A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired
immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an
agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made
from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of
its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to
recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize
and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that
it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example:
to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a
natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against
cancer are being investigated).
The administration of vaccines is called vaccination.
the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases;
widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the
worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such
as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The
effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for
example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken
pox vaccine. The
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (WHO) reports that
licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different
The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae
(smallpox of the cow), the term devised by
Edward Jenner to denote
cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the
Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the
protective effect of cowpox against smallpox. In 1881, to honor
Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to
cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.
2 Adverse effects
5 Developing immunity
5.1 Adjuvants and preservatives
8 Economics of development
10.2 Role of preservatives
11 Delivery systems
12 Veterinary medicine
13 DIVA vaccines
13.1 First DIVA vaccines
13.2 Use in practice
13.3 Other DIVA vaccines (under development)
14.1 Plants as bioreactors for vaccine production
15 See also
17 External links
Vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and
eradicate infectious diseases. Limitations to their effectiveness,
nevertheless, exist. Sometimes, protection fails because the
host's immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all.
Lack of response commonly results from clinical factors such as
diabetes, steroid use,
HIV infection or age. It also
might fail for genetic reasons if the host's immune system includes no
strains of B cells that can generate antibodies suited to reacting
effectively and binding to the antigens associated with the pathogen.
Even if the host does develop antibodies, protection might not be
adequate; immunity might develop too slowly to be effective in time,
the antibodies might not disable the pathogen completely, or there
might be multiple strains of the pathogen, not all of which are
equally susceptible to the immune reaction. However, even a partial,
late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to
a strain other than the target strain, may mitigate an infection,
resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, and faster
Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for
older people (50–75 years and up), whose immune response to a simple
vaccine may have weakened.
Maurice Hilleman's measles vaccine is estimated to prevent 1 million
deaths every year.
The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of
the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than
the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most
effective against, particular strains of the disease)
whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed.
idiosyncratic response to vaccination; some individuals are
"non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not
generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly.
assorted factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetic predisposition.
If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against
(breakthrough infection), the disease is likely to be less virulent
than in unvaccinated victims.
The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a
vaccination program:
careful modeling to anticipate the impact that an immunization
campaign will have on the epidemiology of the disease in the medium to
ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction
of a new vaccine
maintenance of high immunization rates, even when a disease has become
In 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States; 552
deaths resulted. After the introduction of new vaccines, the
number of cases dropped to fewer than 150 per year (median of 56).
In early 2008, there were 64 suspected cases of measles. Fifty-four of
those infections were associated with importation from another
country, although only 13% were actually acquired outside the United
States; 63 of the 64 individuals either had never been vaccinated
against measles or were uncertain whether they had been
Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the
most contagious and deadly diseases in humans. Other diseases such as
rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere
near as common as they were a hundred years ago. As long as the vast
majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an
outbreak of disease to occur, let alone spread. This effect is called
herd immunity. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is
targeted by an extensive eradication campaign that has seen endemic
polio restricted to only parts of three countries (Afghanistan,
Nigeria, and Pakistan). However, the difficulty of reaching all
children as well as cultural misunderstandings have caused the
anticipated eradication date to be missed several times.
Vaccines also help prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.
For example, by greatly reducing the incidence of pneumonia caused by
Streptococcus pneumoniae, vaccine programs have greatly reduced the
prevalence of infections resistant to penicillin or other first-line
Vaccination given during childhood is generally safe. Adverse
effects if any are generally mild. The rate of side effects
depends on the vaccine in question. Some common side effects
include fever, pain around the injection site, and muscle aches.
Additionally, some individuals may be allergic to ingredients in the
MMR vaccine is rarely associated with febrile
Severe side effects are extremely rare.
Varicella vaccine is
rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals
and rotavirus vaccines are moderately associated with
Avian flu vaccine development by reverse genetics techniques.
Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products
derived from them.
