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Valencia
Valencia
(/vəˈlɛnsiə/; Spanish: [baˈlenθja]), officially València (Valencian: [vaˈlensia]),[2] on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia
Valencia
and the third-largest city in Spain
Spain
after Madrid
Madrid
and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.5–1.6 million people.[1] Valencia
Valencia
is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia
Port of Valencia
is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is ranked at Gamma+ in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[3] Valencia
Valencia
is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar
Costa del Azahar
(Orange Blossom Coast). Valencia
Valencia
was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors
Moors
occupied the city, introducing their language, religion and customs; they implemented improved irrigation systems and the cultivation of new crops as well, being capital of the Taifa of Valencia. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
reconquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He also created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia
Valencia
for aligning with the Habsburg
Habsburg
side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia
Valencia
was the capital of Spain
Spain
when Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
moved the Court there in the summer of 1812. It also served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia
Gulf of Valencia
on the Mediterranean Sea. Its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with approximately 169 ha (420 acres);[4] this heritage of ancient monuments, views and cultural attractions makes Valencia
Valencia
one of the country's most popular tourist destinations. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas (featuring the traditional Spanish dish paella), which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain
Spain
in 1965[5] and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO
UNESCO
in November 2016. In 2015, Joan Ribó, from Coalició Compromís, became mayor.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Climate

3 Economy

3.1 Port 3.2 Transport 3.3 Valencia
Valencia
Public Transportation Statistics 3.4 Tourism

4 Demographics 5 Culture

5.1 Languages 5.2 Food 5.3 Festivals

6 History

6.1 Roman colony 6.2 Muslim rule 6.3 Christian reconquest 6.4 17th century 6.5 18th century 6.6 19th century 6.7 20th century 6.8 21st century

7 Main sights

7.1 Architecture 7.2 The cathedral 7.3 Hospital 7.4 Medieval churches 7.5 Squares and gardens 7.6 Museums

8 Sport

8.1 Football 8.2 American Football 8.3 Motor sports 8.4 Rugby League

9 Districts

9.1 Other towns within the municipality of Valencia

10 People born in Valencia
Valencia
and Valencia
Valencia
province 11 Twin towns and sister cities 12 Friendship cities 13 See also 14 References

14.1 Bibliography 14.2 Attribution 14.3 Notes

15 Further reading 16 External links

Name[edit]

Roman Cornucopia, symbol of Valentia, found on the floor of a Roman building excavated in the Plaça de la Mare de Déu.

The original Latin
Latin
name of the city was Valentia (IPA: [waˈlentia]), meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war. The Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus.[6]

Plaça de la Mare de Déu (also called Plaza de la Virgen), iconic square of the city.

During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina bu-Tarab ('City of Joy') according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab ('City of Sands') according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia. It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia
Taifa of Valencia
or also designated the city.[7] By gradual sound changes, Valentia /waˈlentia/ has become Valencia [baˈlenθja] (i.e. before a pausa or nasal sound) or [-βaˈlenθja] (after a continuant) in Castilian and València [vaˈlensia] in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent <é> /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule. It is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin. Geography[edit] Location[edit] Valencia
Valencia
stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia, 6.4 kilometres (4.0 mi) from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km (7 mi) south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain
Spain
for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911,[8] and today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l' Albufera
Albufera
( Albufera
Albufera
Nature Reserve), with a surface area of 21,120 hectares (52,200 acres). In 1976, because of its cultural, historical, and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana
Generalitat Valenciana
declared it a natural park. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Valencia

Valencia
Valencia
has mild winters, few rains and long summers

Valencia
Valencia
has a subtropical Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen Csa)[9] with short, very mild winters and long, hot and dry summers.[10][11] Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F); 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) during the day and 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the maximum temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C (57 to 70 °F), the minimum temperature typically at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C (41 to 52 °F). In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C (82–93 °F), about 22 to 23 °C (72 to 73 °F) at night. Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature often exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) during the day and 10.0 °C (50.0 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C (63 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46 °F) at night. Valencia
Valencia
has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Foehn
Foehn
phenomenon. The January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration
Sunshine duration
hours are 2,696 per year, from 155 (average nearly 5 hours of sunshine duration at day) in December to 315 (average above 10 hours of sunshine duration at day) in July. The average temperature of the sea is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during winters[12][13] and 26–28 °C (79–82 °F) during summers.[13][14] Average relative humidity is 60% in April to 68% in August.[15]

Climate data for Valencia
Valencia
center (4 km [2 mi] from sea, altitude: 11 m.a.s.l., 1981–2010, location)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 17.3 (63.1) 19.6 (67.3) 20.8 (69.4) 23.4 (74.1) 27.1 (80.8) 29.7 (85.5) 30.2 (86.4) 27.9 (82.2) 24.3 (75.7) 19.8 (67.6) 17.0 (62.6) 22.8 (73)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.9 (53.4) 12.7 (54.9) 14.6 (58.3) 16.2 (61.2) 19.0 (66.2) 22.9 (73.2) 25.6 (78.1) 26.1 (79) 23.5 (74.3) 19.7 (67.5) 15.3 (59.5) 12.6 (54.7) 18.4 (65.1)

Average low °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 7.8 (46) 9.7 (49.5) 11.5 (52.7) 14.6 (58.3) 18.6 (65.5) 21.5 (70.7) 21.9 (71.4) 19.1 (66.4) 15.2 (59.4) 10.8 (51.4) 8.1 (46.6) 13.8 (56.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37 (1.46) 36 (1.42) 33 (1.3) 38 (1.5) 39 (1.54) 22 (0.87) 8 (0.31) 20 (0.79) 70 (2.76) 77 (3.03) 47 (1.85) 48 (1.89) 475 (18.7)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 4.4 3.9 3.6 4.8 4.3 2.6 1.1 2.4 5.0 5.0 4.3 4.8 46.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 171 171 215 234 259 276 315 288 235 202 167 155 2,696

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[16][17]

Economy[edit]

Bank of Valencia

Valencia
Valencia
enjoyed strong economic growth before the economic crisis of 2008, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry,[citation needed] with concurrent development and expansion of telecommunications and transport. The city's economy is service-oriented, as nearly 84% of the working population is employed in service sector occupations[citation needed]. However, the city still maintains an important industrial base, with 8.5% of the population employed in this sector. Growth has recently improved in the manufacturing sector, mainly automobile assembly; (The large factory of Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
lies in a suburb of the city, Almussafes[18]). Agricultural activities are still carried on in the municipality, even though of relatively minor importance with only 1.9% of the working population and 3,973 ha (9,820 acres) planted mostly in orchards and citrus groves. Since the onset of the Great Recession
Great Recession
(2008), Valencia
Valencia
had experienced a growing unemployment rate, increased government debt, etc. Severe spending cuts had been introduced by the city government. In 2009, Valencia
Valencia
was designated "the 29th fastest-improving European city".[19] Its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts contributes to its status as one of the world's "Gamma"-rank global cities.[3] The Valencia
Valencia
metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $52.7 billion, and $28,141 per capita.[20] Port[edit]

Port of Valencia

Valencia's port is the biggest on the Mediterranean western coast,[21] the first of Spain
Spain
in container traffic as of 2008[update][22] and the second of Spain[23] in total traffic, handling 20% of Spain's exports.[24] The main exports are foodstuffs and beverages. Other exports include oranges, furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia's manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Small and medium-sized industries are an important part of the local economy, and before the current crisis unemployment was lower than the Spanish average. Valencia's port underwent radical changes to accommodate the 32nd America's Cup
America's Cup
in 2007. It was divided into two parts—one was unchanged while the other section was modified for the America's Cup festivities. The two sections remain divided by a wall that projects far into the water to maintain clean water for the America's Cup
America's Cup
side.

