The Vandals, a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes, first
appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland, but some
later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which
successively established kingdoms in Spain and then
North Africa in
the 5th century.
Scholars believe that the
Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia
to the area between the lower
Vistula rivers during the 2nd
century BC and settled in
Silesia from around 120 BC.
They are associated with the
Przeworsk culture and were possibly the
same people as the Lugii. Expanding into
Dacia during the Marcomannic
Wars and to
Pannonia during the Crisis of the Third Century, the
Vandals were confined to
Pannonia by the
Goths around 330 AD, where
they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around
400, raids by the
Huns forced many Germanic tribes to migrate into the
territory of the Roman Empire, and fearing that they might be targeted
Vandals were pushed westwards, crossing the
Rhine into Gaul
along with other tribes in 406. In 409 the
Vandals crossed the
Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where their main groups, the
Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in
Gallaecia (northwest Iberia) and
Baetica (south-central Iberia) respectively.
Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian
Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of
Hasdingian leader Gunderic, who was pushed from
Gallaecia to Baetica
by a Roman-
Suebi coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric
(reigned 428-477), the
Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they
established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as
well as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia,
Malta and the Balearic Islands.
They fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African
province, and sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed
Vandalic War of 533–4, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces
managed to reconquer the province for the Eastern Roman Empire.
Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the
barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the
term "vandalism" to describe any senseless destruction, particularly
the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. However, modern historians tend
to regard the
Vandals during the transitional period from Late
Antiquity to the
Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages as perpetuators, not destroyers, of
2.2 Introduction into the Roman Empire
2.3 In Gaul
2.4 In Hispania
2.5 Kingdom in North Africa
2.5.2 Sack of Rome
2.5.4 Domestic religious tensions
2.5.6 Turbulent end
3 Physical appearance
4 List of kings
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka
displayed at the
Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.
Vendel and Aurvandil
The name of the
Vandals has often been connected to that of Vendel,
the name of a province in Uppland, Sweden, which is also eponymous of
Vendel Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late
Germanic Iron Age
Germanic Iron Age leading up to the Viking Age. The connection would
Vendel is the original homeland of the
Vandals prior to the
Migration Period, and retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further
possible homelands of the
Hallingdal in Norway.[self-published source]
The etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to
wander" (English wend, German wandeln). The Germanic mythological
Aurvandil "shining wanderer; dawn wanderer, evening star",
or "Shining Vandal" is reported as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri". R.
Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects
Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri", probably involving an origin
myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from
to the case of many other Germanic tribal names).
Some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti,
Wends, Lusatians or Poles. It was once thought that the
Slovenes were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view
of modern scholars.
Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century
Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii
are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.
Vandals are believed to have migrated from southern
Scandinavia to the area between the lower
Oder and Vistula
somewhere in the 2nd century BC, and to have settled in Silesia
from around 120 BC. The earliest mention of the
from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandilii in a broad way to
define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes
within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini,
Carini (otherwise unknown), and the Gutones. According to the
Gallaecian Christian priest, historian and theologian Paulus Orosius,
the Vandals, who lived originally in Scoringa, near Stockholm, Sweden,
were of the same stock as the
Suiones ("Swedes") and the Goths.
Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, however the
culture probably extend over several eastern European peoples with
their origin, ethnicity and linguistic affiliation heavily
debated. The bearers of the
Przeworsk culture mainly
practiced cremation, with occasional inhumation. The Lugii
(Lygier, Lugier or Lygians) have been identified by modern historians
as the same people as the Vandals. The
mentioned by Strabo,
Ptolemy as a large group of tribes
living between the
Vistula and the Oder. Neither Strabo,
Ptolemy mentions the Vandals, while
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder mentions the
Vandals but not the Lugii. According to John Anderson, the "Lugii
and Vandili are designations of the same tribal group, the latter an
extended ethnic name, the former probably a cult-title." Herwig
Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the
one cultic community that lived in the same region of the
Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and then under Germanic
Introduction into the Roman Empire
The Roman empire under
Hadrian (ruled 117-38), showing the location of
the Vandilii East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula
By the end of the 2nd century, the
Vandals were divided in two main
tribal groups, the
Silingi and the Hasdingi, with the
Silesia and the
Hasdingi living in the Sudetes. Around
the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic
tribes of Scandinavian origin (Rugii, Goths, Gepidae, Vandals,
Burgundians, and others) towards the south-east, creating turmoil
along the entire Roman frontier. The 6th century
Procopius noted that the Goths, Gepidae and
Vandals were physically and culturally identical, suggesting a common
origin. These migrations culminated in the Marcomannic Wars, which
resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of
Roman Empire period. During the
Marcomannic Wars (166–180)
Hasdingi (or Astingi), led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus
and Raptus) moved south, entering
Dacia as allies of Rome. However
they eventually caused problems in
Dacia and moved further south,
towards the lower
Danube area. Together with the
Hasdingi were the
Lacringi, who were possibly also Vandals. In about 271 AD the
Aurelian was obliged to protect the middle course of the
Danube against them. They made peace and stayed on the eastern bank of
Reconstruction of an Iron Age warrior's garments representing a
Vandalic man, with his hair in a "Suebian knot" (160 AD),
Archaeological Museum of Kraków.
According to Jordanes' Getica, the
Hasdingi came into conflict with
Goths around the time of Constantine the Great. At the time, the
Vandals were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids, where they
were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the
Marcomanni, on the north [by] the
Hermanduri and on the south [by] the
Hister (Danube)." The
Vandals were attacked by the Gothic king
Geberic, and their king
Visimar was killed. The
migrated to Pannonia, where after
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great (about 330)
granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the
next sixty years.
Around this time, the
Hasdingi had already been Christianized. During
the Emperor Valens's reign (364–78) the
Vandals accepted, much like
Goths earlier, Arianism, a belief that was in opposition to that
of Nicene orthodoxy of the Roman Empire. Yet there were also some
scattered orthodox Vandals, among whom was the famous magister militum
Stilicho, the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius probably more due
Stilicho being half Vandal and half Roman.
In 400 or 401, Hunnic raids forced many Germanic tribes such as the
Goths to migrate Westward. Worried that they might be targeted next by
the Huns, the
Vandals under king Godigisel, along with their allies
Alans and Germanic Suebians), moved westwards into Roman
territory. Some of the
Silingi joined them later.
the Roman province of
Raetia in the winter of 401/402. From this,
Peter Heather concludes that at this time the
located in the region around the Middle and Upper Danube. It is
possible that the
Vandals were part of the Gothic king Radagaisus'
Italy in 405-406 AD.
In 406 the
Vandals advanced from
Pannonia travelling west along the
Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they
met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized
regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel
himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the
Alans they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the
Vandals crossed the Rhine, probably while it was frozen, to invade
Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic,
Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through
Migrations of the
Scandinavia through Dacia, Gaul,
Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.
On October 13, 409 they crossed the
Pyrenees into the Iberian
peninsula. There, the
Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as
Asturia (Northwest) and the
(South), while the
Alans got lands in
Lusitania (West) and the region
around Carthago Nova. The
Suebi also controlled part of Gallaecia.
The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia before receiving lands in Septimania
(Southern France), crushed the
Alans in 418, killing the western Alan
king Attaces. The remainder of his people and the remnants of the
Silingi who were nearly wiped out subsequently appealed to the Vandal
Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North
Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the
Vandals and Alans"). In 419 AD the
Vandals were defeated by a
Gunderic fled to Baetica, where he was
also proclaimed king of the
Silingi Vandals. In 422 Gunderic
decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition led by the Roman
Castinus at the Battle of Tarraco. It is likely
that many Roman and Gothic troops deserted to
Gunderic following the
battle. For the next five years, according to Hydatius, Gunderic
created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean. In 425, the
Vandals pillaged the Balearic Islands,
Hispania and Mauritania,
sacking Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena) and Hispalis (Seville). The
capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals
to engage in widespread naval activities. In 428
Hispalis but died while laying siege to the city's church. He was
succeeded by his half-brother Genseric, who although he was
illegitimate (his mother was a Roman slave) had held a prominent
position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.
