; weak /ʃri/ "buy", /ħbu/ "crawl", /bda/ "begin"; irregular: /kul/-/kla/ "eat", /ddi/ "take away", /ʒi/ "come"). * The quadriliteral type encompasses strong : /sˤrˤfəq/ "slap", /hrrəs/ "break", /hrnən/ "speak nasally"; hollow-2 : /ʕajən/ "wait", /ɡufəl/ "inflate", /mixəl/ "eat" (slang); hollow-3 : /xtˤarˤ/ "choose", /ħmarˤ/ "redden"; weak : /wrri/ "show", /sˤqsˤi/ "inquire"; hollow-2-weak : /sali/ "end", /ruli/ "roll", /tiri/ "shoot"; irregular: /sˤifətˤ/-/sˤafətˤ/ "send". * There are also a certain number of quinquiliteral or longer verbs, of various sorts, e.g. weak: /pidˤali/ "pedal", /blˤani/ "scheme, plan", /fanti/ "dodge, fake"; remnant CA form X: /stəʕməl/ "use", /stahəl/ "deserve"; diminutive: /t-birˤʒəz/ "act bourgeois", /t-biznəs/ "deal in drugs". * Note that those types corresponding to CA forms VIII and X are rare and completely unproductive, while some of the non-CA types are productive. At one point, form IX significantly increased its productivity over CA, and there are perhaps 50–100 of these verbs currently, mostly stative but not necessarily referring to colors or bodily defects. However, this type is no longer very productive. * Due to the merging of short /a/ and /i/, most of these types show no stem difference between perfect and imperfect, which is probably why the languages has incorporated new types so easily.

The following innovations are characteristic of Egyptian Arabic
Arabic

* Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, probably under the influence of Coptic , puts the demonstrative pronoun after the noun (/al-X da/ "this X" instead of CA /haːðaː l-X/) and leaves interrogative pronouns in situ rather than fronting them, as in other dialects.

WRITING SYSTEM

Different representations for some phonemes that don't exist in Classical Arabic
Arabic
PHONEME LETTERS

IRAQI GULF NAJDI HEJAZI ISRAELI EGYPTIAN ALGERIAN TUNISIAN MOROCCAN

/p / پ ‎ / ب

/g / گ
گ
‎ / ك ق
ق
/ گ
گ
ق
ق
‎ ‎ چ
چ
‎ / ج ج ڨ ‎ / ڧـ ـڧـ ـ ٯ ‎ / ق
ق
ڭ
ڭ
‎ / گ
گ

/t͡ʃ / چ
چ
‎ تش‎ ڜ

/ʒ / ج چ
چ
‎ / ج ج

/v / ڤ ‎ / ف ڥ ‎ / ڢ ‎ / ف

PHONETICS

Reflexes of Classical /q / PLACE REFLEX /ˈQALB/ /BAQARA/ /ˈWAQT/ /ˈQAːL/ /ˈQAMAR/ /ˈQAHWA/ /QUDDAːM/

"HEART" "COW" "TIME" "SAID" "MOON" "COFFEE" "IN FRONT OF"

Medina
Medina
, Hejazi Arabic
Arabic

galb bagara wagt gaal gamar gahwa guddaam

Uzbeki Arabic
Arabic
(Jugari) , occ. qalb baqara waqt, (waḥt) qaal qamar — giddaam

Muslim
Muslim
Baghdad
Baghdad
Arabic
Arabic
, occ. gaḷuḅ baqara wakət gaal gumar gahwa geddaam, jiddaam

Jewish Baghdadi Arabic
Arabic
, occ. qalb — — qaal qamaɣ — jeddaam

Mosul
Mosul
, Iraq
Iraq

qʌləb bʌgʌɣa wʌqət qaal qʌmʌɣ qʌhwi qəddaam

Anah
Anah
, Iraq
Iraq
or qaalb (bagra) waqet qaal — gahwa —

Rural Lower Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
, occ. galub bgura, bagra wakit gaal gumar ghawa, gahwa jiddaam

Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
, Iraqi Kurdistan

qalb baqaṛa waqt, waxt qaal qamaṛ qahwe qǝddaam

Mardin , Anatolia
Anatolia

qalb baqaṛa waqt, waxt qaal qamaṛ qaḥwe qǝddaam

Sheep nomads, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, NE Arabian Peninsula , occ. galb, galub bgara wagt, wakit gaal gumar ghawa jeddaam

Camel nomads, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, NE Arabian Peninsula , occ. galb, galub bgara wagt, wakit gaal gumar ghawa dᶻöddaam

Aleppo
Aleppo
, Syria

ʾalb baʾara waʾt ʾaal ʾamar ʾahwe ʾǝddaam

Damascus
Damascus
, Syria

ʾalb baʾara waʾt ʾaal ʾamar ʾahwe ʾǝddaam

Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon

ʾalb baʾra waʾt ʾaal ʾamar ʾahwe ʾǝddeem

Jordan or gaḷib or ʾalib bagara or baʾ ara wagǝt or waʾǝt gaal or ʾaal gamar or ʾamar gahwah or ʾahwah giddaam or ʾiddaam

Rural Jordan

galib – gaḷub bagara wagt gaal gamar gahwe – gahweh giddaam

Druze
Druze

qalb baqara — qaal qamar qahwe —

Nazareth
Nazareth
, Israel or ʾalb (or kalb) baʾara (or bakara) waʾt (or wakt) ʾaal (or kaal) ʾamar (or kamar) ʾahwe (or kahwe) ʾuddaam (or kuddaam)

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(urban Palestinian Arabic
Arabic
)

ʾalb baʾara waʾt ʾaal ʾamar ʾahwe ʾuddaam

Bir Zeit , West Bank

kalb bakara wakt kaal kamar kahwe kuddaam

Sana
Sana
, Yemen
Yemen

galb bagara wagt gaal gamar gahweh guddaam

Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt
Egypt

ʾalb baʾara waʾt ʾaal ʾamar ʾahwa ʾuddaam

Upper Egypt
Egypt
, Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

galb bagara wagt gaal gamar gahwa guddaam

Sudan
Sudan

galib bagara wagt gaal gamra gahwa, gahawa giddaam

Ouadai , Chad
Chad
, occ. — beger waqt gaal gamra gahwa —

Benghazi
Benghazi
, E. Libya

gaḷǝb ǝbgǝ́ṛa wagǝt gaaḷ gǝmaṛ gahawa giddaam

Tunis
Tunis
, Tunisia , occ. qalb bagra waqt qal gamra, qamra qahwa qoddem

El Hamma de Gabes , Tunisia

galab bagra wagt gal gamra gahwa geddem

Marazig , Tunisia , occ. galab bagra wagt gal gamra gahwa, qahwa qoddem, geddem

Jewish Algiers
Algiers
(Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
)

ʾǝlb — wǝʾt — ʾǝmr — ʾǝddam

Bou Saada , Algeria
Algeria

galb bagra waqt gal qmar qahwa geddem

Jijel Arabic
Arabic
( Algeria
Algeria
)

qǝlb — wǝqt — qmǝr — qǝddam

Rabat
Rabat
, Morocco

qǝlb bgar waqt qal, gal qamar, gamra qahǝwa qǝddam, gǝddam

Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco , occ. qǝlb bgar waqt — qǝmr, gamra — qoddam

North Taza
Taza
, Morocco or — — waqt, () — gǝmra — —

Khouribga , Morocco or galb bgar waqt gal gamra qahǝwa guddam

Fez , Morocco

ʾǝlb – wǝʾt ʾal ʾǝmr ʾǝhwa ʾoddam

Jewish Moroccans (Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
)

qǝlb bqar wǝqt qal qmǝr qǝhwa qǝddam

Maltese (written q ) qalb baqra waqt qal qamar — quddiem

Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Arabic
occ. kalp pakar oxt kal kamar — kintám

Andalusian Arabic
Arabic
(low register)

kalb bakar wakt — kamar — kuddím

* CA /ʔ / is mostly lost.

