The Info List - Valve Corporation

--- Advertisement ---

(i) (i) (i)

VALVE CORPORATION is an American video game developer and digital distribution company headquartered in Bellevue , Washington . The company is known for the _ Half-Life
_, _ Counter-Strike _, _ Portal
_, _ Day of Defeat _, _ Team Fortress _, _ Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead
_, and _ Dota 2 _ games, and its software distribution platform Steam .

Valve was founded in 1996 as a limited liability company by former Microsoft
employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington
Mike Harrington
. Their debut product, the PC first-person shooter _ Half-Life
_, was released in 1998 to critical acclaim and commercial success, after which Harrington left the company. In 2004, Valve launched Steam alongside the critically acclaimed _ Half-Life 2 _. By 2011, over half of digital PC game sales were through Steam, and Valve was the most profitable company per employee in the United States. In 2015, Valve entered the game hardware market with the Steam Machine , a line of prebuilt gaming computers running SteamOS , a Valve-developed fork of the Debian operating system .


* 1 History

* 1.1 Founding and incorporation * 1.2 _Half-Life_ * 1.3 Source game engine * 1.4 Acquisitions and awards * 1.5 Network intrusions

* 2 Games

* 2.1 Cancelled games

* 3 Steam

* 4 Other projects

* 4.1 PowerPlay * 4.2 Steam Machine * 4.3 Pipeline * 4.4 J. J. Abrams collaboration * 4.5 HTC Vive

* 5 Finances * 6 Organizational structure

* 7 Legal disputes

* 7.1 _ Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
v. Vivendi Universal Games_ * 7.2 _ Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
v. Activision Blizzard_ * 7.3 _Dota_ intellectual property ownership * 7.4 _ACCC v. Valve Corporation_ * 7.5 _ UFC Que Choisir v. Valve Corporation_ * 7.6 _A.M. v. Valve Corporation_ * 7.7 Skins gambling * 7.8 European Commission

* 8 "Valve Time" * 9 References * 10 External links



Valve was founded by former longtime Microsoft
employees Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington
Mike Harrington
on August 24, 1996, as Valve L.L.C., based in Kirkland, Washington on the Seattle Eastside . Harrington left the company in 2000. After incorporation in April 2003, it moved from its original location to Bellevue, Washington, the same city in which their original publisher, Sierra On-Line , Inc., was based. In 2010, the office was moved again to a larger location in Bellevue. In 2016, Valve signed a nine-floor lease in the Lincoln Square complex in downtown Bellevue, doubling the size of their offices.


Main article: Half-Life (video game)

After securing a license to the _Quake_ engine through the help of friend Michael Abrash of id Software in late 1996, Newell and Harrington began working on _ Half-Life
_. Originally planned for release in late 1997, _Half-Life_ launched on November 19, 1998. Valve acquired TF Software Pty. Ltd., the makers of the _ Team Fortress _ mod for _Quake _, in May 1998 with the intent to create a standalone _Team Fortress_ game. The _ Team Fortress Classic _ mod , essentially a port of the original _Team Fortress_ mod for _Quake_, was released for _Half-Life_ in 1999. Gearbox contributed much after the release of _Half-Life_. Gearbox Software is responsible for the _Half-Life_ expansion packs, _Half-Life: Opposing Force _ and _Half-Life: Blue Shift _, along with the home console versions of _Half-Life_ for the Sega
and Sony
PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
which included a third expansion pack called _Half-Life: Decay _, which enabled two-player split-screen co-op .


Main article: Source (game engine)

After the success of _Half-Life_, the team worked on mods, spin-offs , and sequels , including _ Half-Life 2 _. All current Valve games are built on its Source engine. The company has developed six game series: _Half-Life_, _Team Fortress_, _ Portal
_, _ Counter-Strike _, _Left 4 Dead _ and _ Day of Defeat _. Valve is noted for its support of its games' modding community, most prominently, _Counter-Strike_, _Team Fortress_, and _Day of Defeat_. Valve has branched out with this tradition to continue developing _ Dota 2 _ as the standalone sequel to the _ Warcraft III _ mod. Each of these games began as a third-party mod that Valve purchased and developed into a full game. They also distribute community mods on Steam . Valve announced the Source 2 engine in March 2015, later porting the entirety of _Dota 2_ to the engine in September of that year.