Genseric is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian
leader of the Migration Period. Michael Frasseto writes that he
probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his
contemporaries. Although the barbarians controlled
still comprised a tiny minority among a much larger Hispano-Roman
population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000. Shortly after
seizing the throne,
Genseric was attacked from the rear by a large
Suebi under the command of
Heremigarius who had managed to
take Lusitania. This
Suebi army was defeated near Mérida and its
leader Hermigario drowned in the
Guadiana River while trying to
It is possible that the name Al-Andalus (and its derivative Andalusia)
is derived from the Arabic adoption of the name of the
Kingdom in North Africa
Main article: Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom at its greatest extent in the 470s
Bonifacius Comes Africae (422-431 CE), who was defeated by the
Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa
in 429. Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate
the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the
Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,
Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around
According to Procopius, the
Vandals came to Africa at the request of
Bonifacius, the military ruler of the region. Seeking to establish
himself as an independent ruler in Africa or even become Roman
Bonifacius had defeated several Roman attempts to subdue him,
until he was mastered by the newly appointed Gothic count of Africa,
Sigisvult, who captured both
Hippo Regius and Carthage. It is
Bonifacius had sought
Genseric as an ally against
Sigisvult, promising him a part of Africa in return.
Advancing eastwards along the coast, the
Vandals were confronted on
the Numidian border in May–June 430 by Bonifacius. Negotiations
broke down, and
Bonifacius was soundly defeated. Bonifacius
subsequently barricaded himself inside
Hippo Regius with the Vandals
besieging the city. Inside, Saint Augustine and his priests prayed
for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the
city would spell conversion or death for many Roman
On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was
75 years old) died, perhaps from starvation or stress, as the
wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. The death
of Augustine shocked Regent of the Western
Roman Empire Galla
Placidia, who feared the consequences if her realm was to lose its
most important source of grain. She raised a new army in
convinced her nephew in Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Emperor
Theodosius II, to send an army to
North Africa led by Aspar.
Around July–August 431,
Genseric raised the siege of Hippo
Regius, which enabled
Bonifacius to retreat from
Hippo Regius to
Carthage, where he was joined by Aspar's army. Some time in the summer
Genseric soundly defeated the joint forces of both Bonifacius
and Aspar, which enabled him to seize
Hippo Regius unopposed.
Aspar subsequently negotiated a peace treaty of some
sorts. Upon seizing Hippo Regius, Geiseric made it the first
capital of the Vandal kingdom.
Peace was made between the Romans and the
Vandals in 435 through a
treaty giving the
Vandals control of coastal Numidia. Geiseric chose
to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa
Proconsularis and seized
Carthage on October 19. The city was
captured without a fight; the
Vandals entered the city while most of
the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric
made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the
Alans, to denote the inclusion of the
Alans of northern Africa into
his alliance. Conquering Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica
and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state.
Historian Camerson suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been
unwelcomed by the population of
North Africa as the great landowners
were generally unpopular.
The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita,
Fulgentius of Ruspe
Fulgentius of Ruspe was that the Vandal take-over of
North Africa led to widespread destruction. However,
recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion.
Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained
the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political
Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged
within towns during this period.
Historian Andy Merrills uses the
large amounts of
African Red Slip
African Red Slip ware discovered across the
Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of
North Africa to
challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of
North Africa was a
time of economic instability. When the
440, the Western
Roman Empire was too preoccupied with war with Gaul
to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire,
dispatched an expedition to deal with the
Vandals in 441; however, it
only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian
III secured peace with the
Vandals in 442. Under the treaty the
Vandals gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, and part of Numidia, and
confirmed their control of Proconsular Africa as well as the
Vandal Kingdom was as the first barbarian state officially recognized
as an independent kingdom in former Roman territory instead of
foederati. The Empire regained western
Numidia and the two
Mauretanian provinces until 455.
