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The VöLKISCHER BEOBACHTER (pronounced ; "Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP or Nazi
Nazi
Party) from 25 December 1920. It first appeared weekly, then daily from 8 February 1923. For twenty-five years it formed part of the official public face of the Nazi
Nazi
party until its last edition at the end of April 1945. The paper was banned and ceased publication between November 1923 and February 1925.

OVERVIEW

The "fighting paper of the National Socialist movement of Greater Germany," or “Kampfblatt der nationalsozialistischen Bewegung Großdeutschlands,” as it called itself, had its origin as the Münchener Beobachter , or Munich Observer, an anti-Semitic semi-weekly scandal-oriented paper which in 1918 was acquired by the Thule Society
Thule Society
and, in August 1919, was renamed Völkischer Beobachter.

Major Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
and Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart
persuaded Röhm’s commanding officer, Major General Franz Ritter von Epp
Franz Ritter von Epp
, to purchase the Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
in December 1920, by which time it was heavily in debt, for the NSDAP from the Thule Society
Thule Society
for 60,000 Papiermark . It was never definitively established where Epp got the money, but it almost certainly came from secret army funds. This demonstrates a possible early link between the army and right wing radicals like the Nazis. After the Nazis acquired the paper, Eckart became the first editor.

In 1921, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
, who had taken full control of the NSDAP earlier that year, acquired all shares in the company, making him the sole owner of the publication.

The circulation of the paper was initially about 8,000, but it increased to 25,000 in autumn 1923 due to strong demand during the Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
. In that year Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
became editor. With the prohibition of the NSDAP after the Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
of 9 November 1923, the paper also had to cease publication, which resumed, however, on the party's refoundation on 26 February 1925. The circulation rose along with the success of the Nazi
Nazi
movement, reaching more than 120,000 in 1931 and 1.7 million by 1944.

During the rise to power, it reported general news but also party activities, presenting them as almost constant success. Guidelines for propagandists urged that all posters, insofar as the police allowed, contain propaganda for it, and all meetings should be announced in it, although reports should be sent to the Propaganda Department , which would then forward corrected versions to the paper. Posters did indeed urge reading it. When Hitler was banned from public speaking, it was the main vehicle to propagate his views.

Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
published articles in it to attack the United States for criticizing anti-Jewish measures, and to describe Russia.

The final issues from both April and May 1945 were not distributed.

SEE ALSO

* Das Schwarze Korps
Das Schwarze Korps
* Der Angriff
Der Angriff
* Der Stürmer
Der Stürmer
* Panzerbär

REFERENCES

* ^ "Volkischer Beobachter 1945". Wartime Press. 2009. * ^ Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich: A History Of Nazi
Nazi
Germany . New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0 . * ^ Schwarzwaller, Wulf (1988). The Unknown Hitler : His Private Life and Fortune. National Press Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-915765-63-8 . * ^ Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
and Nazi
Nazi
Ideology p34 ISBN 0-396-06577-5 * ^ "Writing the News". USHMM. * ^ Bytwerk, Randall. "Nazis Battle for Harburg". * ^ "Propaganda". calvin.edu. * ^ Early Nazi
Nazi
Posters * ^ Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
and Nazi
Nazi
Ideology p. 51 ISBN 0-396-06577-5 * ^ Bytwerk, Randall. "Goebbels on the United States (1939)". * ^ Bytwerk, Randall. "Goebbels on the attack on the Soviet Union (July, 1941)".

* v * t * e

National Socialist German Workers\' Party

LEADER

* Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
(1919–1921) * Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1921–1945) * Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
(1945)

RELATED ARTICLES

* Germany and World War I * Stab-in-the-back myth
Stab-in-the-back myth
* Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
* Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
* Occupation of the Ruhr
Occupation of the Ruhr
* Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel * German Workers\' Party * Thule Society
Thule Society
* National Socialist Program * Nuremberg Rally
Nuremberg Rally
* Ranks and insignia * Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) * Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
* Brown House, Munich * Horst-Wessel-Lied
Horst-Wessel-Lied
* Party songs * Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power * Night of the Long Knives
Night of the Long Knives
* Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) * Enabling Act of 1933
Enabling Act of 1933
* NSDAP/AO
NSDAP/AO
* Greater German Reich * Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
* World War II
World War II
* Operation Werwolf
Werwolf
* Denazification
Denazification
* Article 21 Paragraph 2 (de facto prohibition) * National Socialism * German Question
German Question
* Anti-Semitism in Germany