Estació del Nord

Transport[edit] Public transport is provided by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (FGV), which operates the Metrovalencia
Metrovalencia
and other rail and bus services. The Estació del Nord (North Station) is the main railway terminus in Valencia. A new temporary station, Estació de València-Joaquín Sorolla, has been built on land adjacent to this terminus to accommodate high speed AVE
AVE
trains to and from Madrid, Barcelona, Seville
Seville
and Alicante. Valencia Airport
Valencia Airport
is situated 9 km (5.6 mi) west of Valencia
Valencia
city centre. Alicante
Alicante
Airport is situated about 170 km (110 mi) south of Valencia. The City of Valencia
Valencia
also makes available a bicycle sharing system named Valenbisi
Valenbisi
to both visitors and residents. As of 13 October 2012, the system has 2750 bikes distributed over 250 stations all throughout the city.[25] Valencia
Valencia
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Valencia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 10 min, while 9% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.9 km, while 8% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[26] Tourism[edit]

Malvarrosa Beach

Starting in the mid-1990s, Valencia, formerly an industrial centre, saw rapid development that expanded its cultural and tourism possibilities, and transformed it into a newly vibrant city. Many local landmarks were restored, including the ancient Towers of the medieval city (Serrans Towers and Quart Towers), and the Saint Miquel dels Reis monastery (es:Monasterio de San Miguel de los Reyes), which now holds a conservation library. Whole sections of the old city, for example the Carmen Quarter, have been extensively renovated. The Paseu Marítim, a 4 km (2 mi) long palm tree-lined promenade was constructed along the beaches of the north side of the port (Platja de Les Arenes, Platja del Cabanyal
Cabanyal
and Platja de la Malva-rosa). The city has numerous convention centres and venues for trade events, among them the Feria Valencia
Valencia
Convention and Exhibition Centre (Institución Ferial de Valencia) and the Palau de congres (Conference Palace), and several 5-star hotels to accommodate business travelers.

Locals and tourists watching the traditional "mascletà" during Falles

In its long history, Valencia
Valencia
has acquired many local traditions and festivals, among them the Falles, which were declared Celebrations of International Tourist Interest (Festes de Interés Turístic Internacional) on 25 January 1965 and UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016, and the Water Tribunal of Valencia
Valencia
(Tribunal de les Aigües de València), which was declared an intangible cultural heritage of humanity (Patrimoni Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanitat) in 2009. In addition to these Valencia
Valencia
has hosted world-class events that helped shape the city's reputation and put it in the international spotlight, e.g., the Regional Exhibition of 1909, the 32nd and the 33rd America's Cup
America's Cup
competitions, the European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix
of Formula One
Formula One
auto racing, the Valencia
Valencia
Open 500 tennis tournament, and the Global Champions Tour of equestrian sports. The final round of the MotoGP Championship is held annually at the Circuito de la Communitat Valenciana. The 2007 America's Cup
America's Cup
yachting races were held at Valencia
Valencia
in June and July 2007 and attracted huge crowds. The Louis Vuitton stage drew 1,044,373 visitors and the America's Cup
America's Cup
match drew 466,010 visitors to the event.[27] Demographics[edit] The third largest city in Spain
Spain
and the 24th most populous municipality in the European Union, Valencia
Valencia
has a population of 809,267[28] within its administrative limits on a land area of 134.6 km2 (52 sq mi). The urban area of Valencia extending beyond the administrative city limits has a population of between 1,561,000[29] and 1,564,145.[30] 1,705,742[31][32][33] or 2,300,000[34] or 2,516,818[35] people live in the Valencia metropolitan area. Between 2007 and 2008 there was a 14% increase in the foreign born population with the largest numeric increases by country being from Bolivia, Romania and Italy. This growth in the foreign born population, which rose from 1.5% in the year 2000[36] to 9.1% in 2009,[37] has also occurred in the two larger cities of Madrid and Barcelona.[38] The main countries of origin were Romania, United Kingdom and Bulgaria.[39] Culture[edit]

Traditional preparation of paella

Valencia
Valencia
is known internationally for the Falles
Falles
(Les Falles), a local festival held in March, as well as for paella valenciana, traditional Valencian
Valencian
ceramics, craftsmanship in traditional dress, and the architecture of the City of Arts and Sciences, designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela. La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol
Buñol
in August. There are also a number of well-preserved traditional Catholic festivities throughout the year. Holy Week celebrations in Valencia
Valencia
are considered some of the most colourful in Spain.[citation needed] Valencia
Valencia
was once the site of the Formula One
Formula One
European Grand Prix, first hosting the event on 24 August 2008, but was dropped at the beginning of the Grand Prix 2013 season, though still holds the annual Moto GP race at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, usually that last race of the season in November. The University of Valencia
University of Valencia
(officially Universitat de València Estudi General) was founded in 1499, being one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain
Spain
and the oldest university in the Valencian Community. It was listed as one of the four leading Spanish universities in the 2011 Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities. In 2012, Boston's Berklee College of Music
Berklee College of Music
opened a satellite campus at the Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, its first and only international campus outside the U.S.[40] Since 2003, Valencia
Valencia
also hosts the music courses of Musikeon, the leading musical institution in the Spanish-speaking world. Languages[edit] Valencia
Valencia
is a bilingual city: Valencian
Valencian
and Spanish are the two official languages. Spanish is official in all of Spain, whereas Valencian
Valencian
is official in the Valencian
Valencian
Community. Despite distinct dialectal traits and political tension between Catalonia
Catalonia
and Valencia, Catalan and Valencian
Valencian
are mutually intelligible and considered two varieties of the same language. Valencian
Valencian
has been historically de-emphasised in favour of Spanish. The effects have been more noticeable in the city proper, whereas the language has remained active in the rural and metropolitan areas. After the Castille- Aragon
Aragon
unification, a Spanish-speaking elite established itself in the city. In more recent history, the establishment of Franco's military and administrative apparatus in Valencia
Valencia
further excluded Valencian
Valencian
from public life. Valencian recovered its official status, prestige and use in education after the transition to democracy in 1978. However, due to industrialisation in recent decades, Valencia
Valencia
has attracted immigration from other regions in Spain, and hence there is also a demographic factor for its declining social use. Due to a combination of these reasons, Valencia has become the bastion of anti-Catalan blaverism, which celebrates Valencian
Valencian
as merely folkloric, but rejects the existing standard which was adapted from Catalan orthography. Spanish is currently the predominant language in the city proper[41] but, thanks to the education system, most Valencians have basic knowledge of both Spanish and Valencian, and either can be used in the city. Valencia
Valencia
is therefore the second biggest Catalan-speaking city after Barcelona. Institutional buildings and streets are named in Valencian. The city is also home to many pro- Valencian
Valencian
political and civil organisations. Furthermore, education entirely in Valencian
Valencian
is offered in more than 70 state-owned schools in the city, as well as by the University of Valencia
University of Valencia
across all disciplines.

Glass of orxata de xufa and fartons sweets.

Food[edit] Main article: Valencian
Valencian
cuisine Valencia
Valencia
is famous for its gastronomic culture. The paella (a simmered rice dish with meat (usually chicken or rabbit) or seafood) was born in Valencia; Other traditional dishes of Valencian
Valencian
gastronomy includes "fideuà", "arròs a banda", "arròs negre" (black rice), "fartons", "bunyols", the Spanish omelette, "pinchos" and "calamares"(squids). Valencia
Valencia
was also the birthplace of the cold xufa beverage known as orxata, popular in many parts of the world, including the Americas.