* Depending on the exact phonetic environment, this either caused reduction of two vowels into a single long or diphthong (when between two vowels), insertion of a homorganic /j / or /w / (when between two vowels, the first of which was short or long /i/ or /u/ and the second not the same), of a preceding short vowel (between a short vowel and a following non-vowel), or simple deletion (elsewhere). This resulted initially in a large number of complicated variations in paradigms. * In CA and Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA), /ʔ / is still pronounced. * However, because this change had already happened in Meccan Arabic at the time the Qur\'an was written, it is reflected in the orthography of written Arabic, where a diacritic known as hamzah is inserted either above an ʾalif, wāw or yāʾ, or "on the line" (between characters); or in certain cases, a diacritic ʾalif maddah (" ʾalif") is inserted over an ʾalif. (As a result, proper spelling of words involving /ʔ / is probably one of the most difficult issues in Arabic
Arabic
orthography. Furthermore, actual usage is in many circumstances.) * Modern dialects have smoothed out the morphophonemic variations, typically by deleting the associated verbs or moving them into another paradigm (for example, /qaraʔ/ "read" becomes /qara/ or /ʔara/, a third-weak verb). * /ʔ / has reappeared medially in various words due to borrowing from CA. (In addition, /q / has become in many dialects, although the two are marginally distinguishable in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, since words beginning with original /ʔ / can elide this sound, whereas words beginning with original /q / cannot.)

* CA /q / changes widely from variety to variety. In Bedouin dialects from Mauritania
Mauritania
to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, it is pronounced , as in most of Iraq
Iraq
. In the Levant
Levant
and Egypt
Egypt
(except in Upper Egypt
Egypt
(the Sa'id), as well as some North African towns such as Tlemcen , it is pronounced as a glottal stop , apart from rural areas in the South West Levant
Levant
where it becomes emphatic . In the Persian Gulf, it very rarely becomes in rare words in rural dialects (adjacent to an original /i/), and is or otherwise. Elsewhere, it is usually realized as uvular . * CA /ɟ / varies widely. In most of the Arabian peninsula it is pronounced as a , while in some Arabian Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects, and parts of the Sudan
Sudan
, it is still realized as the medieval Persian linguist Sibawayh described it, as a palatalized . In Egypt
Egypt
, parts of Yemen and parts of Oman
Oman
, it is a plain . In most of the Levant
Levant
and most of North Africa
North Africa
, it is . In the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and southern Iraq, it often becomes . Elsewhere, it is usually . * CA /k / often becomes in the Persian Gulf, Iraq, some Rural Palestinian dialects and in some Bedouin
Bedouin
dialects (adjacent to an original /i/, particularly in the second singular feminine enclitic pronoun, where replaces an classical /ik/ or /ki/). In a very few Moroccan varieties, it affricates to /k͡ʃ/. Elsewhere, it remains . * CA /r / is pronounced in a few areas: Mosul
Mosul
, for instance, and the Jewish variety in Algiers
Algiers
. In all northern Africa, a phonemic distinction has emerged between plain and emphatic , thanks to the merging of short vowels. * CA /θ /, /ð / become /t, d/ in Egypt
Egypt
, Malta
Malta
, and some regions in North Africa
North Africa
, and become /s, z/ in the Levant
Levant
(except for some words, in which they become /t, d/), but remain /θ/ and /ð/ in Iraqi, Yemenite, Tunisian, rural Palestinian, Eastern Libyan, and some rural Algerian dialects. In Arabic-speaking towns of Eastern Turkey
Turkey
, (Urfa, Siirt and Mardin) they respectively become /f, v/. * CA /t / (but not emphatic CA /tˤ/) is affricated to in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
; this is still distinguishable from the sequence . * CA /ʕ /) is pronounced in Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
and Kuwaiti Arabic
Arabic
with glottal closure: . In some varieties /ʕ / is devoiced to before /h /, for some speakers of Cairene Arabic
Arabic
/bitaʕha/ → /bitaħħa/ (or /bitaʕ̞ħa/) "hers". The residue of this rule applies also in the Maltese language, where neither etymological /h / nor /ʕ / are pronounced as such, but give in this context: tagħha "hers". * The nature of "emphasis" differs somewhat from variety to variety. It is usually described as a concomitant, but in most sedentary varieties it is actually velarization , or a combination of the two. (The phonetic effects of the two are only minimally different from each other.) Usually there is some associated lip rounding; in addition, the stop consonants /t / and /d / are dental and lightly aspirated when non-emphatic, but alveolar and completely unaspirated when emphatic.

