Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It
is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The
elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated
artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes
the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.
Andrés Manuel del Río
Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in
Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead",
and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element,
which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon
heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he
was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was
identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by
Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was
involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of
beauty and fertility,
Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to
the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead
mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867
Henry Enfield Roscoe
Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element.
Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 different minerals and in fossil
fuel deposits. It is produced in
Russia from steel smelter
slag; other countries produce it either from the flue dust of heavy
oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce
specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most
important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as
a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly
as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate
toxicity. Particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life
forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium
bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae.
3.2 Halide derivatives
3.3 Coordination compounds
3.4 Organometallic compounds
4.2 Earth's crust
6.2 Other uses
7 Biological role
Vanadium accumulation in tunicates and ascidians
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Vanadium was discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río, a Spanish-Mexican
mineralogist, in 1801. Del Río extracted the element from a sample of
Mexican "brown lead" ore, later named vanadinite. He found that its
salts exhibit a wide variety of colors, and as a result he named the
element panchromium (Greek: παγχρώμιο "all colors"). Later,
Del Río renamed the element erythronium (Greek: ερυθρός "red")
because most of the salts turned red upon heating. In 1805, the French
chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils, backed by del Río's friend
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, incorrectly declared that del Río's new
element was only an impure sample of chromium. Del Río accepted
Collet-Descotils' statement and retracted his claim.
In 1831, the Swedish chemist
Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the
element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores. Later
that same year,
Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier
work. Sefström chose a name beginning with V, which had not been
assigned to any element yet. He called the element vanadium after Old
Vanadís (another name for the Norse Vanr goddess Freyja, whose
attributes include beauty and fertility), because of the many
beautifully colored chemical compounds it produces. In 1831, the
George William Featherstonhaugh
George William Featherstonhaugh suggested that vanadium
should be renamed "rionium" after del Río, but this suggestion was
Model T made use of vanadium steel in its chassis.
The isolation of vanadium metal proved difficult. In 1831, Berzelius
reported the production of the metal, but
Henry Enfield Roscoe
Henry Enfield Roscoe showed
that Berzelius had in fact produced the nitride, vanadium nitride
(VN). Roscoe eventually produced the metal in 1867 by reduction of
vanadium(II) chloride, VCl2, with hydrogen. In 1927, pure vanadium
was produced by reducing vanadium pentoxide with calcium.
The first large-scale industrial use of vanadium was in the steel
alloy chassis of the Ford Model T, inspired by French race cars.
Vanadium steel allowed for reduced weight while simultaneously
increasing tensile strength (ca. 1905).
German chemist Martin Henze discovered vanadium in the blood cells (or
coelomic cells) of
Ascidiacea (sea squirts) in 1911.
High-purity (99.95%) vanadium cuboids, ebeam remelted and macro-etched
Vanadium is a medium-hard, ductile, steel-blue metal. Some sources
describe vanadium as "soft", perhaps because it is ductile, malleable
and not brittle.
Vanadium is harder than most metals and
Hardnesses of the elements (data page) and iron). It has
good resistance to corrosion and it is stable against alkalis and
sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. It is oxidized in air at about
933 K (660 °C, 1220 °F), although an oxide
passivation layer forms even at room temperature.
Main article: Isotopes of vanadium
Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope, 51V,
and one radioactive isotope, 50V. The latter has a half-life of
1.5×1017 years and a natural abundance of 0.25%. 51V has a nuclear
spin of 7⁄2, which is useful for NMR spectroscopy.
Twenty-four artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, ranging
in mass number from 40 to 65. The most stable of these isotopes are
49V with a half-life of 330 days, and 48V with a half-life of 16.0
days. The remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than
an hour, most below 10 seconds. At least four isotopes have metastable
Electron capture is the main decay mode for
isotopes lighter than 51V. For the heavier ones, the most common mode
is beta decay. The electron capture reactions lead to the formation of
element 22 (titanium) isotopes, while beta decay leads to element 24
See also: Category:
From left: [V(H2O)6]2+ (lilac), [V(H2O)6]3+ (green), [VO(H2O)5]2+
(blue) and [VO(H2O)5]3+ (yellow).
The chemistry of vanadium is noteworthy for the accessibility of the
four adjacent oxidation states 2–5. In aqueous solution, vanadium
forms metal aquo complexes of which the colours are lilac [V(H2O)6]2+,
green [V(H2O)6]3+, blue [VO(H2O)5]2+, yellow VO3−. Vanadium(II)
compounds are reducing agents, and vanadium(V) compounds are oxidizing
agents. Vanadium(IV) compounds often exist as vanadyl derivatives,
which contain the VO2+ center.
Ammonium vanadate(V) (NH4VO3) can be successively reduced with
elemental zinc to obtain the different colors of vanadium in these
four oxidation states. Lower oxidation states occur in compounds such
as V(CO)6, [V(CO)
6]− and substituted derivatives.