Sack of Rome
Main article: Sack of Rome (455)
The Sack of Rome, Karl Briullov, 1833-1836
During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet,
the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the
Mediterranean was so substantial that the sea's name in Old English
was Wendelsæ (i. e. Sea of the Vandals). After Attila the Hun's
death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back
to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of
their former empire.
In an effort to bring the
Vandals into the fold of the Empire,
Valentinian III offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's
son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again
played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus, the
Valentinian III in an effort to control the Empire.
Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a
letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to
rescue her, the
Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress Licinia
Eudoxia and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia.
The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine offers the only fifth-century
report that on 2 June 455, Pope
Leo the Great
Leo the Great received
implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be
satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is,
however, questioned. The
Vandals departed with countless valuables.
Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.
In 456 a Vandal fleet of 60 ships threatening both
ambushed and defeated in
Corsica by the Western Roman general
Ricimer. In 457 a mixed Vandal-Berber army returning with loot
from a raid in
Campania were soundly defeated in a surprise attack by
Majorian at the mouth of the
As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the
Mediterranean, it became important to the
Roman Empire to destroy the
Vandal kingdom. In 460, the Western Roman Emperor
Majorian launched an
expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of
Cartagena. In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an
enormous expedition against the
Vandals under the command of
Basiliscus, which reportedly was composed of a 100,000 soldiers and
1,000 ships. The
Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap
Bon, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through
the use of fire ships. Following up the attack, the
to invade the Peloponnese, but were driven back by the
Kenipolis with heavy losses. In retaliation, the
500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the
pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.
In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the
Vandals. The Western general
Ricimer reached a treaty with them,
and in 476
Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with
Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of
normality. From 477 onwards, the
Vandals produced their own
coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The
high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the
words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".
Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and
established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean,
they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated
south of the Vandal kingdom, the
Berbers inflicted two major defeats
Vandals in the period 496–530.
Domestic religious tensions
A denarius of the reign of Hilderic
Differences between the Arian
Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects
(including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of
tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed
Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently
suffered confiscation of their property. He protected his Catholic
subjects when his relations with Rome and
friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at
Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same
was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of
Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of
Arianism and suffered no punishment. Huneric,
Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484
in an effort to marginalise them and make
Arianism the primary
religion in North Africa. Generally most Vandal kings, except
Hilderic, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser
extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally
making life difficult for Trinitarians.
According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "Genseric, one of the
most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on
25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to
the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member
of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son
Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his
fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans
Gunthamund (484–496), his cousin and successor, sought internal
peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally,
the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and
Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western
Sicily to the
Ostrogoths and had to withstand increasing pressure from
the autochthonous Moors.
According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "While Thrasamund
(496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to
Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".
Main article: Vandalic War
Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor
Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which
celebrates the reconquest of
Italy by the
Byzantine army under the
skillful leadership of Belisarius
Hilderic (523–530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the
Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently
Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had
little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When
Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors, the Arian faction within
the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national
Arianism, and his cousin
Gelimer (530–533) became king. Hilderic,
Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison.
Justinian I declared war, with the stated intention
Hilderic to the Vandal throne. The deposed
murdered in 533 on Gelimer's orders. While an expedition was en
route, a large part of the Vandal army and navy was led by Tzazo,
Gelimer's brother, to
Sardinia to deal with a rebellion. As a result,
the armies of the
Byzantine Empire commanded by
Belisarius were able
to land unopposed 10 miles (16 km) from Carthage.
assembled an army, and met
Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum;
Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas
and nephew Gibamund fell in battle.
Gelimer then lost heart and fled.
Belisarius quickly took
Carthage while the surviving
On December 15, 533,
Belisarius clashed again at the
Battle of Tricamarum, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again,
Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother
Tzazo fell in battle.
Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second
city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534
Gelimer surrendered to the
Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals.
Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid
North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the
Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals
were expelled. Many
Vandals went to
Saldae (today called
north Algeria) where they integrated themselves with the Berbers. Many
others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic
Ostrogothic Kingdom and Visigothic Kingdom). Some Vandal
women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and
Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry
regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani, stationed on the Persian
frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius. The 1913
Catholic Encyclopedia states that "
Gelimer was honourably treated and
received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a
patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change
his Arian faith". In the words of historian Roger Collins: "The
Vandals were then shipped back to
Constantinople to be
absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they
disappeared". Some of the few
Vandals remained at North Africa
while more migrated back to Spain.
The 6th-century Byzantine historian
Procopius wrote that the Vandals
were tall and blond haired:
For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and
handsome to look upon...
List of kings
Known kings of the Vandals:
Main article: Vandalic language
Very little is known about the
Vandalic language itself, which was of
the East Germanic linguistic branch. The
Goths have left behind the
only text corpus of the East Germanic language type: a 4th-century
translation of the Gospels. All
Vandals that modern historians
know about were able to speak Latin, which also remained the official
language of the Vandal administration (most of the staff seems to have
been native African/Roman). Levels of literacy in the ancient
world are uncertain, but writing was integral to administration and
business. Studies of literacy in
North Africa have tended to centre
around the administration, which was limited to the social elite.
However, the majority of the population of
North Africa did not live
in urban centres.
Judith George explains that "Analysis of the [Vandal] poems in their
context holds up a mirror to the ways and values of the times".
Very little work of the poets of Vandal
North Africa survives, but
what does is found in the
Latin Anthology; apart from their names,
little is known about the poets themselves, not even when they were
writing. Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars
generally hold the view that the
Vandals allowed the Romans in North
Africa to carry on with their way of life with only occasional
Further information: Vandalism
The Vandals' traditional reputation: a coloured steel engraving of the
Sack of Rome (455)
Sack of Rome (455) by
Heinrich Leutemann (1824–1904), c. 1860–80
Since the Middle Ages, kings of
Denmark were styled "King of Denmark,
Goths and the Wends", the
Wends being a group of West Slavs
formerly living in
Mecklenburg and eastern
Holstein in modern Germany.
The title "King of the Wends" is translated as vandalorum rex in
Latin. The title was shortened to "King of Denmark" in 1972.
Starting in 1540, Swedish kings (following Denmark) were styled
Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex ("King of the Swedes, Geats, and
Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf dropped the title in 1973 and now styles
himself simply as "King of Sweden".
The modern term vandalism stems from the Vandals' reputation as the
barbarian people who sacked and looted Rome in AD 455. The Vandals
were probably not any more destructive than other invaders of ancient
times, but writers who idealized Rome often blamed them for its
destruction. For example, English Enlightenment poet John Dryden
wrote, Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, / Did all the
matchless Monuments deface. The term Vandalisme was coined in 1794
by Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois, to describe the destruction of
artwork following the French Revolution. The term was quickly adopted
across Europe. This new use of the term was important in colouring the
perception of the
Vandals from later Late Antiquity, popularizing the
pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for
Vandals and other "barbarian" groups had long been blamed
for the fall of the
Roman Empire by writers and historians.
Ancient Germanic culture portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vandals.
Wikisource has the text of the 1913
Catholic Encyclopedia article
Timeline of Germanic kingdoms
^ "Vandal". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
^ a b "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
^ a b "History of Europe:
Barbarian migrations and invasions: The
Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
^ a b c d e f g Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 821–825
^ a b c Brian, Adam. "History of the Vandals". Roman Empire. Archived
from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
^ a b c "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
^ Contrasting articles in Frank M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys, eds,
Tradition and Innovation in
Late Antiquity (University of Wisconsin
Press) 1989, highlight the Vandals' role as continuators: Frank Clover
stresses continuities in North African Roman mosaics and coinage and
literature, whereas Averil Cameron, drawing upon archaeology,
documents how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes
once the area was conquered by Byzantium and then by Islam.
^ Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe
V. Lulu.com. p. 408.
^ R. Much, Wandalische Götter, Mitteilungen der Schlesischen
Gesellschaft für Volkskunde 27, 1926, 20-41. "R. Much has brought
forth a relatively convincing argument to show that the very name
Vandal reflects the worship of the Divine Twins." Donald Ward, The
divine twins: an Indo-European myth in Germanic tradition, University
of California publications: Folklore studies, nr. 19, 1968, p. 53.
^ Annales Alamannici, 795 ad
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum by Adam Bremensis 1075 ad
^ Roland Steinacher under
Reiner Protsch "Studien zur vandalischen
Geschichte. Die Gleichsetzung der Ethnonyme Wenden, Slawen und
Vandalen vom Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert", 2002
^ Lenček, Rado L. (1990). "The Terms Wende-Winde, Wendisch-Windisch
in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands". Slovene
Studies Journal. 12 (2). ISSN 0193-1075.
^ Natural History 4.28
^ Orosius (417). The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the
(Alfred the Great ed.). London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols
and sold by S. Baker. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
^ "Land and People, p.25" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2005.
^ a b Merrils 2004, pp. 32–33
^ a b Todd 2009, p. 25
^ a b Anderson 1938, p. 198
^ a b Wolfram 1997, p. 42
^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 498
^ a b "History of Europe: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January
^ "Ancient Rome: The barbarian invasions". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16,
^ "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
^ a b "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
^ a b Procopius. History of the Wars. Book III. II
^ a b Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 30
^ Dio Cassius, 72.12
^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 27
^ a b c Schutte 2013, pp. 50–54
Jordanes chapter 22
^ Heather 2005, p. 195
^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 34
^ Vasconcellos 1913, p. 551
^ Jaques 2007
^ Jaques 2007, p. 999
^ a b c d e f Merrils & Mill 2010, p. 50
^ Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 49–50
^ a b c d Frasseto 2003, p. 173
^ a b Cossue (28 November 2005). "Breve historia del reino suevo de
Gallaecia (1)". Celtiberia.net. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
^ Mokhtar 1981, p. 281 (Volume 2)
^ Burke 1900, p. 410 (Volume 1)
^ CNG Coins
^ a b Collins 2000, p. 124
Procopius Wars 3.5.18–19 in Heather 2005, p. 512
^ Heather 2005, pp. 197–198
Procopius Wars 3.5.23–24 in Collins 2004, p. 124
^ a b c Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 53–55
^ a b c d Reynolds, pp. 130–131
^ Merrils & Mills 2010, p. 60
^ Collins 2004, pp. 124–125
^ Cameron 2000, pp. 553–554
^ Merrills 2004, p. 10
^ Merrills 2004, p. 11
^ a b c d Collins 2000, p. 125
^ a b Cameron 2000, p. 553
^ Christianity in Roman Africa: The Development of Its Practices and
Beliefs– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. November 30, 2014.
ISBN 978-0-8028-6931-9. Retrieved 2016-12-25.
^ "Mediterranean". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 April
^ Prosper's account of the event was followed by his continuator in
the sixth century, Victor of Tunnuna, a great admirer of Leo quite
willing to adjust a date or bend a point (Steven Muhlberger,
"Prosper's Epitoma Chronicon: was there an edition of 443?" Classical
Philology 81.3 (July 1986), pp 240–244).
^ Jaques 2007, p. 264
^ Jaques 2008, p. 383
^ a b Greenhalgh & Eliopoulos 1985, p. 21
^ Bury 1923, p. 125
^ Merrills 2004, pp. 11–12
^ Collins 2004, pp. 125–126
^ Cameron 2000, p. 555
^ a b c
Catholic Encyclopedia 1913, "Vandals".
