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The Vandals, a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes, first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland, but some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in Spain and then North Africa
North Africa
in the 5th century.[1] Scholars believe that the Vandals
Vandals
migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder
Oder
and Vistula
Vistula
rivers during the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia
Silesia
from around 120 BC.[2][3][4] They are associated with the Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
and were possibly the same people as the Lugii. Expanding into Dacia
Dacia
during the Marcomannic Wars and to Pannonia
Pannonia
during the Crisis of the Third Century, the Vandals
Vandals
were confined to Pannonia
Pannonia
by the Goths
Goths
around 330 AD, where they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around 400, raids by the Huns
Huns
forced many Germanic tribes to migrate into the territory of the Roman Empire, and fearing that they might be targeted next the Vandals
Vandals
were pushed westwards, crossing the Rhine
Rhine
into Gaul along with other tribes in 406.[5] In 409 the Vandals
Vandals
crossed the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
into the Iberian Peninsula, where their main groups, the Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(northwest Iberia) and Baetica (south-central Iberia) respectively.[6] After the Visigoths
Visigoths
invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans
Alans
and Silingi
Silingi
Vandals
Vandals
voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, who was pushed from Gallaecia
Gallaecia
to Baetica by a Roman- Suebi
Suebi
coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric (reigned 428-477), the Vandals
Vandals
entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as well as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta
Malta
and the Balearic Islands. They fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African province, and sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War
Vandalic War
of 533–4, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces managed to reconquer the province for the Eastern Roman Empire. Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals
Vandals
as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any senseless destruction, particularly the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. However, modern historians tend to regard the Vandals
Vandals
during the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture.[7]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Introduction into the Roman Empire 2.3 In Gaul 2.4 In Hispania 2.5 Kingdom in North Africa

2.5.1 Establishment 2.5.2 Sack of Rome 2.5.3 Consolidation 2.5.4 Domestic religious tensions 2.5.5 Decline 2.5.6 Turbulent end

3 Physical appearance 4 List of kings 5 Language 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Name

Neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka displayed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum
Kunsthistorisches Museum
in Vienna, Austria.

Further information: Vendel
Vendel
and Aurvandil The name of the Vandals
Vandals
has often been connected to that of Vendel, the name of a province in Uppland, Sweden, which is also eponymous of the Vendel
Vendel
Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late Germanic Iron Age
Germanic Iron Age
leading up to the Viking Age. The connection would be that Vendel
Vendel
is the original homeland of the Vandals
Vandals
prior to the Migration Period, and retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further possible homelands of the Vandals
Vandals
in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are Vendsyssel
Vendsyssel
in Denmark
Denmark
and Hallingdal
Hallingdal
in Norway.[8][self-published source] The etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander" (English wend, German wandeln). The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil
Aurvandil
"shining wanderer; dawn wanderer, evening star", or "Shining Vandal" is reported as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri". R. Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects worship of Aurvandil
Aurvandil
or "the Dioscuri", probably involving an origin myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from Aurvandil
Aurvandil
(comparable to the case of many other Germanic tribal names).[9] Some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti, Wends, Lusatians or Poles.[10][11][12] It was once thought that the Slovenes
Slovenes
were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view of modern scholars.[13] History Origins

Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century BC.

Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.

The Vandals
Vandals
are believed to have migrated from southern Scandinavia[2][3][4] to the area between the lower Oder
Oder
and Vistula somewhere in the 2nd century BC, and to have settled in Silesia from around 120 BC.[4] The earliest mention of the Vandals
Vandals
is from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandilii in a broad way to define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini (otherwise unknown), and the Gutones.[14] According to the Gallaecian Christian priest, historian and theologian Paulus Orosius, the Vandals, who lived originally in Scoringa, near Stockholm, Sweden, were of the same stock as the Suiones
Suiones
("Swedes") and the Goths.[15] The Vandals
Vandals
are associated with the Przeworsk culture, however the culture probably extend over several eastern European peoples with their origin, ethnicity and linguistic affiliation heavily debated.[16][4][17][18] The bearers of the Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
mainly practiced cremation, with occasional inhumation.[18] The Lugii (Lygier, Lugier or Lygians) have been identified by modern historians as the same people as the Vandals.[4][4][19][20][21] The Lugii
Lugii
are mentioned by Strabo, Tacitus
Tacitus
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
as a large group of tribes living between the Vistula
Vistula
and the Oder. Neither Strabo, Tacitus
Tacitus
or Ptolemy
Ptolemy
mentions the Vandals, while Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
mentions the Vandals
Vandals
but not the Lugii.[17] According to John Anderson, the "Lugii and Vandili are designations of the same tribal group, the latter an extended ethnic name, the former probably a cult-title."[19] Herwig Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals
Vandals
were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder
Oder
in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and then under Germanic domination."[20] Introduction into the Roman Empire