The most commercially important compound is vanadium pentoxide. It is
used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. This
compound oxidizes sulfur dioxide (SO
2) to the trioxide (SO
3). In this redox reaction, sulfur is oxidized from +4 to +6, and
vanadium is reduced from +5 to +4:
V2O5 + SO2 → 2 VO2 + SO3
The catalyst is regenerated by oxidation with air:
2 VO2 + O2 → V2O5
Similar oxidations are used in the production of maleic anhydride,
phthalic anhydride, and several other bulk organic compounds.
The vanadium redox battery utilizes all four oxidation states; one
electrode uses the +5/+4 couple and the other uses the +3/+2 couple.
Conversion of these oxidation states is illustrated by the reduction
of a strongly acidic solution of a vanadium(V) compound with zinc dust
or amalgam. The initial yellow color characteristic of the pervanadyl
ion [VO2(H2O)4]+ is replaced by the blue color of [VO(H2O)5]2+,
followed by the green color of [V(H2O)6]3+ and then the violet color
The decavanadate structure
In aqueous solution, vanadium(V) forms an extensive family of
oxyanions. The interrelationships in this family are described by the
predominance diagram, which shows at least 11 species, depending on pH
and concentration. The tetrahedral orthovanadate ion, VO3−
4, is the principal species present at pH 12-14. Similar in size and
charge to phosphorus(V), vanadium(V) also parallels its chemistry and
crystallography. Orthovanadate VO3−
4 is used in protein crystallography to study the biochemistry of
phosphate. The tetrathiovanadate [VS4]3− is analogous to the
At lower pH's, the monomer [HVO4]2− and dimer [V2O7]− are formed,
with the monomer predominant at vanadium concentration of less than c.
10−2M (pV > 2, where pV is equal to the minus value of the
logarithm of the total vanadium concentration/M). The formation of the
divanadate ion is analogous to the formation of the dichromate ion. As
the pH is reduced, further protonation and condensation to
polyvanadates occur: at pH 4-6 [H2VO4]− is predominant at pV greater
than ca. 4, while at higher concentrations trimers and tetramers are
formed. Between pH 2-4 decavanadate predominates, its formation from
orthovanadate is represented by this condensation reaction:
10 [VO4]3− + 24 H+ → [V10O28]6− + 12 H2O
In decavanadate, each V(V) center is surrounded by six oxide
ligands. Vanadic acid, H3VO4 exists only at very low
concentrations because protonation of the tetrahedral species
[H2VO4]− results in the preferential formation of the octahedral
[VO2(H2O)4]+ species. In strongly acidic solutions, pH<2.
[VO2(H2O)4]+ is the predominant species, while the oxide V2O5
precipitates from solution at high concentrations. The oxide is
formally the inorganic anhydride of vanadic acid. The structures of
many vanadate compounds have been determined by X-ray crystallography.
Pourbaix diagram for vanadium in water
Pourbaix diagram for vanadium in water, which shows the redox
potentials between various vanadium species in different oxidation
states, is also complex.
Vanadium(V) forms various peroxo complexes, most notably in the active
site of the vanadium-containing bromoperoxidase enzymes. The species
VO(O)2(H2O)4+ is stable in acidic solutions. In alkaline solutions,
species with 2, 3 and 4 peroxide groups are known; the last forms
violet salts with the formula M3V(O2)4 nH2O (M = Li, Na, etc.), in
which the vanadium has an 8-coordinate dodecahedral structure.
Twelve binary halides, compounds with the formula VXn (n=2..5), are
known. VI4, VCl5, VBr5, and VI5 do not exist or are extremely
unstable. In combination with other reagents, VCl4 is used as a
catalyst for polymerization of dienes. Like all binary halides, those
of vanadium are Lewis acidic, especially those of V(IV) and V(V). Many
of the halides form octahedral complexes with the formula VXnL6−n (X
= halide; L = other ligand).
Many vanadium oxyhalides (formula VOmXn) are known. The
oxytrichloride and oxytrifluoride (VOCl3 and VOF3) are the most widely
studied. Akin to POCl3, they are volatile, adopt tetrahedral
structures in the gas phase, and are Lewis acidic.
A ball-and-stick model of VO5(C5H7)2
Complexes of vanadium(II) and (III) are relatively exchange inert and
reducing. Those of V(IV) and V(V) are oxidants.
Vanadium ion is rather
large and some complexes achieve coordination numbers greater than 6,
as is the case in [V(CN)7]4−. Oxovanadium(V) also forms 7 coordinate
coordination complexes with tetradentate ligands and peroxides and
these complexes are used for oxidative brominations and thioether
oxidations. The coordination chemistry of V4+ is dominated by the
vanadyl center, VO2+, which binds four other ligands strongly and one
weakly (the one trans to the vanadyl center). An example is vanadyl
acetylacetonate (V(O)(O2C5H7)2). In this complex, the vanadium is
5-coordinate, square pyramidal, meaning that a sixth ligand, such as
pyridine, may be attached, though the association constant of this
process is small. Many 5-coordinate vanadyl complexes have a trigonal
bypyramidal geometry, such as VOCl2(NMe3)2. The coordination
chemistry of V5+ is dominated by the relatively stable dioxovanadium
coordination complexes which are often formed by aerial oxidation of
the vanadium(IV) precursors indicating the stability of the +5
oxidation state and ease of interconversion between the +4 and +5
Main article: Organovanadium chemistry
Organometallic chemistry of vanadium is well developed, although it
has mainly only academic significance.
