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Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (/ˈvæləri ˈmɛəri ˈrɛneɪ ˈdʒɔːrdʒ ˈdʒɪskɑːrd ˈdɛsteɪn/; French pronunciation: ​[valeʁi maʁi ʁəne ʒɔʁʒ ʒiskaʁ destɛ̃]; born 2 February 1926),[1] also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of the French Republic from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council of France.[2] At age 92, Giscard, a centrist, is currently the oldest living former French President. As Minister of Finance under Prime Ministers Jacques Chaban-Delmas and Pierre Messmer, he won the presidential election of 1974 with 50.8% of the vote against François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
of the Socialist Party. His tenure was marked by a more liberal attitude on social issues—such as divorce, contraception, and abortion—and attempts to modernise the country and the office of the presidency, notably launching such far-reaching infrastructure projects as the high-speed TGV
TGV
and the turn towards reliance on nuclear power as France's main energy source. However, his popularity suffered from the economic downturn that followed the 1973 energy crisis, marking the end of the "thirty glorious years" after World War II. Giscard faced political opposition from both sides of the spectrum: from the newly unified left of François Mitterrand, and from a rising Jacques Chirac, who resurrected Gaullism
Gaullism
on a right-wing opposition line. In 1981, despite a high approval rating, he missed out on re-election in a runoff against Mitterrand, with a 48.2% to 51.8% margin.[3] As a former president, he is a member of the Constitutional Council. He also served after his tenure as President of France
President of France
as President of the Regional Council of Auvergne from 1986 to 2004. Involved with the European Union, he notably presided over the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the ill-fated Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. In 2003, he was elected to the Académie française, taking the seat that his friend and former president of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
had held.

Contents

1 Education 2 Early political career

2.1 First offices: 1956–1962 2.2 Member of the Gaullist
Gaullist
majority: 1962–1974 2.3 Presidential election victory

3 President of France

3.1 Domestic policy 3.2 Foreign policy 3.3 1981 presidential election

4 Post-presidency

4.1 Return to politics: 1984–2004 4.2 The elder former President: 2004–present

5 European activities 6 Political career 7 Personal life

7.1 Family 7.2 Possession of the Estaing castle 7.3 Questions about his 2009 novel

8 Honours

8.1 National honours 8.2 European honours 8.3 Foreign honours

8.3.1 As Minister of Finance 8.3.2 As President of France

8.4 Other honours

9 Heraldry 10 Ancestry 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Education[edit] Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing was born on 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany, during the French occupation of the Rhineland. He is the elder son of Jean Edmond Lucien Giscard d'Estaing (29 March 1894 – 3 August 1982), a high-ranking civil servant, and his wife, Marthe Clémence Jacqueline Marie (May) Bardoux (6 May 1901 – 13 March 2003). His mother was a daughter of senator and academic Achille Octave Marie Jacques Bardoux, making her a great-granddaughter of minister of state education Agénor Bardoux. She was also, through her own mother, a granddaughter of historian Georges Picot, a niece of diplomat François Georges-Picot, and a great-great-great-granddaughter of King Louis XV of France
Louis XV of France
by one of his mistresses, Catherine Eléonore Bernard (1740–1769), through her great-grandfather Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet, by whom Giscard d'Estaing was a multiple descendant of Charlemagne. Giscard had an older sister, Sylvie (1924–2008). He has a younger brother, Olivier, as well as two younger sisters: Isabelle (born 1935) and Marie-Laure (born 1939). Despite the addition of "d'Estaing" to the family name by his grandfather, Giscard is not descended from the extinct noble family of Vice-Admiral d'Estaing, that name being adopted by his grandfather in 1922 by reason of a distant connection to another branch of that family,[4] from which they were descended with two breaks in the male line from an illegitimate line of the Viscounts
Viscounts
d'Estaing. He joined the French Resistance
French Resistance
and participated in the Liberation of Paris; during the liberation he was tasked with protecting Alexandre Parodi. He then joined the French First Army and served until the end of the war. He was later awarded the Croix de guerre for his military service. In 1948, he spent a year in Montreal, Canada, where he worked as a teacher at Collège Stanislas.[5] He studied at Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, École Gerson and Lycées Janson-de-Sailly and Louis-le-Grand in Paris. He graduated from the École Polytechnique
École Polytechnique
and the École nationale d'administration (1949–1951) and chose to enter the prestigious Inspection des finances. He acceded to the Tax and Revenue Service, then joined the staff of Prime Minister Edgar Faure
Edgar Faure
(1955–1956). He is fluent in German.[6] Early political career[edit] First offices: 1956–1962[edit] In 1956, he was elected to Parliament as a deputy for the Puy-de-Dôme département, in the domain of his maternal family. He joined the National Centre of Independents and Peasants
National Centre of Independents and Peasants
(CNIP), a conservative grouping. After the proclamation of the Fifth Republic, the CNIP leader Antoine Pinay
Antoine Pinay
became Minister of Economy and Finance and chose him as Secretary of State for Finances from 1959 to 1962. Member of the Gaullist
Gaullist
majority: 1962–1974[edit]