The Roman empire under Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117-38), showing the location of the Vandilii East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula region (Poland).

By the end of the 2nd century, the Vandals
Vandals
were divided in two main tribal groups, the Silingi
Silingi
and the Hasdingi, with the Silingi
Silingi
being associated with Silesia
Silesia
and the Hasdingi living in the Sudetes. Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin (Rugii, Goths, Gepidae, Vandals, Burgundians, and others)[22] towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier.[22][23][24][25] The 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius
Procopius
noted that the Goths, Gepidae and Vandals
Vandals
were physically and culturally identical, suggesting a common origin.[26] These migrations culminated in the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy
Italy
in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period.[25] During the Marcomannic Wars
Marcomannic Wars
(166–180) the Hasdingi (or Astingi), led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus and Raptus) moved south, entering Dacia
Dacia
as allies of Rome.[27] However they eventually caused problems in Dacia
Dacia
and moved further south, towards the lower Danube
Danube
area. Together with the Hasdingi were the Lacringi, who were possibly also Vandals.[28][29] In about 271 AD the Roman Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube
Danube
against them. They made peace and stayed on the eastern bank of the Danube.[27]

Reconstruction of an Iron Age warrior's garments representing a Vandalic man, with his hair in a "Suebian knot" (160 AD), Archaeological Museum of Kraków.

According to Jordanes' Getica, the Hasdingi came into conflict with the Goths
Goths
around the time of Constantine the Great. At the time, the Vandals
Vandals
were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids, where they were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the Marcomanni, on the north [by] the Hermanduri
Hermanduri
and on the south [by] the Hister (Danube)." The Vandals
Vandals
were attacked by the Gothic king Geberic, and their king Visimar was killed.[30] The Vandals
Vandals
then migrated to Pannonia, where after Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(about 330) granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the next sixty years.[30][31] Around this time, the Hasdingi had already been Christianized. During the Emperor Valens's reign (364–78) the Vandals
Vandals
accepted, much like the Goths
Goths
earlier, Arianism, a belief that was in opposition to that of Nicene orthodoxy of the Roman Empire.[30] Yet there were also some scattered orthodox Vandals, among whom was the famous magister militum Stilicho, the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius probably more due to Stilicho
Stilicho
being half Vandal and half Roman. In 400 or 401, Hunnic raids forced many Germanic tribes such as the Goths
Goths
to migrate Westward. Worried that they might be targeted next by the Huns, the Vandals
Vandals
under king Godigisel, along with their allies (the Iranian Alans
Alans
and Germanic Suebians), moved westwards into Roman territory.[5] Some of the Silingi
Silingi
joined them later. Vandals
Vandals
raided the Roman province of Raetia
Raetia
in the winter of 401/402. From this, historian Peter Heather concludes that at this time the Vandals
Vandals
were located in the region around the Middle and Upper Danube.[32] It is possible that the Vandals
Vandals
were part of the Gothic king Radagaisus' invasion of Italy
Italy
in 405-406 AD.[33] In Gaul In 406 the Vandals
Vandals
advanced from Pannonia
Pannonia
travelling west along the Danube
Danube
without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the Alans
Alans
they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the Vandals
Vandals
crossed the Rhine, probably while it was frozen, to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic, the Vandals
Vandals
plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine. In Hispania

Migrations of the Vandals
Vandals
from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.

