Valve Corporation is an American video game developer and digital
distribution company headquartered in Bellevue, Washington. The
company is known for its software distribution platform Steam and the
Half-Life, Counter-Strike, Portal, Day of Defeat, Team Fortress, Left
4 Dead, and
Dota 2 games.
Valve was founded in 1996 as a limited liability company by former
Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington. Their debut
product, the PC first-person shooter Half-Life, was released in 1998
to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington
left the company. Valve launched Steam in 2003; by 2011, over half of
digital PC game sales were through Steam, and Valve was the most
profitable company per employee in the United States. In 2015,
Valve entered the game hardware market with the Steam Machine, a line
of prebuilt gaming computers running Valve's
SteamOS operating system.
1.1 Founding and incorporation
1.3 Source game engine
1.4 Acquisitions and awards
1.5 Network intrusions
2.1 Cancelled games
4 Other projects
4.2 Steam Machine
J. J. Abrams
J. J. Abrams collaboration
6 Organizational structure
7 Legal disputes
Valve Corporation v. Vivendi Universal Games
Valve Corporation v. Activision Blizzard
7.3 Dota intellectual property ownership
7.4 ACCC v. Valve Corporation
UFC Que Choisir v. Valve Corporation
7.6 A.M. v. Valve Corporation
7.7 Skins gambling
7.8 European Commission
8 "Valve Time"
10 External links
Founding and incorporation
Valve was founded by former longtime
Microsoft employees Gabe Newell
Mike Harrington on August 24, 1996, as Valve L.L.C., based
Kirkland, Washington on the Seattle Eastside. Harrington left the
company in 2000. After incorporation in April 2003, it moved from
its original location to Bellevue, Washington, the same city in which
their original publisher, Sierra On-Line, Inc., was based. In 2010,
the office was moved again to a larger location in Bellevue. In
2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in
downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices.
Half-Life (video game)
After securing a license to the
Quake engine through the help of
Michael Abrash of id Software in late 1996, Newell and
Harrington began working on Half-Life. Originally planned for release
in late 1997,
Half-Life launched on November 19, 1998. Valve acquired
TF Software Pty. Ltd., the makers of the
Team Fortress mod for Quake,
in May 1998 with the intent to create a standalone Team Fortress
Team Fortress Classic mod, essentially a port of the
Team Fortress mod for Quake, was released for
1999. Gearbox contributed much after the release of Half-Life. Gearbox
Software is responsible for the
Half-Life expansion packs, Half-Life:
Opposing Force and Half-Life: Blue Shift, along with the home console
Half-Life for the
Sony PlayStation 2
which included a third expansion pack called Half-Life: Decay, which
enabled two-player split-screen co-op.
Source game engine
Main article: Source (game engine)
After the success of Half-Life, the team worked on mods, spin-offs,
and sequels, including
Half-Life 2. All current Valve games are built
on its Source engine. The company has developed six game series:
Half-Life, Team Fortress, Portal, Counter-Strike,
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead and Day
of Defeat. Valve is noted for its support of its games' modding
community, most prominently, Counter-Strike, Team Fortress, and Day of
Defeat. Valve has branched out with this tradition to continue
Dota 2 as the standalone sequel to the Warcraft III
mod. Each of these games began as a third-party mod that Valve
purchased and developed into a full game. They also distribute
community mods on Steam. Valve announced the Source 2 engine in
March 2015, later porting the entirety of
Dota 2 to the engine in
September of that year.
Acquisitions and awards
Valve has grown both in scope and commercial value. On January 10,
2008, they announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios, which
would be renamed Valve South.
Turtle Rock Studios
Turtle Rock Studios spun out of
Valve again in March 2010. On April 8, 2010, the company won The
Escapist Magazine's March Mayhem tournament for the best developer of
2010, beating out
Zynga in the semi-finals and
BioWare in the
In 2012, Valve acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-man gaming company,
to open a San Francisco office. However, in August 2013, they
ended the operation when it was decided that there was little benefit
coming from the arrangement.
Valve's internal network has been infiltrated by hackers three times,
in 2003 where content of the yet to be released
Half-Life 2 was leaked
onto the internet, Newell's email account was compromised, and
keyloggers were installed on several Valve systems. In 2011 the
Steam customer databases and official forums were compromised.
In September 2011, a hacker broke into the network and downloaded the
yet to be released beta code of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare
In June 2014, a developer from
SCS Software reported an exploit that
allowed announcement pages to be injected with code, and after no
response, he edited an announcement to redirect users to a Harlem
Shake video. In March 2016, a vulnerability on the Steam
Store allowed a user to publish a game without any authorization from
Main article: List of
Valve Corporation video games
Valve has developed and published the main games in both the Half-Life
Portal series, as well as published both and developed one of the
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead games, the other of which was developed by Valve South
(now Turtle Rock Studios). Valve also developed and published Team
Team Fortress 2, and Dota 2, and are developing Artifact.