There are several types of vaccines in use. These represent
different strategies used to try to reduce the risk of illness while
retaining the ability to induce a beneficial immune response.
Main article: Inactivated vaccine
Some vaccines contain inactivated, but previously virulent,
micro-organisms that have been destroyed with chemicals, heat, or
radiation. Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A
vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Main article: Attenuated vaccine
Some vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms. Many of these
are active viruses that have been cultivated under conditions that
disable their virulent properties, or that use closely related but
less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response. Although
most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature.
Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and
rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid. The live Mycobacterium
tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of
a contagious strain but contains a virulently modified strain called
"BCG" used to elicit an immune response to the vaccine. The live
attenuated vaccine containing strain
Yersinia pestis EV is used for
plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some advantages and
disadvantages. They typically provoke more durable immunological
responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults. But they may
not be safe for use in immunocompromised individuals, and on rare
occasions mutate to a virulent form and cause disease.
Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause
illness rather than the micro-organism. Examples of
toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.
are known for their efficacy. Not all toxoids are for
micro-organisms; for example,
Crotalus atrox toxoid is used to
vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites.
Protein subunit – rather than introducing an inactivated or
attenuated micro-organism to an immune system (which would constitute
a "whole-agent" vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune
response. Examples include the subunit vaccine
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface
proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of
chronically infected patients, but now produced by recombination of
the viral genes into yeast) or as an edible algae
vaccine, the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human
papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid
protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
subunits of the influenza virus. Subunit vaccine is
being used for plague immunization.
Conjugate – certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats
that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins
(e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the
polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This
approach is used in the
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Electroporation System for experimental "
DNA vaccine" delivery
A number of innovative vaccines are also in development and in use:
Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order
to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells, thus
stimulating an immune reaction. These vaccines have shown some
positive preliminary results for treating brain tumors  and are
also tested in malignant melanoma.
Recombinant Vector – by combining the physiology of one
micro-organism and the
DNA of the other, immunity can be created
against diseases that have complex infection processes
DNA vaccination – an alternative, experimental approach to
DNA vaccination, created from an infectious agent's
DNA, is under development. The proposed mechanism is the insertion
(and expression, enhanced by the use of electroporation, triggering
immune system recognition) of viral or bacterial
DNA into human or
animal cells. Some cells of the immune system that recognize the
proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and
cells expressing them. Because these cells live for a very long time,
if the pathogen that normally expresses these proteins is encountered
at a later time, they will be attacked instantly by the immune system.
One potential advantage of
DNA vaccines is that they are very easy to
produce and store. As of 2015,
DNA vaccination is still experimental
and is not approved for human use.
T-cell receptor peptide vaccines are under development for several
diseases using models of Valley Fever, stomatitis, and atopic
dermatitis. These peptides have been shown to modulate cytokine
production and improve cell-mediated immunity.
Targeting of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in
complement inhibition would neutralize the key bacterial virulence
While most vaccines are created using inactivated or attenuated
compounds from micro-organisms, synthetic vaccines are composed mainly
or wholly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens.
Vaccines may be monovalent (also called univalent) or multivalent
(also called polyvalent). A monovalent vaccine is designed to immunize
against a single antigen or single microorganism. A multivalent or
polyvalent vaccine is designed to immunize against two or more strains
of the same microorganism, or against two or more microorganisms.
The valency of a multivalent vaccine may be denoted with a Greek or
Latin prefix (e.g., tetravalent or quadrivalent). In certain cases, a
monovalent vaccine may be preferable for rapidly developing a strong
Also known as heterologous or "Jennerian" vaccines, these are vaccines
that are pathogens of other animals that either do not cause disease
or cause mild disease in the organism being treated. The classic
example is Jenner's use of cowpox to protect against smallpox. A
current example is the use of
BCG vaccine made from Mycobacterium
bovis to protect against human tuberculosis.