Vanadocene dichloride is a
versatile starting reagent and even finds some applications in organic
Vanadium carbonyl, V(CO)6, is a rare example of a
paramagnetic metal carbonyl. Reduction yields V(CO)−
6 (isoelectronic with Cr(CO)6), which may be further reduced with
sodium in liquid ammonia to yield V(CO)3−
5 (isoelectronic with Fe(CO)5).
The cosmic abundance of vanadium in the universe is 0.0001%, making
the element nearly as common as copper or zinc.
detected spectroscopically in light from the
Sun and sometimes in the
light from other stars.
See also: Category:
Vanadium is the 20th most abundant element in the earth's crust;
metallic vanadium is rare in nature (known as the mineral vanadium,
native vanadium), but vanadium compounds occur naturally in
about 65 different minerals. Economically significant examples include
patrónite (VS4), vanadinite (Pb5(VO4)3Cl), and carnotite
(K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O). Much of the world's vanadium production is
sourced from vanadium-bearing magnetite found in ultramafic gabbro
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China,
and eastern Russia. In 2013 these three countries mined more than 97%
of the 79,000 tonnes of produced vanadium.
Vanadium is also present in bauxite and in deposits of crude oil,
coal, oil shale and tar sands. In crude oil, concentrations up to
1200 ppm have been reported. When such oil products are burned,
traces of vanadium may cause corrosion in engines and boilers. An
estimated 110,000 tonnes of vanadium per year are released into the
atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.
The vanadyl ion is abundant in seawater, having an average
concentration of 30 nM. Some mineral water springs also contain
the ion in high concentrations. For example, springs near Mount Fuji
contain as much as 54 μg per liter.
Vacuum sublimed vanadium dendritic crystals (99.9%)
Crystal-bar vanadium, showing different textures and surface
oxidation; 3N5-pure cube for comparison
Most vanadium is used as a steel alloy called ferrovanadium.
Ferrovanadium is produced directly by reducing a mixture of vanadium
oxide, iron oxides and iron in an electric furnace. The vanadium ends
up in pig iron produced from vanadium-bearing magnetite. Depending on
the ore used, the slag contains up to 25% of vanadium.
Vanadium metal is obtained by a multistep process that begins with the
roasting of crushed ore with NaCl or Na2CO3 at about 850 °C to
give sodium metavanadate (NaVO3). An aqueous extract of this solid is
acidified to give "red cake", a polyvanadate salt, which is reduced
with calcium metal. As an alternative for small-scale production,
vanadium pentoxide is reduced with hydrogen or magnesium. Many other
methods are also in use, in all of which vanadium is produced as a
byproduct of other processes. Purification of vanadium is possible
by the crystal bar process developed by
Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan
Hendrik de Boer in 1925. It involves the formation of the metal
iodide, in this example vanadium(III) iodide, and the subsequent
decomposition to yield pure metal:
2 V + 3 I2 ⇌ 2 VI3
Tool made from vanadium steel
Approximately 85% of vanadium produced is used as ferrovanadium or as
a steel additive. The considerable increase of strength in steel
containing small amounts of vanadium was discovered in the early 20th
Vanadium forms stable nitrides and carbides, resulting in a
significant increase in the strength of steel. From that time on,
vanadium steel was used for applications in axles, bicycle frames,
crankshafts, gears, and other critical components. There are two
groups of vanadium steel alloys.
Vanadium high-carbon steel alloys
contain 0.15% to 0.25% vanadium, and high-speed tool steels (HSS) have
a vanadium content of 1% to 5%. For high-speed tool steels, a hardness
above HRC 60 can be achieved. HSS steel is used in surgical
instruments and tools. Powder-metallurgic alloys contain up to 18%
percent vanadium. The high content of vanadium carbides in those
alloys increases wear resistance significantly. One application for
those alloys is tools and knives.
Vanadium stabilizes the beta form of titanium and increases the
strength and temperature stability of titanium. Mixed with aluminium
in titanium alloys, it is used in jet engines, high-speed airframes
and dental implants. The most common alloy for seamless tubing is
Titanium 3/2.5 containing 2.5% vanadium, the titanium alloy of choice
in the aerospace, defense and bicycle industries. Another common
alloy, primarily produced in sheets, is
Titanium 6AL-4V, a titanium
alloy with 6% aluminium and 4% vanadium.
Several vanadium alloys show superconducting behavior. The first A15
phase superconductor was a vanadium compound, V3Si, which was
discovered in 1952.
Vanadium-gallium tape is used in
superconducting magnets (17.5 teslas or 175,000 gauss). The structure
of the superconducting
A15 phase of V3Ga is similar to that of the
more common Nb3Sn and Nb3Ti.