Valve has grown both in scope and commercial value. On January 10, 2008, Valve announced the acquisition of Turtle Rock Studios . On April 8, 2010, Valve won _ The Escapist Magazine '_s March Mayhem tournament for the best developer of 2010, beating out _ Zynga _ in the semi-finals and _ BioWare
_ in the final.

In 2012, the company acquired Star Filled Studios, a two-man gaming company to open a San Francisco office. In August 2013, however, Valve ended the operation when it was decided that there was little benefit coming from the arrangement.


Valve's internal network has been infiltrated by hackers three times, in 2003 where content of the yet to be released _ Half-Life
2_ was leaked onto the internet, Newell's email account was compromised, and keyloggers were installed on several Valve systems. In 2011 the Steam customer databases and official forums were compromised. In September 2011, a hacker broke into the network and downloaded the yet to be released beta code of _Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 _.

In June 2014, a developer from SCS Software reported an exploit that allowed announcement pages to be injected with code, and after no response, he edited an announcement to redirect users to a Harlem Shake video. In March 2016, a vulnerability on the Steam Store allowed a user to publish a game without any authorization from Valve.


Main article: List of Valve Corporation video games

Valve has developed and published the main games in both the _ Half-Life
_ and _ Portal
_ series, as well as published both and developed one of the _ Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead
_ games, the other of which was developed by Valve South (now Turtle Rock Studios ). Valve also developed and published _ Team Fortress _, _ Team Fortress 2 _, and _ Dota 2 _.

As several of Valve's series feature only two primary games, named with numerals such as _Half-Life_ and _ Half-Life
2_, and with no apparent announcements on a third title in these series, Valve has developed a lighthearted joking reputation for not being able to count to 3, or scared of this number. This has also created a humorous myth-like nature among players and journalists as to whether _ Half-Life
3 _ actually exists or not.


Incomplete games include a fairy -themed role-playing game , _Prospero_ and _Stars of Blood_.

Valve worked with Arkane Studios on _The Crossing _, which was cancelled in May 2009. Arkane later tried to produce _Return to Ravenholm_ (a.k.a. _ Half-Life
2: Episode Four_) without consensus by Valve, which was then also canceled.


Main article: Steam (software)
Steam (software)
Gabe Newell (foreground) and Doug Lombardi (background), 2007

Valve announced its games platform Steam in 2002. At the time it looked to be merely a method of streamlining the patch process common in online video games , but was later revealed as a replacement for much of the framework of the World Opponent Network service and also as a distribution and digital rights management system for entire games.

On August 1, 2012, Valve announced revisions to the Steam Subscriber Agreement (SSA) to prohibit class action lawsuits by users against the service provider. By July 2014, there were over 3,400 games available on Steam, and the platform had surpassed 75 million active user accounts by January 2014.

Alongside these changes to the SSA, the company also declared publicly the incorporation of Valve S.a.r.l. , a subsidiary based in Luxembourg
. Valve set up a physical office in Luxembourg
Kirchberg. According to Valve's project manager Mike Dunkle, the location was chosen for eCommerce capabilities and infrastructure, talent acquisition, tax advantages and central geographic location – most major partners are accessible, with 50% within driving distance.

Valve S.a.r.l. was used to sell games to United Kingdom–based users to avoid paying the full 20% VAT . The tax loophole was expected to be closed on January 1, 2015. In December 2015, the French consumer group UFC Que Choisir initiated a lawsuit against Valve for several of their Steam policies that conflict or run afoul of French law. One of the reasons was for using the tax loophole. Valve S.a.r.l. stopped doing business on January 1, 2017, with the main company taking over EU sales again.

In August 2017, Valve announced that Steam had reached over 67 million monthly and 33 million daily active players on the platform.



PowerPlay was a technological initiative headed by Valve and Cisco Systems to decrease the latency for online computer games. Gabe Newell, the managing director of Valve, announced the project in January 2000 and after 12 months the project was quietly abandoned.

PowerPlay was described as a set of protocols and deployment standards at the router level to improve performance. It was claimed that a player with 1000 ms ping was able to play against another player on a LAN connection with no noticeable disadvantage. Initially the protocol was to be released with PowerPlay 1.0 focusing on Quality of Service (QoS) and later a revision, PowerPlay 2.0 that would focus on functionality. Cisco and Valve intended to deliver a single dial-up service in Q1 2000 in the United States with a 30-day free trial with a bundled copy of _ Team Fortress _ modified to support PowerPlay. Despite never deploying the dial-up plan featuring PowerPlay 1.0, Valve announced in January 2001 that the standard had indeed been finalized.