Giscard with US President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
at the White House, in Washington, D.C., 1962

In 1962, while Giscard had been nominated Minister of Economy and Finance, his party broke with the Gaullists and left the majority coalition. The CNIP reproached President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
for his euro-scepticism. But Giscard refused to resign and founded the Independent Republicans (RI), which became the junior partner of the Gaullists in the "presidential majority". However, in 1966, he was dismissed from the cabinet. He transformed the RI into a political party, the National Federation of the Independent Republicans (FNRI), and founded the Perspectives and Realities Clubs. He did not leave the majority, but became more critical. In this, he criticised the "solitary practice of the power" and summarised his position towards De Gaulle's policy by a "yes, but ...". As chairman of the National Assembly Committee on Finances, he harassed his successor in the cabinet. For that reason the Gaullists refused to re-elect him to that position after the 1968 legislative election. In 1969, unlike most of FNRI's elected officials, Giscard advocated a "no" vote in the constitutional referendum concerning the regions and the Senate, while De Gaulle had announced his intention to resign if the "no" won. The Gaullists accused him of being largely responsible for De Gaulle's departure. During the 1969 presidential campaign he supported the winning candidate Georges Pompidou, after which he returned to the Ministry of Economy and Finance. On the French political scene, he appeared as a young brilliant politician, and a preeminent expert in economic issues. He was representative of a new generation of politicians emerging from the senior civil service, seen as "technocrats". Presidential election victory[edit] In 1974, after the sudden death of President Pompidou, Giscard announced his candidacy for the presidency. His two main challengers were François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
for the left and Jacques Chaban-Delmas, a former Gaullist
Gaullist
Prime Minister. Supported by his FNRI party, he obtained the rallying of the centrist Reforming Movement. Moreover, he benefited from the divisions in the Gaullist
Gaullist
party. Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
and other Gaullist
Gaullist
personalities published the "Call of the 43" where they explained that Giscard was the best candidate to prevent the election of Mitterrand. In the election, Giscard finished well ahead of Chaban-Delmas in the first round, though coming second to Mitterrand. In the run-off on 20 May, however, Giscard narrowly defeated Mitterrand, receiving 50.7% of the vote.[7] President of France[edit] Domestic policy[edit] In 1974 Giscard was elected President of France, defeating Socialist candidate François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
by 425,000 votes—still the closest election in French history. At 48, he was the fourth youngest president in French history at the time, after Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and Jean Casimir-Perier. In 2017, Emmanuel Macron, at the age of 39, became the youngest President in the history of France.[8] He promised "change in continuity". He made clear his desire to introduce various reforms and modernise French society, which was an important part of his presidency. He for instance reduced from 21 to 18 the age of majority and pushed for the development of the TGV
TGV
high speed train network and the Minitel, a precursor of the Internet.[9] He promoted nuclear power, as a way to assert French independence. In 1975 he invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet, to form the Group of Six
Group of Six
major economic powers (now the G7, including Canada). Economically, Giscard's presidency saw a steady rise in personal incomes, with the buying power of workers going up by 29% and old age pensioners by 65%.[10] Giscard billed himself as "a conservative who likes change," and initially tried to project a less monarchical image than had been the case for past French presidents. He wore an ordinary business suit to his inauguration and eschewed the traditional motorcade down the Champs-Elysées
Champs-Elysées
in favour of strolling down the street. He took a ride on the Métro, ate monthly dinners with ordinary Frenchmen, and even invited garbage men from Paris to have breakfast with him in the Élysée Palace. However, when he learned that most Frenchmen were somewhat cool to this display of informality, Giscard became so aloof and distant that his opponents frequently attacked him as being too far removed from ordinary citizens.[11] In home policy, the president's reforms worried the conservative electorate and the Gaullist
Gaullist
party, especially the law by Simone Veil legalising abortion. Although he said he had "deep aversion against capital punishment", Giscard claimed in his 1974 campaign that he would apply the death penalty to people committing the most heinous crimes.[12] He did not commute three of the death sentences that he had to decide upon during his presidency (although he did so in several other occasions), keeping France
France
as the last country in the European Union
European Union
to apply the death penalty. These executions would be the last ever in France
France
and, had executions not resumed in the United States, the last in the Western world, as was the case until 1979 when John Spenkelink
John Spenkelink
was executed by Florida. Death sentences were continually handed out in France
France
for the remaining four years of Giscard's term but were all commuted in 1981, when capital punishment was abolished. A rivalry arose with his Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, who resigned in 1976. Raymond Barre, called the "best economist in France" at the time, succeeded him. He led a policy of strictness in a context of economic crisis ("Plan Barre"). Unexpectedly, the right-wing coalition won the 1978 legislative election. Nevertheless, relations with Chirac, who had founded the Rally for the Republic
Rally for the Republic
(RPR), became more tense. Giscard reacted by founding a centre-right confederation, the Union for French Democracy (UDF). Foreign policy[edit] In 1975 Giscard pressured the future King of Spain
Spain
Juan Carlos to leave Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
out of his coronation by stating that if Pinochet attended he would not. Having been told by Juan Carlos not to attend the coronation, Pinochet left Spain
Spain
having only attended the funeral of Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
during his visit.[13] Although France
France
received many Chilean political refugees, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's government secretly collaborated with Pinochet's and Videla's junta as shown by journalist Marie-Monique Robin.[14]

