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Count Georges Vacher de Lapouge (12 December 1854, in Neuville-de-Poitou
Neuville-de-Poitou
– 20 February 1936, in Poitiers) was a French anthropologist and a theoretician of eugenics and racialism.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Work and legacy 3 See also 4 References 5 Publications 6 Further reading 7 External links

Biography[edit] While a young law student at the University of Poitiers, Vacher de Lapouge read Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer
and Charles Darwin.[1] In 1879 he gained a doctorate degree in law and became a magistrate in Niort (Deux-Sèvres) and a prosecutor in Le Blanc. He then studied history and philology at the École pratique des hautes études, and learned several languages such as Akkadian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Chinese, and Japanese at the École du Louvre
École du Louvre
and at School of Anthropology
Anthropology
in Paris
Paris
from 1883 to 1886. From 1886 Vacher de Lapouge taught anthropology at the University of Montpellier, advocating Francis Galton's eugenic thesis, but was expelled in 1892 because of his socialist activities[2] (he co-founded Jules Guesde's French Workers' Party
French Workers' Party
and ran in 1888 for city mayor in the Montpellier
Montpellier
municipal election). He worked later as a librarian at the University of Rennes until his retirement in 1922. Work and legacy[edit] He wrote L'Aryen: son Rôle Social (1899, "The Aryan: His Social Role"), in which he opposed the Aryan, dolichocephalic races to the brachycephalic races. Vacher de Lapouge thus classified human races: first the Homo europaeus, Nordic or fair-hair and Protestant, then the Homo alpinus, represented by the Auvergnat
Auvergnat
and the Turk, finally the Homo mediterraneus, figured by the Neapoletan or the Andaluz. Vacher de Lapouge introduced Francis Galton's eugenics in France, but applied it to his theory of races. Vacher de Lapouge's ideas partly mirror those of Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658–1722), who believed that the Germanic Franks
Franks
formed the upper class of French society, whereas the Gauls
Gauls
were the ancestors of the peasantry. Race, according to him, thus became a synonym of social class. But, in virtue of heredity, the Homo europaeus intrinsically possessed more qualities than the lower Homo mediterraneus. He added to this concept of races and classes what he termed selectionism, his version of Galton's eugenics. Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" had two aims: first, achieving the annihilation of trade unionists, considered as "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any competition of labour conditions. His anthropology thus aimed at preventing social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order.[3][4] In 1926, he prefaced and translated Madison Grant's Passing of the Great Race (Le Déclin de la Grande Race, Payot, 1926). He also translated one work of Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
into French.[5][6] Lapouge had a direct influence on Nazi
Nazi
racial and eugenic doctrine.[7] See also[edit]

Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658–1722) - believed that the French aristocracy were descendants of the Franks, and that the Third Estate was composed of the "inferior", Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
"racial stock" William Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe (1899)

References[edit]

^ Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2013). The End of the Soul: Scientific Modernity, Atheism, and Anthropology
Anthropology
in France. Columbia University Press, p. 190. ^ Boissel, Jean (1982). “George Vacher de Lapouge: Un Socialiste Revolutionnaire Darwinien,” Nouvelle Ecole 13, pp. 59–83. ^ "Vacher de Lapouge advocated a socialist order because only such an order could assure that each individual’s racially based abilities could be determined independently of his class. When the 'non-doctrinaire socialist' declared in an article published in 1896 that 'socialism will be selectionist or it will not be at all,' he meant above all that the left should adopt the program of a radical eugenic: the breeding of the Aryan
Aryan
man of the future could only be achieved if, without regard to family background or social status, all 'racially inferior' were prevented from procreation, while all superior men, in addition to a service militaire, would be required to perform a service sexuelle without regard to all traditional norms of sexual behavior. Only if this political model of socialist eugenics were implemented, according to Vacher de Lapouge, would there be any chance that France
France
would survive the impending great conflicts." — Weissmann, Karlheinz (1996). "The Epoch of National Socialism," The Journal of Libertarian Studies 12 (2), pp. 257-294. ^ Matsuo Takeshi (University of Shimane, Japan). L'Anthropologie de Georges Vacher de Lapouge: Race, Classe et Eugénisme (Georges Vacher de Lapouge anthropology) in Etudes de Langue et littérature Françaises, 2001, No. 79, pp. 47-57. ISSN 0425-4929 ; INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 25320, 35400010021625.0050 (Abstract resume on the INIST-CNRS) ^ "G. Vacher de Lapouge was a man of wide interest in history, sociology and anthropology. Unlike many students of the ethnic problem, he possessed a good working knowledge of biology and human anatomy. He was a disciple of Haeckel. He translated the latter's booklet on the philosophy of monism into French, and provided an introduction to it." — Baker, John R. (1974). "The Historical Background," in Race. Oxford University Press, p. 46. ^ Haeckel, Ernest (1897). Le Monisme, Lien Entre la Religion et la Science. Paris: Schleicher Frères. ^ Hecht, Jennifer Michael (2000). "Vacher de Lapouge and the Rise of Nazi
Nazi
Science". Journal of the History
History
of Ideas. 61 (2): 285–304. doi:10.1353/jhi.2000.0018. 