The standard was to involve purchasing PowerPlay approved Cisco hardware and infrastructure that had adequate bandwidth and QoS standards that prioritize PowerPlay gaming packets at the expense of all others. Gabe Newell conceded that Internet service providers (ISPs) would bear the brunt of this expense: "The ISPs are going to need to spend a fair amount of money to be compliant with PowerPlay. But how they get that back is up to them. Some will have a tiered service, and some will just try to recoup their investment through reduced customer churn and customer acquisition."


Main article: Steam Machine (hardware platform)

Newell has been critical of the direction that Microsoft
has taken with the Windows operating system in making it a closed architecture similar to Apple's products, and has stated that he believes that the changes made in Windows 8 are "a catastrophe for everyone in the PC space". Newell identified the open-source Linux platform as an ideal platform for Steam, noting that the only thing holding back its adoption is the lack of games.

In 2012, Valve announced that they were working on a console/PC hybrid for the living room which was unofficially dubbed by media as the "Steam Box". A precursor to such a unit is SteamOS, a freely available Linux-based operating system that builds upon the Steam client functionality that includes media services, live streaming across home networks, game sharing within families, and parental controls. SteamOS was officially announced in September 2013 as the first of several announcements related to the Steam Machine platform as well as their unique game controller. In May 2014, Valve announced that the company's own SteamOS-powered Steam Machine would be delayed until 2015 due to problems with the game controller.


In July 2013, Valve announced Pipeline, an intern project consisting of ten high school students working together to learn how to create video game content. Pipeline serves to discuss and answer questions that teenagers often ask about the video game industry, and see if it is possible to train a group of teenagers with minimal work experience to work for a company like Valve. The latter purpose breaks Valve's tradition of employing experienced developers, as the company is not good at "teaching people straight out of school".


At the 2013 D.I.C.E. Summit , Gabe Newell confirmed that he and director J. J. Abrams were collaborating to produce a _Half-Life_ or _Portal_ film, as well as a possible new game.


Main article: HTC Vive

In March 2015, Valve and Taiwanese electronics company HTC
announced a joint project to develop the Vive , a virtual reality headset with motion tracked controllers. The companies are working with Google
, Lions Gate , and HBO to develop content for the device.


Valve does not make its finances public. In 2005, _ Forbes
_ estimated that Valve had grossed $70 million that year. Ed Barton, a Screen Digest analyst, estimated Valve's 2010 revenue to be in the "high hundreds of millions of dollars". As of 2011, the company had an estimated worth of $2 to 4 billion, and according to Newell it was the most profitable company per employee in the United States. Most of Valve's revenue comes from its Steam service, which controls 50 to 70% of the market for downloaded PC games.


In Valve's early days, the company's structure was similar to other development firms; this was principally driven by the nature of physical game releases through publishers that required tasks to be completed by given deadlines, requiring a more regimented structure. As the company moved to digital releases where they serve as their own publisher, the company structure has become more as a flat organization . Valve published their employee handbook to the public in 2012, demonstrating at that time that outside of executive management, there were no bosses, and the company used an open allocation system, allowing employees to move between departments at will. This approach allows employees to work on whatever interests them, but requires them to take ownership of their product and mistakes they may make, according to Newell. Newell recognized that this structure works well for some but that "there are plenty of great developers for whom this is a terrible place to work".

Economist Yanis Varoufakis
Yanis Varoufakis
, a former economic consultant for Valve, and former Finance Minister of Greece
, attempted to place Valve's organization in the context of theories of the firm and broader economic thinking. Former employee Jeri Ellsworth has, however, criticized the structure as "a lot like high school", where while the structure is flat, certain people within the company nevertheless have more say in decisions than others.



Between 2002 and 2005, Valve was involved in a complex legal dispute with its publisher, Vivendi Universal Games (under Vivendi's brand Sierra Entertainment ). It officially began on August 14, 2002, when Valve sued Sierra for copyright infringement , alleging that the publisher had illegally distributed copies of their games to Internet cafes . They later added claims of breach of contract , accusing their publisher of withholding royalties and delaying the release of _Counter-Strike: Condition Zero _ until after the holiday season.