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
meeting with President of West Germany Walter Scheel
Walter Scheel
in 1975

In 1977, in the Opération Lamantin, he ordered fighter jets to deploy in Mauritania and go to war against the Polisario
Polisario
guerrillas fighting against Mauritanian military occupation of Western Sahara. But not even overt military backing proved sufficient to rescue the French-installed Mauritanian leader Mokhtar Ould Daddah, as he was overthrown by his own army some time later, and a peace agreement was signed with the Sahrawi resistance. Some sources report that Giscard sent Michel Poniatowski
Michel Poniatowski
to Tehran
Tehran
to propose to the Shah the elimination of Khomeini
Khomeini
during his exil in France.[15]

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
in 1979 with Helmut Schmidt, Jimmy Carter and James Callaghan
James Callaghan
in Guadeloupe

Most controversial however was his involvement with the regime of Jean-Bédel Bokassa
Jean-Bédel Bokassa
in the Central African Republic. Giscard was initially a friend of Bokassa, and supplied the regime. However, the growing unpopularity of that government led Giscard to begin distancing himself from Bokassa. In 1979, French troops helped drive Bokassa out of power and restore former president David Dacko.[16] This action was also controversial, particularly since Dacko was Bokassa's cousin and had appointed Bokassa as head of the military, and unrest continued in the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
leading to Dacko being overthrown in another coup in 1981. In a related incident Giscard was reported by the Canard Enchaîné
Canard Enchaîné
to have accepted diamonds as personal gifts from Bokassa – who fled to France
France
with looted millions from the Central African Republic's treasury but was still given asylum in France. Legally, official gifts to the President are property of the Republic of France, not the President; Giscard supporters contended that the diamonds were industrial-grade and thus had no sizeable monetary value. 1981 presidential election[edit] In the 1981 presidential election, Giscard took a severe blow to his support when Chirac ran against him in the first round. Chirac finished third and refused to recommend that his supporters back Giscard in the runoff, though he declared that he himself would vote for Giscard. Giscard lost to Mitterrand by 3 points in the runoff, and since then has blamed Chirac for his defeat.[17] To this day, it is widely said that Giscard loathes Chirac. Certainly on many occasions Giscard has criticised Chirac's policies despite supporting Chirac's governing coalition. Post-presidency[edit] Return to politics: 1984–2004[edit]

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
in 1986

After his defeat, Giscard retired temporarily from politics. In 1984, he regained his seat in Parliament and won the presidency of the regional council of Auvergne. In this position, he tried to encourage tourism to the région, founding the "European Centre of Volcanology" and theme park Vulcania. He was President of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions from 1997 to 2004. In 1982, along with his friend Gerald Ford, he co-founded the annual AEI World Forum. He took part, with a prominent role, in the annual Bilderberg private conference. He has also served on the Trilateral Commission after being president, writing papers with Henry Kissinger. He hoped to become Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
during the first "cohabitation" (1986–88) or after the re-election of Mitterrand with the theme of " France
France
united", but he was not chosen for this position. During the 1988 presidential campaign, he refused to choose publicly between the two right-wing candidates, his two former Prime Ministers Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
and Raymond Barre. This attitude was interpreted as indicating that he wanted to regain the UDF leadership. Indeed, he served as President of the UDF from 1988 to 1996, but he was faced with the rise of a new generation of politicians called the "renovationmen". Most of the UDF politicians supported the candidacy of the RPR Prime Minister Édouard Balladur
Édouard Balladur
at the 1995 presidential election, but Giscard supported his old rival Jacques Chirac, who won the election. That same year Giscard suffered a setback when he lost a close election for the mayoralty of Clermont-Ferrand.[18] In 2000, he made a parliamentary proposal to reduce the length of a presidential term from 7 to 5 years. President Chirac held a referendum on this issue, and the "yes" side won. He did not run for a new parliamentary term in 2002. His son Louis Giscard d'Estaing
Louis Giscard d'Estaing
was elected in his constituency. The elder former President: 2004–present[edit]