On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
into the Iberian peninsula. There, the Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as foederati, in Asturia
Asturia
(Northwest) and the Silingi
Silingi
in Hispania
Hispania
Baetica (South), while the Alans
Alans
got lands in Lusitania
Lusitania
(West) and the region around Carthago Nova.[6] The Suebi
Suebi
also controlled part of Gallaecia. The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia before receiving lands in Septimania (Southern France), crushed the Alans
Alans
in 418, killing the western Alan king Attaces.[34] The remainder of his people and the remnants of the Silingi
Silingi
who were nearly wiped out subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans"). In 419 AD the Hasdingi Vandals
Vandals
were defeated by a joint Roman- Suebi
Suebi
coalition. Gunderic fled to Baetica, where he was also proclaimed king of the Silingi
Silingi
Vandals.[4] In 422 Gunderic decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition led by the Roman patrician Castinus at the Battle of Tarraco.[35][36][37] It is likely that many Roman and Gothic troops deserted to Gunderic following the battle.[37] For the next five years, according to Hydatius, Gunderic created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean.[37] In 425, the Vandals
Vandals
pillaged the Balearic Islands, Hispania
Hispania
and Mauritania, sacking Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena) and Hispalis (Seville).[37] The capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals to engage in widespread naval activities.[37] In 428 Gunderic captured Hispalis but died while laying siege to the city's church.[37] He was succeeded by his half-brother Genseric, who although he was illegitimate (his mother was a Roman slave) had held a prominent position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.[38] Genseric
Genseric
is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian leader of the Migration Period.[39] Michael Frasseto writes that he probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his contemporaries.[39] Although the barbarians controlled Hispania
Hispania
they still comprised a tiny minority among a much larger Hispano-Roman population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000.[6] Shortly after seizing the throne, Genseric
Genseric
was attacked from the rear by a large force of Suebi
Suebi
under the command of Heremigarius who had managed to take Lusitania.[40] This Suebi
Suebi
army was defeated near Mérida and its leader Hermigario drowned in the Guadiana
Guadiana
River while trying to flee.[40] It is possible that the name Al-Andalus (and its derivative Andalusia) is derived from the Arabic adoption of the name of the Vandals.[41][42] Kingdom in North Africa Establishment Main article: Vandal Kingdom

The Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
at its greatest extent in the 470s

Coin of Bonifacius
Bonifacius
Comes Africae (422-431 CE), who was defeated by the Vandals.[43]

The Vandals
Vandals
under Genseric
Genseric
(also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.[44] Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,[45] Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000.[46] According to Procopius, the Vandals
Vandals
came to Africa at the request of Bonifacius, the military ruler of the region.[47] Seeking to establish himself as an independent ruler in Africa or even become Roman Emperor, Bonifacius
Bonifacius
had defeated several Roman attempts to subdue him, until he was mastered by the newly appointed Gothic count of Africa, Sigisvult, who captured both Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
and Carthage.[39] It is possible that Bonifacius
Bonifacius
had sought Genseric
Genseric
as an ally against Sigisvult, promising him a part of Africa in return.[39] Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals
Vandals
were confronted on the Numidian border in May–June 430 by Bonifacius. Negotiations broke down, and Bonifacius
Bonifacius
was soundly defeated.[48][49] Bonifacius subsequently barricaded himself inside Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
with the Vandals besieging the city.[44] Inside, Saint Augustine and his priests prayed for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death for many Roman Christians.[citation needed] On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was 75 years old) died,[50] perhaps from starvation or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. The death of Augustine shocked Regent of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Galla Placidia, who feared the consequences if her realm was to lose its most important source of grain.[49] She raised a new army in Italy
Italy
and convinced her nephew in Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II, to send an army to North Africa
North Africa
led by Aspar.[49] Around July–August 431, Genseric
Genseric
raised the siege of Hippo Regius,[48] which enabled Bonifacius
Bonifacius
to retreat from Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
to Carthage, where he was joined by Aspar's army. Some time in the summer of 432, Genseric
Genseric
soundly defeated the joint forces of both Bonifacius and Aspar, which enabled him to seize Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
unopposed.[49] Genseric
Genseric
and Aspar
Aspar
subsequently negotiated a peace treaty of some sorts.[48] Upon seizing Hippo Regius, Geiseric made it the first capital of the Vandal kingdom.[51] Peace was made between the Romans and the Vandals
Vandals
in 435 through a treaty giving the Vandals
Vandals
control of coastal Numidia. Geiseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and seized Carthage
Carthage
on October 19.[52] The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals
Vandals
entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans, to denote the inclusion of the Alans
Alans
of northern Africa into his alliance.[citation needed] Conquering Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state. Historian
Historian
Camerson suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa
North Africa
as the great landowners were generally unpopular.[53] The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita, Quodvultdeus, and Fulgentius of Ruspe
Fulgentius of Ruspe
was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage
Carthage
and North Africa
North Africa
led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage
Carthage
was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.[54] Historian
Historian
Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip
African Red Slip
ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa
North Africa
to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa
North Africa
was a time of economic instability.[55] When the Vandals
Vandals
raided Sicily
Sicily
in 440, the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was too preoccupied with war with Gaul to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals
Vandals
in 441; however, it only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals
Vandals
in 442.[56] Under the treaty the Vandals
Vandals
gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, and part of Numidia, and confirmed their control of Proconsular Africa[57] as well as the Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
was as the first barbarian state officially recognized as an independent kingdom in former Roman territory instead of foederati.[58] The Empire regained western Numidia
Numidia
and the two Mauretanian provinces until 455. Sack of Rome Main article: Sack of Rome (455)

