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The VöLKISCH MOVEMENT (original name: völkische Bewegung) was the German interpretation of the populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era .

CONTENTS

* 1 Translation * 2 Origins in the 19th century * 3 Before and after World War I
World War I
* 4 Influence on Nazism * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links

TRANSLATION

The term völkisch (pronounced ) derives from the German word Volk (cognate with the English "folk"), corresponding to " Ethnic Group " of a population and people, with connotations in German of "people-powered". According to the historian James Webb , the word also has "overtones of 'nation ', 'race ' and 'tribe '…" The term völkisch has no direct English equivalent, but it could be rendered as "ethnonationalistic ", "racial-nationalistic" or "ethno-racialist ".

The völkisch "movement" was not a unified movement but "a cauldron of beliefs, fears and hopes that found expression in various movements and were often articulated in an emotional tone," Petteri Pietikäinen observed in tracing völkisch influences on Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
. The völkisch movement was "arguably the largest group" in the Conservative Revolutionary movement in Germany. However, like "conservative-revolutionary" or "fascist ", völkisch is a complex term ("schillernder Begriff"). In a narrow definition it can be used to designate only groups that consider human beings essentially preformed by blood, i.e. by inherited characteristics.

The defining idea, which the völkisch movement revolved around, was that of a Volkstum (literally "folkdom", with a meaning similar to a combination of the terms "folklore" and "ethnicity"). Volkstümlich would be "populist", or "popular", in this context.

ORIGINS IN THE 19TH CENTURY

The völkisch movement had its origins in Romantic nationalism , as it was expressed by early Romantics such as Johann Gottlieb Fichte in his Addresses to the German Nation
Nation
published during the Napoleonic Wars , from 1808 onwards, especially the eighth address, “What is a Volk, in the higher sense of the term, and what is love of the fatherland?," where he answered his question of what could warrant the noble individual's striving "and his belief in the eternity and the immortality of his work," by replying that it could only be that "particular spiritual nature of the human environment out of which he himself, with all of his thought and action... has arisen, namely the people from which he is descended and among which he has been formed and grown into that which he is".

The movement combined sentimental patriotic interest in German folklore , local history and a "back-to-the-land" anti-urban populism with many parallels in the writings of WilliAddeam Morris . "In part this ideology was a revolt against modernity," Nicholls remarked. The dream was for a self-sufficient life lived with a mystical relation to the land; it was a reaction to the cultural alienation of the Industrial revolution and the "progressive" liberalism of the later 19th century and its urbane materialist banality. Similar feelings were expressed in the US during the 1930s by the populist writers grouped as the Southern Agrarians .

The völkisch movement, as it evolved, sometimes combined the arcane and esoteric aspects of folkloric occultism alongside "racial adoration " and, in some circles, a type of anti-Semitism linked to exclusionary ethnic nationalism . Many völkisch movements included anti-communist , anti-immigration, anti-capitalist and anti-Parliamentarian ideas. Over time, völkisch ideas of "national community" ( Volksgemeinschaft
Volksgemeinschaft
) came more and more to exclude Jews
Jews
.

BEFORE AND AFTER WORLD WAR I

A number of the völkisch-populist movements that had evolved during the late 19th century in the German Empire
German Empire
, under the impress of National Romanticism , developed along propagandistic lines after the German defeat in World War I
World War I
, and the word "the people" (Volk) became increasingly politicized.

The same word Volk was used as a flag for new forms of ethnic nationalism, as well as by international socialist parties as a synonym for the proletariat in the German lands. From the left, elements of the folk-culture spread to the parties of the middle classes. But whereas Volk could mean "proletariat" among the left, it meant more particularly "race" among the center and right.