PARTY OFFICES

* NSDAP Office of Racial Policy
NSDAP Office of Racial Policy
* NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs
NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs
* NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy
NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy
* NSDAP Office of Military Policy * Hitler\'s Chancellery * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Chancellery * Amt Rosenberg
Amt Rosenberg

PUBLICATIONS

* Völkischer Beobachter * Das Schwarze Korps
Das Schwarze Korps
* Das Reich * Innviertler Heimatblatt * Arbeitertum * Der Angriff
Der Angriff

MEMBERS

* Gottfried Feder
Gottfried Feder
* Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
* Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser
Otto Strasser
* Albert Speer
Albert Speer
* Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
* Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
* Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
* Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
* Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Baldur von Schirach
Baldur von Schirach
* Artur Axmann
Artur Axmann
* Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
* Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
* Josef Mengele
Josef Mengele
* Ernst Hanfstaengl
Ernst Hanfstaengl
* Julius Streicher
Julius Streicher
* Hermann Esser
Hermann Esser

DERIVATIVES

* Black Front ( Strasserism
Strasserism
) / German Social Union * Deutsche Rechtspartei (through entryism) / Deutsche Reichspartei / National Democratic Party of Germany
National Democratic Party of Germany
* Socialist Reich Party
Socialist Reich Party

* v * t * e

Fascism
Fascism

THEORY

CORE TENETS

* Nationalism
Nationalism
* Imperialism
Imperialism
* Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
* One-party state
One-party state
* Dictatorship
Dictatorship
* Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism
* Social interventionism * Proletarian nation * Propaganda
Propaganda
* Eugenics
Eugenics
* Heroism * Militarism
Militarism
* Economic interventionism
Economic interventionism
* Anti-communism
Anti-communism

TOPICS

* Definitions * Economics * Fascism
Fascism
and ideology * Fascism
Fascism
worldwide * Symbolism

IDEAS

* Actual Idealism * Class collaboration * Corporatism
Corporatism
* Heroic capitalism * National Socialism * National syndicalism
National syndicalism
* State capitalism
State capitalism
* Supercapitalism * Third Position * Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
* Social order

VARIANTS

* Italian * National Socialism * Japanese fascism * Falangism
Falangism
* British * Austrian * Metaxism
Metaxism
* National Radicalism * Rexism
Rexism
* Clerical * Legionarism * Integralism

MOVEMENTS

AFRICA

* Greyshirts * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag

ASIA

* Brit HaBirionim
Brit HaBirionim
* Ganap Party * Sakurakai
Sakurakai
* Tōhōkai * Blue Shirts Society

NORTHERN / NORTHWESTERN EUROPE

* Ailtirí na hAiséirghe
Ailtirí na hAiséirghe
* Black Front (Netherlands) * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Breton Social-National Workers\' Movement * British Fascists
British Fascists
* British People\'s Party (1939) * British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
* La Cagoule * Clerical People\'s Party * Faisceau * Flemish National Union
Flemish National Union
* French Popular Party
French Popular Party
* General Dutch Fascist League * Imperial Fascist League
Imperial Fascist League
* Lapua Movement
Lapua Movement
* Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
* National Corporate Party (Greenshirts ) * National Fascisti * Nationalist Party (Iceland)
Nationalist Party (Iceland)
* National Socialist Bloc * National Socialist Dutch Workers Party
National Socialist Dutch Workers Party
* National Socialist League
National Socialist League
* National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands
National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands
* National Socialist Movement of Norway * National Socialist Workers\' Party (Sweden) * New Party (UK)
New Party (UK)
* Patriotic People\'s Movement (Finland) * Pērkonkrusts
Pērkonkrusts
* Rexism
Rexism

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
* Austrian National Socialism * Fatherland Front (Austria)
Fatherland Front (Austria)
* Hungarian National Socialist Party
Hungarian National Socialist Party
* National Front (Switzerland)
National Front (Switzerland)
* Nazism
Nazism
* Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* Sudeten German Party
Sudeten German Party