As several of Valve's series feature only two primary games, named
with numerals such as
Half-Life 2, and with no apparent
announcements on a third title in these series, Valve has developed a
lighthearted joking reputation for not being able to count to 3, or
scared of this number. This has also created a humorous myth-like
nature among players and journalists as to whether
actually exists or not.
Incomplete games include a fairy-themed role-playing game,
Prospero and Stars of Blood. Valve worked with Arkane
Studios on The Crossing, which was cancelled in May 2009. Arkane later
tried to produce Return to Ravenholm without consent by Valve, which
was then also canceled.
Main article: Steam (software)
Gabe Newell (foreground) and Doug Lombardi (background), 2007
Valve announced Steam, its digital distribution software platform, at
the 2002 Game Developers Conference. It launched in September
2003 and was first used to deliver patches and other updates to
Valve's online games, of which it later became mandatory to
On August 1, 2012, Valve announced revisions to the Steam Subscriber
Agreement (SSA) to prohibit class action lawsuits by users against the
service provider. By July 2014, there were over 3,400 games
available on Steam, with over 150 million registered accounts by
Alongside these changes to the SSA, the company also declared publicly
the incorporation of Valve S.a.r.l., a subsidiary based in
Luxembourg. Valve set up a physical office in Luxembourg
Kirchberg. According to Valve's project manager Mike Dunkle, the
location was chosen for eCommerce capabilities and infrastructure,
talent acquisition, tax advantages and central geographic
location – most major partners are accessible, with 50% within
Valve S.a.r.l. was used to sell games to United Kingdom–based users
to avoid paying the full 20% value-added tax (VAT). The tax
loophole was expected to be closed on January 1, 2015. In December
2015, the French consumer group
UFC Que Choisir initiated a lawsuit
against Valve for several of their Steam policies that conflict or run
afoul of French law. One of the reasons was for using the tax
loophole. Valve S.a.r.l. stopped doing business on January 1,
2017, with the main company taking over EU sales again. In August
2017, Valve announced that Steam had reached over 67 million monthly
and 33 million daily active users on the platform.
PowerPlay was a technological initiative headed by Valve and Cisco
Systems to decrease the latency for online computer games. Gabe
Newell, the managing director of Valve, announced the project in
January 2000 and after 12 months the project was quietly abandoned.
PowerPlay was described as a set of protocols and deployment standards
at the router level to improve performance. It was claimed that a
player with 1000 ms ping was able to play against another player
on a LAN connection with no noticeable disadvantage. Initially the
protocol was to be released with PowerPlay 1.0 focusing on Quality of
Service (QoS) and later a revision, PowerPlay 2.0 that would focus on
functionality. Cisco and Valve intended to deliver a single dial-up
service in Q1 2000 in the United States with a 30-day free trial with
a bundled copy of
Team Fortress modified to support PowerPlay.
Despite never deploying the dial-up plan featuring PowerPlay 1.0,
Valve announced in January 2001 that the standard had indeed been
The standard was to involve purchasing PowerPlay approved Cisco
hardware and infrastructure that had adequate bandwidth and QoS
standards that prioritize PowerPlay gaming packets at the expense of
Gabe Newell conceded that Internet service providers
(ISPs) would bear the brunt of this expense: "The ISPs are going to
need to spend a fair amount of money to be compliant with PowerPlay.
But how they get that back is up to them. Some will have a tiered
service, and some will just try to recoup their investment through
reduced customer churn and customer acquisition."
Main article: Steam Machine (hardware platform)
Newell has been critical of the direction that
Microsoft has taken
with the Windows operating system in making it a closed architecture
similar to Apple's products, and has stated that he believes that the
changes made in Windows 8 are "a catastrophe for everyone in the PC
space". Newell identified the open-source Linux platform as an
ideal platform for Steam, noting that the only thing holding back its
adoption is the lack of games.
In 2012, Valve announced that they were working on a console/PC hybrid
for the living room which was unofficially dubbed by media as the
"Steam Box". A precursor to such a unit is SteamOS, a freely
available Linux-based operating system that builds upon the Steam
client functionality that includes media services, live streaming
across home networks, game sharing within families, and parental
SteamOS was officially announced in September 2013 as the
first of several announcements related to the Steam Machine
platform as well as their unique game controller. In May 2014,
Valve announced that the company's own SteamOS-powered Steam Machine
would be delayed until 2015 due to problems with the game
In July 2013, Valve announced Pipeline, an intern project consisting
of ten high school students working together to learn how to create
video game content. Pipeline serves to discuss and answer
questions that teenagers often ask about the video game industry,
and see if it is possible to train a group of teenagers with minimal
work experience to work for a company like Valve. The latter
purpose breaks Valve's tradition of employing experienced developers,
as the company is not good at "teaching people straight out of
J. J. Abrams
J. J. Abrams collaboration
At the 2013 D.I.C.E. Summit,
Gabe Newell confirmed that he and
J. J. Abrams
J. J. Abrams were collaborating to produce a
Portal film, as well as a possible new game.