Falla Na Jordana 2003 (winner)

Festivals[edit]

Falles
Falles
of Valencia

Main article: Falles Every year, the five days and nights from March 15 to March 19, called Falles, are a continual festival in Valencia; beginning on March 1, the popular pyrotechnic events called mascletàes start every day at 2:00 pm. The Falles
Falles
(Fallas in Spanish) is an enduring tradition in Valencia
Valencia
and other towns in the Valencian
Valencian
Community,[42] where it has become an important tourist attraction. The festival began in the 18th century,[43] and came to be celebrated on the night of the feast day of Saint Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters, with the burning of waste planks of wood from their workshops, as well as worn-out wooden objects brought by people in the neighborhood.[44] This tradition continued to evolve, and eventually the parots were dressed with clothing to look like people—these were the first ninots, with features identifiable as being those of a well-known person from the neighborhood often added as well. In 1901 the city inaugurated the awarding of prizes for the best Falles
Falles
monuments,[43] and neighborhood groups still vie with each other to make the most impressive and outrageous creations.[45] Their intricate assemblages, placed on top of pedestals for better visibility, depict famous personalities and topical subjects of the past year, presenting humorous and often satirical commentary on them. The 19th of March at night Valencians burn all the Falles
Falles
in an event called "La Cremà". History[edit] Main articles: History of Valencia
History of Valencia
and Timeline of Valencia Roman colony[edit]

The Archaeological Center of la Almoina contains a large collection of remains of the Roman city of Valentia Edetanorum.

Valencia
Valencia
is one of the oldest cities in Spain, founded in the Roman period, c. 138 BC, under the name "Valentia Edetanorum". A few centuries later, with the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman imperial administration, the church assumed the reins of power in the city, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples (Suevi, Vandals
Vandals
and Alans, and later the Visigoths). Muslim rule[edit]

The "Tower del Ángel" formed part of the Muslim Walls of Valencia

The city surrendered to the invading Moors
Moors
(Berbers and Arabs) about 714 AD,[46] and the cathedral of Saint Vincent was turned into a mosque. The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, in command of a combined Christian and Moorish army, besieged the city beginning in 1092. After the siege ended in May 1094, he ruled the city and its surrounding territory as his own fiefdom for five years from 15 June 1094 to July 1099. The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until 1102, when the Almoravids retook the city and restored the Muslim religion. Alfonso VI of León and Castile, drove them from the city, but was unable to hold it. The Almoravid Masdali took possession on 5 May 1109, then the Almohads, seized control of it in 1171. Many Jews lived in Valencia
Valencia
during early Muslim rule, including the accomplished Jewish poet Solomon ibn Gabirol, who spent his last years in the city.[47] Jews continued to live in Valencia
Valencia
throughout the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, many of them being artisans such as silversmiths, shoemakers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, etc.; a few were rabbinic scholars. When the city fell to James I of Aragon, the Jewish population of the city constituted about 7 percent of the population.[47] Christian reconquest[edit]

Towers of Serranos is one of the twelve gates that was guarding the Christian city walls of Valencia. Of Valencian
Valencian
Gothic, built between 1392 and 1398. This gate was the used by kings to enter the city.

In 1238,[48] King James I of Aragon, with an army composed of Aragonese, Catalans, Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava, laid siege to Valencia
Valencia
and on 28 September obtained a surrender.[49] Fifty thousand Moors
Moors
were forced to leave. The city endured serious troubles in the mid-14th century, including the decimation of the population by the Black Death
Black Death
of 1348 and subsequent years of epidemics — as well as a series of wars and riots that followed. In 1391, the Jewish quarter was destroyed.[47] The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the Valencian
Valencian
Golden Age, in which culture and the arts flourished. Concurrent population growth made Valencia
Valencia
the most populous city in the Crown of Aragon. Some of the most emblematic buildings of the city were built during this period, including the Serrans Towers (1392), the Silk Exchange (1482), the Micalet and the Chapel of the Kings of the Convent of Sant Domènec. In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an influence on Valencian
Valencian
artists. Valencia
Valencia
rose to become one of the most influential cities on the Mediterranean in the 15th and 16th centuries, but following the discovery of the Americas, the Valencians, like the Catalans, Aragonese and Majorcans, were prohibited participation in the cross-Atlantic commerce, and with this loss of trade, Valencia eventually suffered an economic crisis. 17th century[edit]

Expulsion of the Moriscos
Expulsion of the Moriscos
from Valencia
Valencia
Grau by Pere Oromig. Painting of 1616.

The crisis deepened during the 17th century with the expulsion in 1609 of the Jews and the Moriscos, descendants of the Muslim population that had converted to Christianity. The Spanish government systematically forced Moriscos
Moriscos
to leave the kingdom for Muslim North Africa. They were concentrated in the former Kingdom of Aragon, and in the Valencia
Valencia
area specifically, they were roughly a third of the total population.[50] The expulsion caused the financial ruin of some of the nobility and the bankruptcy of the Taula de Canvi financial institution in 1613. 18th century[edit] The decline of the city reached its nadir with the War of Spanish Succession (1702–1709), marking the end of the political and legal independence of the Kingdom of Valencia. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia
Valencia
sided with the Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, Charles of Austria. On 24 January 1706, Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth, led a handful of English cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, captured the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffed the Spanish Bourbon army into withdrawal. The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts to expel them. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa on 25 April 1707, the English army evacuated Valencia
Valencia
and Philip V ordered the repeal of the privileges of Valencia
Valencia
as punishment for the kingdom's support of Charles of Austria.[51] By the Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta) the ancient Charters of Valencia
Valencia
were abolished and the city was governed by the Castilian Charter. The Valencian
Valencian
economy recovered during the 18th century with the rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The Palau de Justícia is an example of the affluence manifested in the most prosperous times of Bourbon rule (1758–1802) during the rule of Charles III. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with the leading French and German thinkers of the time. 19th century[edit]

Triumphal welcome of Ferdinand VII of Spain
Spain
at Valencia, 1814 by Miquel Parra

The 19th century began with Spain
Spain
embroiled in wars with France, Portugal, and England—but the War of Independence most affected the Valencian
Valencian
territories and the capital city. The repercussions of the French Revolution were still felt when Napoleon's armies invaded the Iberian Peninsula. The Valencian
Valencian
people rose up in arms against them on 23 May 1808, inspired by leaders such as Vicent Doménech el Palleter. The mutineers seized the Citadel, a Supreme Junta government took over, and on 26–28 June, Napoleon's Marshal Moncey attacked the city with a column of 9,000 French imperial troops in the First Battle of Valencia. He failed to take the city in two assaults and retreated to Madrid. Marshal Suchet began a long siege of the city in October 1811, and after intense bombardment forced it to surrender on 8 January 1812. After the capitulation, the French instituted reforms in Valencia, which became the capital of Spain
Spain
when the Bonapartist pretender to the throne, José I (Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother), moved the Court there in the middle of 1812. The disaster of the Battle of Vitoria
Battle of Vitoria
on 21 June 1813 obliged Suchet to quit Valencia, and the French troops withdrew in July. Ferdinand VII became king after the victorious end of the Peninsular War, which freed Spain
Spain
from Napoleonic domination. When he returned on 24 March 1814 from exile in France, the Cortes requested that he respect the liberal Constitution of 1812, which seriously limited royal powers. Ferdinand refused and went to Valencia
Valencia
instead of Madrid. Here, on 17 April, General Elio invited the King to reclaim his absolute rights and put his troops at the King's disposition. The king abolished the Constitution of 1812 and dissolved the two chambers of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. Thus began six years (1814–1820) of absolutist rule, but the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal, a period of three years of liberal government in Spain
Spain
from 1820–1823.