It has been proposed that a small amount, 40 to 270 ppm, of
Wootz steel and
Damascus steel significantly improved the
strength of the product, though the source of the vanadium is
Vanadium(V) oxide is a catalyst in the contact process for producing
Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel because it is
compatible with both iron and titanium. The moderate thermal
neutron-capture cross-section and the short half-life of the isotopes
produced by neutron capture makes vanadium a suitable material for the
inner structure of a fusion reactor.
The most common oxide of vanadium, vanadium pentoxide V2O5, is used as
a catalyst in manufacturing sulfuric acid by the contact process
and as an oxidizer in maleic anhydride production. Vanadium
pentoxide is used in ceramics.
Vanadium is an important component
of mixed metal oxide catalysts used in the oxidation of propane and
propylene to acrolein, acrylic acid or the ammoxidation of propylene
to acrylonitrile. In service, the oxidation state of
vanadium changes dynamically and reversibly with the oxygen and the
steam content of the reacting feed mixture. Another oxide of
vanadium, vanadium dioxide VO2, is used in the production of glass
coatings, which blocks infrared radiation (and not visible light) at a
Vanadium oxide can be used to induce color
centers in corundum to create simulated alexandrite jewelry, although
alexandrite in nature is a chrysoberyl.
Vanadium redox battery, a type of flow battery, is an
electrochemical cell consisting of aqueous vanadium ions in different
oxidation states. Batteries of the type were first proposed in
the 1930s and developed commercially from the 1980s onwards. Cells use
+5 and +2 formal oxidization state ions, and (as of 2016) are used
commercially for small scale (c. 0.1 - 10 MW, 0.1 - 100 GJ) grid
energy storage.
Vanadate can be used for protecting steel against rust and corrosion
by conversion coating.
Lithium vanadium oxide has been proposed for use as a high energy
density anode for lithium ion batteries, at 745 Wh/L when paired
with a lithium cobalt oxide cathode.
Vanadium phosphates have been
proposed as the cathode in the
Vanadium Phosphate Battery,
another type of lithium ion battery.
Health benefits of vanadium and its potential as an anticancer agent
have been reviewed.
Vanadium is more important in marine
environments than terrestrial.
Active site of the enzyme vanadium bromoperoxidase, which produces the
preponderance of naturally-occurring organobromine compounds.
Tunicates such as this bluebell tunicate contain vanadium as vanabin.
Amanita muscaria contains amavadin.
A number of species of marine algae produce vanadium bromoperoxidase
as well as the closely related chloroperoxidase (which may use a heme
or vanadium cofactor) and iodoperoxidases. The bromoperoxidase
produces an estimated 1–2 million tons of bromoform and 56,000 tons
of bromomethane annually. Most naturally occurring organobromine
compounds are produced by this enzyme, catalyzing the following
reaction (R-H is hydrocarbon substrate):
R-H + Br− + H2O2 → R-Br + H2O + OH−
A vanadium nitrogenase is used by some nitrogen-fixing
micro-organisms, such as Azotobacter. In this role, vanadium replaces
more common molybdenum or iron, and gives the nitrogenase slightly
Vanadium accumulation in tunicates and ascidians
Vanadium is essential to ascidians and tunicates, where it is stored
in the highly acidified vacuoles of certain blood cell types,
designated "vanadocytes". Vanabins (vanadium binding proteins) have
been identified in the cytoplasm of such cells. The concentration of
vanadium in the blood of ascidians is as much as ten million times
higher[specify] than the surrounding seawater, which normally
contains 1 to 2 µg/l. The function of this vanadium
concentration system and these vanadium-bearing proteins is still
unknown, but the vanadocytes are later deposited just under the outer
surface of the tunic where they may deter predation.
Amanita muscaria and related species of macrofungi accumulate vanadium
(up to 500 mg/kg in dry weight).
Vanadium is present in the
coordination complex amavadin in fungal fruit-bodies. The
biological importance of the accumulation is unknown. Toxic or
peroxidase enzyme functions have been suggested.
Deficiencies in vanadium result in reduced growth in rats. The
U.S. Institute of Medicine has not confirmed that vanadium is an
essential nutrient for humans, so neither a Recommended Dietary Intake
nor an Adequate Intake have been established. Dietary intake is
estimated at 6 to 18 µg/day, with less than 5% absorbed. The
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of dietary vanadium, beyond which
adverse effects may occur, is set at 1.8 mg/day.
Vanadyl sulfate as a dietary supplement has been researched as a means
of increasing insulin sensitivity or otherwise improving glycemic
control in people who are diabetic. Some of the trials had significant
treatment effects, but were deemed as being of poor study quality. The
amounts of vanadium used in these trials (30 to 150 mg) far
exceeded the safe upper limit. The conclusion of the systemic
review was "There is no rigorous evidence that oral vanadium
supplementation improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. The
routine use of vanadium for this purpose cannot be recommended."