The Sack of Rome, Karl Briullov, 1833-1836

During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Genseric
Genseric
looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the Mediterranean was so substantial that the sea's name in Old English was Wendelsæ (i. e. Sea of the Vandals).[59] After Attila the Hun's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire. In an effort to bring the Vandals
Vandals
into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III
Valentinian III
offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus, the usurper, killed Valentinian III
Valentinian III
in an effort to control the Empire. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals
Vandals
took Rome, along with the Empress Licinia Eudoxia and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia. The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine[60] offers the only fifth-century report that on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great
Leo the Great
received Genseric
Genseric
and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals
Vandals
departed with countless valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.[57] Consolidation In 456 a Vandal fleet of 60 ships threatening both Gaul
Gaul
and Italy
Italy
was ambushed and defeated in Corsica
Corsica
by the Western Roman general Ricimer.[61] In 457 a mixed Vandal-Berber army returning with loot from a raid in Campania
Campania
were soundly defeated in a surprise attack by Western Emperor Majorian
Majorian
at the mouth of the Garigliano
Garigliano
river.[62] As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean, it became important to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
to destroy the Vandal kingdom. In 460, the Western Roman Emperor Majorian
Majorian
launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of Cartagena. In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals
Vandals
under the command of Basiliscus, which reportedly was composed of a 100,000 soldiers and 1,000 ships. The Vandals
Vandals
defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships.[56] Following up the attack, the Vandals
Vandals
tried to invade the Peloponnese, but were driven back by the Maniots
Maniots
at Kenipolis with heavy losses.[63] In retaliation, the Vandals
Vandals
took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.[63] In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer
Ricimer
reached a treaty with them,[56] and in 476 Genseric
Genseric
was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.[64] From 477 onwards, the Vandals
Vandals
produced their own coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".[65] Although the Vandals
Vandals
had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers
Berbers
inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals
Vandals
in the period 496–530.[56] Domestic religious tensions

A denarius of the reign of Hilderic

Differences between the Arian Vandals
Vandals
and their Trinitarian subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric
Genseric
and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.[66] He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna
Cartenna
sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism
Arianism
and suffered no punishment.[citation needed] Huneric, Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism
Arianism
the primary religion in North Africa.[67] Generally most Vandal kings, except Hilderic, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.[citation needed] Decline According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric
Huneric
(477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Catholics."[68] Gunthamund (484–496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western Sicily
Sicily
to the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors. According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "While Thrasamund (496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".[68] Turbulent end Main article: Vandalic War