Vivendi fought back, saying that Gabe Newell and marketing director Doug Lombardi had misrepresented Valve's position in meetings with the publisher. Vivendi later countersued, claiming that Valve's Steam content distribution system attempted to circumvent their publishing agreement. Vivendi sought intellectual property rights to _Half-Life_ and a ruling preventing Valve from using Steam to distribute _ Half-Life

On November 29, 2004, Judge Thomas Samuel Zilly of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington ruled in favor of Valve. Specifically, the ruling stated that Vivendi Universal and its affiliates (including Sierra) were not authorized to distribute Valve games, either directly or indirectly, through cyber cafés to end users for pay-to-play activities pursuant to the parties' publishing agreement. In addition, Judge Zilly ruled that Valve could recover copyright damages for infringements without regard to the publishing agreement's limitation of liability clause. Valve posted on the Steam website that the two companies had come to a settlement in court on April 29, 2005. Electronic Arts announced on July 18, 2005, that they would be teaming up with Valve in a multi-year deal to distribute their games, replacing Vivendi Universal from then onwards. As a result of the trial, the arbitrator also awarded Valve $2,391,932.


In April 2009, Valve sued Activision Blizzard , which acquired Sierra Entertainment after a merger with its parent company, Vivendi Universal Games . Activision had allegedly refused to honor the _Valve v. Vivendi_ arbitration agreement. Activision had only paid Valve $1,967,796 of the $2,391,932 award, refusing to pay the remaining $424,136, claiming it had overpaid that sum in the past years.


_ Defense of the Ancients _ (DotA) was a landmark mod built in 2003 that created the basis of the genre of multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA). It was originally developed by "Eul" within Blizzard Entertainment 's _ Warcraft III _ via its world editor , and spawned several similar efforts, notably _DotA-Allstars_. While there have been several that contributed to _DotA-Allstars_, the project was managed primarily by Steve Feak , aka "Guinsoo", and later by "IceFrog ". IceFrog was eventually hired by Valve in 2009 and in 2010 reported that they had sold their rights to the _DotA_ property to Valve. Eul was also hired into Valve by 2010.

Valve subsequently filed trademarks towards a sequel to _DotA_, _Dota 2 _. DotA-Allstars, LLC, a group of former contributors to the _DotA-Allstars_ project, filed an opposing trademark in August 2010 to contest Valve's claim it owned the property rights. DotA-Allstars, LLC was eventually acquired by Blizzard to start development of _Blizzard All-Stars_. Blizzard took over the trademark challenge. The United States Patent Valve retained the right to use _Dota_ commercially, while Blizzard reserved the right for fans to use _Dota_ non-commercially. Blizzard changed the names of its own projects to remove the _Dota_ term, and renamed _Blizzard All-Stars_ as _Heroes of the Storm _. Valve's _Dota 2_ was released in 2013.

In 2014, mobile developers Lilith and uCool released their titles _Dota Legends_ and _Heroes Charge_, respectively. Both titles were influenced by _Dota_ and the sequels. In 2017, Valve and Blizzard took joint action against these companies, citing copyright issues related to the _Dota_ names. uCool argued that the _Dota_ games were a collective work and could not be copyrighted by anyone in particular, but the presiding judge, Charles R. Breyer , felt that due to the trio's actions as maintainers of the _Dota_ mods, that they rightful have copyright claim to this. Separately, Lilith and uCool argued that Eul had, in a forum post dated September 2004, assigned an open-source copyright license to _Dota_, which would make Valve and Blizzard's copyright claims void. The case is scheduled to be heard by a jury to resolve this matter at a later date.


The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) announced it was taking action against Valve in 2014. On March 29, 2016 Valve was found guilty of breaching Australian consumer law because:

* Valve claimed consumers were not entitled to a refund for digitally downloaded games purchased from Valve via the Steam website or Steam Client (in any circumstances); * Valve had excluded statutory guarantees and/or warranties that goods would be of acceptable quality; and * Valve had restricted or modified statutory guarantees and/or warranties of acceptable quality.