In March 2015, Valve and Taiwanese electronics company
HTC announced a
joint project to develop the Vive, a virtual reality headset with
motion tracked controllers. The companies are working with Google,
Lions Gate, and
HBO to develop content for the device.
Valve does not make its finances public. In 2005,
that Valve had grossed $70 million that year. Ed Barton, a Screen
Digest analyst, estimated Valve's 2010 revenue to be in the "high
hundreds of millions of dollars". As of 2011, the company had an
estimated worth of $2 to 4 billion, and according to Newell it was the
most profitable company per employee in the United States. Most of
Valve's revenue comes from its Steam service, which controlled 50 to
70% of the market for downloaded PC games in 2011.
In Valve's early days, the company's structure was similar to other
development firms; this was principally driven by the nature of
physical game releases through publishers that required tasks to be
completed by given deadlines, requiring a more regimented
structure. As the company moved to digital releases where they
serve as their own publisher, the company structure has become more as
a flat organization. Valve published their employee handbook to the
public in 2012, demonstrating at that time that outside of
executive management, there were no bosses, and the company used an
open allocation system, allowing employees to move between departments
at will. This approach allows employees to work on whatever
interests them, but requires them to take ownership of their product
and mistakes they may make, according to Newell. Newell recognized
that this structure works well for some but that "there are plenty of
great developers for whom this is a terrible place to work".
Economist Yanis Varoufakis, a former economic consultant for Valve,
and former Finance Minister of Greece, attempted to place Valve's
organization in the context of theories of the firm and broader
economic thinking. Former employee Jeri Ellsworth
criticized the structure as "a lot like high school" in that certain
employees have more influence than others.
Valve Corporation v. Vivendi Universal Games
Between 2002 and 2005, Valve was involved in a complex legal dispute
with its publisher,
Vivendi Universal Games
Vivendi Universal Games (under Vivendi's brand
Sierra Entertainment). It officially began on August 14, 2002, when
Valve sued Sierra for copyright infringement, alleging that the
publisher had illegally distributed copies of their games to Internet
cafes. They later added claims of breach of contract, accusing their
publisher of withholding royalties and delaying the release of
Counter-Strike: Condition Zero until after the holiday season.
Vivendi fought back, saying that
Gabe Newell and marketing director
Doug Lombardi had misrepresented Valve's position in meetings with the
publisher. Vivendi later countersued, claiming that Valve's Steam
content distribution system attempted to circumvent their publishing
agreement. Vivendi sought intellectual property rights to Half-Life
and a ruling preventing Valve from using Steam to distribute Half-Life
On November 29, 2004, Judge
Thomas Samuel Zilly of the U.S. District
Court for the Western District of Washington ruled in favor of Valve.
Specifically, the ruling stated that Vivendi Universal and its
affiliates (including Sierra) were not authorized to distribute Valve
games, either directly or indirectly, through cyber cafés to end
users for pay-to-play activities pursuant to the parties' publishing
agreement. In addition, Judge Zilly ruled that Valve could recover
copyright damages for infringements without regard to the publishing
agreement's limitation of liability clause. Valve posted on the
Steam website that the two companies had come to a settlement in court
on April 29, 2005.
Electronic Arts announced on July 18, 2005,
that they would be teaming up with Valve in a multi-year deal to
distribute their games, replacing Vivendi Universal from then
onwards. As a result of the trial, the arbitrator also awarded
Valve Corporation v. Activision Blizzard
In April 2009, Valve sued Activision Blizzard, which acquired Sierra
Entertainment after a merger with its parent company, Vivendi
Universal Games. Activision had allegedly refused to honor the Valve
v. Vivendi arbitration agreement. Activision had only paid Valve
$1,967,796 of the $2,391,932 award, refusing to pay the remaining
$424,136, claiming it had overpaid that sum in the past years.
Dota intellectual property ownership
Defense of the Ancients
Defense of the Ancients (DotA) was a landmark mod built in 2003 that
created the basis of the genre of multiplayer online battle arena
(MOBA). It was originally developed by "Eul" within Blizzard
Warcraft III via its world editor, and spawned several
similar efforts, notably DotA-Allstars. While there have been several
that contributed to DotA-Allstars, the project was managed primarily
by Steve Feak, aka "Guinsoo", and later by "IceFrog".
eventually hired by Valve in 2009 and in 2010 reported that they had
sold their rights to the DotA property to Valve. Eul was also hired
into Valve by 2010.
Valve subsequently filed trademarks towards a sequel to DotA, Dota 2.
