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Văn Lang
Văn Lang
(Chinese: 文郎) was an early semi-legendary nation state of the Vietnamese people, thereby the predecessor to modern Vietnam. Geographically covering most of modern Northern Vietnam, it was ruled by the Hùng Kings of the Hồng Bàng dynasty. Hùng Vương
Hùng Vương
as the title of a line of kings and the Văn Lang
Văn Lang
kingdom's existence are attested in Qin and Tang-era sources.[1] The people of Văn Lang
Văn Lang
were referred to as the Lạc Việt
Lạc Việt
or sometimes simply as the Lạc. According to the 15th-century book Đại Việt
Đại Việt
sử ký toàn thư ( Đại Việt
Đại Việt
Complete History), the nation had its capital at Phong Châu in present-day Phú Thọ Province. It was bordered to the east by the South China Sea, to the west by Ba Thục
Ba Thục
(present-day Sichuan), to the north by Dongting Lake
Dongting Lake
(Hunan), and to the south by Champa. According to Trần Trọng Kim's book, Việt Nam sử lược (A Brief History of Vietnam), the country was divided into 15 regions as in the table below:[2]

Regions of Văn Lang

Name Present-day location

Phong Châu (King's capital) Phú Thọ Province

Châu Diên Sơn Tây Province

Phúc Lộc Sơn Tây Province

Tân Hưng Hưng Hóa
Hưng Hóa
(part of Phú Thọ Province) and Tuyên Quang Province

Vũ Định Thái Nguyên Province
Thái Nguyên Province
and Cao Bằng Province

Vũ Ninh Bắc Ninh Province

Lục Hải Lạng Sơn Province

Ninh Hải Quảng Yên (a part of Quảng Ninh Province)

Dương Tuyên Hải Dương Province

Giao Chỉ Hà Nội, Hưng Yên Province, Nam Định Province
Nam Định Province
and Ninh Bình Province

Cửu Chân Thanh Hóa Province

Hoài Hoan Nghệ An Province

Việt Thường Quảng Bình Province
Quảng Bình Province
and Quảng Trị Province

Cửu Đức Hà Tĩnh Province

Bình Văn unknown

Việt Sử Lược (Việt Brief History) notes that Văn Lang consisted of 15 regions: in it there are 10 names recorded similar to those given in Đại Việt
Đại Việt
Complete History (Giao Chỉ, Vũ Ninh, Việt Thường, Ninh Hải, Lục Hải, Hoài Hoan, Cửu Chân, Bình Văn, Cửu Đức, and Văn Lang), and five regions with different names (Quân Ninh, Gia Ninh, Thang Tuyền, Tân Xương, and Nhật Nam). The founder of Văn Lang
Văn Lang
was Hùng Vương
Hùng Vương
(King Hùng). The Hùng Vương
Hùng Vương
throne was hereditary. The Hùng Kings were military commanders and religious leaders at the same time. Văn Lang was supposedly ruled by 88 Hùng Kings, but only 18 names are recorded (or, according to recent research, 18 names of 18 Dynasties, like Ancient Egyptian):

Hùng Dương (Lộc Tục) Hùng Hiền (Lạc Long Quân) Hùng Lân (vua) Hùng Việp Hùng Hy Hùng Huy Hùng Chiêu Hùng Vỹ Hùng Định Hùng Hy Hùng Trinh Hùng Võ Hùng Việt Hùng Anh Hùng Triều Hùng Tạo Hùng Nghị Hùng Duệ

Văn Lang
Văn Lang
ended c. 258 BC when the Âu invaded under their Shu prince Thục Phán. Thục defeated the last Hùng Vương, united the kingdoms as Âu Lạc, and proclaimed himself An Dương Vương.[3] References[edit]

^ Keith Taylor, The Birth of Vietnam, Appendix A, Appendix B and C. ^ Trần Trọng Kim
Trần Trọng Kim
(2005). Việt Nam sử lược
Việt Nam sử lược
(in Vietnamese). Ho Chi Minh City: Ho Chi Minh City General Publishing House. p. 18.  ^ Chapuis, Oscar (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 13, 14. ISBN 0-313-29622-7. 

See also[edit]

Văn Lang
Văn Lang
University Hồng Bàng dynasty Việt Nam sử lược Đông Sơn culture

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