VGE in 2014

In 2003, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
was admitted to the Académie française.[19] Following his narrow defeat in the regional elections of March 2004, marked by the victory of the left wing in 21 of 22 regions, he decided to leave partisan politics and to take his seat on the Constitutional Council as a former president of the Republic. Some of his actions there, such as his campaign in favour of the Treaty establishing the European Constitution, were criticised as unbecoming to a member of this council, which should embody nonpartisanship and should not appear to favour one political option over the other. Indeed, the question of the membership of former presidents in the Council was raised at this point, with some suggesting that it should be replaced by a life membership in the Senate.[20][21] Since then, Giscard has occasionally expressed opinions about current affairs. On 19 April 2007, he endorsed Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
for the presidential election. He has supported the creation of the centrist Union of Democrats and Independents
Union of Democrats and Independents
in 2012 and the introduction of same-sex marriage in France
France
in 2013. In 2016, he supported former Prime minister François Fillon
François Fillon
in The Republicans presidential primaries A 2014 poll suggested that 64% of the French thought he had been a good president. He is considered to be an honest and competent politician, but also to be a distant man.[22] On 21 January 2017, with a lifespan of 33,226 days, he surpassed Émile Loubet
Émile Loubet
in terms of longevity, and is now the oldest former president in French history. European activities[edit]

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
at Helmut Schmidt's funeral, 23 November 2015

Giscard has, throughout his political career, always been a proponent of greater European union. In 1978, he was for this reason the obvious target of Jacques Chirac's Call of Cochin, denouncing the "party of the foreigners".[23]