Various fairly standardized abbreviations for vaccine names have
developed, although the standardization is by no means centralized or
global. For example, the vaccine names used in the
United States have
well-established abbreviations that are also widely known and used
elsewhere. An extensive list of them provided in a sortable table and
freely accessible, is available at a US Centers for
and Prevention web page. The page explains that "The abbreviations
[in] this table (Column 3) were standardized jointly by staff of the
Disease Control and Prevention, ACIP Work Groups, the
editor of the
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), the editor
Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (the
Pink Book), ACIP members, and liaison organizations to the ACIP."
Some examples are "DTaP" for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and
acellular pertussis vaccine, "DT" for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids,
and "Td" for tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. At its page on tetanus
vaccination, the CDC further explains that "Upper-case letters in
these abbreviations denote full-strength doses of diphtheria (D) and
tetanus (T) toxoids and pertussis (P) vaccine. Lower-case 'd' and 'p'
denote reduced doses of diphtheria and pertussis used in the
adolescent/adult-formulations. The 'a' in DTaP and Tdap stands for
'acellular,' meaning that the pertussis component contains only a part
of the pertussis organism." Another list of established vaccine
abbreviations is at the CDC's page called "
Vaccine Acronyms and
Abbreviations", with abbreviations used on U.S. immunization
United States Adopted Name system has some
conventions for the word order of vaccine names, placing head nouns
first and adjectives postpositively. This is why the USAN for "OPV" is
"poliovirus vaccine live oral" rather than "oral poliovirus vaccine".
The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them,
and "remembers" them. When the virulent version of an agent is
encountered, the body recognizes the protein coat on the virus, and
thus is prepared to respond, by (1) neutralizing the target agent
before it can enter cells, and (2) recognizing and destroying infected
cells before that agent can multiply to vast numbers.
When two or more vaccines are mixed together in the same formulation,
the two vaccines can interfere. This most frequently occurs with live
attenuated vaccines, where one of the vaccine components is more
robust than the others and suppresses the growth and immune response
to the other components. This phenomenon was first noted in the
trivalent Sabin polio vaccine, where the amount of serotype 2 virus in
the vaccine had to be reduced to stop it from interfering with the
"take" of the serotype 1 and 3 viruses in the vaccine. This
phenomenon has also been found to be a problem with the dengue
vaccines currently being researched,[when?] where the DEN-3 serotype
was found to predominate and suppress the response to DEN-1, −2 and
Adjuvants and preservatives
Vaccines typically contain one or more adjuvants, used to boost the
Tetanus toxoid, for instance, is usually adsorbed
onto alum. This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a
greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have
an adverse reaction to adsorbed tetanus toxoid may be given the simple
vaccine when the time comes for a booster.
In the preparation for the 1990 Persian Gulf campaign, whole cell
pertussis vaccine was used as an adjuvant for anthrax vaccine. This
produces a more rapid immune response than giving only the anthrax
vaccine, which is of some benefit if exposure might be
Vaccines may also contain preservatives to prevent contamination with
bacteria or fungi. Until recent years, the preservative thimerosal was
used in many vaccines that did not contain live virus. As of 2005, the
only childhood vaccine in the U.S. that contains thimerosal in greater
than trace amounts is the influenza vaccine, which is currently
recommended only for children with certain risk factors.