During the prosecution of this case, Valve implemented a refund policy for Steam purchases, but the case still reviewed Valve's actions prior to the onset of the lawsuit. The court overseeing the case sided with the ACCC in assigning a A$ 3 million (about 2.1 million USD) fine against Valve in December 2016, as well as requiring Valve to inform Australian consumers of their rights when purchasing games from Steam.


Consumer rights group UFC Que Choisir , based in France, filed a lawsuit against Valve in December 2015, claiming users should be able to resell their software.


A former employee filed a $3.1 million lawsuit in May 2016 alleging mistreatment after sex reassignment surgery, and that Valve was exploiting workers.


Main article: Skin gambling

Valve was named as a defendant in two lawsuits in June and July 2016 related to third-party gambling sites that use the Steamworks API to allow betting with the virtual currency of cosmetic weapon "skins" from _Counter-Strike: Global Offensive _, which through these sites can be converted from or to real-world money. Both suits assert Valve aiding in underaged gambling . Valve subsequently stated it has no commercial ties with these sites, and that it would demand these sites cease their use of the Steamworks API as they violate the authorized use policies. In October 2016, the Washington State Gambling Commission required Valve to stop the use of virtual skins for gambling on Steam, stating they would face legal repercussions if they failed to cooperate. Valve sent a letter on October 17, 2016 to the Washington State Gambling
Commission stating, "Valve has no business relationship with such gambling sites, and indeed they can come into existence, operate, and go out of existence without Valve's knowledge" and that "We are not aware of any such law that Steam or our games are violating".


In February 2017, the European Commission began investigating Valve and five publishers— Bandai Namco Entertainment , Capcom , Focus Home Interactive , Koch Media and ZeniMax Media
ZeniMax Media
—for anti-competitive practices, specifically the use of geo-blocking through the Steam storefront and Steam product keys to prevent access to software to citizens of certain countries. Such practices would be against the Digital Single Market initiative by the European Union.


"Valve Time" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Valve timing .

"Valve Time" is an industry term used jokingly with game releases from Valve, used to acknowledge the difference between the "promised" date for released content stated by Valve and to the "actual" release date; "Valve Time" includes predominant delays but also includes some content that was released earlier than expected. Valve itself has fully acknowledged the term, including tracking known discrepancies between ideal and actual releases on their public development wiki and using it in announcements about such delays. Valve ascribes delays to their mentality of team-driven initiatives over corporate deadlines to make sure they provide a high-quality product to their customers.

Valve's former business development chief Jason Holtman stated that the company sees themselves as an "oddity" in an industry that looks towards punctual delivery of products; instead, Valve " as hard as we can to make the best thing possible in the right time frame and get people content they want to consume. And if that takes longer, that's fine". For that, Valve takes the concept of "Valve Time" as a compliment, and that "having customers consistently looking at our property or something you've done and saying, can you give me more" is evidence that they are making the right decisions with their game releases, according to Holtman. The company does try to avoid unintentional delays of their projects, and believes that the earlier occurrences of "Valve Time" delays, primarily from _Half-Life_ development, has helped them improve their release schedules.


