Valencia (/vəˈlɛnsiə/; Spanish: [baˈlenθja]), officially
València (Valencian: [vaˈlensia]), on the east coast of
Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of
Valencia and the
third-largest city in
Madrid and Barcelona, with around
800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area
extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of
around 1.5–1.6 million people.
Valencia is Spain's third
largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to
2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined.
Port of Valencia
Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and
the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is
ranked at Gamma+ in the Globalization and World Cities Research
Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the
Costa del Azahar
Costa del Azahar (Orange Blossom Coast).
Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius
Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714
Moroccan and Arab
Moors occupied the city, introducing their language,
religion and customs; they implemented improved irrigation systems and
the cultivation of new crops as well, being capital of the Taifa of
Valencia. In 1238 the Christian king
James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon reconquered the
city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it,
as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He also created a new law
for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of
the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain
abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of
aligning with the
Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Valencia was the capital of
Joseph Bonaparte moved the
Court there in the summer of 1812. It also served as capital between
1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic.
The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of
the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the
Gulf of Valencia
Gulf of Valencia on the
Mediterranean Sea. Its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain,
with approximately 169 ha (420 acres); this heritage of
ancient monuments, views and cultural attractions makes
of the country's most popular tourist destinations.
Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular
celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas (featuring the
traditional Spanish dish paella), which were declared as Fiestas of
National Tourist Interest of
Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural
UNESCO in November 2016.
In 2015, Joan Ribó, from Coalició Compromís, became mayor.
Valencia Public Transportation Statistics
6.1 Roman colony
6.2 Muslim rule
6.3 Christian reconquest
6.4 17th century
6.5 18th century
6.6 19th century
6.7 20th century
6.8 21st century
7 Main sights
7.2 The cathedral
7.4 Medieval churches
7.5 Squares and gardens
8.2 American Football
8.3 Motor sports
8.4 Rugby League
9.1 Other towns within the municipality of Valencia
10 People born in
11 Twin towns and sister cities
12 Friendship cities
13 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
Roman Cornucopia, symbol of Valentia, found on the floor of a Roman
building excavated in the Plaça de la Mare de Déu.
Latin name of the city was Valentia
(IPA: [waˈlentia]), meaning "strength", or "valour", the city
being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour
of former Roman soldiers after a war. The Roman historian Livy
explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due
to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian
Plaça de la Mare de Déu (also called Plaza de la Virgen), iconic
square of the city.
During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname
Medina bu-Tarab ('City of Joy') according to one transliteration, or
Medina at-Turab ('City of Sands') according to another, since it was
located on the banks of the River Turia. It is not clear if the term
Balansiyya was reserved for the entire
Taifa of Valencia
Taifa of Valencia or also
designated the city.
By gradual sound changes, Valentia /waˈlentia/ has become Valencia
[baˈlenθja] (i.e. before a pausa or nasal sound) or [-βaˈlenθja]
(after a continuant) in Castilian and València [vaˈlensia] in
Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts
with the acute accent <é> /e/—but the word València is an
exception to this rule. It is spelled according to Catalan etymology,
though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the
eastern coast of the
Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the
Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by
the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia, 6.4 kilometres
(4.0 mi) from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and
estuary about 11 km (7 mi) south of the city, is one of the
largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the
Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, and today it forms
the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'
Reserve), with a surface area of 21,120 hectares (52,200 acres). In
1976, because of its cultural, historical, and ecological value, the
Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park.
Main article: Climate of Valencia
Valencia has mild winters, few rains and long summers
Valencia has a subtropical
Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with
short, very mild winters and long, hot and dry summers.
Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F);
23.0 °C (73.4 °F) during the day and 13.8 °C
(56.8 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the maximum
temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C (57
to 70 °F), the minimum temperature typically at night ranges
from 5 to 11 °C (41 to 52 °F). In the warmest month –
August, the maximum temperature during the day typically ranges from
28–34 °C (82–93 °F), about 22 to 23 °C (72 to
73 °F) at night. Generally, similar temperatures to those
experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8
months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature
often exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature
of 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) during the day and 10.0 °C
(50.0 °F) at night. December, January and February are the
coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C
(63 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46 °F) at night.
Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its
southern location on the
Mediterranean Sea and the
The January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and
September in the major cities of northern Europe.
Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 155 (average nearly 5
hours of sunshine duration at day) in December to 315 (average above
10 hours of sunshine duration at day) in July. The average temperature
of the sea is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during
winters and 26–28 °C (79–82 °F) during
summers. Average relative humidity is 60% in April to 68% in
Climate data for
Valencia center (4 km [2 mi] from sea,
altitude: 11 m.a.s.l., 1981–2010, location)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Bank of Valencia
Valencia enjoyed strong economic growth before the economic crisis of
2008, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction
industry, with concurrent development and expansion
of telecommunications and transport. The city's economy is
service-oriented, as nearly 84% of the working population is employed
in service sector occupations. However, the city
still maintains an important industrial base, with 8.5% of the
population employed in this sector. Growth has recently improved in
the manufacturing sector, mainly automobile assembly; (The large
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company lies in a suburb of the city,
Almussafes). Agricultural activities are still carried on in the
municipality, even though of relatively minor importance with only
1.9% of the working population and 3,973 ha (9,820 acres) planted
mostly in orchards and citrus groves.
Since the onset of the
Great Recession (2008),
experienced a growing unemployment rate, increased government debt,
etc. Severe spending cuts had been introduced by the city government.
Valencia was designated "the 29th fastest-improving European
city". Its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media,
fashion, science and the arts contributes to its status as one of the
world's "Gamma"-rank global cities.
Valencia metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to
$52.7 billion, and $28,141 per capita.