^ a b Bury 1923, p. 131
^ a b Collins 2004, p. 126
^ Bury 1923, pp. 133–135
^ Bury 1923, pp. 124–150
^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 217, 301
^ Wickham 2009, p. 77
^ Conant 2004, pp. 199–200
^ George 2004, p. 138
^ George 2004, pp. 138–139
^ Norman Berdichevsky (21 September 2011). An Introduction to Danish
Culture. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7864-6401-2.
Retrieved 3 October 2012.
^ J. Guinchard (1914). Sweden: Historical and statistical handbook.
Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner. p. 188.
^ Dryden, John, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller", 1694. Dryden also wrote of
Italy "reviving from the trance/Of Vandal, Goth and
Monkish ignorance. ("To the Earl of Roscommon", 1680).
^ Merrills & Miles 2010, pp. 9–10
Anderson, John (1938). Germania. Bristol Classical Press.
ISBN 1-85399-503-7. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Burke, Ulick Ralph (1900), A History of Spain from the Earliest Times
to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, 1, Year Books, p. 410,
Bury, John Bagnell (1923), History of the Later Roman Empire, from the
Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (A.D.395 to A.D. 565).
Volume II, Macmillan
Cameron, Averil (2000), "The Vandal conquest and Vandal rule (A.D.
429–534)", The Cambridge Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and
Successors, A.D. 425–600, XIV, Cambridge University Press,
Collins, Roger (2000), "Vandal Africa, 429–533", The Cambridge
Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D.
425–600, XIV, Cambridge University Press, pp. 124–126
Conant, Jonathan (2004), "Literacy and Private Documentation in Vandal
North Africa: The Case of the Albertini Tablets", Vandals, Romans and
Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Ashgate
Publishing, pp. 199–224, ISBN 0-7546-4145-7
Frassetto, Michael (January 1, 2003). Encyclopedia of Barbarian
Europe: Society in Transformation. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576072630.
Retrieved 17 January 2015.
George, Judith (2004), "Vandal Poets in their Context", Vandals,
Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa,
Ashgate Publishing, pp. 133–144, ISBN 0-7546-4145-7
Greenhalgh, P. A. L.; Eliopoulos, Edward (1985), Deep into Mani:
Journey to the Southern Tip of Greece, Faber and Faber,
Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335370. Retrieved 17 January
Jaques, Tony (2008). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335389. Retrieved 17 January
Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335397. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
Heather, Peter (2005), The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History,
Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-98914-7
Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (eds) (1997), Encyclopedia of
Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis,
ISBN 1-884964-98-2 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Merrills, Andy (2004), "Vandals, Romans and Berbers: Understanding
Late Antique North Africa", Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New
Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Ashgate Publishing,
Merrills, Andy; Miles, Richard (2010), The Vandals, John Wiley &
Sons, ISBN 978-1-4051-6068-1
Mokhtar, G (1981), Ancient Civilizations of Africa, 2, University of
California Press, p. 281, ISBN 0-520-06697-9
Reynolds, Julian. Defending Rome: The Masters of the Soldiers. Xlibris
Corporation. ISBN 147716460X. Retrieved 17 January
2015. [self-published source]
Schutte, Gudmund (2013). Our Forefathers, Volume 2. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 1-107-67723-8. Retrieved 9 March
Todd, Malcolm (2009). The Early Germans. John Wiley & Sons.
ISBN 1-4051-3756-8. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
Vasconcellos, José Leite (1913), Religiões da
Lusitania na parte que
principalmente se refere a Portugal, 3, Imprensa Nacional
Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European
Peoples. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-2918-1. Retrieved 5 May
Wickham, Chris (2009), The Inheritance of Rome, Penguin Books,
Wolfram, Herwig (1997). The
Roman Empire and its Germanic peoples.
University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08511-6. Retrieved 5
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Vandals".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
Blume, Mary. "
Vandals Exhibit Sacks Some Cultural Myths",
International Herald Tribune, August 25, 2001.
Christian Courtois: Les Vandales et l'Afrique. Paris 1955
Clover, Frank M: The Late Roman West and the Vandals. Aldershot 1993
(Collected studies series 401), ISBN 0-86078-354-5
Die Vandalen: die Könige, die Eliten, die Krieger, die Handwerker.