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Albanian Fascist Party
Albanian Fascist Party
* Democratic Fascist Party * Falange * Greek National Socialist Party * Italian Fascism
Fascism
* Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
* Metaxism
Metaxism
* National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
* National Union (Portugal)
National Union (Portugal)
* Republican Fascist Party
Republican Fascist Party
* Sammarinese Fascist Party
Sammarinese Fascist Party
* Ustaše
Ustaše
* ZBOR

EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

* Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* Crusade of Romanianism
Crusade of Romanianism
* Iron Guard
Iron Guard
* National Fascist Community
National Fascist Community
* National Fascist Movement * National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement * National Social Movement (Bulgaria)
National Social Movement (Bulgaria)
* National Radical Camp Falanga
National Radical Camp Falanga
* National Romanian Fascio
National Romanian Fascio
* National Renaissance Front
National Renaissance Front
* Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) * Romanian Front
Romanian Front
* Russian Fascist Party
Russian Fascist Party
* Russian Women\'s Fascist Movement * Slovak People\'s Party * Union of Bulgarian National Legions
Union of Bulgarian National Legions
* Vlajka
Vlajka

NORTH AMERICA

* Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

* Canadian Union of Fascists * Parti national social chrétien

* Gold shirts * German American Bund
German American Bund
* Silver Legion of America

SOUTH AMERICA

* Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America * Brazilian Integralism
Brazilian Integralism
* Bolivian Socialist Falange
Bolivian Socialist Falange
* National Socialist Movement of Chile
National Socialist Movement of Chile
* Revolutionary Union

PEOPLE

* Abba Ahimeir
Abba Ahimeir
* Nimio de Anquín
Nimio de Anquín
* Sadao Araki
Sadao Araki
* Marc Augier * Maurice Bardèche * Jacques Benoist-Méchin
Jacques Benoist-Méchin
* Henri Béraud
Henri Béraud
* Zoltán Böszörmény * Giuseppe Bottai
Giuseppe Bottai
* Robert Brasillach
Robert Brasillach
* Alphonse de Châteaubriant
Alphonse de Châteaubriant
* Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
* Gustavs Celmiņš * Enrico Corradini
Enrico Corradini
* Carlo Costamagna * Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Marcel Déat
Marcel Déat
* Léon Degrelle
Léon Degrelle
* Pierre Drieu La Rochelle * Gottfried Feder
Gottfried Feder
* Giovanni Gentile
Giovanni Gentile
* Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
* Hans F. K. Günther
Hans F. K. Günther
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Hideki Tojo
Hideki Tojo
* Ikki Kita
Ikki Kita
* Vihtori Kosola
Vihtori Kosola
* Agostino Lanzillo * Dimitrije Ljotić
Dimitrije Ljotić
* Leopoldo Lugones
Leopoldo Lugones
* Curzio Malaparte
Curzio Malaparte
* Ioannis Metaxas
Ioannis Metaxas
* Robert Michels
Robert Michels
* Oswald Mosley
Oswald Mosley
* Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
* Eoin O\'Duffy * Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin * Sergio Panunzio * Giovanni Papini
Giovanni Papini
* Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
* William Dudley Pelley
William Dudley Pelley
* Alfred Ploetz
Alfred Ploetz
* Robert Poulet * Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Quisling
* José Antonio Primo de Rivera
José Antonio Primo de Rivera
* Lucien Rebatet
Lucien Rebatet
* Dionisio Ridruejo
Dionisio Ridruejo
* Alfredo Rocco
Alfredo Rocco
* Konstantin Rodzaevsky
Konstantin Rodzaevsky
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Plínio Salgado
Plínio Salgado
* Rafael Sánchez Mazas
Rafael Sánchez Mazas
* Margherita Sarfatti
Margherita Sarfatti
* Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
* Ardengo Soffici
Ardengo Soffici
* Othmar Spann * Ugo Spirito * Ferenc Szálasi
Ferenc Szálasi
* Gonzalo Torrente Ballester
Gonzalo Torrente Ballester
* Georges Valois
Georges Valois
* Anastasy Vonsyatsky
Anastasy Vonsyatsky