Port of Valencia
Valencia's port is the biggest on the Mediterranean western coast,
the first of
Spain in container traffic as of 2008[update] and the
second of Spain in total traffic, handling 20% of Spain's
exports. The main exports are foodstuffs and beverages. Other
exports include oranges, furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and
iron products. Valencia's manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy,
chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Small and medium-sized
industries are an important part of the local economy, and before the
current crisis unemployment was lower than the Spanish average.
Valencia's port underwent radical changes to accommodate the 32nd
America's Cup in 2007. It was divided into two parts—one was
unchanged while the other section was modified for the America's Cup
festivities. The two sections remain divided by a wall that projects
far into the water to maintain clean water for the
America's Cup side.
Estació del Nord
Public transport is provided by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat
Valenciana (FGV), which operates the
Metrovalencia and other rail and
bus services. The Estació del Nord (North Station) is the main
railway terminus in Valencia. A new temporary station, Estació de
València-Joaquín Sorolla, has been built on land adjacent to this
terminus to accommodate high speed
AVE trains to and from Madrid,
Seville and Alicante.
Valencia Airport is situated
9 km (5.6 mi) west of
Valencia city centre.
is situated about 170 km (110 mi) south of Valencia.
The City of
Valencia also makes available a bicycle sharing system
Valenbisi to both visitors and residents. As of 13 October 2012,
the system has 2750 bikes distributed over 250 stations all throughout
Valencia Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Valencia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 6%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 10 min, while 9% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 5.9 km, while 8% travel for over 12
km in a single direction.
Starting in the mid-1990s, Valencia, formerly an industrial centre,
saw rapid development that expanded its cultural and tourism
possibilities, and transformed it into a newly vibrant city. Many
local landmarks were restored, including the ancient Towers of the
medieval city (Serrans Towers and Quart Towers), and the Saint Miquel
dels Reis monastery (es:Monasterio de San Miguel de los Reyes), which
now holds a conservation library. Whole sections of the old city, for
example the Carmen Quarter, have been extensively renovated. The Paseu
Marítim, a 4 km (2 mi) long palm tree-lined promenade
was constructed along the beaches of the north side of the port
(Platja de Les Arenes, Platja del
Cabanyal and Platja de la
The city has numerous convention centres and venues for trade events,
among them the Feria
Valencia Convention and Exhibition Centre
(Institución Ferial de Valencia) and the Palau de congres (Conference
Palace), and several 5-star hotels to accommodate business travelers.
Locals and tourists watching the traditional "mascletà" during Falles
In its long history,
Valencia has acquired many local traditions and
festivals, among them the Falles, which were declared Celebrations of
International Tourist Interest (Festes de Interés Turístic
Internacional) on 25 January 1965 and UNESCO's intangible cultural
heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016, and the Water Tribunal
Valencia (Tribunal de les Aigües de València), which was declared
an intangible cultural heritage of humanity (Patrimoni Cultural
Inmaterial de la Humanitat) in 2009. In addition to these
hosted world-class events that helped shape the city's reputation and
put it in the international spotlight, e.g., the Regional Exhibition
of 1909, the 32nd and the 33rd
America's Cup competitions, the
European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix of
Formula One auto racing, the
Valencia Open 500
tennis tournament, and the Global Champions Tour of equestrian sports.
The final round of the MotoGP Championship is held annually at the
Circuito de la Communitat Valenciana.
America's Cup yachting races were held at
Valencia in June
and July 2007 and attracted huge crowds. The Louis Vuitton stage drew
1,044,373 visitors and the
America's Cup match drew 466,010 visitors
to the event.
The third largest city in
Spain and the 24th most populous
municipality in the European Union,
Valencia has a population of
809,267 within its administrative limits on a land area of
134.6 km2 (52 sq mi). The urban area of Valencia
extending beyond the administrative city limits has a population of
between 1,561,000 and 1,564,145. 1,705,742 or
2,300,000 or 2,516,818 people live in the Valencia
metropolitan area. Between 2007 and 2008 there was a 14% increase in
the foreign born population with the largest numeric increases by
country being from Bolivia, Romania and Italy. This growth in the
foreign born population, which rose from 1.5% in the year 2000 to
9.1% in 2009, has also occurred in the two larger cities of Madrid
and Barcelona. The main countries of origin were Romania, United
Kingdom and Bulgaria.
Traditional preparation of paella
Valencia is known internationally for the
Falles (Les Falles), a local
festival held in March, as well as for paella valenciana, traditional
Valencian ceramics, craftsmanship in traditional dress, and the
architecture of the City of Arts and Sciences, designed by Santiago
Calatrava and Félix Candela.
La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town
Buñol in August. There are also a number of well-preserved
traditional Catholic festivities throughout the year. Holy Week
Valencia are considered some of the most colourful in
Valencia was once the site of the
Formula One European Grand Prix,
first hosting the event on 24 August 2008, but was dropped at the
beginning of the Grand Prix 2013 season, though still holds the annual
Moto GP race at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, usually that last race of
the season in November.
University of Valencia
University of Valencia (officially Universitat de València Estudi
General) was founded in 1499, being one of the oldest surviving
Spain and the oldest university in the Valencian
Community. It was listed as one of the four leading Spanish
universities in the 2011 Shanghai Academic Ranking of World
In 2012, Boston's
Berklee College of Music
Berklee College of Music opened a satellite campus
at the Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, its first and only international
campus outside the U.S. Since 2003,
Valencia also hosts the music
courses of Musikeon, the leading musical institution in the
Valencia is a bilingual city:
Valencian and Spanish are the two
official languages. Spanish is official in all of Spain, whereas
Valencian is official in the
Valencian Community. Despite distinct
dialectal traits and political tension between
Catalonia and Valencia,
Valencian are mutually intelligible and considered two
varieties of the same language.