Valencia
Valencia
in 1832 by French Alfred Guesdon

On the death of King Ferdinand VII in 1833, Baldomero Espartero became one of the most ardent defenders of the hereditary rights of the king's daughter, the future Isabella II. During the regency of Maria Cristina, Espartero ruled Spain
Spain
for two years as its 18th Prime Minister from 16 September 1840 to 21 May 1841. City life in Valencia carried on in a revolutionary climate, with frequent clashes between liberals and republicans. The reign of Isabella II as an adult (1843–1868) was a period of relative stability and growth for Valencia. During the second half of the 19th century the bourgeoisie encouraged the development of the city and its environs; land-owners were enriched by the introduction of the orange crop and the expansion of vineyards and other crops,. This economic boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and of the Valencian
Valencian
language, which had been ruthlessly suppressed from the time of Philip V. Around 1870, the Valencian
Valencian
Renaissance, a movement committed to the revival of the Valencian
Valencian
language and traditions, began to gain ascendancy. 20th century[edit]

Palau de l'Exposició (Palacio de la Exposición), site of Regional Exhibition of 1909

In the early 20th century Valencia
Valencia
was an industrialised city. The silk industry had disappeared, but there was a large production of hides and skins, wood, metals and foodstuffs, this last with substantial exports, particularly of wine and citrus. Small businesses predominated, but with the rapid mechanisation of industry larger companies were being formed. The best expression of this dynamic was in the regional exhibitions, including that of 1909 held next to the pedestrian avenue L'Albereda (Paseo de la Alameda), which depicted the progress of agriculture and industry. Among the most architecturally successful buildings of the era were those designed in the Art Nouveau style, such as the North Station (Estació del Nord) and the Central and Columbus markets. World War I (1914–1918) greatly affected the Valencian
Valencian
economy, causing the collapse of its citrus exports. The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) opened the way for democratic participation and the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to the rise of Conservative Front power in 1933. The inevitable march to civil war and the combat in Madrid
Madrid
resulted in the removal of the capital of the Republic to Valencia. On 6 November 1936, the city became the capital of Republican Spain. The city was heavily bombarded by air and sea, and by the end of the war the city had survived 442 bombardments, leaving 2,831 dead and 847 wounded, although it is estimated that the death toll was higher. The Republican government moved to Barcelona
Barcelona
on 31 October of that year. On 30 March 1939, Valencia
Valencia
surrendered and the Nationalist troops entered the city. The postwar years were a time of hardship for Valencians. During Franco's regime speaking or teaching Valencian
Valencian
was prohibited; in a significant reversal it is now compulsory for every schoolchild in Valencia. The dictatorship of Franco forbade political parties and began a harsh ideological and cultural repression countenanced[52] and sometimes even led by the Church.[53][54] The economy began to recover in the early 1960s, and the city experienced explosive population growth through immigration spurred by the jobs created with the implementation of major urban projects and infrastructure improvements. With the advent of democracy in Spain, the ancient kingdom of Valencia
Valencia
was established as a new autonomous entity, the Valencian
Valencian
Community, the Statute of Autonomy of 1982 designating Valencia
Valencia
as its capital. Valencia
Valencia
has since then experienced a surge in its cultural development, exemplified by exhibitions and performances at such iconic institutions as the Palau de la Música, the Palacio de Congresos, the Metro, the City of Arts and Sciences
City of Arts and Sciences
(Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), the Valencian
Valencian
Museum of Enlightenment and Modernity (Museo Valenciano de la Ilustracion y la Modernidad), and the Institute of Modern Art (Institut Valencià d'Art Modern). The various productions of Santiago Calatrava, a renowned structural engineer, architect, and sculptor and of the architect Félix Candela have contributed to Valencia's international reputation. These public works and the ongoing rehabilitation of the Old City (Ciutat Vella) have helped improve the city's livability and tourism is continually increasing. 21st century[edit] On 9 July 2006, the World Day of Families, during Mass at Valencia's Cathedral, Our Lady of the Forsaken Basilica, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
used, the Sant Calze, a 1st-century Middle-Eastern artifact that some Catholics believe is the Holy Grail. It was supposedly brought to that church by Emperor Valerian in the 3rd century, after having been brought by St. Peter to Rome from Jerusalem. The Sant Calze (Holy Chalice) is a simple, small stone cup. Its base was added during the medieval period and consists of fine gold, alabaster and gem stones.[55] Valencia
Valencia
was selected in 2003 to host the historic America's Cup
America's Cup
yacht race, the first European city ever to do so. The America's Cup
America's Cup
matches took place from April to July 2007. On 3 July 2007, Alinghi
Alinghi
defeated Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand
to retain the America's Cup. Twenty-two days later, on 25 July 2007, the leaders of the Alinghi
Alinghi
syndicate, holder of the America's Cup, officially announced that Valencia
Valencia
would be the host city for the 33rd America's Cup, held in June 2009.[56] In the Valencia City Council elections from 1991 to 2015 the City Council was governed by the People's Party of Spain
Spain
(Partido Popular) (PP) and Mayor Rita Barberá Nolla
Rita Barberá Nolla
who became mayor by a pact made with the Valencian
Valencian
Union. Main sights[edit]

Baroque belfry of the Gothic Santa Catalina church

Major monuments include Valencia
Valencia
Cathedral, the Torres de Serrans, the Torres de Quart (es:Torres de Quart), the Llotja de la Seda
Llotja de la Seda
(declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1996), and the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències (City of Arts and Sciences), an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex designed by Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
and Félix Candela.[57] The Museu de Belles Arts de València
Museu de Belles Arts de València
houses a large collection of paintings from the 14th to the 18th centuries, including works by Velázquez, El Greco, and Goya, as well as an important series of engravings by Piranesi.[58] The Institut Valencià d'Art Modern ( Valencian
Valencian
Institute of Modern Art) houses both permanent collections and temporary exhibitions of contemporary art and photography.[59] Architecture[edit] The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th centuries, is primarily of Valencian
Valencian
Gothic style but contains elements of Baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the Gothic Basilica
Basilica
of the Virgin (Basílica De La Mare de Déu dels Desamparats). The 15th-century Serrans and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city. UNESCO
UNESCO
has recognised the Silk Exchange market (La Llotja de la Seda), erected in early Valencian
Valencian
Gothic style, as a World Heritage Site.[60] The Central Market (Mercat Central) in Valencian
Valencian
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style, is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station Estació Del Nord is built in Valencian
Valencian
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
(a Spanish version of Art Nouveau) style. World-renowned (and city-born) architect Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences
City of Arts and Sciences
(Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains an opera house/performing arts centre, a science museum, an IMAX
IMAX
cinema/planetarium, an oceanographic park and other structures such as a long covered walkway and restaurants. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the centre of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) (es:Palacio de la Música de Valencia) is another noteworthy example of modern architecture in Valencia.

Cathedral of Valencia

Llotja de la Seda
Llotja de la Seda
(Silk Exchange, interior)

Mercat de Colon in Valencian
Valencian
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style

Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas

L´Hemisfèric ( IMAX
IMAX
Dome cinema)

Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe

Assut de l'Or Bridge
Assut de l'Or Bridge
and L'Àgora
L'Àgora
behind.