WORKS

LITERATURE

* The Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
* Fascist Manifesto
Fascist Manifesto
* Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals
Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals
* Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
* My Life * The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
* Zweites Buch * Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

PERIODICALS

* La Conquista del Estado
La Conquista del Estado
* Das Reich * Der Angriff
Der Angriff
* Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
* Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen * Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden
Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden
* Figli d\'Italia * Fronten * Gândirea
Gândirea
* Gioventù Fascista * Je suis partout * La France au travail * Münchener Beobachter * Novopress
Novopress
* NS Månedshefte * Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift * Das Schwarze Korps
Das Schwarze Korps
* Der Stürmer
Der Stürmer
* Il Popolo d\'Italia * Sfarmă-Piatră
Sfarmă-Piatră
* Signal * Vlajka
Vlajka
* Völkischer Beobachter * Nash Put\' * Fashist
Fashist
* l\'Alba

FILM

* Der Sieg des Glaubens
Der Sieg des Glaubens
* Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht * Triumph of the Will
Triumph of the Will

SCULPTURE

* Allach

RELATED TOPICS

* Art of the Third Reich * Fascist architecture
Fascist architecture
* Heroic realism
Heroic realism
* Nazi
Nazi
architecture * Nazism
Nazism
and cinema * Nazi
Nazi
plunder * Syndicalism
Syndicalism
* Conservatism
Conservatism

ORGANIZATIONS

INSTITUTIONAL

* Ahnenerbe
Ahnenerbe
* Chamber of Fasci and Corporations
Chamber of Fasci and Corporations
* Grand Council of Fascism
Fascism
* Imperial Way Faction * Italian Nationalist Association * Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
* Quadrumvirs

ACTIVIST

* Fascist Union of Youth * German American Bund
German American Bund
* National Youth Organisation (Greece)
National Youth Organisation (Greece)
* Russian Fascist Organization * Union of Fascist Little Ones
Union of Fascist Little Ones
* Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) * Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

PARAMILITARY

* Albanian Militia * Black Brigades
Black Brigades
* Blackshirts
Blackshirts
* Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
* Gold shirts * Greenshirts * Greyshirts * Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
* Heimwehr
Heimwehr
* Iron Wolf (organization) * Lăncieri * Makapili
Makapili
* Silver Legion of America * Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
* Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
* Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
* Werwolf
Werwolf

INTERNATIONAL

* Axis powers
Axis powers
* NSDAP/AO
NSDAP/AO
* ODESSA
ODESSA

HISTORY

1910S

* Arditi
Arditi
* Fascio

1920S

* Aventine Secession * Acerbo Law
Acerbo Law
* Corfu incident
Corfu incident
* March on Rome
March on Rome
* Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
* Italian economic battles

1930S

* March of the Iron Will
March of the Iron Will
* German federal election, November 1932
German federal election, November 1932
* German federal election, March 1933
German federal election, March 1933
* Enabling Act * 6 February 1934 crisis
6 February 1934 crisis
* 1934 Montreux Fascist conference
1934 Montreux Fascist conference
* Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 4th of August Regime
4th of August Regime
* Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact

1940S

* World War II
World War II
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* End in Italy * Denazification
Denazification
* Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials

LISTS

* Anti-fascists * Books about Hitler * British fascist parties * Fascist movements by country (A-F * G-M * N-T * U-Z ) * Nazi
Nazi
ideologues * Nazi
Nazi
leaders * Speeches by Hitler * SS personnel

RELATED TOPICS

* Alt-right
Alt-right
* Anti-fascism
Anti-fascism
* Anti- Nazi
Nazi
League * Christofascism * Clerical fascism * Cryptofascism * Esoteric Nazism
Nazism
* Fascist (epithet) * Fascist mysticism * Germanisation
Germanisation
* Glossary of Nazi
Nazi
Germany * Hitler salute * Italianization * Italianization of South Tyrol * Islamofascism
Islamofascism
* Japanization * Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
* Neo-fascism * Neo- Nazism
Nazism
* Roman salute
Roman salute
* Social fascism
Social fascism
* Synarchism * Unite Against Fascism
Fascism
* Völkisch movement * Women in Nazi
Nazi
Germany

* Category * Portal
Portal

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