Valencian has been historically de-emphasised in favour of Spanish.
The effects have been more noticeable in the city proper, whereas the
language has remained active in the rural and metropolitan areas.
After the Castille-
Aragon unification, a Spanish-speaking elite
established itself in the city. In more recent history, the
establishment of Franco's military and administrative apparatus in
Valencia further excluded
Valencian from public life. Valencian
recovered its official status, prestige and use in education after the
transition to democracy in 1978. However, due to industrialisation in
Valencia has attracted immigration from other regions
in Spain, and hence there is also a demographic factor for its
declining social use. Due to a combination of these reasons, Valencia
has become the bastion of anti-Catalan blaverism, which celebrates
Valencian as merely folkloric, but rejects the existing standard which
was adapted from Catalan orthography.
Spanish is currently the predominant language in the city proper
but, thanks to the education system, most Valencians have basic
knowledge of both Spanish and Valencian, and either can be used in the
Valencia is therefore the second biggest Catalan-speaking city
after Barcelona. Institutional buildings and streets are named in
Valencian. The city is also home to many pro-
Valencian political and
civil organisations. Furthermore, education entirely in
offered in more than 70 state-owned schools in the city, as well as by
University of Valencia
University of Valencia across all disciplines.
Glass of orxata de xufa and fartons sweets.
Valencia is famous for its gastronomic culture. The paella (a simmered
rice dish with meat (usually chicken or rabbit) or seafood) was born
in Valencia; Other traditional dishes of
Valencian gastronomy includes
"fideuà", "arròs a banda", "arròs negre" (black rice), "fartons",
"bunyols", the Spanish omelette, "pinchos" and "calamares"(squids).
Valencia was also the birthplace of the cold xufa beverage known as
orxata, popular in many parts of the world, including the Americas.
Falla Na Jordana 2003 (winner)
Falles of Valencia
Main article: Falles
Every year, the five days and nights from March 15 to March 19, called
Falles, are a continual festival in Valencia; beginning on March 1,
the popular pyrotechnic events called mascletàes start every day at
2:00 pm. The
Falles (Fallas in Spanish) is an enduring tradition in
Valencia and other towns in the
Valencian Community, where it has
become an important tourist attraction. The festival began in the 18th
century, and came to be celebrated on the night of the feast day
of Saint Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters, with the burning of
waste planks of wood from their workshops, as well as worn-out wooden
objects brought by people in the neighborhood.
This tradition continued to evolve, and eventually the parots were
dressed with clothing to look like people—these were the first
ninots, with features identifiable as being those of a well-known
person from the neighborhood often added as well. In 1901 the city
inaugurated the awarding of prizes for the best
and neighborhood groups still vie with each other to make the most
impressive and outrageous creations. Their intricate assemblages,
placed on top of pedestals for better visibility, depict famous
personalities and topical subjects of the past year, presenting
humorous and often satirical commentary on them.
The 19th of March at night Valencians burn all the
Falles in an event
called "La Cremà".
History of Valencia
History of Valencia and Timeline of Valencia
The Archaeological Center of la Almoina contains a large collection of
remains of the Roman city of Valentia Edetanorum.
Valencia is one of the oldest cities in Spain, founded in the Roman
period, c. 138 BC, under the name "Valentia Edetanorum". A few
centuries later, with the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman
imperial administration, the church assumed the reins of power in the
city, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples
Vandals and Alans, and later the Visigoths).
The "Tower del Ángel" formed part of the Muslim Walls of Valencia
The city surrendered to the invading
Moors (Berbers and Arabs) about
714 AD, and the cathedral of Saint Vincent was turned into a
The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, in
command of a combined Christian and Moorish army, besieged the city
beginning in 1092. After the siege ended in May 1094, he ruled the
city and its surrounding territory as his own fiefdom for five years
from 15 June 1094 to July 1099.
The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until 1102, when
the Almoravids retook the city and restored the Muslim religion.
Alfonso VI of León and Castile, drove them from the city, but was
unable to hold it. The Almoravid Masdali took possession on 5 May
1109, then the Almohads, seized control of it in 1171.
Many Jews lived in
Valencia during early Muslim rule, including the
accomplished Jewish poet Solomon ibn Gabirol, who spent his last years
in the city. Jews continued to live in
Valencia throughout the
Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, many of them being artisans such as
silversmiths, shoemakers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, etc.; a few were
rabbinic scholars. When the city fell to James I of Aragon, the Jewish
population of the city constituted about 7 percent of the
Towers of Serranos is one of the twelve gates that was guarding the
Christian city walls of Valencia. Of
Valencian Gothic, built between
1392 and 1398. This gate was the used by kings to enter the city.
In 1238, King James I of Aragon, with an army composed of
Aragonese, Catalans, Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of
Calatrava, laid siege to
Valencia and on 28 September obtained a
surrender. Fifty thousand
Moors were forced to leave.
The city endured serious troubles in the mid-14th century, including
the decimation of the population by the
Black Death of 1348 and
subsequent years of epidemics — as well as a series of wars and
riots that followed. In 1391, the Jewish quarter was destroyed.
The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the
Valencian Golden Age, in which culture and the arts flourished.
Concurrent population growth made
Valencia the most populous city in
the Crown of Aragon.
Some of the most emblematic buildings of the city were built during
this period, including the Serrans Towers (1392), the Silk Exchange
(1482), the Micalet and the Chapel of the Kings of the Convent of Sant
Domènec. In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an
Valencia rose to become one of the most influential cities on the
Mediterranean in the 15th and 16th centuries, but following the
discovery of the Americas, the Valencians, like the Catalans,
Aragonese and Majorcans, were prohibited participation in the
cross-Atlantic commerce, and with this loss of trade, Valencia
eventually suffered an economic crisis.