DotA-Allstars, LLC, a group of former contributors to the
DotA-Allstars project, filed an opposing trademark in August 2010 to
contest Valve's claim it owned the property rights. DotA-Allstars,
LLC was eventually acquired by Blizzard to start development of
Blizzard All-Stars. Blizzard took over the trademark challenge. The
United States Patent &
Trademark Office initially ruled in Valve's
favor. By this point,
Riot Games had hired Guinsoo to help develop
their own MOBA, League of Legends. As with IceFrog, Feak transferred
his rights to the Dota property to Riot, who in turn sold those to
Blizzard. Blizzard filed a lawsuit against Valve to challenge Valve's
ownership, pitting the rights assigned through
IceFrog to Guinsoo at
odds. The case
Blizzard Entertainment v.
Valve Corporation was
settled out of court in May 2012; Valve retained the right to use Dota
commercially, while Blizzard reserved the right for fans to use Dota
non-commercially. Blizzard changed the names of its own projects
to remove the Dota term, and renamed Blizzard All-Stars as Heroes of
the Storm. Valve's
Dota 2 was released in 2013.
In 2014, mobile developers Lilith and uCool released their titles Dota
Legends and Heroes Charge, respectively. Both titles were influenced
by Dota and the sequels. In 2017, Valve and Blizzard took joint action
against these companies, citing copyright issues related to the Dota
names. uCool argued that the Dota games were a collective work and
could not be copyrighted by anyone in particular, but the presiding
judge, Charles R. Breyer, felt that due to the trio's actions as
maintainers of the Dota mods, that they rightful have copyright claim
to this. Separately, Lilith and uCool argued that Eul had, in a forum
post dated September 2004, assigned an open-source copyright license
to Dota, which would make Valve and Blizzard's copyright claims void.
The case is scheduled to be heard by a jury to resolve this matter at
a later date.
ACCC v. Valve Corporation
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) announced it
was taking action against Valve in 2014. On March 29, 2016 Valve was
found guilty of breaching Australian consumer law because:
Valve claimed consumers were not entitled to a refund for digitally
downloaded games purchased from Valve via the Steam website or Steam
Client (in any circumstances);
Valve had excluded statutory guarantees and/or warranties that goods
would be of acceptable quality; and
Valve had restricted or modified statutory guarantees and/or
warranties of acceptable quality.
During the prosecution of this case, Valve implemented a refund policy
for Steam purchases, but the case still reviewed Valve's actions prior
to the onset of the lawsuit. The court overseeing the case sided with
the ACCC in assigning a A$3 million (about US$2.1 million)
fine against Valve in December 2016, as well as requiring Valve to
inform Australian consumers of their rights when purchasing games from
Steam. Valve appealed the court's determination that it "engaged
in misleading or deceptive conduct and made false or misleading
representations about consumer guarantees", as well as seeking to
appeal the fine, but the Australian higher courts rejected the appeals
in December 2017. In January 2018, Valve filed for a "special
leave" of the court's decision, appealing to the High Court of
UFC Que Choisir v. Valve Corporation
Consumer rights group UFC Que Choisir, based in France, filed a
lawsuit against Valve in December 2015, claiming users should be able
to resell their software.
A.M. v. Valve Corporation
A former employee filed a $3.1 million lawsuit in May 2016 alleging
mistreatment after sex reassignment surgery, and that Valve was
Main article: Skin gambling
Valve was named as a defendant in two lawsuits in June and July 2016
related to third-party gambling sites that use the Steamworks API to
allow betting with the virtual currency of cosmetic weapon "skins"
from Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, which through these sites can
be converted from or to real-world money. Both suits assert Valve
aiding in underaged gambling. Valve subsequently stated it has no
commercial ties with these sites, and that it would demand these sites
cease their use of the Steamworks API as they violate the authorized
use policies. In October 2016, the Washington State Gambling
Commission required Valve to stop the use of virtual skins for
gambling on Steam, stating they would face legal repercussions if they
failed to cooperate. Valve sent a letter on October 17, 2016 to
the Washington State
Gambling Commission stating, "Valve has no
business relationship with such gambling sites, and indeed they can
come into existence, operate, and go out of existence without Valve's
knowledge" and that "We are not aware of any such law that Steam or
our games are violating".
In February 2017, the
European Commission began investigating Valve
and five publishers—Bandai Namco Entertainment, Capcom, Focus Home
Koch Media and ZeniMax Media—for anti-competitive
practices, specifically the use of geo-blocking through the Steam
storefront and Steam product keys to prevent access to software to
citizens of certain countries. Such practices would be against the
Digital Single Market initiative by the European Union.
"Valve Time" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Valve
"Valve Time" is an industry term used jokingly with game releases from
Valve, used to acknowledge the difference between the "promised" date
for released content stated by Valve and to the "actual" release date;
"Valve Time" includes predominant delays but also includes some
content that was released earlier than expected. Valve itself has
fully acknowledged the term, including tracking known discrepancies
between ideal and actual releases on their public development
wiki and using it in announcements about such delays.