Belisarius
Belisarius
may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy
Italy
by the Byzantine army
Byzantine army
under the skillful leadership of Belisarius

Hilderic
Hilderic
(523–530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors, the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer
Gelimer
(530–533) became king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison.[69] Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic
Hilderic
to the Vandal throne. The deposed Hilderic
Hilderic
was murdered in 533 on Gelimer's orders.[69] While an expedition was en route, a large part of the Vandal army and navy was led by Tzazo, Gelimer's brother, to Sardinia
Sardinia
to deal with a rebellion. As a result, the armies of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
commanded by Belisarius
Belisarius
were able to land unopposed 10 miles (16 km) from Carthage. Gelimer
Gelimer
quickly assembled an army,[70] and met Belisarius
Belisarius
at the Battle of Ad Decimum; the Vandals
Vandals
were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas and nephew Gibamund fell in battle. Gelimer
Gelimer
then lost heart and fled. Belisarius
Belisarius
quickly took Carthage
Carthage
while the surviving Vandals
Vandals
fought on.[71] On December 15, 533, Gelimer
Gelimer
and Belisarius
Belisarius
clashed again at the Battle of Tricamarum, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again, the Vandals
Vandals
fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo fell in battle. Belisarius
Belisarius
quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer
Gelimer
surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals.

Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid near Carthage

North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled. Many Vandals
Vandals
went to Saldae
Saldae
(today called Béjaïa
Béjaïa
in north Algeria) where they integrated themselves with the Berbers. Many others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic kingdoms ( Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
and Visigothic Kingdom). Some Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani, stationed on the Persian frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius.[72] The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
states that " Gelimer
Gelimer
was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith".[68] In the words of historian Roger Collins: "The remaining Vandals
Vandals
were then shipped back to Constantinople
Constantinople
to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared".[70] Some of the few Vandals
Vandals
remained at North Africa while more migrated back to Spain.[5] Physical appearance The 6th-century Byzantine historian Procopius
Procopius
wrote that the Vandals were tall and blond haired:

For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome to look upon...[26]

List of kings Known kings of the Vandals:[citation needed]

Wisimar (d.335) Godigisel (359–406) Gunderic (407–428) Genseric
Genseric
(428–477) Huneric
Huneric
(477–484) Gunthamund (484–496) Thrasamund (496–523) Hilderic
Hilderic
(523–530) Gelimer
Gelimer
(530–534)

Language Main article: Vandalic language Very little is known about the Vandalic language
Vandalic language
itself, which was of the East Germanic linguistic branch. The Goths
Goths
have left behind the only text corpus of the East Germanic language type: a 4th-century translation of the Gospels.[73] All Vandals
Vandals
that modern historians know about were able to speak Latin, which also remained the official language of the Vandal administration (most of the staff seems to have been native African/Roman).[74] Levels of literacy in the ancient world are uncertain, but writing was integral to administration and business. Studies of literacy in North Africa
North Africa
have tended to centre around the administration, which was limited to the social elite. However, the majority of the population of North Africa
North Africa
did not live in urban centres.[75] Judith George explains that "Analysis of the [Vandal] poems in their context holds up a mirror to the ways and values of the times".[76] Very little work of the poets of Vandal North Africa
North Africa
survives, but what does is found in the Latin
Latin
Anthology; apart from their names, little is known about the poets themselves, not even when they were writing. Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars generally hold the view that the Vandals
Vandals
allowed the Romans in North Africa to carry on with their way of life with only occasional interference.[77] Legacy Further information: Vandalism

The Vandals' traditional reputation: a coloured steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455)
Sack of Rome (455)
by Heinrich Leutemann
Heinrich Leutemann
(1824–1904), c. 1860–80