Expulsion of the Moriscos
Expulsion of the Moriscos from
Valencia Grau by Pere Oromig. Painting
The crisis deepened during the 17th century with the expulsion in 1609
of the Jews and the Moriscos, descendants of the Muslim population
that had converted to Christianity. The Spanish government
Moriscos to leave the kingdom for Muslim North
Africa. They were concentrated in the former Kingdom of Aragon, and in
Valencia area specifically, they were roughly a third of the total
population. The expulsion caused the financial ruin of some of the
nobility and the bankruptcy of the Taula de Canvi financial
institution in 1613.
The decline of the city reached its nadir with the War of Spanish
Succession (1702–1709), marking the end of the political and legal
independence of the Kingdom of Valencia. During the War of the Spanish
Valencia sided with the
Habsburg ruler of the Holy Roman
Empire, Charles of Austria. On 24 January 1706, Charles Mordaunt, 3rd
Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth, led a handful of English
cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, captured
the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffed the Spanish Bourbon army
The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts
to expel them. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of
Almansa on 25 April 1707, the English army evacuated
Philip V ordered the repeal of the privileges of
punishment for the kingdom's support of Charles of Austria. By the
Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta) the ancient Charters
Valencia were abolished and the city was governed by the Castilian
Valencian economy recovered during the 18th century with the
rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The Palau de
Justícia is an example of the affluence manifested in the most
prosperous times of Bourbon rule (1758–1802) during the rule of
Charles III. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in
Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory
Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with
the leading French and German thinkers of the time.
Triumphal welcome of Ferdinand VII of
Spain at Valencia, 1814 by
The 19th century began with
Spain embroiled in wars with France,
Portugal, and England—but the War of Independence most affected the
Valencian territories and the capital city. The repercussions of the
French Revolution were still felt when Napoleon's armies invaded the
Iberian Peninsula. The
Valencian people rose up in arms against them
on 23 May 1808, inspired by leaders such as Vicent Doménech el
The mutineers seized the Citadel, a Supreme Junta government took
over, and on 26–28 June, Napoleon's Marshal Moncey attacked the city
with a column of 9,000 French imperial troops in the First Battle of
Valencia. He failed to take the city in two assaults and retreated to
Madrid. Marshal Suchet began a long siege of the city in October 1811,
and after intense bombardment forced it to surrender on 8 January
1812. After the capitulation, the French instituted reforms in
Valencia, which became the capital of
Spain when the Bonapartist
pretender to the throne, José I (Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder
brother), moved the Court there in the middle of 1812. The disaster of
Battle of Vitoria
Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813 obliged Suchet to quit Valencia,
and the French troops withdrew in July.
Ferdinand VII became king after the victorious end of the Peninsular
War, which freed
Spain from Napoleonic domination. When he returned on
24 March 1814 from exile in France, the Cortes requested that he
respect the liberal Constitution of 1812, which seriously limited
royal powers. Ferdinand refused and went to
Valencia instead of
Madrid. Here, on 17 April, General Elio invited the King to reclaim
his absolute rights and put his troops at the King's disposition. The
king abolished the Constitution of 1812 and dissolved the two chambers
of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. Thus began six years
(1814–1820) of absolutist rule, but the constitution was reinstated
during the Trienio Liberal, a period of three years of liberal
Spain from 1820–1823.
Valencia in 1832 by French Alfred Guesdon
On the death of King Ferdinand VII in 1833, Baldomero Espartero became
one of the most ardent defenders of the hereditary rights of the
king's daughter, the future Isabella II. During the regency of Maria
Cristina, Espartero ruled
Spain for two years as its 18th Prime
Minister from 16 September 1840 to 21 May 1841. City life in Valencia
carried on in a revolutionary climate, with frequent clashes between
liberals and republicans.
The reign of Isabella II as an adult (1843–1868) was a period of
relative stability and growth for Valencia. During the second half of
the 19th century the bourgeoisie encouraged the development of the
city and its environs; land-owners were enriched by the introduction
of the orange crop and the expansion of vineyards and other crops,.
This economic boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and
Valencian language, which had been ruthlessly suppressed from
the time of Philip V. Around 1870, the
Valencian Renaissance, a
movement committed to the revival of the
Valencian language and
traditions, began to gain ascendancy.
Palau de l'Exposició (Palacio de la Exposición), site of Regional
Exhibition of 1909
In the early 20th century
Valencia was an industrialised city. The
silk industry had disappeared, but there was a large production of
hides and skins, wood, metals and foodstuffs, this last with
substantial exports, particularly of wine and citrus. Small businesses
predominated, but with the rapid mechanisation of industry larger
companies were being formed. The best expression of this dynamic was
in the regional exhibitions, including that of 1909 held next to the
pedestrian avenue L'Albereda (Paseo de la Alameda), which depicted the
progress of agriculture and industry. Among the most architecturally
successful buildings of the era were those designed in the Art Nouveau
style, such as the North Station (Estació del Nord) and the Central
and Columbus markets.
World War I (1914–1918) greatly affected the
causing the collapse of its citrus exports. The Second Spanish
Republic (1931–1939) opened the way for democratic participation and
the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to
the rise of Conservative Front power in 1933. The inevitable march to
civil war and the combat in
Madrid resulted in the removal of the
capital of the Republic to Valencia.
On 6 November 1936, the city became the capital of Republican Spain.
The city was heavily bombarded by air and sea, and by the end of the
war the city had survived 442 bombardments, leaving 2,831 dead and 847
wounded, although it is estimated that the death toll was higher. The
Republican government moved to
Barcelona on 31 October of that year.