VGE in the council of europe 2011

From 1989 to 1993, Giscard served as a member of the European Parliament. From 1989 to 1991, he was also chairman of the Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group.[24] From 2001 to 2004 he served as President of the Convention on the Future of Europe. On 29 October 2004, the European heads of state, gathered in Rome, approved and signed the European Constitution
European Constitution
based on a draft strongly influenced by Giscard's work at the Convention.[25] Although the Constitution was rejected by French voters in May 2005, Giscard continued to actively lobby for its passage in other European Union states. Giscard d'Estaing attracted international attention at the time of the June 2008 Irish vote on the Lisbon Treaty. In an article for Le Monde[26] in June 2007, he said that "public opinion will be led to adopt, without knowing it, the proposals we dare not present to them directly". Although the quote is accurate, it was part of a critique, taken out of context, of a suggestion made by some unnamed persons. In the next paragraph Giscard goes on to reject the idea of this course of action by saying, "This approach of 'divide and ratify' is clearly unacceptable. Perhaps it is a good exercise in presentation. But it would confirm to European citizens the notion that European construction is a procedure organised behind their backs by lawyers and diplomats." In the following paragraphs he goes on to appeal for an "honest treaty" and "total transparency" to allow citizens to hear the debate for themselves. Since 2008 he has been the Honorary President of the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture, an innovative structure composed of some of the most authoritative universities, newspapers and businesses in Europe for the selection, exchange and dissemination of the most innovative European research, to increase the movement of knowledge across borders, across sectors and to the public at large.[27] On 27 November 2009, Giscard publicly launched the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture during its first conference, held at the European Parliament,[28] declaring: "European intelligence could be at the very root of the identity of the European people."[29] A few days before he had signed, together with the President of Atomium Culture Michelangelo Baracchi Bonvicini, the European Manifesto of Atomium Culture.[citation needed] Political career[edit] President of the French Republic: 1974–1981. Member of the Constitutional Council of France: Since 1981. Governmental functions Secretary of State for Finances: 1959–1962. Minister of Finances and Economic Affairs: 1962–1966. Minister of Economy and Finances: 1969–1974. Minister of State, minister of Economy and Finances: March–May 1974 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1974) Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1989–1993 (Reelected member of the National Assembly of France
National Assembly of France
in 1993). National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France
National Assembly of France
for Puy-de-Dôme: 1956–1959 (Became minister in 1959) / Reelected in 1962, but he stays minister / 1967–1969 (Became minister in 1969) / Reelected in 1973, but he stays minister / 1984–1989 (Became member of European Parliament in 1989) / 1993–2002. Elected in 1956, re-elected in 1958, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Auvergne (region): 1986–2004. Reelected in 1992, 1998. Regional councillor of Auvergne (region): 1986–2004. Reelected in 1992, 1998. General Council General councillor of Puy-de-Dôme: 1958–1974 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1974) / 1982–1988 (Resignation). Reelected in 1964, 1970, 1982. Municipal Council Mayor of Chamalières: 1967–1974 (Resignation, Became President of the French Republic in 1974). Reelected in 1971. Municipal councillor of Chamalières: 1967–1977. Reelected in 1971. Political functions President of the National Federation of the Independent Republicans (Independent Republicans): 1966–1974 (Became President of the French Republic in 1974). President of the Union for French Democracy: 1988–1996. Personal life[edit] Giscard's name is often shortened to "VGE" by the French media. A less flattering nickname is l'Ex (the Ex), used mostly by the weekly satirical newspaper Le Canard enchaîné. Family[edit] On 17 December 1952, Giscard married his cousin Anne-Aymone Sauvage de Brantes, a daughter of Count François Sauvage de Brantes, who had died in a concentration camp in 1944, and his wife, the former Princess Aymone de Faucigny-Lucinge. Their children are: Valérie-Anne(1953–), Henri (Edmond Marie Valéry), Louis (Joachim Marie François) and Jacinte (Marguerite Marie)(1960–2018). Louis was a French conservative Representative; Henri is the President of the tourism company Club Méditerranée. Giscard's private life was the source of many rumours at both national and international level. His family did not live in the presidential Élysée Palace, and The Independent
The Independent
reported on his affairs with women.[30] In 1974, Le Monde
Le Monde
reported that he used to leave a sealed letter stating his whereabouts in case of emergency.[31] He is an uncle of artist Aurore Giscard d'Estaing, who was formerly married to American actor Timothy Hutton. Possession of the Estaing castle[edit] In 2005 he and his brother bought the castle of Estaing, a famous place in the French district of Aveyron and formerly a possession of the above-mentioned admiral d'Estaing who was beheaded in 1794. The castle is not used as a residence but it has symbolic value. The two brothers explained that the purchase, supported by the local municipality, was an act of patronage. However, a number of major newspapers in several countries questioned their motives and some hinted at self-appointed nobility and a usurped historical identity.[32] Questions about his 2009 novel[edit] Giscard wrote his second romantic novel, published on 1 October 2009 in France, entitled The Princess and The President. It tells the story of a French head of state having a romantic liaison with a character called Patricia, Princess of Cardiff. This fuelled rumours that the piece of fiction was based on a real-life liaison between Giscard and Diana, Princess of Wales.[33] He later stressed that the story was entirely made up and no such affair had happened.[34] Honours[edit] National honours[edit]

Grand-croix (and former Grand Master) of the Legion of Honour[35] Grand-croix (and former Grand Master) of the Ordre National du Mérite[35] Croix de guerre 1939–1945[35]

European honours[edit] In 2003 he received the Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Award of the German city of Aachen. He is also a Knight of Malta. He travels the world giving speeches on the European Union. During a visit to Ireland, d'Estaing was made an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College, Dublin. Foreign honours[edit] As Minister of Finance[edit]

 Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (10/1973)[36]  Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav
Order of St. Olav
(1962)

As President of France[edit]

Giscard d'Estaing's coat of arms with the Seraphim Collar

 Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
(12 October 1978)[37][38]  Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Saint James of the Sword (14 October 1975)[39]

 Portugal: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry
Order of Prince Henry
(21 October 1978)[39]  Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (1963)[40]  Spain: Knight with Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (1976)  Spain: Knight with Collar of the Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III
(1978)[41]  Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
Order of the Seraphim
(6 June 1980)[42]

Other honours[edit]

 Sovereign Order of Malta: Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta  Sovereign Order of Malta: Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi

Heraldry[edit] President Giscard d'Estaing was granted a coat of arms by Queen Margrethe II of Denmark
Denmark
upon his appointment to the Order of the Elephant, which was recognised by King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden (Photo), for his installation as a Knight of the Seraphim.[42] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

16. Martial Giscard

8. Théodore Giscard

17. Gilberte de Cousin de La Tour-Fondue

4. Valéry Giscard

18. Joseph de Lussigny

9. Marie-Anne de Lusigny

19. Bernardine Beille

2. Edmond Giscard d'Estaing

20. Antoine Monteil

10. Edmond Monteil

21. Madeleine Berthier

5. Louise Monteil-Ansaldi

22. Guillaume Ansaldi

11. Charlotte Ansaldi

23. Bernardine Rodde

1. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

24. Jacques Bardoux

12. Agénor Bardoux

25. Thérèse Pignet

6. Jacques Bardoux

26. Achille Villa

13. Clémence Villa

27. Sophie Bimar

3. Marthe Bardoux

28. Charles Picot

14. Georges Picot

29. Henriette Bidois

7. Geneviève Georges-Picot

30. Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet

15. Marie Adélaïde Bachasson de Montalivet

31. Clémentine Françoise Paillard-Duclère

See also[edit]