In astrobiology, it has been suggested that discrete vanadium
Mars could be a potential microbial biosignature,
when used in conjunction with
Raman spectroscopy and
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic. Tetravalent VOSO4
has been reported to be at least 5 times more toxic than trivalent
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has
set an exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide dust
and 0.1 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide fumes in workplace air for
an 8-hour workday, 40-hour work week. The National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that
35 mg/m3 of vanadium be considered immediately dangerous to life
and health, that is, likely to cause permanent health problems or
Vanadium compounds are poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal
system. Inhalation of vanadium and vanadium compounds results
primarily in adverse effects on the respiratory system.
Quantitative data are, however, insufficient to derive a subchronic or
chronic inhalation reference dose. Other effects have been reported
after oral or inhalation exposures on blood parameters,
liver, neurological development, and other organs in rats.
There is little evidence that vanadium or vanadium compounds are
reproductive toxins or teratogens.
Vanadium pentoxide was reported to
be carcinogenic in male rats and in male and female mice by inhalation
in an NTP study, although the interpretation of the results has
recently been disputed. The carcinogenicity of vanadium has not
been determined by the United States Environmental Protection
Vanadium traces in diesel fuels are the main fuel component in high
temperature corrosion. During combustion, vanadium oxidizes and reacts
with sodium and sulfur, yielding vanadate compounds with melting
points as low as 530 °C, which attack the passivation layer on
steel and render it susceptible to corrosion. The solid vanadium
compounds also abrade engine components.
Green Giant mine
Grid energy storage
Vanadium redox battery
^ Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013
(IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3):
^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca
Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110.
^ Cintas, Pedro (2004). "The Road to Chemical Names and Eponyms:
Discovery, Priority, and Credit". Angewandte Chemie International
Edition. 43 (44): 5888–94. doi:10.1002/anie.200330074.
^ a b Sefström, N. G. (1831). "Ueber das Vanadin, ein neues Metall,
gefunden im Stangeneisen von Eckersholm, einer Eisenhütte, die ihr
Erz von Taberg in Småland bezieht". Annalen der Physik und Chemie.
97: 43–49. Bibcode:1831AnP....97...43S.
^ Featherstonhaugh, George William (1831). "New Metal, provisionally
called Vanadium". The Monthly American Journal of Geology and Natural
^ Roscoe, Henry E. (1869–1870). "Researches on Vanadium. Part II".
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 18 (114–122): 37–42.
^ Marden, J. W.; Rich, M. N. (1927). "Vanadium". Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry. 19 (7): 786–788.
^ Betz, Frederick (2003). Managing Technological Innovation:
Competitive Advantage from Change. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 158–159.
^ Henze, M. (1911). "Untersuchungen fiber das Blut der Ascidien. I.
Mitteilung". Z. Physiol. Chem. 72 (5–6): 494–50.
^ Michibata, H.; Uyama, T.; Ueki, T.; Kanamori, K. (2002).
"Vanadocytes, cells hold the key to resolving the highly selective
accumulation and reduction of vanadium in ascidians". Microscopy
Research and Technique. 56 (6): 421–434. doi:10.1002/jemt.10042.
^ George F. Vander Voort (1984). Metallography, principles and
practice. ASM International. pp. 137–.
ISBN 978-0-87170-672-0. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
^ François Cardarelli (2008). Materials handbook: a concise desktop
reference. Springer. pp. 338–. ISBN 978-1-84628-668-1.
Retrieved 17 September 2011.
^ a b c d e f Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985).
"Vanadium". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100
ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1071–1075.
^ a b Georges, Audi; Bersillon, O.; Blachot, J.; Wapstra, A. H.
(2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties".
Nuclear Physics A. Atomic Mass Data Center. 729: 3–128.
^ Günter Bauer, Volker Güther, Hans Hess, Andreas Otto, Oskar Roidl,
Heinz Roller, Siegfried Sattelberger "
in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH,
^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the
Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 984.
^ Sinning, Irmgard; Hol, Wim G. J. (2004). "The power of vanadate in
crystallographic investigations of phosphoryl transfer enzymes". FEBS
Letters. 577 (3): 315–21. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.10.022.
^ Seargeant, Lorne E.; Stinson, Robert A. (1979). "Inhibition of human
alkaline phosphatases by vanadate". Biochemical Journal. 181 (1):
247–50. PMC 1161148 . PMID 486156.
^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the
Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 988.
^ Al-Kharafi, F. M.; Badawy, W. A. (1997). "Electrochemical behavior
of vanadium in aqueous solutions of different pH". Electrochimica
Acta. 42 (4): 579–586. doi:10.1016/S0013-4686(96)00202-2.
^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the
Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.
ISBN 0-08-037941-9. , p994.
^ Strukul, Giorgio (1992). Catalytic oxidations with hydrogen peroxide
as oxidant. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 0-7923-1771-8.
^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the
Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 993.
^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the
Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann.
^ Wilkinson, G. & Birmingham, J.G. (1954). "Bis-cyclopentadienyl
Compounds of Ti, Zr, V, Nb and Ta". Journal of the American Chemical
Society. 76 (17): 4281–4284. doi:10.1021/ja01646a008.
^ Bellard, S.; Rubinson, K. A.; Sheldrick, G. M. (1979). "Crystal and
molecular structure of vanadium hexacarbonyl". Acta Crystallographica.