On 30 March 1939,
Valencia surrendered and the Nationalist troops
entered the city. The postwar years were a time of hardship for
Valencians. During Franco's regime speaking or teaching
prohibited; in a significant reversal it is now compulsory for every
schoolchild in Valencia.
The dictatorship of Franco forbade political parties and began a harsh
ideological and cultural repression countenanced and sometimes
even led by the Church.
The economy began to recover in the early 1960s, and the city
experienced explosive population growth through immigration spurred by
the jobs created with the implementation of major urban projects and
infrastructure improvements. With the advent of democracy in Spain,
the ancient kingdom of
Valencia was established as a new autonomous
Valencian Community, the Statute of Autonomy of 1982
Valencia as its capital.
Valencia has since then experienced a surge in its cultural
development, exemplified by exhibitions and performances at such
iconic institutions as the Palau de la Música, the Palacio de
Congresos, the Metro, the
City of Arts and Sciences
City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les
Arts i les Ciències), the
Valencian Museum of Enlightenment and
Modernity (Museo Valenciano de la Ilustracion y la Modernidad), and
the Institute of Modern Art (Institut Valencià d'Art Modern). The
various productions of Santiago Calatrava, a renowned structural
engineer, architect, and sculptor and of the architect Félix Candela
have contributed to Valencia's international reputation. These public
works and the ongoing rehabilitation of the Old City (Ciutat Vella)
have helped improve the city's livability and tourism is continually
On 9 July 2006, the World Day of Families, during Mass at Valencia's
Cathedral, Our Lady of the Forsaken Basilica,
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI used,
the Sant Calze, a 1st-century Middle-Eastern artifact that some
Catholics believe is the Holy Grail. It was supposedly brought to that
church by Emperor Valerian in the 3rd century, after having been
brought by St. Peter to Rome from Jerusalem. The Sant Calze (Holy
Chalice) is a simple, small stone cup. Its base was added during the
medieval period and consists of fine gold, alabaster and gem
Valencia was selected in 2003 to host the historic
America's Cup yacht
race, the first European city ever to do so. The
America's Cup matches
took place from April to July 2007. On 3 July 2007,
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand to retain the America's Cup. Twenty-two days later,
on 25 July 2007, the leaders of the
Alinghi syndicate, holder of the
America's Cup, officially announced that
Valencia would be the host
city for the 33rd America's Cup, held in June 2009.
Valencia City Council elections from 1991 to 2015 the City
Council was governed by the People's Party of
Spain (Partido Popular)
(PP) and Mayor
Rita Barberá Nolla
Rita Barberá Nolla who became mayor by a pact made
Baroque belfry of the Gothic Santa Catalina church
Major monuments include
Valencia Cathedral, the Torres de Serrans, the
Torres de Quart (es:Torres de Quart), the
Llotja de la Seda
Llotja de la Seda (declared
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
UNESCO in 1996), and the Ciutat de les Arts i
les Ciències (City of Arts and Sciences), an entertainment-based
cultural and architectural complex designed by
Santiago Calatrava and
Félix Candela. The
Museu de Belles Arts de València
Museu de Belles Arts de València houses a
large collection of paintings from the 14th to the 18th centuries,
including works by Velázquez, El Greco, and Goya, as well as an
important series of engravings by Piranesi. The Institut Valencià
d'Art Modern (
Valencian Institute of Modern Art) houses both permanent
collections and temporary exhibitions of contemporary art and
The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings
dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the
13th and 15th centuries, is primarily of
Valencian Gothic style but
contains elements of Baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the
Cathedral is the Gothic
Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Mare
de Déu dels Desamparats). The 15th-century Serrans and Quart towers
are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.
UNESCO has recognised the Silk Exchange market (La Llotja de la Seda),
erected in early
Valencian Gothic style, as a World Heritage Site.
The Central Market (Mercat Central) in
Art Nouveau style, is
one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station Estació Del
Nord is built in
Art Nouveau (a Spanish version of Art
World-renowned (and city-born) architect
Santiago Calatrava produced
City of Arts and Sciences
City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les
Ciències), which contains an opera house/performing arts centre, a
science museum, an
IMAX cinema/planetarium, an oceanographic park and
other structures such as a long covered walkway and restaurants.
Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the
centre of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) (es:Palacio
de la Música de Valencia) is another noteworthy example of modern
architecture in Valencia.
Cathedral of Valencia
Llotja de la Seda
Llotja de la Seda (Silk Exchange, interior)
Mercat de Colon in
Art Nouveau style
Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas
IMAX Dome cinema)
Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe
Assut de l'Or Bridge
Assut de l'Or Bridge and
"Veles e Vents" building
Mercat Central (Central Market), in
Art Nouveau style
Museum of Fine Arts of Valencia
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia
Espai Verd building
Northern view of the cathedral: dome, apse, and the
Basilica of Our
Valencia Cathedral was called Iglesia Major in the early days of
the Reconquista, then Iglesia de la Seu (Seu is from the
i.e., (archiepiscopal) See), and by virtue of the papal concession of
16 October 1866, it was called the
Basilica Metropolitana. It is
situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city where some believe
the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it seems to have been
dedicated to the Holy Saviour; the Cid dedicated it to the Blessed
James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon did likewise, leaving in the main
chapel the image of the Blessed Virgin, which he carried with him and
is reputed to be the one now preserved in the sacristy. The Moorish
mosque, which had been converted into a
Christian Church by the
conqueror, was deemed unworthy of the title of the cathedral of
Valencia, and in 1262 Bishop Andrés de Albalat laid the cornerstone
of the new Gothic building, with three naves; these reach only to the
choir of the present building. Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the
chapter hall, and James I added the tower, called El Micalet because
it was blessed on St. Michael's day in 1418. The tower is about 58
metres (190 feet) high and is topped with a belfry (1660–1736).