* CA short vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ suffer various changes.

* Original final short vowels are mostly deleted. * Many Levantine Arabic
Arabic
dialects merge /i/ and /u/ into a phonemic /ə / except when directly followed by a single consonant; this sound may appear allophonically as /i/ or /u/ in certain phonetic environments. * Maghreb
Maghreb
dialects merge /a/ and /i/ into /ə /, which is deleted when unstressed. Tunisian maintains this distinction, but deletes these vowels in non-final open syllables.

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, under the strong influence of Berber , goes even further. Short /u/ is converted to labialization of an adjacent velar, or is merged with /ə /. This schwa then deletes everywhere except in certain words ending /-CCəC/.

* The result is that there is no more distinction between short and long vowels; borrowings from CA have "long" vowels (now pronounced half-long) uniformly substituted for original short and long vowels. * This also results in consonant clusters of great length, which are (more or less) syllabified according to a sonority hierarchy. (For some subdialects, in practice, it is very difficult to tell where, if anywhere, there are syllabic peaks in long consonant clusters in a phrase such as /xsˤsˤk tktbi/ "you (fem.) must write". Other dialects, in the North, make a clear distinction; they say /xəssək təktəb/ "you want to write", but */xəssk ətkətb/ just won't do).

* In Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, short /a/ and /i/ have merged, obscuring the original distribution. In this dialect, the two varieties have completely split into separate phonemes, with one or the other used consistently across all words derived from a particular root except in a few situations.

* In Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, the allophonic effect of emphatic consonants is more pronounced than elsewhere. * Full /a/ is affected as above, but /i/ and /u/ are also affected, and are to and , respectively. * In some varieties, such as in Marrakesh
Marrakesh
, the effects are even more extreme (and complex), where both high-mid and low-mid allophones exist ( and , and ), in addition to front-rounded allophones of original /u/ (, , ), all depending on adjacent phonemes. * On the other hand, emphasis spreading in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
is less pronounced than elsewhere; usually it only spreads to the nearest full vowel on either side, although with some additional complications.

* /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ in CA completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. * In Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
and Levantine Arabic
Arabic
, short /i/ and /u/ are elided in various circumstances in unstressed syllables (typically, in open syllables; for example, in Egyptian Arabic, this occurs only in the middle vowel of a VCVCV sequence, ignoring word boundaries). In Levantine, however, clusters of three consonants are almost never permitted. If such a cluster would occur, it is broken up through the insertion of /ə / – between the second and third consonants in Egyptian Arabic, and between the first and second in Levantine Arabic .

* CA long vowels are in some circumstances.

* Original final long vowels are shortened in all dialects. * In Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
and Levantine Arabic
Arabic
, unstressed long vowels are shortened. * Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
also cannot tolerate long vowels followed by two consonants, and them. (Such an occurrence was rare in CA, but often occurs in modern dialects as a result of elision of a short vowel.)

* In most dialects, particularly sedentary ones, CA /a/ and /aː/ have two strongly divergent allophones, depending on the phonetic context.