Valve ascribes delays to their mentality of team-driven initiatives
over corporate deadlines to make sure they provide a high-quality
product to their customers.
Valve's former business development chief Jason Holtman stated that
the company sees themselves as an "oddity" in an industry that looks
towards punctual delivery of products; instead, Valve "[tries] as hard
as we can to make the best thing possible in the right time frame and
get people content they want to consume. And if that takes longer,
that's fine". For that, Valve takes the concept of "Valve Time"
as a compliment, and that "having customers consistently looking at
our property or something you've done and saying, can you give me
more" is evidence that they are making the right decisions with their
game releases, according to Holtman. The company does try to
avoid unintentional delays of their projects, and believes that
the earlier occurrences of "Valve Time" delays, primarily from
Half-Life development, has helped them improve their release
^ Wingfield, Nick (September 8, 2012). "Game Maker Without a Rule
Book". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 12,
2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
^ Chiang, Oliver (February 9, 2011). "The Master of Online Mayhem".
Forbes. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March
^ Chalk, Andy (October 18, 2016). "Valve denies wrongdoing in skin
gambling legal rumblings: 'no factual or legal support for these
accusations'". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on October 18,
2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2017. Payment
processing related to Content and Services and/or physical goods
purchased on Steam is performed by either
Valve Corporation directly
or by Valve’s fully owned subsidiary Valve GmbH on behalf of Valve
Corporation depending on the type of payment method used.
^ Chiang, Oliver. "Valve And Steam Worth Billions". Forbes. Archived
from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 16,
^ a b "Steam Message". Steam. Valve Corporation. August 24, 2007.
Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 8,
2008. it was exactly eleven years ago that Valve was born
^ Towns, William R. (March 9, 2005). "
Valve Corporation v. ValveNET,
Inc., ValveNET, Inc., Charles Morrin Case No. D2005-0038". WIPO
Arbitration and Mediation Center. World Intellectual Property
Organization. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008.
Retrieved November 8, 2008.
^ "Washington Secretary of State". Archived from the original on July
8, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
^ a b c "Valve Handbook for New Employees" (PDF). Valve Corporation.
Archived (PDF) from the original on October 8, 2013. Retrieved
September 1, 2013.
^ Levy, Nat (August 3, 2016). "Valve leases nine floors in planned
skyscraper, more than doubling its headquarters size". GeekWire.
Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved August 3,
Team Fortress Full Speed Ahead". GameSpot. Archived from the
original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
^ Biessener, Adam (October 13, 2010). "Valve's New Game Announced,
Detailed: Dota 2". Game Informer. Archived from the original on
October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
^ "Source Filmmaker". Source Filmmaker. Archived from the original on
April 2, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
^ Langley, Hugh (March 3, 2015). "Valve just announced its plans for
Steam Machines... and Source 2". Tech Radar. Archived from the
original on March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
^ Macy, Seth. "
Dota 2 Now Valve's First Ever Source 2 Game". IGN.
Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved September
^ "Valve Acquires Turtle Rock Studios" (Press release). Valve
Corporation. January 10, 2008. Archived from the original on October
15, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
^ Robinson, Martin (February 11, 2014). "Why Turtle Rock left
^ Bramwell, Tom (March 18, 2010). "
Turtle Rock Studios
Turtle Rock Studios reforms".
^ Palumbo, Jeff (April 8, 2010). "Valve Becomes the New March Mayhem:
Developer's Showdown Champion". escapistmagazine.com. Archived from
the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2010.
^ Hing, David (December 17, 2012). "Valve acquires or hires Star
Filled Studios". bit-gamer.net. Bit-tech.net. Archived from the
original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
^ Reilly, Luke (August 7, 2013). "Valve's San Francisco Remote Office
Shut Down". IGN. Archived from the original on September 2,
^ "Playable Version of
Half-Life 2 Stolen". CNN Money. October 7,
2003. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved February
^ Klepek, Patrick (October 16, 2015). "That Time A German Hacker
Half-Life 2's Source Code". Kotaku. Univision Communications.
Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved December 3,
^ Johnson, Casey (November 10, 2011). "Valve confirms Steam hack:
credit cards, personal info may be stolen". Ars Technica. Archived
from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved November 10,
^ Leyden, John (November 9, 2011). "Steam games forum down amid hack
fears". The Register. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011.
Retrieved November 10, 2011.
^ Totilo, Stephen (September 30, 2014). "Hackers Charged With Stealing
Microsoft And More". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from
the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
^ Frederiksen, Eric (October 4, 2014). "Hackers Charged with Theft
from Studios Like Microsoft, Valve and Epic". TechnoBuffalo. Archived
from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved October 31,
^ Chalk, Andy (June 17, 2014). "Euro Truck Simulator 2 developer gets
one-year Steam ban for demonstrating security flaw". PC Gamer. Future
US. Archived from the original on November 30, 2016. Retrieved
December 3, 2016.