B35 (2): 271–274. doi:10.1107/S0567740879003332.
^ Elschenbroich, C.; Salzer A. (1992). Organometallics : A
Concise Introduction. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-28165-7.
^ a b c Rehder, Dieter (2008). Bioinorganic
Vanadium Chemistry (1st
ed.). Hamburg, Germany: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 5 &
9–10. doi:10.1002/9780470994429. ISBN 9780470065099.
^ Cowley, C. R.; Elste, G. H.; Urbanski, J. L. (1978). "Vanadium
abundances in early A stars". Publications of the Astronomical Society
of the Pacific. 90: 536. Bibcode:1978PASP...90..536C.
^ Proceedings. National Cotton Council of America. 1991.
^ Ostrooumov, M., and Taran, Y., 2015. Discovery of Native Vanadium, a
Mineral from the Colima Volcano, State of Colima (Mexico). Revista
de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía 20, 109-110
Vanadium mineral information and data". Mindat.org.
^ "mineralogical data about Patrónite". mindata.org. Retrieved 19
^ Magyar, Michael J. "
Mineral Commodity Summaries 2015: Vanadium"
(PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
^ Pearson, C. D.; Green J. B. (1993). "
Vanadium and nickel complexes
in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions". Energy Fuels. 7
(3): 338–346. doi:10.1021/ef00039a001.
^ Anke, Manfred (2004). "
Vanadium – An element both essential and
toxic to plants, animals and humans?". Anal. Real Acad. Nac. Farm. 70:
^ a b c Moskalyk, R. R.; Alfantazi, A. M. (2003). "Processing of
vanadium: a review". Minerals Engineering. 16 (9): 793–805.
^ Carlson, O. N.; Owen, C. V. (1961). "Preparation of High-Purity
Vanadium Metals by the Iodide Refining Process". Journal of the
Electrochemical Society. 108: 88. doi:10.1149/1.2428019.
^ Chandler, Harry (1998). Metallurgy for the Non-metallurgist. ASM
International. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-87170-652-2.
^ Davis, Joseph R. (1995).
Tool Materials. ASM
International. ISBN 978-0-87170-545-7.
^ Oleg D. Neikov; Stanislav Naboychenko; Irina Mourachova; Victor G.
Gopienko; Irina V. Frishberg; Dina V. Lotsko (2009-02-24). Handbook of
Non-Ferrous Metal Powders: Technologies and Applications. p. 490.
ISBN 9780080559407. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
^ "Technical Supplement: Titanium". Seven Cycles. Retrieved 1 November
^ Peters, Manfred; Leyens, C. (2002). "Metastabile β-Legierungen".
Titan und Titanlegierungen. Wiley-VCH. pp. 23–24.
^ Hardy, George F.; Hulm, John K. (1953). "Superconducting Silicides
and Germanides". Physical Review. 89 (4): 884–884.
^ Markiewicz, W.; Mains, E.; Vankeuren, R.; Wilcox, R.; Rosner, C.;
Inoue, H.; Hayashi, C.; Tachikawa, K. (1977). "A 17.5 Tesla
superconducting concentric Nb3Sn and V3Ga magnet system". IEEE
Transactions on Magnetics. 13 (1): 35–37.
^ Verhoeven, J. D.; Pendray, A. H.; Dauksch, W. E. (1998). "The key
role of impurities in ancient damascus steel blades". Journal of the
Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. 50 (9): 58–64.
^ Lositskii, N. T.; Grigor'ev A. A.; Khitrova, G. V. (1966). "Welding
of chemical equipment made from two-layer sheet with titanium
protective layer (review of foreign literature)". Chemical and
Petroleum Engineering. 2 (12): 854–856.
^ Matsui, H.; Fukumoto, K.; Smith, D. L.; Chung, Hee M.; Witzenburg,
W. van; Votinov, S. N. (1996). "Status of vanadium alloys for fusion
reactors". Journal of Nuclear Materials. 233–237 (1): 92–99.
Vanadium Data Sheet" (PDF). ATI Wah Chang. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
^ Eriksen, K. M.; Karydis, D. A.; Boghosian, S.; Fehrmann, R. (1995).
"Deactivation and Compound Formation in Sulfuric-Acid Catalysts and
Model Systems". Journal of Catalysis. 155 (1): 32–42.
^ Abon, Michel; Volta, Jean-Claude (1997). "
Vanadium phosphorus oxides
for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride". Applied Catalysis A:
General. 157 (1–2): 173–193.
^ Lide, David R. (2004). "vanadium". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 4–34.
^ Fierro, J. G. L., ed. (2006). Metal Oxides, Chemistry and
Applications. CRC Press. pp. 415–455.
^ Kinetic studies of propane oxidation on Mo and V based mixed oxide
catalysts (PhD Thesis). Berlin: Technische Universität. 2011.
hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0012-3000-A. [page needed]
^ Amakawa, Kazuhiko; Kolen’ko, Yury V.; Villa, Alberto; Schuster,
Manfred E/; Csepei, Lénárd-István; Weinberg, Gisela; Wrabetz,
Sabine; d’Alnoncourt, Raoul Naumann; Girgsdies, Frank; Prati, Laura;
Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette. "Multifunctionality of
Crystalline MoV(TeNb) M1
Oxide Catalysts in Selective
Propane and Benzyl Alcohol". ACS Catalysis. 3 (6): 1103–1113.