Since the Middle Ages, kings of Denmark
Denmark
were styled "King of Denmark, the Goths
Goths
and the Wends", the Wends
Wends
being a group of West Slavs formerly living in Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and eastern Holstein
Holstein
in modern Germany. The title "King of the Wends" is translated as vandalorum rex in Latin. The title was shortened to "King of Denmark" in 1972.[78] Starting in 1540, Swedish kings (following Denmark) were styled Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex ("King of the Swedes, Geats, and Wends").[79] Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf
dropped the title in 1973 and now styles himself simply as "King of Sweden". The modern term vandalism stems from the Vandals' reputation as the barbarian people who sacked and looted Rome in AD 455. The Vandals were probably not any more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, but writers who idealized Rome often blamed them for its destruction. For example, English Enlightenment poet John Dryden wrote, Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, / Did all the matchless Monuments deface.[80] The term Vandalisme was coined in 1794 by Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois, to describe the destruction of artwork following the French Revolution. The term was quickly adopted across Europe. This new use of the term was important in colouring the perception of the Vandals
Vandals
from later Late Antiquity, popularizing the pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for destruction. Vandals
Vandals
and other "barbarian" groups had long been blamed for the fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by writers and historians.[81] See also

Ancient Germanic culture portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vandals.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
article Vandals.

Aurvandil Migrations period Timeline of Germanic kingdoms

References

^ "Vandal". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ a b "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ a b "History of Europe: Barbarian
Barbarian
migrations and invasions: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 821–825 ^ a b c Brian, Adam. "History of the Vandals". Roman Empire. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.  ^ a b c "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ Contrasting articles in Frank M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys, eds, Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(University of Wisconsin Press) 1989, highlight the Vandals' role as continuators: Frank Clover stresses continuities in North African Roman mosaics and coinage and literature, whereas Averil Cameron, drawing upon archaeology, documents how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes once the area was conquered by Byzantium and then by Islam. ^ Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe V. Lulu.com. p. 408.  ^ R. Much, Wandalische Götter, Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde 27, 1926, 20-41. "R. Much has brought forth a relatively convincing argument to show that the very name Vandal reflects the worship of the Divine Twins." Donald Ward, The divine twins: an Indo-European myth in Germanic tradition, University of California publications: Folklore studies, nr. 19, 1968, p. 53. ^ Annales Alamannici, 795 ad ^ Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
by Adam Bremensis 1075 ad ^ Roland Steinacher under Reiner Protsch "Studien zur vandalischen Geschichte. Die Gleichsetzung der Ethnonyme Wenden, Slawen und Vandalen vom Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert", 2002 ^ Lenček, Rado L. (1990). "The Terms Wende-Winde, Wendisch-Windisch in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands". Slovene Studies Journal. 12 (2). ISSN 0193-1075.  ^ Natural History 4.28 ^ Orosius (417). The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the Historian
Historian
Orosius (Alfred the Great ed.). London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols and sold by S. Baker. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ "Land and People, p.25" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2005.  ^ a b Merrils 2004, pp. 32–33 ^ a b Todd 2009, p. 25 ^ a b Anderson 1938, p. 198 ^ a b Wolfram 1997, p. 42 ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 498 ^ a b "History of Europe: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ "Ancient Rome: The barbarian invasions". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ a b "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ a b Procopius. History of the Wars. Book III. II ^ a b Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 30 ^ Dio Cassius, 72.12 ^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 27 ^ a b c Schutte 2013, pp. 50–54 ^ Jordanes
Jordanes
chapter 22 ^ Heather 2005, p. 195 ^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 34 ^ Vasconcellos 1913, p. 551 ^ Jaques 2007 ^ Jaques 2007, p. 999 ^ a b c d e f Merrils & Mill 2010, p. 50 ^ Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 49–50 ^ a b c d Frasseto 2003, p. 173 ^ a b Cossue (28 November 2005). "Breve historia del reino suevo de Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(1)". Celtiberia.net. Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ Mokhtar 1981, p. 281 (Volume 2) ^ Burke 1900, p. 410 (Volume 1) ^ CNG Coins ^ a b Collins 2000, p. 124 ^ Procopius
Procopius
Wars 3.5.18–19 in Heather 2005, p. 512 ^ Heather 2005, pp. 197–198 ^ Procopius
Procopius
Wars 3.5.23–24 in Collins 2004, p. 124 ^ a b c Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 53–55 ^ a b c d Reynolds, pp. 130–131 ^ Newadvent.org ^ Merrils & Mills 2010, p. 60 ^ Collins 2004, pp. 124–125 ^ Cameron 2000, pp. 553–554 ^ Merrills 2004, p. 10 ^ Merrills 2004, p. 11 ^ a b c d Collins 2000, p. 125 ^ a b Cameron 2000, p. 553 ^ Christianity in Roman Africa: The Development of Its Practices and Beliefs– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. November 30, 2014. ISBN 978-0-8028-6931-9. Retrieved 2016-12-25.  ^ "Mediterranean". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ Prosper's account of the event was followed by his continuator in the sixth century, Victor of Tunnuna, a great admirer of Leo quite willing to adjust a date or bend a point (Steven Muhlberger, "Prosper's Epitoma Chronicon: was there an edition of 443?" Classical Philology 81.3 (July 1986), pp 240–244). ^ Jaques 2007, p. 264 ^ Jaques 2008, p. 383 ^ a b Greenhalgh & Eliopoulos 1985, p. 21 ^ Bury 1923, p. 125 ^ Merrills 2004, pp. 11–12 ^ Collins 2004, pp. 125–126 ^ Cameron 2000, p. 555 ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
1913, "Vandals". ^ a b Bury 1923, p. 131 ^ a b Collins 2004, p. 126 ^ Bury 1923, pp. 133–135 ^ Bury 1923, pp. 124–150 ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 217, 301 ^ Wickham 2009, p. 77 ^ Conant 2004, pp. 199–200 ^ George 2004, p. 138 ^ George 2004, pp. 138–139 ^ Norman Berdichevsky (21 September 2011). An Introduction to Danish Culture. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7864-6401-2. Retrieved 3 October 2012.  ^ J. Guinchard (1914). Sweden: Historical and statistical handbook. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner. p. 188.  ^ Dryden, John, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller", 1694. Dryden also wrote of Renaissance Italy
Italy
"reviving from the trance/Of Vandal, Goth and Monkish ignorance. ("To the Earl of Roscommon", 1680). ^ Merrills & Miles 2010, pp. 9–10