^ Hoffman, Mike (June 18, 2014). "Valve Bans Developer From Steam for
Prank Exposing Vulnerability – Update". The Escapist. Defy Media.
Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3,
^ Plunkett, Luke (June 16, 2014). "Kid Developer Pranks Steam, Gets
Suspended From Steam". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Archived from
the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Orland, Kule (March 30, 2016). "How a hacker snuck a game onto Steam
without Valve's knowledge". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from
the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Chalk, Andy (March 30, 2016). "Steam security loophole exposed by
Watch Paint Dry". PC Gamer. Future US. Archived from the original on
November 30, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Beck, Kellen (January 17, 2017). "
Gabe Newell stokes the 'Half-Life
3' fire". Mashable. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017.
Retrieved March 9, 2017.
^ Chalk, Andy (November 3, 2017). "
Half-Life 3 unconfirmed: every
rumor, hoax, and leak in one place". PC Gamer. Archived from the
original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
^ Francis, Tom (August 26, 2010). "Valve were making a fairy RPG
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead Interviews, News". PC Gamer. Archived from the
original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
Half-Life 2: Raising the Bar. Prima Games. 2004. p. 10.
^ "Valve SOB Project Was Called 'Stars of Blood'". ValveTime.net.
November 11, 2012. Archived from the original on February 22,
Gabe Newell On Valve's "SOB": "'Stars of Blood' Was An Internal
Project That Never Saw The Light of Day"". LambdaGeneration. November
12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012.
Marc Laidlaw On The Cancelled
Half-Life Spin-offs: Return To
Ravenholm And "Episode Four"". LambdaGeneration. January 13, 2012.
Archived from the original on January 16, 2012. Retrieved July 19,
^ Savage, Phil (January 15, 2013). "
Half-Life 2: Episode 4 was being
developed by Arkane; now cancelled". PC Gamer. Archived from the
original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
^ O'Conner, Alice (May 15, 2009). "Arkane and Valve's 'The Crossing'
on Hold". Shacknews. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013.
Retrieved June 11, 2013.
^ "Full Steam ahead: The History of Valve". gamesradar. Retrieved
^ "GDC 2002: Valve unveils Steam". GameSpot.com. March 22, 2002.
Retrieved September 7, 2006.
^ "The 13-year evolution of Steam". pcgamer. Retrieved
^ Burnes, Andrew (September 10, 2003). "Steam Client Delayed". IGN.
Retrieved March 1, 2018.
^ a b "Steam's Sub Agreement Prohibits Class-Action Lawsuits". Rock,
Paper, Shotgun. August 1, 2012. Archived from the original on August
3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
^ a b "Updated Steam Subscriber Agreement". Valve Corporation. August
1, 2012. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved
August 3, 2012.
^ "Steam has 75 million active users, Valve announces at Dev Days".
Joystiq. January 15, 2014. Archived from the original on July 19,
2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
^ Supor, Taylor (August 3, 2017). "Valve reveals Steam's monthly
active user count and game sales by region". GeekWire. Retrieved
November 27, 2017.
^ Valve Software Latest Gaming Company to Set Up in Luxembourg
Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Chronicle.lu (September
4, 2012). Retrieved on May 23, 2014.
^ Karmali, Luke. (March 25, 2014) Steam, Amazon and iTunes Prices
Could Rise in UK Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. IGN.
Retrieved on May 23, 2014.
^ Chapple, Craig. (March 25, 2014) UK closing tax loophole on Steam
game downloads Latest news from the game development industry
Develop. Develop-online.net. Retrieved on May 23, 2014.
^ Nutt, Christian (December 17, 2015). "French consumer group sues
Valve over Steam policies". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on
December 18, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
^ "Steam Subscriber Agreement". Valve Corporation. Archived from the
original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2017. This Agreement
was last updated on January 1st, 2017 ("Revision Date"). If you were a
Subscriber before the Revision Date, it replaces your existing
agreement with Valve or Valve SARL on the day that you explicitly
^ "Valve reveals Steam's monthly active user count and game sales by
region". GeekWire. August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
^ "Valve, Cisco, and a Host of PC Developers Unveil PowerPlay". IGN.
January 7, 2000. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015.
^ a b "PowerPlay and interview". Planetfortress. 2000. Archived from
the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
^ "Voodoo Extreme". Archived from the original on August 17, 2000.
Retrieved November 17, 2012.