In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of
the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main
entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of
the main chapel in 1674; the walls were decorated with marbles and
bronzes in the Baroque style of that period. At the beginning of the
18th century the German Conrad Rudolphus built the façade of the main
entrance. The other two doors lead into the transept; one, that of the
Apostles in pure pointed Gothic, dates from the 14th century, the
other is that of the Palau. The additions made to the back of the
cathedral detract from its height. The 18th-century restoration
rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian
pillars, and redecorated the walls.
Sitting of the Tribunal de les Aigües outside the
Portal of the
Apostles of the
The dome has no lantern, its plain ceiling being pierced by two large
side windows. There are four chapels on either side, besides that at
the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, and the
sanctuary. It contains many paintings by eminent artists. A silver
reredos, which was behind the altar, was carried away in the war of
1808, and converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign.
There are two paintings by Francisco de
Goya in the San Francesco
chapel. Behind the Chapel of the
Blessed Sacrament is a small
Renaissance chapel built by Calixtus III. Beside the cathedral is the
chapel dedicated to the Our Lady of the Forsaken (Mare de Déu dels
The Tribunal de les Aigües (Water Court), a court dating from Moorish
times that hears and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water,
sits at noon every Thursday outside the Porta dels Apostols (
In 1409, a hospital was founded and placed under the patronage of
Santa Maria dels Innocents; to this was attached a confraternity
devoted to recovering the bodies of the unfriended dead in the city
and within a radius of three miles (4.8 kilometres) around it. At the
end of the 15th century this confraternity separated from the
hospital, and continued its work under the name of "Cofradia para el
ámparo de los desamparados". King Philip IV of
Spain and the Duke of
Arcos suggested the building of the new chapel, and in 1647 the
Viceroy, Conde de Oropesa, who had been preserved from the bubonic
plague, insisted on carrying out their project. The Blessed Virgin was
proclaimed patroness of the city under the title of Virgen de los
desamparados (Virgin of the Forsaken), and Archbishop Pedro de Urbina,
on 31 June 1652, laid the cornerstone of the new chapel of this name.
The archiepiscopal palace, a grain market in the time of the Moors, is
simple in design, with an inside cloister and a handsome chapel. In
1357, the arch that connects it with the cathedral was built. Inside
the council chamber are preserved the portraits of all the prelates of
Sant Joan del Mercat
Sant Joan del Mercat- Gothic parish church dedicated to John the
Baptist and Evangelist, rebuilt in Baroque style after a 1598 fire.
The interior ceilings was frescoed by Palomino.
El Temple (the Temple), the ancient church of the Knights Templar,
which passed into the hands of the
Order of Montesa and was rebuilt in
the reigns of Ferdinand VI and Charles III; the former convent of the
Dominicans, at one time the headquarters of the Capitan General, the
cloister of which has a beautiful Gothic wing and the chapter room,
large columns imitating palm trees; the Colegio del Corpus Christi,
which is devoted to the Blessed Sacrament, and in which perpetual
adoration is carried on; the Jesuit college, which was destroyed in
1868 by the revolutionary Committee of the Popular Front, but later
rebuilt; and the Colegio de San Juan (also of the Society), the former
college of the nobles, now a provincial institute for secondary
Squares and gardens
Plaça de l'Ajuntament
The largest plaza in
Valencia is the Plaça del Ajuntament; it is home
to the City Hall (Ajuntament) on its western side and the central post
office (Edifici de Correus) on its eastern side, a cinema that shows
classic movies, and many restaurants and bars. The plaza is triangular
in shape, with a large cement lot at the southern end, normally
surrounded by flower vendors. It serves as ground zero during the Les
Falles when the fireworks of the
Mascletà can be heard every
afternoon. There is a large fountain at the northern end.
The Plaça de la Mare de Déu contains the
Basilica of the Virgin and
the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists.
Around the corner is the Plaça de la Reina, with the Cathedral,
orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.
The Turia River was diverted in the 1960s, after severe flooding, and
the old riverbed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children's
playground, a fountain, and sports fields.
Garden in Turia River
The Palau de la Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City
of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. The
Valencia Bioparc is a zoo,
also located in the Turia riverbed.
Other gardens in
The Jardíns de Monfort (es:Jardines de Monforte).
The Jardí Botànic (Botanical Gardens).
The Jardíns del Real or Jardíns de Vivers (Del Real Gardens), they
are located in the Pla del Real district, on just the former site of
the Del Real Palace.
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències complex designed by the
Santiago Calatrava and Madrilenian Félix
L'Oceanogràfic, located within the complex of the Ciutat de les Arts
i les Ciències, is currently the largest aquarium in Europe, it
houses 45,000 animals of 500 different species.
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències (City of Arts and Sciences).
Designed by the
Valencian architect Santiago Calatrava, it is situated
in the former Túria river-bed and comprises the following monuments:
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía, a flamboyant opera and music palace
with four halls and a total area of 37,000 m2
(398,000 sq ft).
L'Oceanogràfic, the largest aquarium in Europe, with a variety of
ocean beings from different environments: from the Mediterranean,
fishes from the ocean and reef inhabitants, sharks, mackerel swarms,
dolphinarium, inhabitants of the polar regions (belugas, walruses,
penguins), coast inhabitants (sea lions), etc. L'Oceanogràfic
exhibits also smaller animals as coral, jellyfish, sea anemones, etc.
El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe, an interactive museum of
science but resembling the skeleton of a whale. It has an area of
around 40,000 square metres (430,556 square feet) over three floors.