Bibliography

Anderson, John (1938). Germania. Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 1-85399-503-7. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  Burke, Ulick Ralph (1900), A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, 1, Year Books, p. 410, ISBN 978-1-4437-4054-8  Bury, John Bagnell (1923), History of the Later Roman Empire, from the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian (A.D.395 to A.D. 565). Volume II, Macmillan  Cameron, Averil (2000), "The Vandal conquest and Vandal rule (A.D. 429–534)", The Cambridge Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600, XIV, Cambridge University Press, pp. 553–559  Collins, Roger (2000), "Vandal Africa, 429–533", The Cambridge Ancient History. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600, XIV, Cambridge University Press, pp. 124–126  Conant, Jonathan (2004), "Literacy and Private Documentation in Vandal North Africa: The Case of the Albertini Tablets", Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 199–224, ISBN 0-7546-4145-7  Frassetto, Michael (January 1, 2003). Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe: Society in Transformation. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576072630. Retrieved 17 January 2015.  George, Judith (2004), "Vandal Poets in their Context", Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Ashgate Publishing, pp. 133–144, ISBN 0-7546-4145-7  Greenhalgh, P. A. L.; Eliopoulos, Edward (1985), Deep into Mani: Journey to the Southern Tip of Greece, Faber and Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-13523-3  Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335370. Retrieved 17 January 2015.  Jaques, Tony (2008). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335389. Retrieved 17 January 2015.  Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313335397. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  Heather, Peter (2005), The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-98914-7  Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (eds) (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-884964-98-2 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Merrills, Andy (2004), "Vandals, Romans and Berbers: Understanding Late Antique North Africa", Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-4145-7  Merrills, Andy; Miles, Richard (2010), The Vandals, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4051-6068-1  Mokhtar, G (1981), Ancient Civilizations of Africa, 2, University of California Press, p. 281, ISBN 0-520-06697-9  Reynolds, Julian. Defending Rome: The Masters of the Soldiers. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 147716460X. Retrieved 17 January 2015. [self-published source] Schutte, Gudmund (2013). Our Forefathers, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-107-67723-8. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  Todd, Malcolm (2009). The Early Germans. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-4051-3756-8. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  Vasconcellos, José Leite (1913), Religiões da Lusitania
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na parte que principalmente se refere a Portugal, 3, Imprensa Nacional  Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1-4381-2918-1. Retrieved 5 May 2013.  Wickham, Chris (2009), The Inheritance of Rome, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-670-02098-0  Wolfram, Herwig (1997). The Roman Empire
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Vandals". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  Further reading