French presidential election, 1974 French presidential election, 1981

References[edit]

^ Profile of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing ^ VGE page on Oxford Reference. ^ "Valery Giscard d'Estaing president of France". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ See French ^ Mon tour de jardin, Robert Prévost, p. 96, Septentrion 2002 ^ "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing: "In Wahrheit ist die Bedrohung heute nicht so groß wie damals"". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ Lewis, Flora (20 May 1974). " France
France
Elects Giscard President For 7 Years After A Close Contest; Left Turned Back". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2020.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Leicester, John; Corbet, Sylvie. " Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
becomes France's youngest president". Toronto Sun. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 May 2017.  ^ "History of the Minitel". Whitepages.fr. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ D. L. Hanley, Miss A P Kerr, N. H. Waites (17 August 2005). "Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945". Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Google Books. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2013). The World Today 2013: Western Europe. Lanham, Maryland: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-4758-0505-5.  ^ "Ocala Star-Banner – Google News Archive Search".  ^ Cedéo Alvarado, Ernesto (4 February 2008). "Rey Juan Carlos abochornó a Pinochet". Panamá América. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ Conclusion of Marie-Monique Robin's Escadrons de la mort, l'école française (in French)/ Watch here film documentary (French, English, Spanish) ^ Christine Ockrent and Alexandre de Marenches, Dans le secret des princes, Stock, 1986, [[[International Standard Book NumberISBN]] 2-234-01879-X], p. 156, Ms Ockrent to Mr de Marenches: "[...] for instance, the mission of Mr Poniatowski to Tehran
Tehran
to propose to the Shah to eliminate Khomeini, then a refugee in France". ^ Bradshaw, Richard; Fandos-Rius, Juan (27 May 2016). Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810879928.  ^ Eder, Richard; Times, Special
Special
to the New York (11 May 1981). "MITTERRAND BEATS GISCARD; SOCIALIST VICTORY REVERSES TREND OF 23 YEARS IN FRANCE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "L'UMP tente un nouvel assaut en Auvergne". Le Figaro. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ "VGE devient Immortel". Le Nouvel Observateur. 17 December 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ "La Chiraquie veut protéger son chef quand il quittera l'Elysée", Libération, 14 January 2005 ^ See also the constitutional amendment proposals by senator Patrice Gélard [1] [2] ^ "Fichier BVA pour Le Parisien" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ "Le "parti de l'étranger" et "le bruit et l'odeur", les précédents dérapages de Jacques Chirac". 20 Minutes. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ "List of all current and former Members". European Parliament. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ Sabine Verhest (17 June 2003). "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing l'Européen". La Libre.be. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ ""Le Traité simplifié, oui, mutilé, non", par Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". Le Monde. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ "The Honorary President of Atomium Culture Valéry Giscard d'Estaing speaks at the public launch and first conference, Atomium Culture". Atomiumculture.eu. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Von Joachim Müller-Jung (27 November 2009). "Atomium Culture: Bienenstock der Intelligenz – Atomium Culture – Wissen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Lichfield, John (3 February 1998). "French get peek at all the presidents' women". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2014.  ^ "Hemeroteca La Vanguardia, November 30th 1974 (Spanish)".  ^ Le Monde
Le Monde
24 December 04, AFP Toulouse 23 December 04, Le Figaro 22 January 05, Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
15 February 05, The Sunday Times 16 January 05 ^ "Giscard hints at affair with Diana". Connexion. 21 September 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ "Giscard: I made up Diana love story". Connexion. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ a b c Académie française, Valéry GISCARD d’ESTAING ^ Italian Presidency Website, GISCARD D'ESTAING S.E. Valery, "Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana", when Minister of Economy and Finance ^ borger.dk, Ordensdetaljer, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Archived 17 December 2012 at Archive.is, Hans Excellence, fhv. præsident for Republikken Frankrig ^ Coat of arms
Coat of arms
in the chapel of Frederiksborg Castle ^ a b Portuguese Presidency Website, Orders search form : type "ESTAING Valéry Giscard" in "nome", then click "Pesquisar" ^ Spanish Official Gazette ^ Spanish Official Gazette ^ a b Heraldry of the Order of the Seraphim

Further reading[edit]

Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 170–176.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Valéry Giscard d'Estaing

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.