"Veles e Vents" building

Mercat Central (Central Market), in Valencian
Valencian
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style

Museum of Fine Arts of Valencia

Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia

Espai Verd building

The cathedral[edit]

Northern view of the cathedral: dome, apse, and the Basilica
Basilica
of Our Lady

The Valencia Cathedral
Valencia Cathedral
was called Iglesia Major in the early days of the Reconquista, then Iglesia de la Seu (Seu is from the Latin
Latin
sedes, i.e., (archiepiscopal) See), and by virtue of the papal concession of 16 October 1866, it was called the Basilica
Basilica
Metropolitana. It is situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city where some believe the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it seems to have been dedicated to the Holy Saviour; the Cid dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin; King James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
did likewise, leaving in the main chapel the image of the Blessed Virgin, which he carried with him and is reputed to be the one now preserved in the sacristy. The Moorish mosque, which had been converted into a Christian Church
Christian Church
by the conqueror, was deemed unworthy of the title of the cathedral of Valencia, and in 1262 Bishop Andrés de Albalat laid the cornerstone of the new Gothic building, with three naves; these reach only to the choir of the present building. Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the chapter hall, and James I added the tower, called El Micalet because it was blessed on St. Michael's day in 1418. The tower is about 58 metres (190 feet) high and is topped with a belfry (1660–1736). In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of the main chapel in 1674; the walls were decorated with marbles and bronzes in the Baroque style of that period. At the beginning of the 18th century the German Conrad Rudolphus built the façade of the main entrance. The other two doors lead into the transept; one, that of the Apostles in pure pointed Gothic, dates from the 14th century, the other is that of the Palau. The additions made to the back of the cathedral detract from its height. The 18th-century restoration rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian pillars, and redecorated the walls.

Sitting of the Tribunal de les Aigües outside the Portal
Portal
of the Apostles of the Valencia
Valencia
Cathedral

The dome has no lantern, its plain ceiling being pierced by two large side windows. There are four chapels on either side, besides that at the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, and the sanctuary. It contains many paintings by eminent artists. A silver reredos, which was behind the altar, was carried away in the war of 1808, and converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign. There are two paintings by Francisco de Goya
Goya
in the San Francesco chapel. Behind the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is a small Renaissance
Renaissance
chapel built by Calixtus III. Beside the cathedral is the chapel dedicated to the Our Lady of the Forsaken (Mare de Déu dels desamparats). The Tribunal de les Aigües (Water Court), a court dating from Moorish times that hears and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water, sits at noon every Thursday outside the Porta dels Apostols ( Portal
Portal
of the Apostles).[61] Hospital[edit] In 1409, a hospital was founded and placed under the patronage of Santa Maria dels Innocents; to this was attached a confraternity devoted to recovering the bodies of the unfriended dead in the city and within a radius of three miles (4.8 kilometres) around it. At the end of the 15th century this confraternity separated from the hospital, and continued its work under the name of "Cofradia para el ámparo de los desamparados". King Philip IV of Spain
Spain
and the Duke of Arcos suggested the building of the new chapel, and in 1647 the Viceroy, Conde de Oropesa, who had been preserved from the bubonic plague, insisted on carrying out their project. The Blessed Virgin was proclaimed patroness of the city under the title of Virgen de los desamparados (Virgin of the Forsaken), and Archbishop Pedro de Urbina, on 31 June 1652, laid the cornerstone of the new chapel of this name. The archiepiscopal palace, a grain market in the time of the Moors, is simple in design, with an inside cloister and a handsome chapel. In 1357, the arch that connects it with the cathedral was built. Inside the council chamber are preserved the portraits of all the prelates of Valencia. Medieval churches[edit]

Sant Joan del Mercat

Sant Joan del Mercat- Gothic parish church dedicated to John the Baptist and Evangelist, rebuilt in Baroque style after a 1598 fire. The interior ceilings was frescoed by Palomino. Sant Nicolau Santa Catalina Sant Esteve

El Temple (the Temple), the ancient church of the Knights Templar, which passed into the hands of the Order of Montesa and was rebuilt in the reigns of Ferdinand VI and Charles III; the former convent of the Dominicans, at one time the headquarters of the Capitan General, the cloister of which has a beautiful Gothic wing and the chapter room, large columns imitating palm trees; the Colegio del Corpus Christi, which is devoted to the Blessed Sacrament, and in which perpetual adoration is carried on; the Jesuit college, which was destroyed in 1868 by the revolutionary Committee of the Popular Front, but later rebuilt; and the Colegio de San Juan (also of the Society), the former college of the nobles, now a provincial institute for secondary instruction. Squares and gardens[edit]

Plaça de l'Ajuntament

The largest plaza in Valencia
Valencia
is the Plaça del Ajuntament; it is home to the City Hall (Ajuntament) on its western side and the central post office (Edifici de Correus) on its eastern side, a cinema that shows classic movies, and many restaurants and bars. The plaza is triangular in shape, with a large cement lot at the southern end, normally surrounded by flower vendors. It serves as ground zero during the Les Falles
Falles
when the fireworks of the Mascletà
Mascletà
can be heard every afternoon. There is a large fountain at the northern end. The Plaça de la Mare de Déu contains the Basilica
Basilica
of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaça de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants. The Turia River was diverted in the 1960s, after severe flooding, and the old riverbed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children's playground, a fountain, and sports fields.

Garden in Turia River

The Palau de la Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. The Valencia Bioparc is a zoo, also located in the Turia riverbed. Other gardens in Valencia
Valencia
include:

The Jardíns de Monfort (es:Jardines de Monforte). The Jardí Botànic (Botanical Gardens). The Jardíns del Real or Jardíns de Vivers (Del Real Gardens), they are located in the Pla del Real district, on just the former site of the Del Real Palace.[62]

Museums[edit]

The Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
complex designed by the architects the Valencian
Valencian
Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
and Madrilenian Félix Candela.

L'Oceanogràfic, located within the complex of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, is currently the largest aquarium in Europe, it houses 45,000 animals of 500 different species.[63]

Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
(City of Arts and Sciences). Designed by the Valencian
Valencian
architect Santiago Calatrava, it is situated in the former Túria river-bed and comprises the following monuments:

Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía, a flamboyant opera and music palace with four halls and a total area of 37,000 m2 (398,000 sq ft). L'Oceanogràfic, the largest aquarium in Europe, with a variety of ocean beings from different environments: from the Mediterranean, fishes from the ocean and reef inhabitants, sharks, mackerel swarms, dolphinarium, inhabitants of the polar regions (belugas, walruses, penguins), coast inhabitants (sea lions), etc. L'Oceanogràfic exhibits also smaller animals as coral, jellyfish, sea anemones, etc. El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe, an interactive museum of science but resembling the skeleton of a whale. It has an area of around 40,000 square metres (430,556 square feet) over three floors. L'Hemisfèric, an Imax cinema. (es:L'Hemisfèric)

Museu de Prehistòria de València (Prehistory Museum of Valencia) Museu Valencià d'Etnologia ( Valencian
Valencian
Museum of Ethnology) House Museum Blasco Ibáñez IVAM – Institut Valencià d'Art Modern
Institut Valencià d'Art Modern
– Centre Julio González Julio González Centre – Valencian
Valencian
Institute of Modern Art Museu de Belles Arts de València
Museu de Belles Arts de València
(Museum of Fine Arts) Museu Faller ( Falles
Falles
Museum) Museu d'Història de València ( Valencia
Valencia
History Museum) Museu Taurí de València ( Bullfighting
Bullfighting
Museum) MuVIM – Museu Valencià de la Il·lustració i la Modernitat ( Valencian
Valencian
Museum of Enlightenment and Modernity) González Martí National Museum of Ceramics and Decorative Arts Computer Museum – is located within Technical School of Computer Engineering (Polytechnic University of Valencia)[64]

Sport[edit]