* ^ Wingfield, Nick (September 8, 2012). "Game Maker Without a Rule Book". _The New York Times_. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012. * ^ Chiang, Oliver (February 9, 2011). "The Master of Online Mayhem". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017. * ^ Chalk, Andy (October 18, 2016). "Valve denies wrongdoing in skin gambling legal rumblings: \'no factual or legal support for these accusations\'". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016. * ^ "Privacy Policy Agreement". Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on December 31, 2016. Retrieved 2017-01-01. Payment processing related to Content and Services and/or physical goods purchased on Steam is performed by either Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
directly or by Valve’s fully owned subsidiary Valve GmbH on behalf of Valve Corporation depending on the type of payment method used. * ^ Chiang, Oliver. "Valve And Steam Worth Billions". _Forbes_. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Steam Message". _Steam_. Valve Corporation. August 24, 2007. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008. it was exactly eleven years ago that Valve was born * ^ Towns, William R. (March 9, 2005). " Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
v. ValveNET, Inc., ValveNET, Inc., Charles Morrin Case No. D2005-0038". _WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center_. World Intellectual Property Organization . Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008. * ^ "Washington Secretary of State". Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Valve Handbook for New Employees" (PDF). Valve Corporation. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 8, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ Levy, Nat (August 3, 2016). "Valve leases nine floors in planned skyscraper, more than doubling its headquarters size". _ GeekWire _. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016. * ^ " Team Fortress Full Speed Ahead". _GameSpot_. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2016. * ^ Biessener, Adam (October 13, 2010). "Valve\'s New Game Announced, Detailed: Dota 2". Game Informer . Archived from the original on October 16, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2012. * ^ "Source Filmmaker". _Source Filmmaker_. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2013. * ^ Langley, Hugh (March 3, 2015). "Valve just announced its plans for Steam Machines... and Source 2". _ Tech Radar _. Archived from the original on March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2015. * ^ Macy, Seth. " Dota 2 Now Valve\'s First Ever Source 2 Game". IGN. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved September 9, 2015. * ^ "Valve Acquires Turtle Rock Studios" (Press release). Valve Corporation. January 10, 2008. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2008. * ^ Palumbo, Jeff (April 8, 2010). "Valve Becomes the New March Mayhem: Developer\'s Showdown Champion". escapistmagazine.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2010. * ^ Hing, David (December 17, 2012). "Valve acquires or hires Star Filled Studios". _bit-gamer.net_. Bit-tech.net. Archived from the original on July 14, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013. * ^ Reilly, Luke (August 7, 2013). "Valve\'s San Francisco Remote Office Shut Down". IGN. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. * ^ "Playable Version of Half-Life 2 Stolen". _CNN Money_. October 7, 2003. Archived from the original on March 3, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2007. * ^ Klepek, Patrick (October 16, 2015). "That Time A German Hacker Leaked Half-Life
2\'s Source Code". _ Kotaku _. Univision Communications . Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Johnson, Casey (November 10, 2011). "Valve confirms Steam hack: credit cards, personal info may be stolen". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2011. * ^ Leyden, John (November 9, 2011). "Steam games forum down amid hack fears". The Register. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2011. * ^ Totilo, Stephen (September 30, 2014). "Hackers Charged With Stealing From Valve, Microsoft
And More". _Kotaku_. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015. * ^ Frederiksen, Eric (October 4, 2014). "Hackers Charged with Theft from Studios Like Microsoft, Valve and Epic". _TechnoBuffalo_. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015. * ^ Chalk, Andy (June 17, 2014). "Euro Truck Simulator 2 developer gets one-year Steam ban for demonstrating security flaw". _ PC Gamer _. Future US
Future US
. Archived from the original on November 30, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Hoffman, Mike (June 18, 2014). "Valve Bans Developer From Steam for Prank Exposing Vulnerability – Update". _The Escapist _. Defy Media . Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Plunkett, Luke (June 16, 2014). "Kid Developer Pranks Steam, Gets Suspended From Steam". _ Kotaku _. Univision Communications . Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Orland, Kule (March 30, 2016). "How a hacker snuck a game onto Steam without Valve\'s knowledge". _ Ars Technica _. Condé Nast . Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Chalk, Andy (March 30, 2016). "Steam security loophole exposed by Watch Paint Dry". _ PC Gamer _. Future US