(in French) Personal blog of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (in French) Biography on the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
website (in French) First and second-round results of French presidential elections

Political offices

Preceded by Wilfrid Baumgartner Minister of Finance 1962–1966 Succeeded by Michel Debré

Preceded by François-Xavier Ortoli Minister of Finance 1969–1974 Succeeded by Jean-Pierre Fourcade

Preceded by Alain Poher Acting President of France 1974–1981 Succeeded by François Mitterrand

Party political offices

New political party Leader of the Independent Republicans 1966–1974 Succeeded by Michel Poniatowski

Preceded by Jean Lecanuet Leader of the Union for French Democracy 1988–1996 Succeeded by François Léotard

Regnal titles

Preceded by Alain Poher Acting Co-Prince of Andorra 1974–1981 Served alongside: Joan Martí Alanis Succeeded by François Mitterrand

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Alain Poher Acting Honorary Canon
Honorary Canon
of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran 1974–1981 Succeeded by François Mitterrand

Diplomatic posts

New office Chairperson of the Group of 6 1975 Succeeded by Gerald Ford

Academic offices

Preceded by Aleksander Kwaśniewski Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe 2002 Succeeded by Joschka Fischer

Order of precedence

Preceded by Claude Bartolone as President of the National Assembly Order of Precedence of France as Former President Succeeded by Jacques Chirac as Former President

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

Finance Ministers of France
France
(list)

1561–1661

de Beaune Babou du Thiers d'Annebault Guillart d'Avançon de Lorraine de Cossé-Brissac and d'Ongnyes de Birague de Bellièvre d'O de Béthune Jeannin de Schomberg de La Vieuville de Champigny and de Marillac de Ruzé de Bullion and Bouthillier Bouthillier de Bailleul and de Mesmes d'Emery de La Porte d'Emery and de Mesmes de Longueil de La Vieuville Servien and Fouquet Fouquet

1661–1791

Colbert Le Pelletier Phélypeaux Chamillart Desmarets de Noailles de Caumont de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson Law des Forts de La Houssaye Dodun des Forts Orry d'Arnouville de Séchelles de Moras de Boullonges de Silhouette Bertin de Laverdy d'Invault Terray Turgot de Clugny des Réaux Necker de Fleury d'Ormesson de Calonne de Fourqueux de Brienne Necker de Breteuil Necker Lambert de Lessart

1791–1799

de Lessart Tarbé Clavière Duranthon de Beaulieu Delaville-Leroulx Clavière Destournelles Faipoult Ramel-Nogaret Lindet

1799–1902

Gaudin Dominique Gaudin Dominique Corvetto Roy Dominique Roy de Villèle Roy de Crouzol de Montbel Dominique Laffitte Dominique Humann Passy Humann d'Argout Duchâtel Lacave-Laplagne Gautier Passy de la Lozère Humann Lacave-Laplagne Dumon Goudchaux Garnier-Pagès Duclerc Goudchaux Trouvé-Chauvel Passy Fould de Germiny Fould Blondel de Casabianca Fould Bineau Magne La Roquette Fould Rouher Magne Buffet Segris Magne Picard Buffet Pouyer-Quertier de Goulard Say Magne Mathieu-Bodet Say Caillaux Dutilleul Say Magnin Allain-Targé Say Tirard Clamageran Carnot Dauphin Rouvier Tirard Peytral Rouvier Tirard Peytral Burdeau Poincaré Ribot Doumer Cochery Peytral Caillaux

1902–1944

Rouvier Merlou Poincaré Caillaux Cochery Klotz Caillaux Klotz Dumont Caillaux Renoult Clémentel Noullens Ribot Thierry Klotz François-Marsal Doumer de Lasteyrie François-Marsal Clementel de Monzie Caillaux Painlevé Loucheur Doumer Péret Caillaux de Monzie Poincaré Chéron Dumont Reynaud Germain-Martin Flandin Germain-Martin Chéron Bonnet Piétri Marchandeau Germain-Martin Caillaux Régnier Auriol Bonnet Marchandeau Blum Marchandeau Reynaud Lamoureux Bouthillier Cathala

1941–1944

Pleven Diethelm Couve de Murville France

1944–2000

Lepercq Pleven Philip Schuman Philip Schuman Mayer Reynaud Pineau Queuille Petsche Mayer Faure Pinay Bourgès-Maunoury Faure Buron Pflimlin Lacoste Ramadier Gaillard Pflimlin Faure Pinay Baumgartner Giscard d'Estaing Debré Couve de Murville Ortoli Giscard d'Estaing Fourcade Barre Monory Delors Bérégovoy Balladur Bérégovoy Sapin Alphandéry Madelin Arthuis Strauss-Kahn Sautter