Single-dose influenza vaccines supplied in the UK do not list
thiomersal (its UK name) in the ingredients. Preservatives may be used
at various stages of production of vaccines, and the most
sophisticated methods of measurement might detect traces of them in
the finished product, as they may in the environment and population as
For country-specific information on vaccination policies and
In order to provide the best protection, children are recommended to
receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are sufficiently
developed to respond to particular vaccines, with additional "booster"
shots often required to achieve "full immunity". This has led to the
development of complex vaccination schedules. In the United States,
the Advisory Committee on
Immunization Practices, which recommends
schedule additions for the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention,
recommends routine vaccination of children against: hepatitis A,
hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis,
tetanus, HiB, chickenpox, rotavirus, influenza, meningococcal disease
and pneumonia. A large number of vaccines and boosters recommended
(up to 24 injections by age two) has led to problems with achieving
full compliance. In order to combat declining compliance rates,
various notification systems have been instituted and a number of
combination injections are now marketed (e.g., Pneumococcal conjugate
vaccine and MMRV vaccine), which provide protection against multiple
Besides recommendations for infant vaccinations and boosters, many
specific vaccines are recommended for other ages or for repeated
injections throughout life—most commonly for measles, tetanus,
influenza, and pneumonia. Pregnant women are often screened for
continued resistance to rubella. The human papillomavirus vaccine is
recommended in the U.S. (as of 2011) and UK (as of 2009).
Vaccine recommendations for the elderly concentrate on pneumonia and
influenza, which are more deadly to that group. In 2006, a vaccine was
introduced against shingles, a disease caused by the chickenpox virus,
which usually affects the elderly.
Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from cases of
cowpox (heterotypic immunisation), smallpox could be prevented by
deliberate inoculation of smallpox virus, later referred to as
variolation to distinguish it from smallpox vaccination. The earliest
hints of the practice of inoculation for smallpox in China come during
the 10th century. The Chinese also practiced the oldest documented
use of variolation, dating back to the fifteenth century. They
implemented a method of "nasal insufflation" administered by blowing
powdered smallpox material, usually scabs, up the nostrils. Various
insufflation techniques have been recorded throughout the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries within China.:60 Two reports on the
Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the
Royal Society in
London in 1700; one by Dr.
Martin Lister who received a report by an
employee of the
East India Company
East India Company stationed in China and another by
Jenner's handwritten draft of the first vaccination
Sometime during the late 1760s whilst serving his apprenticeship as a
Edward Jenner learned of the story, common in rural
areas, that dairy workers would never have the often-fatal or
disfiguring disease smallpox, because they had already had cowpox,
which has a very mild effect in humans. In 1796, Jenner took pus from
the hand of a milkmaid with cowpox, scratched it into the arm of an
8-year-old boy, and six weeks later inoculated (variolated) the boy
with smallpox, afterwards observing that he did not catch
smallpox. Jenner extended his studies and in 1798 reported
that his vaccine was safe in children and adults and could be
transferred from arm-to-arm reducing reliance on uncertain supplies
from infected cows. Since vaccination with cowpox was much safer
than smallpox inoculation, the latter, though still widely
practised in England, was banned in 1840.
French print in 1896 marking the centenary of Jenner's vaccine
The second generation of vaccines was introduced in the 1880s by Louis
Pasteur who developed vaccines for chicken cholera and anthrax,
and from the late nineteenth century vaccines were considered a matter
of national prestige, and compulsory vaccination laws were passed.
The twentieth century saw the introduction of several successful
vaccines, including those against diphtheria, measles, mumps, and
rubella. Major achievements included the development of the polio
vaccine in the 1950s and the eradication of smallpox during the 1960s
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific of the developers of
the vaccines in the twentieth century. As vaccines became more common,
many people began taking them for granted. However, vaccines remain
elusive for many important diseases, including herpes simplex,
malaria, gonorrhea and HIV.
Main article: Timeline of vaccines
Economics of development
One challenge in vaccine development is economic: Many of the diseases
most demanding a vaccine, including HIV, malaria and tuberculosis,
exist principally in poor countries. Pharmaceutical firms and
biotechnology companies have little incentive to develop vaccines for
these diseases, because there is little revenue potential. Even in
more affluent countries, financial returns are usually minimal and the
financial and other risks are great.
Most vaccine development to date has relied on "push" funding by
government, universities and non-profit organizations. Many
vaccines have been highly cost effective and beneficial for public
health. The number of vaccines actually administered has risen
dramatically in recent decades. This increase, particularly in the
number of different vaccines administered to children before entry
into schools may be due to government mandates and support, rather
than economic incentive.