* Adjacent to an emphatic consonant and to /q / (but not usually to other sounds derived from this, such as /ɡ / or /ʔ /), a back variant occurs; elsewhere, a strongly fronted variant ~ is used. * There is a tendency for emphatic consonants to cause non-adjacent low vowels to be backed, as well; this is known as emphasis spreading . The domain of emphasis spreading is potentially unbounded; in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, the entire word is usually affected, although in Levantine Arabic
Arabic
and some other varieties, it is blocked by an /i/ or /j / (and sometimes /ʃ /). * The two allophones are in the process of splitting phonemically in some dialects, as occurs in some words (particularly foreign borrowings) even in the absence of any emphatic consonants anywhere in the word. (Some linguists have postulated additional emphatic phonemes in an attempt to handle these circumstances; in the extreme case, this requires assuming that EVERY phoneme occurs doubled, in emphatic and non-emphatic varieties. Some have attempted to make the vowel allophones autonomous and eliminate the emphatic consonants as phonemes. Others have asserted that emphasis is actually a property of syllables or whole words rather than of individual vowels or consonants. None of these proposals seems particularly tenable, however, given the variable and unpredictable nature of emphasis spreading.) * Unlike other Arabic
Arabic
varieties, Hejazi Arabic
Arabic
did not develop allophones of the vowels /a/ and /aː/, and both are pronounced as or .

* CA /r / is also in the process of splitting into emphatic and non-emphatic varieties, with the former causing emphasis spreading, just like other emphatic consonants. Originally, non-emphatic occurred before /i/ or between /i/ and a following consonant, while emphatic occurred mostly near .

* To a large extent, Western Arabic
Arabic
dialects reflect this, while the situation is rather more complicated in Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
. (The allophonic distribution still exists to a large extent, although not in any predictable fashion; nor is one or the other variety used consistently in different words derived from the same root. Furthermore, although derivational suffixes (in particular, relational /-i/ and /-ijja/) affect a preceding /r/ in the expected fashion, inflectional suffixes do not).

* Emphasis spreading also pharyngealizes consonants between the source consonant and affected vowels, although the effects are much less noticeable than for vowels, since the rise of emphasis spreading is associated with a concomitant decrease in the amount of pharyngealization of emphatic consonants.

* Interestingly, emphasis spreading does not affect the affrication of non-emphatic /t / in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, with the result that these two phonemes are always distinguishable regardless of the nearby presence of other emphatic phonemes.

* Certain other consonants, depending on the dialect, also cause of adjacent sounds, although the effect is typically weaker than full emphasis spreading and usually has no effect on more distant vowels.

* The /x / and the uvular consonant /q / often cause partial backing of adjacent /a/ (and of /u/ and /i/ in Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
). For Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, the effect is sometimes described as half as powerful as an emphatic consonant, as a vowel with uvular consonants on both sides is affected similarly to having an emphatic consonant on one side. * Interestingly, the pharyngeal consonants /ħ / and /ʕ / cause no emphasis spreading and may have little or no effect on adjacent vowels. In Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, for example, an /a/ adjacent to either sound is a fully front . In other dialects, /ʕ / is more likely to have an effect than /ħ /. * In some Gulf Arabic
Arabic
dialects, /w / and/or /l / causes backing. * In some dialects, words such as الله /aɫɫaː/ Allāh has backed 's and in some dialects also velarized /l/.

* CA diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ have become or and or (but merge with original /iː/ and /uː/ in Maghreb
Maghreb
dialects, which is probably a secondary development). The diphthongs are maintained in the Maltese language and some urban Tunisian dialects, particularly that of Sfax , while and also occur in some other Tunisian dialects, such as Monastir .

* The placement of the stress accent is extremely variable between varieties; nowhere is it phonemic.

* Most commonly, it falls on the last syllable containing a long vowel, or a short vowel followed by two consonants; but never farther from the end than the third-to-last syllable. This maintains the presumed stress pattern in CA (although there is some disagreement over whether stress could move farther back than the third-to-last syllable), and is also used in Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA).

* In CA and MSA, stress cannot occur on a final long vowel; however, this does not result in different stress patterns on any words, because CA final long vowels are shortened in all modern dialects, and any current final long vowels are secondary developments from words containing a long vowel followed by a consonant.