^ "PowerPlay Preview". EuroGamer. January 19, 2000. Archived from the
original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
^ a b Crabtree, Dan (July 25, 2012). "Gabe Newell: "Windows 8 Is Kind
of a Catastrophe"". IGN. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
^ Davies, Marsh (December 9, 2012). "Valve confirms Steam Box –
a "very controlled" PC for the living room". PC Gamer. Archived from
the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
^ Newman, Jared (March 18, 2013). "Valve's Steam Box: The plot
thickens for PC-based game consoles". PC World. Archived from the
original on April 27, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
^ Kohler, Chris (September 23, 2013). "Valve Continues Its War on Game
Consoles With Steam Operating System". Wired. Archived from the
original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
^ Vaughn-Nichols, Steven J. (May 28, 2014). "Valve Steam Machines
delayed until 2015". ZDNet. Archived from the original on June 1,
2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
^ "Pipeline — About Us". Valve Corporation. Archived from the
original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
^ a b c "Pipeline — Home". pipeline.valvesoftware.com. Valve
Corporation. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved
August 31, 2013. Why is Valve doing this? There are two main reasons
that Valve is creating Pipeline. The first is that we are frequently
asked questions by teenagers about the videogame industry. "What is it
like to work on videogames? What should I study? What colleges are
best for preparing me? How do I get a job in videogames?" Pipeline
will be a place where those questions can be discussed. The second is
that Valve is running an experiment. Traditionally Valve has been a
very good place for very experienced videogame developers, and not so
good at teaching people straight out of school (the reasons for this
and the tradeoffs are covered in the Valve employee handbook).
Pipeline is an experiment to see if we can take a group of high school
students with minimal work experience and train them in the skills and
methods necessary to be successful at a company like Valve.
What is the objective of the website itself? We want to establish a
connection to the world of teenagers that are asking many questions
about getting into the gaming industry. We look to answer many of
these questions and are willing to reach out to the community and give
them the information they need.
Why Pipeline? The name 'Pipeline' was chosen for its industrial
connection with names like Valve and Steam, as well as its
definition's notion of connection, direction, outreach, and supply.
Valve is often asked questions such as "how do I get from where I am
now to working at a professional level in a video game company like
Valve?" Naturally, like a pipeline, the journey is long, but the goal
of this project is to act as a direct feed of knowledge from Valve to
the community in order to help equip individuals with the skills
necessary to achieve their goals of getting into the video game
industry. We will supply information on a variety of different fields
prompted by public demand. Information will come in the form of
interviews with professionals and resources on this website,
displaying the variety of ways that you can achieve your goals.
^ "LambdaGeneration 2.0 – Coming Soon". Lambdageneration.com.
Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved August 31,
^ Good, Owen S. (March 1, 2015). "Valve partnering with
HTC to make
virtual reality headsets". Polygon. Archived from the original on
March 2, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
^ Graser, Marc (March 1, 2015). "HTC, Valve to Launch Virtual Reality
Headset Vive in 2015". Variety. Archived from the original on March 3,
2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
^ Chiang, Oliver (February 9, 2011). "The Master of Online Mayhem".
Forbes. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved
October 13, 2016.
^ a b Wawro, Alex (February 17, 2017). "
Gabe Newell discusses the
downsides of working at Valve". Gamasutra. Archived from the original
on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
^ Graft, Kris (April 23, 2012). "From the editor: Valve's handbook and
the trust phenomenon". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on
February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
^ Suddath, Claire (April 25, 2012). "What Makes Valve Software the
Best Office Ever?". Business Week. Archived from the original on
August 15, 2012.
^ Suddath, Claire (April 27, 2012). "Why ThereAre No Bosses At Valve".
Business Week. Archived from the original on September 4, 2013.
^ Petitte, Omri (February 13, 2013). "Valve lays off several employees
in hardware, mobile teams [Updated]". PCGamer.com. PC Gamer. Archived
from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved February 16,
^ Varoufakis, Yanis (August 3, 2012). "Why Valve? Or, what do we need
corporations for and how does Valve's management structure fit into
today's corporate world?". Valve Economics. Archived from the original
on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
^ Hern, Alex (August 3, 2012). "Valve Software: free marketeer's
dream, or nightmare?". New Statesman. Archived from the original on
August 5, 2012.
^ Warr, Philippa (July 9, 2013). "Former Valve Employee: 'It Felt a
Lot Like High School'". Wired. Archived from the original on September
28, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
^ Feldman, Curt (September 20, 2004). "Valve vs. Vivendi Universal
dogfight heats up in US District Court". GameSpot. CNET Networks, Inc.
Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved November 8,
^ "Valve and
Vivendi Universal Games
Vivendi Universal Games Settle Lawsuit" (Press release).
Valve Corporation. April 29, 2005. Archived from the original on
October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
^ "EA and Valve Team Up to Deliver Half Life to Gamers Worldwide".