L'Hemisfèric, an Imax cinema. (es:L'Hemisfèric)
Museu de Prehistòria de València (Prehistory Museum of Valencia)
Museu Valencià d'Etnologia (
Valencian Museum of Ethnology)
House Museum Blasco Ibáñez
Institut Valencià d'Art Modern
Institut Valencià d'Art Modern – Centre Julio González
Julio González Centre –
Valencian Institute of Modern Art
Museu de Belles Arts de València
Museu de Belles Arts de València (Museum of Fine Arts)
Museu Faller (
Museu d'Història de València (
Valencia History Museum)
Museu Taurí de València (
MuVIM – Museu Valencià de la Il·lustració i la Modernitat
Valencian Museum of Enlightenment and Modernity)
González Martí National Museum of Ceramics and Decorative Arts
Computer Museum – is located within Technical School of Computer
Engineering (Polytechnic University of Valencia)
Estadi Ciutat de València
Pavelló Municipal Font de Sant Lluís
Estadi Ciutat de València
Segunda División B
Municipal de Manises
Valencia CF Mestalla
Segunda División B
Estadi Antonio Puchades
Valencia Basket Club
Pavelló Municipal Font de Sant Lluís
Instalacions polideportives del Saler
Estadi Municipal Jardí del Turia
División de Honor B
Poliesportiu Quatre carreres
CAU Rugby Valencia
División de Honor B
Camp del Riu Turia
Rugby Club Valencia
División de Honor B
Poliesportiu Quatre carreres
Valencia is also internationally famous for its football club,
Valencia C.F., one of the most successful clubs in Europe and La Liga,
which won the Spanish league in 2002 and 2004 (the year it also won
the UEFA Cup), for a total of six times, and was a UEFA Champions
League runner-up in 2000 and 2001. The club is currently owned by
Peter Lim, a Singaporean businessman who bought the club in 2014. The
team's stadium is the Mestalla; its city rival
Levante UD plays in the
La Liga after club was re-promoted after club was relegated previous
season, its stadium is Estadi Ciutat de València.
Valencia is the only city in
Spain with two
American football teams in
LNFA Serie A, the national first division:
Valencia Firebats and
Valencia Giants. The Firebats have been national champions four times
and have represented
Spain in the European playoffs since
2005. Both teams share the Jardín del Turia stadium.
Valencia Street Circuit
Once a year between 2008–2012 the European
Formula One Grand Prix
took place in the
Valencia Street Circuit.
Valencia is among (with
Porto and Monte Carlo) the only European cities ever to
Formula One World Championship Grands Prix on public roads in the
middle of cities. The final race in 2012
European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix saw an
extremely popular winner, since home driver
Fernando Alonso won for
Ferrari in spite of starting halfway down the field. The Valencian
Community motorcycle Grand Prix (Gran Premi de la Comunitat Valenciana
de motociclisme) is part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season at
Circuit Ricardo Tormo
Circuit Ricardo Tormo (also known as Circuit de Valencia) held in
November. Periodically the Spanish round of the Deutsche Tourenwagen
Masters touring car racing Championship (DTM) is held in Valencia.
Valencia is also the home of the Asociación Española de Rugby
League, who are the governing body for
Rugby League in Spain. The city
plays host to a number of clubs playing the sport and to date has
hosted all the country's home international matches. In 2015
Valencia hosted their first match in the
Rugby League European
Federation C competition, which was a qualifier for the 2017 Rugby
League World Cup.
Spain won the fixture 40-30
Pont de la Mar is one of the five existing medieval and early-modern
bridges of the city
Towers of Quart, christian city gate built between 1441 and 1460.
Ciutat Vella: La Seu, La Xerea, El Carmen, El Pilar, El Mercat, Sant
Eixample: Russafa, El Pla del Remei, Gran Via.
Extramurs: El Botànic, La Roqueta, La Petxina, Arrancapins.
Campanar: Campanar, Les Tendetes, El Calvari, Sant Pau.
La Saïdia: Marxalenes, Morvedre, Trinitat, Tormos, Sant Antoni.
Pla del Real: Exposició, Mestalla, Jaume Roig, Ciutat Universitària
Olivereta: Nou Moles, Soternes, Tres Forques, La Fontsanta, La Llum.
Patraix: Patraix, Sant Isidre, Vara de Quart, Safranar, Favara.
Jesús: La Raiosa, L'Hort de Senabre, La Creu Coberta, Sant
Marcel·lí, Camí Real.
Quatre Carreres: Montolivet, En Corts, Malilla, La Font de Sant
Lluís, Na Rovella, La Punta, Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències.
Poblats Marítims: El Grau, El Cabanyal, El Canyameral, La Malva-Rosa,
Camins del Grau: Aiora, Albors, Creu del Grau, Camí Fondo,
Algiròs: Illa Perduda, Ciutat Jardí, Amistat, Vega Baixa, La
Benimaclet: Benimaclet, Camí de Vera.
Rascanya: Orriols, Torrefiel, Sant Llorenç.
Benicalap: Benicalap, Ciutat Fallera.
Other towns within the municipality of Valencia
These towns administratively are within of districts of Valencia.
Towns at north: Benifaraig, Poble Nou, Carpesa, Cases de Bàrcena,
Mauella, Massarrojos, Borbotó.
Towns at west: Benimàmet, Beniferri.
Towns at south: Forn d'Alcedo, Castellar-l'Oliveral, Pinedo, El Saler,
El Palmar, El Perellonet, La Torre,
People born in
Juan Luis Vives
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
Joan Baptista Aguilar (d.1714), poet
Saint Vincent Ferrer
Saint Vincent Ferrer (23 January 1350 – 5 April 1419), powerful
preacher of end times judgement and worker of 1,000's and 1,000's of
miracles all over Europe.