* In Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
, the rule is similar, but stress falls on the second-to-last syllable in words of the form ...VCCVCV, as in /makˈtaba/. * In Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
, stress is final in words of the (original) form CaCaC, after which the first /a/ is elided. Hence جَبَل ǧabal "mountain" becomes . * In Moroccan Arabic
Arabic
, phonetic stress is often not recognizable.

SEE ALSO

* International Association of Arabic
Arabic
Dialectology (AIDA) * Arabic
Arabic
diglossia * Arabic
Arabic
(other)

NOTES

REFERENCES

* ^ Bassiouney, 2009, p. 29. * ^ Abdel-Jawad, 1986, p. 58. * ^ Bassiouney, 2009, p. 19. * ^ Holes, 1983, p. 448. * ^ Holes 1995: 39, p. 118. * ^ Blanc, 1960, p. 62. * ^ Holes, 1995, p. 294. * ^ Bassiouney, 2009, p. 26. * ^ Bassiouney, 2009, p. 11. * ^ http://www.arabacademy.com/faq/arabic_language Questions from Prospective Students on the varieties of Arabic
Arabic
Language – online Arab Academy * ^ Badawi, 1973. * ^ Al-Sawi, 2004, p. 7 * ^ Yaghan, M. (2008). "Araby: A Contemporary Style of Arabic Slang". Design Issues 24(2): 39-52. * ^ Bassiouney, 2009, p.105. * ^ Holes, 1984, p.433-457. * ^ Abu-Haidar, 1991. * ^ Macdonald, M. C. A. (2000). "Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia". Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy. 11. Retrieved 28 July 2014. * ^ Macdonald, M. C. A. (2004). "Ancient North Arabian". In Woodard, Roger D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World\'s Languages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 488–533. ISBN 0-521-56256-2 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Abdel-Jawad, H. (1986). 'The emergence of a dialect in Jordanian urban centres.' International Journal of the Sociology of Language 61. * Abu-Haidar, F. (1991). Christian
Christian
Arabic
Arabic
of Baghdad, Weisbaden: Otto Harasowitz. * Abu-Melhim, A. R. (1991). ' Code-switching and accommodation in Arabic.' Perspectives on Arabic
Arabic
Linguistics. * Al-Sawi, M. (5..4). 'Writing Arabic
Arabic
with Roman letters.' http://www.academia.edu/843265/writing_Arabic_in_the_Latin_letters._ * Badawi, S.A. (1973). Mustawayāt al-'Arabīyah al-mu'āṣirah fī Miṣr: Baḥth fī 'alāqat al-lughah bi-al-ḥaḍārah, Cairo: Dār al-Ma'ārif. * Bassiouney, Reem (2006). Functions of code-switching in Egypt: Evidence from monologues, Leiden: Brill. * Bassiouney, Reem (2009). Arabic
Arabic
Sociolinguistics, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. * Blanc, D. (1960) 'Style variations in Arabic: A sample of interdialectical conversation.' in C.A. Ferguson (ed.) Contributions to Arabic
Arabic
linguistics, Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press. * Dendane, Z. (1994). 'Sociolinguistic variation in an Arabic
Arabic
speech community: Tlemcen.' Cahiers de Dialectologie et de Linguistique Contrastive 4. * El-Hassan, S. (1997). 'Educated Spoken Arabic
Arabic
in Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant: A critical review of diglossia and related concepts.' Archivum Linguisticum 8(2). * Ferguson, C.A. (1972). 'Diglossia.' Word 15. * Holes, C. (1983). ' Bahrain
Bahrain
dialects: Sectarian differences exemplified through texts.' Zeitschrift fur arabische Linguistik10. * Holes, C. (1995). 'Community, dialect and urbanization in the Arabic-speaking Middle-East.' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 58(2). * Mitchell, T.F. (1986). 'What is educated spoken Arabic?' International Journal of the Sociology of Language 61. * Pereira, C. (2007). 'Urbanization and dialect change: The dialect of Tripoli, Libya.' in C. Miller, E. Al-Wer, D. Caubet and J.C.E. Watson (eds), Arabic
Arabic
in the city: Issues in dialect contact and language variation, London and New York: Routledge. * Suleiman, Y. (1994). Arabic
Arabic
sociolinguistics: Issues and perspectives, Richmond: Curzon. * Versteegh, K. (2001). The Arabic
Arabic
language, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