Future US
. Archived from the original on November 30, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Beck, Kellen (January 17, 2017). " Gabe Newell stokes the \' Half-Life
3\' fire". _ Mashable _. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017. * ^ Chalk, Andy (November 3, 2017). " Half-Life
3 unconfirmed: every rumor, hoax, and leak in one place". _ PC Gamer _. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017. * ^ Francis, Tom (August 26, 2010). "Valve were making a fairy RPG before Left 4 Dead
Left 4 Dead
Interviews, News". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. * ^ _ Half-Life
2: Raising the Bar_. Prima Games . 2004. p. 10. ISBN 0-7615-4364-3 . * ^ "Valve SOB Project Was Called \'Stars of Blood\'". ValveTime.net. November 11, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. * ^ " Gabe Newell On Valve\'s "SOB": "\'Stars of Blood\' Was An Internal Project That Never Saw The Light of Day"". LambdaGeneration. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. * ^ " Marc Laidlaw On The Cancelled Half-Life
Spin-offs: Return To Ravenholm And "Episode Four"". LambdaGeneration. January 13, 2012. Archived from the original on January 16, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2013. * ^ Savage, Phil (January 15, 2013). " Half-Life
2: Episode 4 was being developed by Arkane; now cancelled". _ PC Gamer _. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. * ^ O'Conner, Alice (May 15, 2009). "Arkane and Valve\'s \'The Crossing\' on Hold". Shacknews . Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Steam\'s Sub Agreement Prohibits Class-Action Lawsuits". Rock, Paper, Shotgun . August 1, 2012. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Updated Steam Subscriber Agreement". Valve Corporation. August 1, 2012. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2012. * ^ "Steam has 75 million active users, Valve announces at Dev Days". Joystiq. January 15, 2014. Archived from the original on July 19, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014. * ^ Valve Software Latest Gaming Company to Set Up in Luxembourg Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .. Chronicle.lu (September 4, 2012). Retrieved on May 23, 2014. * ^ Karmali, Luke. (March 25, 2014) Steam, Amazon and iTunes Prices Could Rise in UK Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .. IGN. Retrieved on May 23, 2014. * ^ Chapple, Craig. (March 25, 2014) UK closing tax loophole on Steam game downloads Latest news from the game development industry Develop. Develop-online.net. Retrieved on May 23, 2014. * ^ Nutt, Christian (December 17, 2015). "French consumer group sues Valve over Steam policies". _ Gamasutra _. Archived from the original on December 18, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015. * ^ "Steam Subscriber Agreement". Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-01. This Agreement was last updated on January 1st, 2017 ("Revision Date"). If you were a Subscriber before the Revision Date, it replaces your existing agreement with Valve or Valve SARL on the day that you explicitly accept it. * ^ "Valve reveals Steam’s monthly active user count and game sales by region". _GeekWire_. 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-08-04. * ^ "Valve, Cisco, and a Host of PC Developers Unveil PowerPlay". IGN. January 7, 2000. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "PowerPlay and interview". Planetfortress. 2000. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012. * ^ "Voodoo Extreme". Archived from the original on August 17, 2000. Retrieved November 17, 2012. * ^ "PowerPlay Preview". EuroGamer. January 19, 2000. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Crabtree, Dan (July 25, 2012). "Gabe Newell: "Windows 8 Is Kind of a Catastrophe"". _ IGN _. Retrieved September 24, 2013. * ^ Davies, Marsh (December 9, 2012). "Valve confirms Steam Box – a "very controlled" PC for the living room". _ PC Gamer _. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. * ^ Newman, Jared (March 18, 2013). "Valve\'s Steam Box: The plot thickens for PC-based game consoles". _ PC World
PC World
_. Archived from the original on April 27, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013. * ^ Kohler, Chris (September 23, 2013). "Valve Continues Its War on Game Consoles With Steam Operating System". _Wired _. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2013. * ^ Vaughn-Nichols, Steven J. (May 28, 2014). "Valve Steam Machines delayed until 2015". _ ZDNet _. Archived from the original on June 1, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2014. * ^ "Pipeline — About Us". Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2013.