The filing of patents on vaccine development processes can also be
viewed as an obstacle to the development of new vaccines. Because of
the weak protection offered through a patent on the final product, the
protection of the innovation regarding vaccines is often made through
the patent of processes used in the development of new vaccines as
well as the protection of secrecy.
According to the World Health Organization, the biggest barrier to
local vaccine production in less developed countries has not been
patents, but the substantial financial, infrastructure, and workforce
expertise requirements needed for market entry. Vaccines are complex
mixtures of biological compounds, and unlike the case of drugs, there
are no true generic vaccines. The vaccine produced by a new facility
must undergo complete clinical testing for safety and efficacy similar
to that undergone by that produced by the original manufacturer. For
most vaccines, specific processes have been patented. These can be
circumvented by alternative manufacturing methods, but this required
R&D infrastructure and a suitably skilled workforce. In the case
of a few relatively new vaccines such as the human papillomavirus
vaccine, the patents may impose an additional barrier.
Two workers make openings in chicken eggs in preparation for
production of measles vaccine.
Vaccine production has several stages. First, the antigen itself is
Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken
eggs (e.g., for influenza) or on continuous cell lines such as
cultured human cells (e.g., for hepatitis A).
Bacteria are grown
in bioreactors (e.g.,
Haemophilus influenzae type b). Likewise, a
recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be
generated in yeast, bacteria, or cell cultures. After the antigen is
generated, it is isolated from the cells used to generate it. A virus
may need to be inactivated, possibly with no further purification
required. Recombinant proteins need many operations involving
ultrafiltration and column chromatography. Finally, the vaccine is
formulated by adding adjuvant, stabilizers, and preservatives as
needed. The adjuvant enhances the immune response of the antigen,
stabilizers increase the storage life, and preservatives allow the use
of multidose vials. Combination vaccines are harder to develop
and produce, because of potential incompatibilities and interactions
among the antigens and other ingredients involved.
Vaccine production techniques are evolving. Cultured mammalian cells
are expected to become increasingly important, compared to
conventional options such as chicken eggs, due to greater productivity
and low incidence of problems with contamination. Recombination
technology that produces genetically detoxified vaccine is expected to
grow in popularity for the production of bacterial vaccines that use
toxoids. Combination vaccines are expected to reduce the quantities of
antigens they contain, and thereby decrease undesirable interactions,
by using pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
In 2010, India produced 60 percent of the world's vaccine worth about
$900 million(€670 million).
Beside the active vaccine itself, the following excipients and
residual manufacturing compounds are present or may be present in
Aluminum salts or gels are added as adjuvants. Adjuvants are added to
promote an earlier, more potent response, and more persistent immune
response to the vaccine; they allow for a lower vaccine dosage.
Antibiotics are added to some vaccines to prevent the growth of
bacteria during production and storage of the vaccine.
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they
are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be present.
Formaldehyde is used to inactivate bacterial products for toxoid
Formaldehyde is also used to inactivate unwanted viruses and
kill bacteria that might contaminate the vaccine during production.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and 2-phenoxyethanol are used as
stabilizers in a few vaccines to help the vaccine remain unchanged
when the vaccine is exposed to heat, light, acidity, or humidity.
Thimerosal is a mercury-containing antimicrobial that is added to
vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent
contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. Due to the
controversy surrounding thimerosal it has been removed from most
vaccines except multi-use influenza, where it was reduced to levels so
that a single dose contained less than 1 microgram of mercury, a level
similar to eating 10g of canned tuna.
Role of preservatives
Many vaccines need preservatives to prevent serious adverse effects
Staphylococcus infection, which in one 1928 incident killed 12
of 21 children inoculated with a diphtheria vaccine that lacked a
preservative. Several preservatives are available, including
thiomersal, phenoxyethanol, and formaldehyde.