2000–present

Fabius Mer Sarkozy Gaymard Breton Borloo Lagarde Baroin Moscovici Sapin Le Maire

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 1974

Winner

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(RI)

Lost in runoff

François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
(PS)

Other candidates

Jacques Chaban-Delmas (UDR) Jean Royer
Jean Royer
(independent UDR) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) René Dumont (environmentalist) Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
(FN) Émile Muller (MSD) Alain Krivine
Alain Krivine
(LCR) Bertrand Renouvin (NAR) Jean-Claude Sebag
Jean-Claude Sebag
(MFE) Guy Héraud (European federalist)

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 1981

Winner

François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
(PS)

Lost in runoff

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(UDF; incumbent)

Other candidates

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(RPR) Georges Marchais
Georges Marchais
(PCF) Brice Lalonde
Brice Lalonde
(MEF) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) Michel Crépeau (PRG) Michel Debré
Michel Debré
(DVD) Marie- France
France
Garaud (DVD) Huguette Bouchardeau
Huguette Bouchardeau
(PSU)

v t e

Presidents of the European Council

President-in-Office (1975–2009)

Liam Cosgrave Aldo Moro Gaston Thorn Joop den Uyl James Callaghan Leo Tindemans Anker Jørgensen Helmut Schmidt Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Jack Lynch Francesco Cossiga Charles Haughey Pierre Werner Dries van Agt Margaret Thatcher Wilfried Martens Anker Jørgensen Poul Schlüter Helmut Kohl Andreas Papandreou François Mitterrand Garret FitzGerald Bettino Craxi Jacques Santer Ruud Lubbers Wilfried Martens Felipe González François Mitterrand Giulio Andreotti Ruud Lubbers Aníbal Cavaco Silva John Major Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Jean-Luc Dehaene Jacques Chirac Felipe González Lamberto Dini Romano Prodi John Bruton Wim Kok Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Viktor Klima Gerhard Schröder Paavo Lipponen António Guterres Jacques Chirac Göran Persson Guy Verhofstadt José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López Anders Fogh Rasmussen Costas Simitis Silvio Berlusconi Bertie Ahern Jan Peter Balkenende Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Wolfgang Schüssel Matti Vanhanen Angela Merkel José Sócrates Janez Janša Nicolas Sarkozy Mirek Topolánek Jan Fischer Fredrik Reinfeldt

Permanent President (since 2009)

Herman Van Rompuy Donald Tusk

v t e

Current members of the Constitutional Council of France

President of the council

Fabius (P)

former Presidents of the Republic

Giscard Chirac Sarkozy Hollande

members

Pinault (S) Luquiens (A) Charasse (P) Hyest (S) Jospin (A) Bazy-Malaurie (A) Maestracci (P) Belloubet (S)

inactive, Chirac since March 2011, Sarkozy since January 2013 Nominated by: (P) President of the Republic • (S) president of the Senate • (A) president of the National Assembly

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 16

Jean Sirmond (1634) Jean de Montereul (1649) François Tallemant l'Aîné (1651) Simon de la Loubère
Simon de la Loubère
(1693) Claude Sallier (1729) Jean-Gilles du Coëtlosquet (1761) Anne-Pierre, marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac
Anne-Pierre, marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac
(1784) Antoine-Vincent Arnault
Antoine-Vincent Arnault
(1803) Armand Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu
Armand Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu
(1816) Bon-Joseph Dacier
Bon-Joseph Dacier
(1822) Pierre François Tissot (1833) Félix Dupanloup
Félix Dupanloup
(1854) Gaston Audiffret-Pasquier (1878) Alexandre Ribot
Alexandre Ribot
(1906) Henri-Robert
Henri-Robert
(1923) Charles Maurras
Charles Maurras
(1938) Antoine de Lévis-Mirepoix
Antoine de Lévis-Mirepoix
(1953) Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(1983) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(2003)

v t e

Current members of the Académie française

Dagens Laferrière Bredin Marion Makine Fumaroli Hoffmann vacant Grainville Delay de Broglie vacant vacant Carrère d'Encausse Vitoux Giscard d'Estaing Orsenna Serres Dabadie Rinaldi Finkielkraut Obaldia Rosenberg vacant Fernandez Rouart Nora Rufin Maalouf Sallenave Edwards Weyergans Bona Cheng Pouliquen vacant Zink Lambron Clair Darcos

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89736626 LCCN: n80045870 ISNI: 0000 0001 2143 0788 GND: 118717685 SELIBR: 188275 SUDOC: 026893789 BNF: cb11905127c (data) BIBSYS: 90108862 NDL: 00441001 BNE: XX909707 SN

.