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Pipeline — Home". _pipeline.valvesoftware.com_. Valve Corporation. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2013. WHY IS VALVE DOING THIS? There are two main reasons that Valve is creating Pipeline. The first is that we are frequently asked questions by teenagers about the videogame industry. "What is it like to work on videogames? What should I study? What colleges are best for preparing me? How do I get a job in videogames?" Pipeline will be a place where those questions can be discussed. The second is that Valve is running an experiment. Traditionally Valve has been a very good place for very experienced videogame developers, and not so good at teaching people straight out of school (the reasons for this and the tradeoffs are covered in the Valve employee handbook). Pipeline is an experiment to see if we can take a group of high school students with minimal work experience and train them in the skills and methods necessary to be successful at a company like Valve. WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF THE WEBSITE ITSELF? We want to establish a connection to the world of teenagers that are asking many questions about getting into the gaming industry. We look to answer many of these questions and are willing to reach out to the community and give them the information they need. WHY PIPELINE? The name 'Pipeline' was chosen for its industrial connection with names like Valve and Steam, as well as its definition's notion of connection, direction, outreach, and supply. Valve is often asked questions such as "how do I get from where I am now to working at a professional level in a video game company like Valve?" Naturally, like a pipeline, the journey is long, but the goal of this project is to act as a direct feed of knowledge from Valve to the community in order to help equip individuals with the skills necessary to achieve their goals of getting into the video game industry. We will supply information on a variety of different fields prompted by public demand. Information will come in the form of interviews with professionals and resources on this website, displaying the variety of ways that you can achieve your goals. * ^ "LambdaGeneration 2.0 – Coming Soon". Lambdageneration.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013. * ^ Good, Owen S. (March 1, 2015). "Valve partnering with HTC
to make virtual reality headsets". Polygon . Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015. * ^ Graser, Marc (March 1, 2015). "HTC, Valve to Launch Virtual Reality Headset Vive in 2015". _Variety _. Archived from the original on March 3, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015. * ^ Chiang, Oliver (February 9, 2011). "The Master of Online Mayhem". _Forbes_. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wawro, Alex (February 17, 2017). " Gabe Newell discusses the downsides of working at Valve". _ Gamasutra _. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017. * ^ Graft, Kris (April 23, 2012). "From the editor: Valve\'s handbook and the trust phenomenon". _ Gamasutra _. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017. * ^ Suddath, Claire (April 25, 2012). "What Makes Valve Software the Best Office Ever?". Business Week. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. * ^ Suddath, Claire (April 27, 2012). "Why ThereAre No Bosses At Valve". Business Week. Archived from the original on September 4, 2013. * ^ Petitte, Omri (February 13, 2013). "Valve lays off several employees in hardware, mobile teams ". _PCGamer.com_. PC Gamer . Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013. * ^ Varoufakis, Yanis (August 3, 2012). "Why Valve? Or, what do we need corporations for and how does Valve\'s management structure fit into today\'s corporate world?". Valve Economics. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2012. * ^ Hern, Alex (August 3, 2012). "Valve Software: free marketeer\'s dream, or nightmare?". New Statesman. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. * ^ Warr, Philippa (July 9, 2013). "Former Valve Employee: ‘It Felt a Lot Like High School’". Wired . Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. * ^ Feldman, Curt (September 20, 2004). "Valve vs. Vivendi Universal dogfight heats up in US District Court". _GameSpot_. CNET Networks, Inc. Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008. * ^ "Valve and Vivendi Universal Games Settle Lawsuit" (Press release). Valve Corporation. April 29, 2005. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008. * ^ "EA and Valve Team Up to Deliver Half Life to Gamers Worldwide". Electronic Arts Inc. July 18, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2008. * ^ "It\'s Ugly: Valve Sues Activision, Activision Threatens to Sue Valve". gamepolitics.com. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2009. Against that backdrop, Activision cut Valve a check last week for $1,967,796—the amount handed down by the arbitrator less the disputed $424K. According to Valve's suit, Activision said that it wouldn't pay the rest and if Valve went to court Activision would countersue. Valve has apparently called Activision's bluff and the parties are now once again at odds. * ^ " Valve Corporation
Valve Corporation
v. Activision Blizzard, Inc.". United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. July 30, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ Orland, Kyle (May 17, 2017). "Does Valve really own Dota? A jury will decide". _Ars Technicall _. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017. * ^ Augustine, Josh (August 17, 2010). "Riot Games’ dev counter-files "DotA" trademark". PC Gamer . Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2011. * ^ Plunkett, Luke (February 10, 2012). "Blizzard and Valve go to War Over DOTA Name". Kotaku. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. * ^ Reilly, Jim (May 11, 2012). "Valve, Blizzard Reach DOTA Trademark Agreement". Game Informer . Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. * ^ Narcisse, Evan (October 17, 2013). "Blizzard\'s Diablo/Starcraft/WoW Crossover Has a New Name". Kotaku. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. * ^ Wilkins, Georgia (March 29, 2016). "Online games giant Valve found to have breached Australian consumer law". _smh.com_. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Pearce, Rohan (March 29, 2016). "ACCC chalks up court win against Valve Software". _ Computerworld _. International Data Corporation . Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Walker, Alex (December 23, 2016). "Australian Court Fines Valve $2.1 Million Over Refund Policy". _ Kotaku _. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 25, 2016. * ^ Hayward, Andrew (December 21, 2015). "Valve sued by French group over right to resell Steam games". Stuff . Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Sayer, Peter (December 18, 2015). "Valve slapped with lawsuit over \'unfair\' Steam game resale ban". _ PC World
PC World
_. International Data Group . Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016. * ^ Chalk, Andy (May 24, 2016). "Former Valve employee files $3.1 million lawsuit over wrongful dismissal". _ PC Gamer _. Future US