Publications[edit]

(1878). Essai Historique sur le Conseil Privé ou Conseil des Parties. Poitiers: Impr. de A. Dupré. (1879). Du Patrimoine en Droit Romain et en Droit Français. Poitiers: Impr. de Marcireau et Cie. (1879). Essais de Droit Positif Généralisé. Théorie du Patrimoine. Paris: Ernest Thorin. (1885). Études sur la Nature et sur l'Évolution Historique du Droit de Succession. Paris: Ernest Thorin. (1896). Les Sélections Sociales. Paris: A. Fontemoing ("Social Selections"). (1899). L'Aryen: Son Rôle Social. Paris: Albert Fontemoing ("The Aryan: his Social Role"). (1909). Race et Milieu Social: Essais d'Anthroposociologie. Paris: Marcel Rivière ("Race and Social Background: Essays of Anthroposociology").

Articles

(1886). "L'Hérédité," Revue d'Anthropologie 1, pp. 512–521. (1887). "La Dépopulation de la France," Revue d'Anthropologie 2 (1), pp. 69–80. (1887). "L'Anthropologie et la Science Politique," Revue d'Anthropologie 2 (2), pp. 136–157. (1887). "Les Sélections Sociale," Revue d'Anthropologie 2 (5), pp. 519–550. (1888). "De l'Inégalité Parmi les Hommes," Revue d'Anthropologie 3 (1), pp. 9–38. (1888). "L´Hérédité dans la Science Politique," Revue d'Anthropologie 3 (2), pp. 169–181. (1915). "Le Paradoxe Pangermaniste", Mercure de France, Tome 111, No. 416, pp. 640–654. (1923). "Dies Irae: La Fin du Monde Civilise," Europe 9 (October 1): 59-61.

Works in English translation

(1905). "Natural Selection and Social Selection," in Sociology and Social Progress. Boston: Ginn & Company, pp. 647–653. (1927). "Contribution to the Fundamentals of a Policy of Population," The Eugenics
Eugenics
Review 19 (3), 192-7. (1927). "The Numerous Families of Former Times," The Eugenics
Eugenics
Review 19 (3), 198-202. (1928). "Race Studies in Europe," Eugenical News 13 (6), 82-84. (1928). "The Nordic Movement in Europe," Eugenical News 13 (10), 132-133. (1929). "Thoughts of Count of Lapouge," Eugenical News 14 (6), 78-80. (1930). "From Count de Lapouge," Eugenical News 15 (8), 116-117. (1932). "Post-War Immigration into France," Eugenical News 17 (4), 94-95. (1934). "A French View," Eugenical News 19 (2), 39-40.

Further reading[edit]

Augustin, Jean-Marie (2006). " Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936) aux Origines de l'Eugénisme", Revue Générale de Droit Médical, No. 21, p. 109-132. Augustin, Jean-Marie (2011). Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936): Juriste, Raciologue et Eugéniste. Presses de l'Université de Toulouse I Capitole. Bernardini, Jean-Marc (1997). Le Darwinisme Sociale en France. Paris: CNRS Ed. Clark, Linda L. (1984). Social Darwinism in France. The University of Alabama Press. Colombat, Jean (1946). La Fin du Monde Civilisé: Les Prophéties de Vacher de Lapouge. Paris: Vrin. Gasman, Daniel (1998). "The Monism of Georges Vacher de Lapouge and Gustave Le Bon," in Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology. New York: Peter Lang. Guérard, A. L. (1917). " France
France
and 'The Great Race'," The Unpopular Review 8 (16), pp. 248–261. Hawkins, Mike (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hecht, Jennifer Michael (April 2000). "Vacher de Lapouge and the Rise of Nazi
Nazi
Science". Journal of the History
History
of Ideas. 61 (2): 285–304. doi:10.1353/jhi.2000.0018. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  Hecht, Jennifer Michael (March 1999). "The Solvency of Metaphysics: The Debate over Racial Science and Moral Philosophy in France,1890-1919". Isis. 90 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1086/384239. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  La Haye Jousselin, Henri de (1986). Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936): Essai de Bibliographie. Paris: Imprimerie A. Bontemps. Nagel, Günter (1975). Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936): Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Sozialdarwinismus in Frankreich. Freiburg: Hans Ferdinand Schulz. Patte, Étienne (1937). " Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936)," Revue Générale de du Centre-Ouest de la France, 12e Année, pp. 769–789. Quinlan, S. M. (1999). "The Racial Imagery of Degeneration and Depopulation: Georges Vacher de Lapouge and 'Anthroposociology' in Fin-de-Siècle France," History
History
of European Ideas 24 (6), 393-413. Seillière, Ernest (1914). "French Contributors to the Theory of Pan-Germanism," in The German Doctrine of Conquest. Dublin: Maunsel & Co.

External links[edit]

Works by or about Georges Vacher de Lapouge at Internet Archive Works by Georges Vacher de Lapouge, at JSTOR A biography, by the French historian Pierre-André Taguieff (in French)

v t e

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Multiracial

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Writers

Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann

Writings

An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History
History
of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
(1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan
Aryan
Peoples (1907) Heredity in Relation to Eugenics
Eugenics
(1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question
(1950)

Theories

Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite

Related

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History
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in Brazil in Colombia

in Singapore in the United States

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in the United States

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Passing Racial stereotypes Martial race Master race Color names

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19745727 LCCN: n87145581 ISNI: 0000 0000 8098 6180 GND: 121541924 SUDOC: 032013906 BNF: cb1231

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