Mestalla

Estadi Ciutat de València

Pavelló Municipal Font de Sant Lluís

Club League Sport Venue Established Capacity

Valencia
Valencia
C.F. La Liga Football Mestalla 1919 55,000

Levante UD La Liga Football Estadi Ciutat de València 1909 25,354

Huracán Valencia Segunda División B Football Municipal de Manises 2011 1,000

Valencia CF
Valencia CF
Mestalla Segunda División B Football Estadi Antonio Puchades 1944 4,000

Valencia
Valencia
Basket Club ACB Basketball Pavelló Municipal Font de Sant Lluís 1986 9,000

Valencia
Valencia
Giants LNFA American football Instalacions polideportives del Saler 2003

Valencia
Valencia
Firebats LNFA American football Estadi Municipal Jardí del Turia 1993

Valencia
Valencia
FS Tercera División Futsal San Isidro 1983 500

Les Abelles División de Honor B Rugby Union Poliesportiu Quatre carreres 1971 500

CAU Rugby Valencia División de Honor B Rugby Union Camp del Riu Turia 1973 750

Rugby Club Valencia División de Honor B Rugby Union Poliesportiu Quatre carreres 1966 500

Football[edit] Valencia
Valencia
is also internationally famous for its football club, Valencia
Valencia
C.F., one of the most successful clubs in Europe and La Liga, which won the Spanish league in 2002 and 2004 (the year it also won the UEFA Cup), for a total of six times, and was a UEFA Champions League runner-up in 2000 and 2001. The club is currently owned by Peter Lim, a Singaporean businessman who bought the club in 2014. The team's stadium is the Mestalla; its city rival Levante UD
Levante UD
plays in the La Liga
La Liga
after club was re-promoted after club was relegated previous season, its stadium is Estadi Ciutat de València. American Football[edit] Valencia
Valencia
is the only city in Spain
Spain
with two American football
American football
teams in LNFA
LNFA
Serie A, the national first division: Valencia Firebats
Valencia Firebats
and Valencia
Valencia
Giants. The Firebats have been national champions four times and have represented Valencia
Valencia
and Spain
Spain
in the European playoffs since 2005. Both teams share the Jardín del Turia stadium.

Valencia
Valencia
Street Circuit

Motor sports[edit] Once a year between 2008–2012 the European Formula One
Formula One
Grand Prix took place in the Valencia
Valencia
Street Circuit. Valencia
Valencia
is among (with Barcelona, Porto
Porto
and Monte Carlo) the only European cities ever to host Formula One
Formula One
World Championship Grands Prix on public roads in the middle of cities. The final race in 2012 European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix
saw an extremely popular winner, since home driver Fernando Alonso
Fernando Alonso
won for Ferrari in spite of starting halfway down the field. The Valencian Community motorcycle Grand Prix (Gran Premi de la Comunitat Valenciana de motociclisme) is part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo
Circuit Ricardo Tormo
(also known as Circuit de Valencia) held in November. Periodically the Spanish round of the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters touring car racing Championship (DTM) is held in Valencia. Rugby League[edit] Valencia
Valencia
is also the home of the Asociación Española de Rugby League, who are the governing body for Rugby League
Rugby League
in Spain. The city plays host to a number of clubs playing the sport and to date has hosted all the country's home international matches.[65] In 2015 Valencia
Valencia
hosted their first match in the Rugby League
Rugby League
European Federation C competition, which was a qualifier for the 2017 Rugby League World Cup. Spain
Spain
won the fixture 40-30[66] Districts[edit]

Pont de la Mar is one of the five existing medieval and early-modern bridges of the city

Towers of Quart, christian city gate built between 1441 and 1460.

Ciutat Vella: La Seu, La Xerea, El Carmen, El Pilar, El Mercat, Sant Francesc. Eixample: Russafa, El Pla del Remei, Gran Via. Extramurs: El Botànic, La Roqueta, La Petxina, Arrancapins. Campanar: Campanar, Les Tendetes, El Calvari, Sant Pau. La Saïdia: Marxalenes, Morvedre, Trinitat, Tormos, Sant Antoni. Pla del Real: Exposició, Mestalla, Jaume Roig, Ciutat Universitària Olivereta: Nou Moles, Soternes, Tres Forques, La Fontsanta, La Llum. Patraix: Patraix, Sant Isidre, Vara de Quart, Safranar, Favara. Jesús: La Raiosa, L'Hort de Senabre, La Creu Coberta, Sant Marcel·lí, Camí Real. Quatre Carreres: Montolivet, En Corts, Malilla, La Font de Sant Lluís, Na Rovella, La Punta, Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències. Poblats Marítims: El Grau, El Cabanyal, El Canyameral, La Malva-Rosa, Beteró, Natzaret. Camins del Grau: Aiora, Albors, Creu del Grau, Camí Fondo, Penya-Roja. Algiròs: Illa Perduda, Ciutat Jardí, Amistat, Vega Baixa, La Carrasca. Benimaclet: Benimaclet, Camí de Vera. Rascanya: Orriols, Torrefiel, Sant Llorenç. Benicalap: Benicalap, Ciutat Fallera.

Other towns within the municipality of Valencia[edit] These towns administratively are within of districts of Valencia.

Towns at north: Benifaraig, Poble Nou, Carpesa, Cases de Bàrcena, Mauella, Massarrojos, Borbotó. Towns at west: Benimàmet, Beniferri. Towns at south: Forn d'Alcedo, Castellar-l'Oliveral, Pinedo, El Saler, El Palmar, El Perellonet, La Torre,

People born in Valencia
Valencia
and Valencia
Valencia
province[edit]

Juan Luis Vives

Joaquín Sorolla

Vicente Blasco Ibáñez

Joan Baptista Aguilar (d.1714), poet Saint Vincent Ferrer
Saint Vincent Ferrer
(23 January 1350 – 5 April 1419), powerful preacher of end times judgement and worker of 1,000's and 1,000's of miracles all over Europe. Concepción Aleixandre, educator and gynecologist Pope Alexander VI, Pope from 1492 to 1503 Main article: Route of the Borgias

Alfonso III, King of Aragon
Aragon
and Count of Barcelona
Barcelona
(as Alfons II) Juan Bautista Bayuco, 17th-century painter Josep Maria Bayarri, linguist, poet and writer José Benlliure y Gil, painter Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
(1867–1928), Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director Nino Bravo
Nino Bravo
(birth name, Luis Manuel Ferri Llopis) (1944–1973), popular singer Santiago Calatrava, internationally recognised and award-winning architect Pope Callixtus III, Pope from 1455 to 1458 Main article: Route of the Borgias

Guillén de Castro (1569–1631), famous Spanish writer of the Spanish Golden Age Pedro Carlos Cavadas Rodríguez (born 1965), pioneering surgeon Antonio José Cavanilles, taxonomic botanist Victor Claver, basketball player Roberto Soldado, footballer Paco Alcácer, footballer David Albelda, former footballer Vicente, former footballer María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party politician and the first female First Deputy Prime Minister of Spain Saint Vincent Ferrer, Dominican missionary and logician Joan Fuster, philologist, historian and writer Vicente Gandia (1935–2009), painter, artist Luis García Berlanga, film director and screenwriter Rafael Guastavino, architect and builder, creator of the Guastavino tile José Iturbi, conductor and pianist King James II of Aragon Salvador Larroca, comic book artist Joaquín Lloréns Fernández de Cordoba, Carlist soldier and politician Joaquín Manglano y Cucaló, city mayor (1939–1943) and Carlist politician Ausiàs March, poet Joanot Martorell
Joanot Martorell
(1413–1468), knight and writer the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch Fernando Miranda
Fernando Miranda
y Casellas, Spanish-American sculptor and illustrator (1842–1925) Manuel Palau, music composer Antonio Peris Carbonell, Spanish expressionist painter and sculptor King Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon
(Peter the Great) Raimon, composer and singer Joaquín Rodrigo, music composer Joan Roís de Corella, poet and writer Ricardo Samper
Ricardo Samper
(1881–1938), politician Manuel Sanchis i Guarner, philologist, historian and writer Luis de Santángel
Luis de Santángel
(1866–1927), finance minister Enrique Simonet, painter Josu De Solaun Soto, classical music pianist Joaquin Sorolla, painter, who excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes Francisco Tárrega, influential Spanish composer and guitarist Ramón Tebar, conductor and pianist Enric Valor i Vives, grammarian and writer Joan Lluís Vives, scholar and humanist