Concepción Aleixandre, educator and gynecologist
Pope Alexander VI, Pope from 1492 to 1503
Main article: Route of the Borgias
Alfonso III, King of
Aragon and Count of
Barcelona (as Alfons II)
Juan Bautista Bayuco, 17th-century painter
Josep Maria Bayarri, linguist, poet and writer
José Benlliure y Gil, painter
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867–1928), Spanish realist novelist
writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director
Nino Bravo (birth name, Luis Manuel Ferri Llopis) (1944–1973),
Santiago Calatrava, internationally recognised and award-winning
Pope Callixtus III, Pope from 1455 to 1458
Main article: Route of the Borgias
Guillén de Castro (1569–1631), famous Spanish writer of the Spanish
Pedro Carlos Cavadas Rodríguez (born 1965), pioneering surgeon
Antonio José Cavanilles, taxonomic botanist
Victor Claver, basketball player
Roberto Soldado, footballer
Paco Alcácer, footballer
David Albelda, former footballer
Vicente, former footballer
María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
politician and the first female First Deputy Prime Minister of Spain
Saint Vincent Ferrer, Dominican missionary and logician
Joan Fuster, philologist, historian and writer
Vicente Gandia (1935–2009), painter, artist
Luis García Berlanga, film director and screenwriter
Rafael Guastavino, architect and builder, creator of the Guastavino
José Iturbi, conductor and pianist
King James II of Aragon
Salvador Larroca, comic book artist
Joaquín Lloréns Fernández de Cordoba, Carlist soldier and
Joaquín Manglano y Cucaló, city mayor (1939–1943) and Carlist
Ausiàs March, poet
Joanot Martorell (1413–1468), knight and writer the author of the
novel Tirant lo Blanch
Fernando Miranda y Casellas, Spanish-American sculptor and illustrator
Manuel Palau, music composer
Antonio Peris Carbonell, Spanish expressionist painter and sculptor
Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon (Peter the Great)
Raimon, composer and singer
Joaquín Rodrigo, music composer
Joan Roís de Corella, poet and writer
Ricardo Samper (1881–1938), politician
Manuel Sanchis i Guarner, philologist, historian and writer
Luis de Santángel
Luis de Santángel (1866–1927), finance minister
Enrique Simonet, painter
Josu De Solaun Soto, classical music pianist
Joaquin Sorolla, painter, who excelled in the painting of portraits,
landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes
Francisco Tárrega, influential Spanish composer and guitarist
Ramón Tebar, conductor and pianist
Enric Valor i Vives, grammarian and writer
Joan Lluís Vives, scholar and humanist
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain
Valencia is twinned with:
Mainz, Germany, since 4 August 1978
Bologna, Italy, since 29 June 1979
Veracruz, Mexico, since 26 September 1984
Sacramento, USA, since 29 June 1989
Valencia, Venezuela, since 20 March 1982
Odessa, Ukraine, since 13 May 1982
Archdiocese of Valencia
List of tallest buildings in Valencia
Valencia City Council elections
Prehistory of the
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "James I. of Aragon". Encyclopædia
Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Martínez Díez, Gonzalo (1999).
El Cid histórico: un estudio
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of
Valencia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
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the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article
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Culture. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-134-78858-3.
^ Antonio Ariño Villarroya (1 January 1992). La ciudad ritual: la
fiesta de las Fallas. Anthropos Editorial. p. 60.
^ Vicente Coscollá Sanz (2003). La
Valencia musulmana. Carena
Editors, S.l. p. 16. ISBN 978-84-87398-75-9.
^ a b c Angel Saénz-Badillos, “Valencia”, in: Encyclopedia of
Jews in the Islamic World, Executive Editor Norman A. Stillman. First
published online: 2010
^ Pierre Guichard (2001).
Al-Andalus frente a la conquista cristiana:
los musulmanes de Valencia, siglos XI-XIII. Universitat de València.
p. 176. ISBN 978-84-7030-852-9.
^ Chisholm 1911.
^ Meyerson, Mark D. (1991). The Muslims of
Valencia in the Age of
Fernando and Isabel: between Coexistence and Crusade. Berkeley,
California: University of California Press. p. 14.
^ Norwich, John Jules (2007). The Middle Sea. A History of the
Mediterranean. London: Chatto & Windus.
^ Mary Reichardt (2010). Between Human and Divine: The Catholic Vision
in Contemporary Literature. CUA Press. pp. 87–88.
^ Michael R. Tobin (17 October 2007). Georges Bernanos. McGill-Queen's
Press – MQUP. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7735-6045-1.
^ Georges Bernanos; Michel del Castillo (2008). Les grands cimetières
sous la lune (in French). Castor astral. p. 15.
^ "About the Santo Caliz (Holy Chalice)". Catholicnews.com. Archived
from the original on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
^ Announcement of the election as host city for 33rd America's Cup
Archived 23 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias (2011). "Sitio oficial de Ciudad
de las Artes y las Ciencias". Cac.es. Retrieved 18 September
Generalitat Valenciana (ed.). "MUSEO DE BELLAS ARTES DE VALENCIA".
Museobellasartesvalencia.gva.es. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
Generalitat Valenciana (ed.). "Instituto Valenciano de Arte
Moderno". Ivam.es. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
^ "La Lonja listing on Unesco site". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 9 March
^ "Valencia's unique 'Water Court'". Reality Sense. Retrieved 31
^ Ayuntamiento de
Valencia (2010). "Ayuntamiento de Valencia. JARDINES
DEL REAL – JARDINES DE VIVEROS". www.valencia.es. Retrieved 29 May
^ www.webmandesign.eu, WebMan -. "Información Oceanografic de
^ "Museo de Informática Web del Museo de Informática de la UPV".
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Spain and Portugal: handbook for travellers (3rd ed.).
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"Valencia". The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). New York:
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