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The Vardar
Vardar
(Macedonian:  Вардар (help·info); Greek: Βαρδάρης) or Axios (Greek: Αξιός) is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and also a major river of Greece. It is 388 km (241 mi) long, and drains an area of around 25,000 km2 (9,653 sq mi). The maximum depth of the river is 4 m (13 ft).

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Project to Construct the Danube-Vardar-Aegean Canal 4 Vardaris wind 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the word is unclear. However most probably, the origin of the name Vardar
Vardar
derives Bardários from Thracian, from Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
(PIE) *(s)wordo-wori- 'black water'.[1][2] It can be considered a translation or similar meaning of Axios, which itself is Thracian for 'not-shining' from PIE *n.-sk(e)i (cf. Avestan axšaēna 'dark-coloured'),[3] and found in another name at the mouth of the Danube, Axíopa "dark water", renamed in Slavic Cernavodă 'black water'.[4] The name Bardários (Βαρδάριος) was sometimes used by the Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
in the 3rd Century BCE. The same name was widely used in the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[4] The word may ultimately be derived from the PIE root *werǵ-, which is also the source of the English word "to work." Its Greek name, Axios (Αξιός), is mentioned by Homer
Homer
(Il. 21.141, Il. 2.849)[5] as the home of the Paeonians
Paeonians
allies of Troy. The name "Affi" is mentioned by Pjetër Bogdani
Pjetër Bogdani
in his work "Cuneus Prophetarum" (1685) as a former name of Vardar. [6] Geography[edit]

Vardar
Vardar
in Skopje: the Stone Bridge.

The river rises at Vrutok, a few kilometers north of Gostivar
Gostivar
in the Republic of Macedonia. It passes through Gostivar, Skopje
Skopje
and into Veles, crosses the Greek border near Gevgelija, Polykastro
Polykastro
and Axioupoli
Axioupoli
("town on the Axiós"), before emptying into the Aegean Sea in Central Macedonia, west of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
in northern Greece. The Vardar
Vardar
basin comprises two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The valley features fertile lands in the Polog
Polog
region, around Gevgelija
Gevgelija
and in the Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
regional unit. The river is surrounded by mountains elsewhere. The superhighways Greek National Road 1 in Greece
Greece
and M1 and E75 run within the valley along the river's entire length to near Skopje. The river was very famous during the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and remains so in modern-day Turkey
Turkey
as the inspiration for many folk songs, of which the most famous is Vardar
Vardar
Ovasi. It has also been depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag.[7] Project to Construct the Danube-Vardar-Aegean Canal[edit] The Project to Construct the Danube-Morava-Vardar-Aegean Canal has been a dream for a long time.[8] Le Figaro published a project of Athens and Belgrade
Belgrade
on 28.08.2017. The Greek-Serbian proposal made in Peking is Pharaonic: 651 km. A project worth 17 billion.[9] Vardaris wind[edit] The Vardaris or Vardarec is a powerful prevailing northerly ravine wind which blows across the river valley in Greek Macedonia as well as in the Republic of Macedonia. At first it descends along the "canal" of the Vardar
Vardar
valley, usually as a breeze. When it encounters the high mountains that separate Greece
Greece
from the Republic of Macedonia, it descends the other side, gathering a tremendous momentum and bringing cold conditions to the city of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and the Axios delta. Somewhat similar to the mistral wind of France, it occurs when atmospheric pressure over eastern Europe is higher than over the Aegean Sea, as is often the case in winter. Gallery[edit]

Map of northwestern Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
including the source of the Vardar

Axios/ Vardar
Vardar
river map

Veles Gorge

River
River
Vardar
Vardar
near Gradsko

River
River
Vardar
Vardar
near Gradsko (2)

Vardar
Vardar
(Axios) river in Greece.

Longitudinal hidrographic profile of the flow of river Vardar

See also[edit]

Great Morava Pčinja River

References[edit]

^ Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2003: 392. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997: 147 ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997, p. 146 ^ a b Katičic', Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 149 ^ Axios, Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary, at Perseus ^ Cuneus Prophetarum De Christo Salvatore Mundi, Et Eius Evangelica Volume 2, pg. 179 ^ Official portal of the city of Skopje: City symbols. – Retrieved on 13 May 2009. ^ The Project to Construct the Danube-Aegean Canal(2013)[1] ^ The Greek-Serbian proposal made in Peking[2]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vardar.

Proceedings of the 1st Axios Catchment Consortium Meeting by the European Commission
European Commission
- DG Research. PIM "Ivan Milutinović", Belgrade, Serbia; Morava - Vardar
Vardar
(Axios) Navigation Route (About 1,200 km shorter route (three days shorter time of navigation) from Belgrade
Belgrade
to Port of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
than across Danube, Black Sea
Black Sea
and Aegean Sea. Electric power production, improvement of water quality and regulation of flooding wave.) Morava - Vardar
Vardar
(Axios) Navigation Route map Hydropower and navigation system "Morava" (Concepts of regulation of rivers Great Morava
Great Morava
and South Morava for navigation and hydropower production.)

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