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Valencia
Valencia
is twinned with:[67]

Mainz, Germany, since 4 August 1978[67] Bologna, Italy, since 29 June 1979[67] Veracruz, Mexico, since 26 September 1984[67] Sacramento, USA, since 29 June 1989[67] Valencia, Venezuela, since 20 March 1982[67] Odessa, Ukraine, since 13 May 1982[67]

Friendship cities[edit]

Chengdu, China Xi'an, China

See also[edit]

Spain
Spain
portal

Archdiocese of Valencia List of tallest buildings in Valencia Nou Mestalla Valencia
Valencia
City Council elections Prehistory of the Valencian
Valencian
Community

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "James I. of Aragon". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Martínez Díez, Gonzalo (1999). El Cid
El Cid
histórico: un estudio exhaustivo sobre el verdadero Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Valencia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

Attribution[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Catalan. This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Spanish.

Notes[edit]

^ a b World Urban Areas – Demographia, 2016 ^ Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. "Els gentilicis valencians" (pdf). Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ a b "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. Retrieved 3 March 2009.  ^ "Districte 1. Ciutat Vella" (PDF). Oficina d'Estadística. Ajuntament de València (in Catalan and Spanish). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2010.  ^ Conselleria de turisme de la Comunitat Valenciana, ed. (2010). "LISTADO DE FIESTAS DE INTERÉS TURÍSTICO DE LA COMUNITAT VALENCIANA DECLARADAS POR LA CONSELLERIA DE TURISME" (pdf). Retrieved 11 April 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ A. E. Astin (1989). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-521-23448-1.  ^ Agustí Galbis (19 June 2009). "La ciutat de Valencia
Valencia
i El nom de "Madinat al-Turab"". Del Sit a Jaume I "Bloc en els artículs d'Agustí Galbis (in Catalan). Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.  ^ Francisco de P. Momblanch y Gonzálbez (1960). Historia de la Albufera
Albufera
de Valencia. Excmo. Anuntamiento. p. 301. Retrieved 5 February 2013.  ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España" [Summarized guide of the climate in Spain] (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET). Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Alejandro Pérez Cueva (1994). "Atlas climático de la Comunidad Valenciana" (1ª ed.). Valencia: Generalitat Valenciana: 205. ISBN 84-482-0310-0.  ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 April 2009.  ^ "Temperatura Agua del Mar, Año 2012 – Registro de Datos". Foro.tiempo.com. Retrieved 2015-10-24.  ^ a b "Weather2Travel.com: Valencia
Valencia
Climate Guide". Retrieved 16 June 2012.  ^ "Temperatura del agua del mar El Tiempo en Valencia". Eltiempo.lasprovincias.es. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 2015-10-24.  ^ "Standard Climate Values. Valencia".  ^ [1] – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología ^ Valores climatológicos extremos – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología ^ Global Operations – Spain: Valencia
Valencia
Body and Assembly – Corporate.ford.com ^ "Best European business cities". City Mayors. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ " Global city
Global city
GDP 2011". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013.  ^ "Valenciaport in figures". valenciaport.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  ^ Burguera. " Valencia
Valencia
supera an Algeciras y lidera por primera vez el tráfico de contenedores en España. Las Provincias" (in Spanish). Lasprovincias.es. Retrieved 18 June 2009.  ^ "Resumen general del tráfico portuario en febrero Puerto Bahía de Algeciras Blog". Puertoalgeciras.org. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2009.  ^ Mckinley, James C. (2 March 2011). "NY Times, 30 July 2008". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ "Valenbisi's official website". Valenbisi.com. Retrieved 2015-10-24.  ^ " Valencia
Valencia
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ "ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE 32nd AMERICA'S CUP VALENCIA 2007" (PDF). tourisminsights.info. Instituto Valenciano de Invesitigaciones Economicas. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (National Statistics Institute)". Ine.es. 28 May 2001. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Demographia: World Urban Areas" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2014.  ^ Eurostat
Eurostat
– Larger Urban Zones: Urban Audit.org Archived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Principal Agglomerations of the World – Population Statistics and Maps – citypopulation.de ^ Datos de áreas urbanas en 2006 Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. según el proyecto AUDES5 Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Conurbaciones en 2006 Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. según el proyecto AUDES5 Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, OECD Territorial Reviews, (OECD Publishing, 2006), Table 1.1 ^ "Population by sex and age groups" – Eurostat, 2012 ^ "foreign born population in 2001". Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ " Foreign born population in 2008, p7" (PDF). Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ "Table 1.1 foreign born population". Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ "Population of Valencia
Valencia
2017". Retrieved 29 August 2017.  ^ Minder, Raphael (15 March 2011). "Berklee to Open a Campus in Spain". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2012.  ^ "Institut Valencià d'Estadística". Ive.es. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ City Council of Valencia
Valencia
(2008). "Fiestas de Valencia". www.fvmp.es. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012.  ^ a b Provincias, Las. "Historia de las Fallas – Fallas Valencia 2015". fallasvalencia.es.  ^ Eamonn Rodgers (11 March 2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-134-78858-3.  ^ Antonio Ariño Villarroya (1 January 1992). La ciudad ritual: la fiesta de las Fallas. Anthropos Editorial. p. 60. ISBN 978-84-7658-368-5.  ^ Vicente Coscollá Sanz (2003). La Valencia
Valencia
musulmana. Carena Editors, S.l. p. 16. ISBN 978-84-87398-75-9.  ^ a b c Angel Saénz-Badillos, “Valencia”, in: Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World, Executive Editor Norman A. Stillman. First published online: 2010 ^ Pierre Guichard (2001). Al-Andalus
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frente a la conquista cristiana: los musulmanes de Valencia, siglos XI-XIII. Universitat de València. p. 176. ISBN 978-84-7030-852-9.  ^ Chisholm 1911. ^ Meyerson, Mark D. (1991). The Muslims of Valencia
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in the Age of Fernando and Isabel: between Coexistence and Crusade. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-06888-9.  ^ Norwich, John Jules (2007). The Middle Sea. A History of the Mediterranean. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-7608-3.  ^ Mary Reichardt (2010). Between Human and Divine: The Catholic Vision in Contemporary Literature. CUA Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-0-8132-1739-0.  ^ Michael R. Tobin (17 October 2007). Georges Bernanos. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7735-6045-1.  ^ Georges Bernanos; Michel del Castillo (2008). Les grands cimetières sous la lune (in French). Castor astral. p. 15. ISBN 978-2-85920-751-9.  ^ "About the Santo Caliz (Holy Chalice)". Catholicnews.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ Announcement of the election as host city for 33rd America's Cup Archived 23 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (2011). "Sitio oficial de Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias". Cac.es. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ Generalitat Valenciana
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(ed.). "MUSEO DE BELLAS ARTES DE VALENCIA". Museobellasartesvalencia.gva.es. Retrieved 12 October 2011.  ^ Generalitat Valenciana
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(ed.). "Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno". Ivam.es. Retrieved 12 October 2011.  ^ "La Lonja listing on Unesco site". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 9 March 2011.  ^ "Valencia's unique 'Water Court'". Reality Sense. Retrieved 31 January 2011.  ^ Ayuntamiento de Valencia
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(2010). "Ayuntamiento de Valencia. JARDINES DEL REAL – JARDINES DE VIVEROS". www.valencia.es. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ www.webmandesign.eu, WebMan -. "Información Oceanografic de Valencia". oceanograficvalencia.com.  ^ "Museo de Informática Web del Museo de Informática de la UPV". Museo.inf.upv.es. Retrieved 2015-10-24.  ^ "EQUIPOS ESPAÑOLES DE RUGBY LEAGUE". Espana Rugby League. Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ "EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP C – GAME 1". RLEF. Retrieved 6 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g "Ciudades Hermanadas con València" [Valencia Twin/Sister Cities]. Ajuntament de València [City of Valencia] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