FURTHER READING

* Arabic
Arabic
Varieties: Far and Wide. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of AIDA Bucharest 2015 * A Bibliography of Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe * AIDA – Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe * George Grigore L'arabe parlé à Mardin. Monographie d'un parler arabe périphérique. * Durand, O., (1995), Introduzione ai dialetti arabi, Centro Studi Camito-Semitici, Milan. * Durand, O., (2009), Dialettologia araba, Carocci Editore, Rome. * Fischer W. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Arabic
Arabic
language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet * Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet * Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics * i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat * Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza
Hamza
* Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ * Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl * Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād * Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ * ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre-Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija * Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters * ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani * Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq * Hijazi script * Muhaqqaq
Muhaqqaq
* Thuluth * Naskh (script) * Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq script
* Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic
Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Arabic

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin
Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * Sanaani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Bedouin
Bedouin

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot Maronite * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad
Baghdad
Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* Andalusian

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * Sicilian

UNDESCRIBED

* Shirvani

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * Bimbashi * Juba * Nubi * Maridi * Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Semitic languages
Semitic languages

EAST SEMITIC LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Eblaite

WEST SEMITIC AND CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES

NORTHWEST

CANAANITE

HEBREW

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Sephardi * Ashkenazi * Samaritan * Modern

PHOENICIAN

* Punic

OTHERS

* Ammonite * Moabite * Edomite

ARAMAIC

WESTERN

* Jewish Palestinian * Samaritan * Christian
Christian
Palestinian * Nabataean * Western Neo- Aramaic
Aramaic

EASTERN

* Biblical * Hatran * Syriac * Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
Aramaic
* Chaldean Neo- Aramaic
Aramaic
* Assyrian Neo- Aramaic
Aramaic
* Senaya * Koy Sanjaq Surat * Hértevin * Turoyo * Mlahsô * Mandaic * Judeo- Aramaic
Aramaic
* Syriac Malayalam

OTHERS

* Amorite * Eteocypriot * Ugaritic

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard

DIALECTS

MASHRIQI (EASTERN)

ARABIAN PENINSULAR

* Dhofari

* Gulf

* Bahrani * Shihhi

* Hejazi * Najdi * Omani

* Yemeni

* Judeo-Yemeni

BEDOUIN

* Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

OTHERS

* Egyptian

* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Levantine

* Cypriot * Lebanese * Palestinian

* Mesopotamian

* North Mesopotamian * Judeo-Iraqi

* Sudanese

* Central Asian

* Tajiki * Uzbeki

* Shirvani

MAGHREBI (WESTERN)

* Algerian * Saharan * Shuwa * Hassānīya * Andalusian

* Libyan Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Tripolitanian

* Sicilian

* Maltese

* Moroccan Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan

* Tunisian Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Tunisian

OTHERS

* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Nabataean Arabic
Arabic

SOUTH SEMITIC LANGUAGES

WESTERN SOUTH

OLD SOUTH

* Sabaean * Minaean * Qatabanian * Hadramautic * Awsānian

ETHIOPIAN

NORTH

* Ge\'ez * Tigrinya * Tigre * Dahalik

SOUTH

AMHARIC

* Argobba

HARARI

* Silt\'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) * Zay

OUTER

N-GROUP

* Gafat * Soddo

TT-GROUP

* Mesmes * Muher

* West Gurage

* Mesqan * Ezha * Chaha * Gura * Gumer * Gyeto * Ennemor * Endegen

MODERN SOUTH ARABIAN

* Bathari * Harsusi * Hobyot * Mehri * Shehri * Soqotri

* v * t * e

Varieties of world languages

* Arabic * Chinese * Dutch * English * French * German * Hindi * Malay * Portuguese * Russian * Spanish

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