^ Hävecker, Michael; Wrabetz, Sabine; Kröhnert, Jutta; Csepei,
Lenard-Istvan; Naumann d’Alnoncourt, Raoul; Kolen’ko, Yury V.;
Girgsdies, Frank; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette (January 2012).
"Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in
selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid". Journal of Catalysis.
285 (1): 48–60. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2011.09.012.
^ Naumann d’Alnoncourt, Raoul; Csepei, Lénárd-István; Hävecker,
Michael; Girgsdies, Frank; Schuster, Manfred E.; Schlögl, Robert;
Trunschke, Annette (March 2014). "The reaction network in propane
oxidation over phase-pure MoVTeNb M1 oxide catalysts". Journal of
Catalysis. 311: 369–385. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2013.12.008.
^ Manning, Troy D.; Parkin, Ivan P.; Clark, Robin J. H.; Sheel, David;
Pemble, Martyn E.; Vernadou, Dimitra (2002). "Intelligent window
coatings: atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of vanadium
oxides". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 12 (10): 2936–2939.
^ White, Willam B.; Roy, Rustum; McKay, Chrichton (1962). "The
Alexandrite Effect: And Optical Study" (PDF). American Mineralogist.
^ Joerissen, Ludwig; Garche, Juergen; Fabjan, Ch.; Tomazic G. (2004).
"Possible use of vanadium redox-flow batteries for energy storage in
small grids and stand-alone photovoltaic systems". Journal of Power
Sources. 127 (1–2): 98–104. Bibcode:2004JPS...127...98J.
^ Rychcik, M.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M. (1988). "Characteristics of a new
all-vanadium redox flow battery". Journal of Power Sources. 22 (1):
doi:10.1016/0378-7753(88)80005-3. ISSN 0378-7753.
^ Guan, H.; Buchheit R. G. (2004). "
Corrosion Protection of Aluminum
Alloy 2024-T3 by
Vanadate Conversion Coatings". Corrosion. 60 (3):
^ Kariatsumari, Koji (February 2008). "Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries
Made Safer". Nikkei Business Publications, Inc. Archived from the
original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
^ Crans, Debbie C.; Yang, Liling; Haase, Allison; Yang, Xiaogai
(2018). "Chapter 9. Health Benefits of
Vanadium and Its Potential as
an Anticancer Agent". In Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Freisinger,
Eva; Sigel, Roland K. O. Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of
Anticancer Agents. 18. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 251–279.
^ Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut, eds. (1995).
Vanadium and Its Role in
Ions in Biological Systems. 31. CRC.
^ Gribble, Gordon W. (1999). "The diversity of naturally occurring
organobromine compounds". Chemical Society Reviews. 28: 335–346.
^ Butler, Alison; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N. (2004). "The role of
vanadium bromoperoxidase in the biosynthesis of halogenated marine
natural products". Natural Product Reports. 21 (1): 180–8.
doi:10.1039/b302337k. PMID 15039842.
^ Robson, R. L.; Eady, R. R.; Richardson, T. H.; Miller, R. W.;
Hawkins, M.; Postgate, J. R. (1986). "The alternative nitrogenase of
Azotobacter chroococcum is a vanadium enzyme". Nature. London. 322
(6077): 388–390. Bibcode:1986Natur.322..388R.
^ Smith, M. J. (1989). "
Vanadium biochemistry: The unknown role of
vanadium-containing cells in ascidians (sea squirts)". Experientia. 45
(5): 452–7. doi:10.1007/BF01952027. PMID 2656286.
^ MacAra, Ian G.; McLeod, G. C.; Kustin, Kenneth (1979). "Tunichromes
and metal ion accumulation in tunicate blood cells". Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology B. 63 (3): 299–302.
^ Trefry, John H.; Metz, Simone (1989). "Role of hydrothermal
precipitates in the geochemical cycling of vanadium". Nature. 342
(6249): 531–533. Bibcode:1989Natur.342..531T.
^ Weiss, H.; Guttman, M. A.; Korkisch, J.; Steffan, I. (1977).
"Comparison of methods for the determination of vanadium in
sea-water". Talanta. 24 (8): 509–11.
doi:10.1016/0039-9140(77)80035-0. PMID 18962130.
^ Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard, S.; Barnes, Robert D. (2004).
Invertebrate Zoology (7th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 947.
^ Kneifel, Helmut; Bayer, Ernst (1997). "Determination of the
Structure of the
Vanadium Compound, Amavadine, from Fly Agaric".
Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 12 (6): 508.
doi:10.1002/anie.197305081. ISSN 0570-0833.