"Valencia". Spain
Spain
and Portugal: handbook for travellers (3rd ed.). Leipsic: Karl Baedeker. 1908. OCLC 1581249.  "Valencia". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1910. OCLC 14782424. 

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Articles Relating to Valencia

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Demolished landmarks in Valencia

Buildings

Del Real Palace Casa de la Ciutat Palacio de Ripalda Modernisme Plaza of the City Hall Light fountain of the Exposición Regional Valenciana Bridge of the Exposición Regional Valenciana

Gate Walls

Portal
Portal
Nou

Other

List of missing landmarks in Spain

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Comarques of the Valencian
Valencian
Community

Alacantí Alcoià Alcalatén Alt Maestrat Alto Mijares Alto Palancia Alt Vinalopó Baix Maestrat Baix Vinalopó Camp de Morvedre Camp de Túria Canal de Navarrés Comtat Costera Horta Nord Horta Oest Horta Sud Hoya de Buñol Marina Alta Marina Baixa Ports Plana Alta Plana Baixa Requena-Utiel Rincón de Ademuz Ribera Alta Ribera Baixa Safor Los Serranos València Vall d'Albaida Valle de Cofrentes Vega Baja del Segura Vinalopó Mitjà

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Municipalities of the province of Valencia

Ademuz Ador Agullent Aielo de Malferit Aielo de Rugat Alaquàs Albaida Albal Albalat de la Ribera Albalat dels Sorells Albalat dels Tarongers Alberic Alborache Alboraya Albuixech Alcublas Alcàntera de Xúquer Alcàsser Aldaia Alfafar Alfara de la Baronia Alfara del Patriarca Alfarp Alfarrasí Alfauir Algar de Palancia Algemesí Algimia de Alfara Alginet Almiserà Almoines Almussafes Almàssera Alpuente L'Alqueria de la Comtessa Alzira Andilla Anna Antella Aras de los Olmos Atzeneta d'Albaida Ayora Barx Barxeta Bellreguard Bellús Benaguasil Benagéber Benavites Beneixida Benetússer Beniarjó Beniatjar Benicolet Benifairó de la Valldigna Benifairó de les Valls Benifaió Beniflà Benigànim Benimodo Benimuslem Beniparrell Benirredrà Benisanó Benissoda Benisuera Bicorp Bocairent Bolbaite Bonrepòs i Mirambell Bufali Bugarra Burjassot Buñol Bèlgida Bétera Calles Camporrobles Canals Canet d'En Berenguer Carcaixent Carlet Carrícola Casas Altas Casas Bajas Casinos Castelló de la Ribera Castelló de Rugat Castielfabib Castellonet de la Conquesta Catadau Catarroja Caudete de las Fuentes Cerdà Chella Chelva Chera Cheste Chiva Chulilla Cofrentes Corbera Cortes de Pallás Cotes Cullera Càrcer Daimús Domeño Dos Aguas El Palomar Emperador Enguera Estivella Estubeny Faura Favara Foios Fontanars dels Alforins Fortaleny Fuenterrobles Gandia Gavarda Genovés Gestalgar Gilet Godella Godelleta Guadasequies Guadassuar Guardamar de la Safor Gátova Higueruelas Jalance Jarafuel L'Alcúdia L'Alcúdia
L'Alcúdia
de Crespins L'Eliana L'Ènova L'Olleria La Font d'En Carròs La Font de la Figuera La Granja de la Costera La Llosa de Ranes La Pobla Llarga La Pobla de Farnals La Pobla de Vallbona La Pobla del Duc La Yesa Llanera de Ranes Llaurí Llocnou d'En Fenollet Llocnou de Sant Jeroni Llombai Llutxent Llíria Loriguilla Losa del Obispo Lugar Nuevo de la Corona Macastre Manises Manuel Marines Massalavés Massalfassar Massamagrell Massanassa Meliana Millares Miramar Mislata Mogente Moncada Montserrat Montaverner Montesa Montichelvo Montroy Museros Navarrés Novelé Náquera Oliva Olocau Ontinyent Otos Paiporta Palma de Gandía Palmera Paterna Pedralba Petrés Picanya Picassent Piles Pinet Polinyà de Xúquer Potries Puebla de San Miguel El Puig Puçol Quart de Poblet Quart de les Valls Quartell Quatretonda Quesa Rafelbunyol Rafelcofer Rafelguaraf Real de Gandía Real de Montroi Requena Riba-roja de Túria Riola Rocafort Rotglà i Corberà Rugat Ráfol de Salem Rótova Sagunt Salem San Antonio de Benagéber San Juan de Énova Sedaví Segart Sellent Sempere Senyera Serra Siete Aguas Silla Simat de la Valldigna Sinarcas Sollana Sot de Chera Sueca Sumacàrcer Tavernes Blanques Tavernes de la Valldigna Teresa de Cofrentes Terrateig Titaguas Torrebaja Torrella Torrent Torres Torres Tous Turís Tuéjar Utiel Valencia Vallada Vallanca Vallés Venta del Moro Vilamarxant Villalonga Villar del Arzobispo Villargordo del Cabriel Vinalesa Xeraco Xeresa Xirivella Xàtiva Yátova Zarra

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Capitals of provinces of Spain

A Coruña Albacete Alicante Almería Ávila Badajoz Barcelona Bilbao Burgos Cáceres Cádiz Castellón de la Plana Ciudad Real Córdoba Cuenca Donostia-San Sebastián Girona Granada Guadalajara Huelva Huesca Jaén Logroño Las Palmas León Lleida Lugo Madrid Málaga Murcia Ourense Oviedo Palencia Palma Pamplona Pontevedra Salamanca Santander Santa Cruz Segovia Seville Soria Tarragona Teruel Toledo Valencia Valladolid Vitoria-Gasteiz Zamora Zaragoza

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Capitals of autonomous communities of Spain

Seville
Seville
(Andalusia) Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(Aragon) Oviedo
Oviedo
(Asturias) Palma (Balearic Islands) Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
(Basque Country) Santa Cruz & Las Palmas
Las Palmas
(Canary Islands) Santander (Cantabria)

Toledo (Castile–La Mancha) Valladolid
Valladolid
(de facto, Castile and León) Barcelona
Barcelona
(Catalonia) Mérida (Extremadura) Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
(Galicia) Logroño
Logroño
(La Rioja)

Madrid
Madrid
(Community of Madrid) Murcia
Murcia
(Region of Murcia) Pamplona
Pamplona
(Navarre) Valencia
Valencia
( Valencian
Valencian
Community) Ceuta1 Melilla1

1 Autonomous cities.

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European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159645160 GND: 4062284-8 BNF:

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