Blume, Mary. " Vandals
Vandals
Exhibit Sacks Some Cultural Myths", International Herald Tribune, August 25, 2001. Christian Courtois: Les Vandales et l'Afrique. Paris 1955 Clover, Frank M: The Late Roman West and the Vandals. Aldershot 1993 (Collected studies series 401), ISBN 0-86078-354-5 Die Vandalen: die Könige, die Eliten, die Krieger, die Handwerker. Publikation zur Ausstellung "Die Vandalen"; eine Ausstellung der Maria-Curie-Sklodowska-Universität Lublin und des Landesmuseums Zamość ... ; Ausstellung im Weserrenaissance-Schloss Bevern ... Nordstemmen 2003. ISBN 3-9805898-6-2 John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries F. Papencordt's Geschichte der vandalischen Herrschaft in Afrika Guido M. Berndt, Konflikt und Anpassung: Studien zu Migration und Ethnogenese der Vandalen (Historische Studien 489, Husum 2007), ISBN 978-3-7868-1489-4. Hans-Joachim Diesner: Vandalen. In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der class. Altertumswissenschaft (RE Suppl. X, 1965), S. 957-992. Hans-Joachim Diesner: Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang. Stuttgart 1966. 5. Helmut Castritius: Die Vandalen. Etappen einer Spurensuche. Stuttgart u.a. 2007. Ivor J. Davidson, A Public Faith, Chapter 11, Christians and Barbarians, Volume 2 of Baker History of the Church, 2005, ISBN 0-8010-1275-9 L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 1. Turnhout 2002 (Antiquité Tardive 10), ISBN 2-503-51275-5. L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 2, Turnhout 2003 (Antiquité Tardive 11), ISBN 2-503-52262-9. Lord Mahon Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Life of Belisarius, 1848. Reprinted 2006 (unabridged with editorial comments) Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1-889758-67-1. Evolpub.com Ludwig Schmidt: Geschichte der Wandalen. 2. Auflage, München 1942. Pauly-Wissowa Pierre Courcelle: Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques. 3rd edition Paris 1964 (Collection des études Augustiniennes: Série antiquité, 19). Roland Steinacher: Vandalen - Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgart 2003, Band 15/3, S. 942-946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4. Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihr Nachleben bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: W. Pohl (Hrsg.): Auf der Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 8), Wien 2004, S. 329-353. Uibk.ac.at Stefan Donecker; Roland Steinacher, Rex Vandalorum - The Debates on Wends
Wends
and Vandals
Vandals
in Swedish Humanism as an Indicator for Early Modern Patterns of Ethnic Perception, in: ed. Robert Nedoma, Der Norden im Ausland - das Ausland im Norden. Formung und Transformation von Konzepten und Bildern des Anderen vom Mittelalter bis heute (Wiener Studien zur Skandinavistik 15, Wien 2006) 242-252. Uibk.ac.at Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution ISBN 0-85323-127-3. Written 484. Walter Pohl: Die Völkerwanderung. Eroberung und Integration. Stuttgart 2002, S. 70-86, ISBN 3-17-015566-0. Westermann, Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German) Yves Modéran: Les Maures et l'Afrique romaine. 4e.-7e. siècle. Rom 2003 (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 314), ISBN 2-7283-0640-0. Robert Kasperski, Ethnicity, ethnogenesis, and the Vandals: Some Remarks on a Theory of Emergence of the Barbarian
Barbarian
Gens, „Acta Poloniae Historia” 112, 2015, pp. 201–242.

External links

Look up Vandals
Vandals
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Look up vandal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Kingdom of the Vandals
Vandals
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v t e

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