Thiomersal is more
effective against bacteria, has a better shelf-life, and improves
vaccine stability, potency, and safety; but, in the U.S., the European
Union, and a few other affluent countries, it is no longer used as a
preservative in childhood vaccines, as a precautionary measure due to
its mercury content. Although controversial claims have been made
that thiomersal contributes to autism, no convincing scientific
evidence supports these claims.
Woman receiving rubella vaccination, Brazil, 2008.
The development of new delivery systems raises the hope of vaccines
that are safer and more efficient to deliver and administer. Lines of
research include liposomes and
ISCOM (immune stimulating complex).
Notable developments in vaccine delivery technologies have included
oral vaccines. Early attempts to apply oral vaccines showed varying
degrees of promise, beginning early in the 20th century, at a time
when the very possibility of an effective oral antibacterial vaccine
was controversial. By the 1930s there was increasing interest in
the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for
An oral polio vaccine turned out to be effective when vaccinations
were administered by volunteer staff without formal training; the
results also demonstrated increased ease and efficiency of
administering the vaccines. Effective oral vaccines have many
advantages; for example, there is no risk of blood contamination.
Vaccines intended for oral administration need not be liquid, and as
solids, they commonly are more stable and less prone to damage or to
spoilage by freezing in transport and storage. Such stability
reduces the need for a "cold chain": the resources required to keep
vaccines within a restricted temperature range from the manufacturing
stage to the point of administration, which, in turn, may decrease
costs of vaccines.
A microneedle approach, which is still in stages of development, uses
"pointed projections fabricated into arrays that can create vaccine
delivery pathways through the skin".
An experimental needle-free vaccine delivery system is undergoing
animal testing. A stamp-size patch similar to an adhesive
bandage contains about 20,000 microscopic projections per square
cm. This dermal administration potentially increases the
effectiveness of vaccination, while requiring less vaccine than
The use of plasmids has been validated in preclinical studies as a
protective vaccine strategy for cancer and infectious diseases.
However, in human studies, this approach has failed to provide
clinically relevant benefit. The overall efficacy of plasmid DNA
immunization depends on increasing the plasmid's immunogenicity while
also correcting for factors involved in the specific activation of
immune effector cells.
Influenza vaccine § Flu vaccine for nonhumans, and
Vaccination of dogs
Goat vaccination against sheep pox and pleural pneumonia
Vaccinations of animals are used both to prevent their contracting
diseases and to prevent transmission of disease to humans. Both
animals kept as pets and animals raised as livestock are routinely
vaccinated. In some instances, wild populations may be vaccinated.
This is sometimes accomplished with vaccine-laced food spread in a
disease-prone area and has been used to attempt to control rabies in
Where rabies occurs, rabies vaccination of dogs may be required by
law. Other canine vaccines include canine distemper, canine
parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, adenovirus-2, leptospirosis,
bordatella, canine parainfluenza virus, and Lyme disease, among
Cases of veterinary vaccines used in humans have been documented,
whether intentional or accidental, with some cases of resultant
illness, most notably with brucellosis. However, the reporting of
such cases is rare and very little has been studied about the safety
and results of such practices. With the advent of aerosol vaccination
in veterinary clinics for companion animals, human exposure to
pathogens that are not naturally carried in humans, such as Bordetella
bronchiseptica, has likely increased in recent years. In some
cases, most notably rabies, the parallel veterinary vaccine against a
pathogen may be as much as orders of magnitude more economical than
the human one.
DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines make
it possible to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals.
DIVA vaccines carry at least one epitope less than the microorganisms
circulating in the field. An accompanying diagnostic test that detects
antibody against that epitope allows us to actually make that
First DIVA vaccines
The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since
1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests have been
developed by J.T. van Oirschot and colleagues at the Central
Veterinary Institute in Lelystad, The Netherlands.  They found
that some existing vaccines against pseudorabies (also termed
Aujeszky's disease) had deletions in their viral genome (among which
the gE gene). Monoclonal antibodies were produced against that
deletion and selected to develop an ELISA that demonstrated antibodies
against gE. In addition, novel genetically engineered gE-negative
vaccines were constructed. Along the same lines, DIVA vaccines and
companion diagnostic tests against bovine herpesvirus 1 infections
have been developed.