Publikation zur Ausstellung "Die Vandalen"; eine Ausstellung der
Maria-Curie-Sklodowska-Universität Lublin und des Landesmuseums
Zamość ... ; Ausstellung im Weserrenaissance-Schloss
Bevern ... Nordstemmen 2003. ISBN 3-9805898-6-2
John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries
F. Papencordt's Geschichte der vandalischen Herrschaft in Afrika
Guido M. Berndt, Konflikt und Anpassung: Studien zu Migration und
Ethnogenese der Vandalen (Historische Studien 489, Husum 2007),
Hans-Joachim Diesner: Vandalen. In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der
class. Altertumswissenschaft (RE Suppl. X, 1965), S. 957-992.
Hans-Joachim Diesner: Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang.
Stuttgart 1966. 5.
Helmut Castritius: Die Vandalen. Etappen einer Spurensuche. Stuttgart
Ivor J. Davidson, A Public Faith, Chapter 11, Christians and
Barbarians, Volume 2 of Baker History of the Church, 2005,
L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 1. Turnhout 2002 (Antiquité
Tardive 10), ISBN 2-503-51275-5.
L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 2, Turnhout 2003 (Antiquité
Tardive 11), ISBN 2-503-52262-9.
Lord Mahon Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Life of
Belisarius, 1848. Reprinted 2006 (unabridged with editorial comments)
Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1-889758-67-1. Evolpub.com
Ludwig Schmidt: Geschichte der Wandalen. 2. Auflage, München 1942.
Pierre Courcelle: Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions
germaniques. 3rd edition Paris 1964 (Collection des études
Augustiniennes: Série antiquité, 19).
Roland Steinacher: Vandalen - Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte.
In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgart 2003, Band 15/3,
S. 942-946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4.
Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine
frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihr Nachleben
bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: W. Pohl (Hrsg.): Auf der Suche nach den
Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen
zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 8), Wien 2004, S. 329-353. Uibk.ac.at
Stefan Donecker; Roland Steinacher, Rex Vandalorum - The Debates on
Vandals in Swedish Humanism as an Indicator for Early Modern
Patterns of Ethnic Perception, in: ed. Robert Nedoma, Der Norden im
Ausland - das Ausland im Norden. Formung und Transformation von
Konzepten und Bildern des Anderen vom Mittelalter bis heute (Wiener
Studien zur Skandinavistik 15, Wien 2006) 242-252. Uibk.ac.at
Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution
ISBN 0-85323-127-3. Written 484.
Walter Pohl: Die Völkerwanderung. Eroberung und Integration.
Stuttgart 2002, S. 70-86, ISBN 3-17-015566-0.
Westermann, Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
Yves Modéran: Les Maures et l'Afrique romaine. 4e.-7e. siècle. Rom
2003 (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome,
314), ISBN 2-7283-0640-0.
Robert Kasperski, Ethnicity, ethnogenesis, and the Vandals: Some
Remarks on a Theory of Emergence of the
Barbarian Gens, „Acta
Poloniae Historia” 112, 2015, pp. 201–242.
Vandals in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up vandal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Kingdom of the
Vandals - location map
Articles and topics related to Vandals
List of ancient Germanic peoples
Category:Ancient Germanic peoples
Germanic parent language
North Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
East Germanic languages
Nordic Bronze Age
Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe
Roman Iron Age
in northern Europe
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Germanic Iron Age
Gothic War (376–382)
Society and culture
Migration Period art
Ancient Germanic law
Numbers in Norse mythology
Sacred trees and groves
Gothic and Vandal warfare
Viking Age arms and armour
Migration Period spear
Migration Period sword
Alemannic grave fields
List of ancient Germanic peoples
Portal:Ancient Germanic culture
Tribal hegemony in the former Western
Roman Empire from the decline of
Rome to 843
Barbarian kingdoms established around the Migration Period
Petty kingdoms of Norway
Petty kingdoms of Wales