Electronic Arts Inc. July 18, 2005. Archived from the original on May
23, 2016. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
^ "It's Ugly: Valve Sues Activision, Activision Threatens to Sue
Valve". gamepolitics.com. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original
on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2009. Against that backdrop,
Activision cut Valve a check last week for $1,967,796—the amount
handed down by the arbitrator less the disputed $424K. According to
Valve's suit, Activision said that it wouldn't pay the rest and if
Valve went to court Activision would countersue. Valve has apparently
called Activision's bluff and the parties are now once again at
Valve Corporation v. Activision Blizzard, Inc". United States Court
of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. July 30, 2010. Archived from the original
on February 9, 2015.
^ a b Orland, Kyle (May 17, 2017). "Does Valve really own Dota? A jury
will decide". Ars Technicall. Archived from the original on May 21,
2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
^ Augustine, Josh (August 17, 2010). "Riot Games' dev counter-files
"DotA" trademark". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on February 3,
2013. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
^ Plunkett, Luke (February 10, 2012). "Blizzard and Valve go to War
Over DOTA Name". Kotaku. Archived from the original on February 11,
^ Reilly, Jim (May 11, 2012). "Valve, Blizzard Reach DOTA Trademark
Agreement". Game Informer. Archived from the original on July 24,
^ Narcisse, Evan (October 17, 2013). "Blizzard's Diablo/Starcraft/WoW
Crossover Has a New Name". Kotaku. Archived from the original on
October 20, 2013.
^ Wilkins, Georgia (March 29, 2016). "Online games giant Valve found
to have breached Australian consumer law". smh.com. Archived from the
original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Pearce, Rohan (March 29, 2016). "ACCC chalks up court win against
Valve Software". Computerworld. International Data Corporation.
Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 3,
^ Walker, Alex (December 23, 2016). "Australian Court Fines Valve $2.1
Million Over Refund Policy". Kotaku. Archived from the original on
December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
^ Jones, Ali (December 22, 2017). "Australian courts say Valve must
pay a $3 million fine for "misleading" consumers". PCGamesN. Retrieved
December 27, 2017.
^ Makuch, Eddie (January 22, 2018). "Ordered To Pay $3 Million Fine,
Valve Files Another Appeal In Australia". GameSpot. Retrieved January
^ Hayward, Andrew (December 21, 2015). "Valve sued by French group
over right to resell Steam games". Stuff. Archived from the original
on October 9, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Sayer, Peter (December 18, 2015). "Valve slapped with lawsuit over
'unfair' Steam game resale ban". PC World. International Data Group.
Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved December 3,
^ Chalk, Andy (May 24, 2016). "Former Valve employee files $3.1
million lawsuit over wrongful dismissal". PC Gamer. Future US.
Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved December 3,
^ Makuch, Eddie (May 24, 2016). "Valve Facing $3 Million Transgender
Lawsuit From Former Employee". GameSpot. CBS
Interactive. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Sarkar, Samit (July 11, 2016). "How do Counter-Strike: Global
Offensive skins work?". Polygon. Archived from the original on July
11, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
^ Francis, Bryant (July 13, 2016). "Valve says it will start cracking
down on third-party gambling sites". Gamasutra. Archived from the
original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
^ "News – In-Game Item Trading Update". store.steampowered.com.
Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved July 15,
^ McAloon, Alissa (October 5, 2016). "Washington state authority
orders Valve to stop allowing CS:GO skin gambling". Gamasutra.
Archived from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved October 5,
^ Grosso, Robert (October 17, 2016). "[Update] Valve to Respond to
Gambling Commission After Given Deadline". techraptor.net.
Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved December 3,
^ Handrahan, Matthew (February 2, 2017). "Valve under investigation by
European Commission for Steam geo-blocking". GamesIndustry.biz.
Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 2,
^ "Valve Time". Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on June
18, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
^ Kohler, Chris (June 9, 2010). "Valve Delays
Portal 2 to 2011".
Wired. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 9,
^ de Matos, Xav (November 18, 2010). "
Portal 2 Delayed to 'The Week of
April 18'". Shacknews. Archived from the original on November 20,
2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
^ a b Remo, Chris (February 24, 2010). "Valve's Faliszek: Team
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead 2 DLC Strategy". Gamasutra.
Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved June 9,
^ a b Yin-Poole, Wesley (July 12, 2012). "Valve on Valve Time: "It's
charming. It's kind of a compliment."". Eurogamer. Archived from the
original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
^ Nutt, Christian (November 12, 2009). "Q&A: Valve's Swift On Left
4 Dead 2's Production, AI Boost". Gamasutra. Archived from the
original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valve Corporation.
Day of Defeat
Day of Defeat
Team Fortress Classic
Team Fortress 2
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead 2
The Orange Box
Major video game companies
Annual revenue of over US$1 billion as of 2017
Bandai Namco Entertainment
Google Play Games
GungHo Online Entertainment
Nippon Ichi Software
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment
Video games portal
ISNI: 0000 0004 0515 253X