^ Falandysz, J.; Kunito, T.; Kubota, R.; Lipka, K.; Mazur, A.;
Falandysz, Justyna J.; Tanabe, S. (2007). "Selected elements in fly
agaric Amanita muscaria". Journal of Environmental Science and Health,
Part A. 42 (11): 1615–1623. doi:10.1080/10934520701517853.
^ Berry, Robert E.; Armstrong, Elaine M.; Beddoes, Roy L.; Collison,
David; Ertok, Nigar; Helliwell, Madeleine; Garner, David (1999). "The
Structural Characterization of Amavadin". Angewandte Chemie
International Edition. 38 (6): 795–797.
^ Schwarz, Klaus; Milne, David B. (1971). "Growth Effects of Vanadium
in the Rat". Science. 174 (4007): 426–428.
JSTOR 1731776. PMID 5112000.
^ Nickel. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K,
Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum,
Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Copper. National Academy Press. 2001,
^ a b Smith DM, Pickering RM, Lewith GT (2008). "A systematic review
of vanadium oral supplements for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes
mellitus". QJM. 101 (5): 351–8. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcn003.
Vanadium (vanadyl sulfate). Monograph". Altern Med Rev. 14 (2):
177–80. 2009. PMID 19594227.
^ Lynch, Brendan M. (21 September 2017). "Hope to discover sure signs
of life on Mars? New research says look for the element vanadium".
PhysOrg. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
^ Marshall Craig P., Marshall Alison Olcott, Aitken Jade B., Lai
Barry, Vogt Stefan, Breuer Pierre, Steemans Philippe, and Lay Peter A.
(June 2017). "Imaging of
Vanadium in Microfossils: A New Potential
Biosignature". Astrobiology. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
^ Roschin, A. V. (1967). "Toxicology of vanadium compounds used in
modern industry". Gig Sanit. (Water Res.). 32 (6): 26–32.
^ a b "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Vanadium
Pentoxide". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Archived
from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
^ Sax, N. I. (1984). Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (6th
ed.). Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. pp. 2717–2720.
^ a b Ress, N. B.; et al. (2003). "Carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium
pentoxide in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice". Toxicological Sciences. 74
(2): 287–296. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfg136. PMID 12773761.
^ Jörg M. Wörle-Knirsch; Katrin Kern; Carsten Schleh; Christel
Adelhelm; Claus Feldmann & Harald F. Krug (2007). "Nanoparticulate
Vanadium Toxicity in Human Lung Cells".
Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (1): 331–336. Bibcode:2007EnST...41..331W.
doi:10.1021/es061140x. PMID 17265967.
^ Ścibior, A.; Zaporowska, H.; Ostrowski, J. (2006). "Selected
haematological and biochemical parameters of blood in rats after
subchronic administration of vanadium and/or magnesium in drinking
water". Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 51
(2): 287–295. doi:10.1007/s00244-005-0126-4.
^ Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; et al. (2006). "Thrombocytosis induced in
mice after subacute and subchronic V2O5 inhalation". Toxicology and
Industrial Health. 22 (3): 113–116. doi:10.1191/0748233706th250oa.
^ Kobayashi, Kazuo; Himeno, Seiichiro; Satoh, Masahiko; Kuroda, Junji;
Shibata, Nobuo; Seko, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Tatsuya (2006).
"Pentavalent vanadium induces hepatic metallothionein through
interleukin-6-dependent and -independent mechanisms". Toxicology. 228
(2–3): 162–170. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.08.022.
^ Soazo, Marina; Garcia, Graciela Beatriz (2007). "
through lactation produces behavioral alterations and CNS myelin
deficit in neonatal rats". Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 29 (4):
503–510. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2007.03.001. PMID 17493788.
^ Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). "Vanadium". Clinical
Toxicology. 37 (2): 265–278. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102425.
^ Duffus, J. H. (2007). "Carcinogenicity classification of vanadium
pentoxide and inorganic vanadium compounds, the NTP study of
carcinogenicity of inhaled vanadium pentoxide, and vanadium
chemistry". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 47 (1): 110–114.
doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.08.006. PMID 17030368.
^ Opreskos, Dennis M. (1991). "Toxicity Summary for Vanadium". Oak
Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
^ Woodyard, Doug (2009-08-18). Pounder's Marine Diesel Engines and Gas
Turbines. p. 92. ISBN 9780080943619.
^ Totten, George E.; Westbrook, Steven R.; Shah, Rajesh J.
(2003-06-01). Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties,
Performance, and Testing. p. 152. ISBN 9780803120969.
Slebodnick, Carla; et al. (1999). "Modeling the Biological Chemistry
of Vanadium: Structural and Reactivity Studies Elucidating Biological
Function". In Hill, Hugh A.O.; et al. Metal sites in proteins and
models: phosphatases, Lewis acids, and vanadium. Springer.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vanadium.
Look up vanadium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The Periodic Table of Videos
The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
Vanadium Technical Report
ATSDR – ToxFAQs: Vanadium
Vanadium concentration in seawater and estuary environments is around
1.5-3.3 ug/kg .
Vanadium speciation and cycling in coastal waters 
Ocean anoxia and the concentrations of
Periodic table (Large cells)
Alkaline earth metal
BNF: cb122626454 (d