Use in practice
The DIVA strategy has been applied in various countries and
successfully eradicated pseudorabies virus. Swine populations were
intensively vaccinated and monitored by the companion diagnostic test
and, subsequently, the infected pigs were removed from the population.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 DIVA vaccines are also widely used in practice.
Other DIVA vaccines (under development)
Scientists have put and still, are putting much effort in applying the
DIVA principle to a wide range of infectious diseases, such as, for
example, classical swine fever, avian influenza,
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia and Salmonella infections in
Vaccine development has several trends:
Until recently,[when?] most vaccines were aimed at infants and
children, but adolescents and adults are increasingly being
Combinations of vaccines are becoming more common; vaccines containing
five or more components are used in many parts of the world. In
2013, Biofarma has released a new product called Pentabio, which is
combination vaccine of Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B,
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B for baby/infant in Indonesia's
New methods of administering vaccines are being developed,[when?] such
as skin patches, aerosols via inhalation devices, and eating
genetically engineered plants.
Vaccines are being designed to stimulate innate immune responses, as
well as adaptive.
Attempts are being made to develop vaccines to help cure chronic
infections, as opposed to preventing disease.
Vaccines are being developed to defend against bioterrorist attacks
such as anthrax, plague, and smallpox.
Appreciation for sex and pregnancy differences in vaccine responses
"might change the strategies used by public health officials".
Scientists are now trying to develop synthetic vaccines by
reconstructing the outside structure of a virus, this will help
prevent vaccine resistance.
Principles that govern the immune response can now be used in
tailor-made vaccines against many noninfectious human diseases, such
as cancers and autoimmune disorders. For example, the experimental
CYT006-AngQb has been investigated as a possible treatment for
high blood pressure. Factors that have an impact on the trends of
vaccine development include progress in translatory medicine,
demographics, regulatory science, political, cultural, and social
Plants as bioreactors for vaccine production
Transgenic plants have been identified as promising expression systems
for vaccine production. Complex plants such as tobacco, potato,
tomato, and banana can have genes inserted that cause them to produce
vaccines usable for humans. Bananas have been developed that
produce a human vaccine against Hepatitis B. Another example is
the expression of a fusion protein in alfalfa transgenic plants for
the selective directioning to antigen presenting cells, therefore
increasing vaccine potency against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
The Horse Named Jim
List of vaccine ingredients
List of vaccine topics
Non-specific effect of vaccines
OPV AIDS hypothesis
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Adjuvant Production and Characterization, Genetic
Vaccines and Antisera at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Vaccine preventable diseases and immunization
World Health Organization
World Health Organization position papers on vaccines
The History of Vaccines, from the College of Physicians of
This website was highlighted by Genetic Engineering & Biotechnolgy
News in its "Best of the Web" section in January 2015. See: "The
History of Vaccines". Best of the Web. Genetic Engineering &
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University of Oxford Vaccinology Programme: a series of short courses
Pharmacology: major drug groups
Proton pump inhibitors
Blood and blood
forming organs (B)
Calcium channel blockers
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Bile acid sequestrants
Thyroid hormones/Antithyroid agents
infestations (J, P, QI)
Antimicrobials: Antibacterials (Antimycobacterials)
and joints (M)
nervous system (N)
Sensory organs (S)
Other ATC (V)
Artificial induction of immunity
Artificial induction of immunity / Immunization: Vaccines,
List of vaccine ingredients
Live vector vaccine
Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like particle
Vaccines for Children Program
Androvax (androstenedione albumin)
Ovandrotone albumin (Fecundin)
Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services
Alternative vaccination schedule
Eradication of infectious diseases
Every Child by Two
List of vaccine topics
‡Withdrawn from market
§Never to phase III