Although the primary interest of the Germanic mystical movement was the revival of native pagan traditions and customs (often set in the context of a quasi-theosophical esotericism), a marked preoccupation with purity of race came to motivate its more politically oriented offshoots, such as the Germanenorden (the Germanic or Teutonic Order), a secret society founded at Berlin in 1912 which required its candidates to prove that they had no "non-Aryan " bloodlines and required from each a promise to maintain purity of his stock in marriage. Local groups of the sect met to celebrate the summer solstice , an important neopagan festivity in völkisch circles (and later in Nazi Germany), and more regularly to read the Eddas as well as some of the German mystics . This branch of the völkisch movement quickly developed a hyper-nationalist sentiment and allied itself with anti-semitism, then rising.

Another völkisch movement of the same time was the Tatkreis .

George Mosse
George Mosse
examined völkisch literature in 1966 and identified some of the more "respectable" and centrist channels through which these sensibilities flowed: school texts that transmitted a Romantic view of a "pure" Germanic past, the nature-oriented German Youth Movement , and novels with an ideally ruthless völkisch hero, such as Hermann Löns
Hermann Löns
' Der Wehrwolf (1910).

Not all folkloric societies with connections to Romantic nationalism were located in Germany. The Völkisch movement was a force as well in Austria. While the community of Monte Verità ('Mount Truth') which emerged in 1900 at Ascona
Ascona
, Switzerland, is described by the Swiss art critic Harald Szeemann as "the southernmost outpost of a far-reaching Nordic lifestyle-reform, that is, alternative movement". It embraced a mix of anarchism , libertarian communism and various forms of artistic bohemianism and neopaganism.

INFLUENCE ON NAZISM

The völkisch ideologies were influential in the development of Nazism . Indeed, Joseph Goebbels publicly asserted in the 1927 Nuremberg rally that if the populist (völkisch) movement had understood power and how to bring thousands out in the streets, it would have gained political power on 9 November 1918 (the outbreak of the SPD -led German Revolution of 1918–1919 , end of the German monarchy). Adolf Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf (My Struggle): "the basic ideas of the National-Socialist movement are populist (völkisch) and the populist (völkisch) ideas are National-Socialist." Nazi racial understanding was couched in völkisch terms, when Eugen Fischer delivered his inaugural address as Nazi rector, The Conception of the Völkisch state in the view of biology (29 July 1933). The Thule Society was founded on 17 August 1918 by Rudolf von Sebottendorff with the original name of Studiengruppe für Germanisches Altertum (Study Group for Germanic Antiquity), and disseminated anti-republican and anti-Semitic propaganda. Karl Harrer, the Thule member most directly involved in the creation of the DAP in 1919, was sidelined at the end of the year when Hitler drafted regulations against conspiratorial circles, and the Thule Society was dissolved a few years later. The völkisch circles handed down one significant legacy to the Nazis: In 1919, Thule member Friedrich Krohn designed the original version of the Nazi swastika .

In January 1919, the Thule Society was instrumental in the foundation of the Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei (German Workers' Party, or DAP), which later became the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), commonly called the Nazi Party . Thule members or visiting guests that would later join the Nazi Party included Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
, Alfred Rosenberg , Hans Frank
Hans Frank
, Gottfried Feder , Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer . Notably Adolf Hitler never was a member of the Thule Society and Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
and Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
were only visiting guests of the Thule Society in the early years before they came to prominence in the Nazi movement. The Münchener Beobachter (Munich Observer), owned by Sebottendorff, was the press organ of another small nationalist party and later became the Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
(People's Observer). The Thule Society had no members from the top echelons of the party and Nazi officials were forbidden any involvement in secret societies so the connection of völkisch ideologies with the NSDAP can be overstated. According to Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke an imaginative mythology has grown up around the supposed influence of the Thule-Gesellschaft within the Nazi Party .

SEE ALSO

* Alldeutscher Verband
Alldeutscher Verband
* Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* Ethnic groups in Europe * Guido von List * Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels
Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels
* Mathilde Ludendorff * National Socialism and occultism
National Socialism and occultism
* Neo-völkisch movements * Nordic race * Pan-Germanism * Racial theory * Sociology of immigration * Volkshalle
Volkshalle

NOTES

* ^ James Webb. 1976. The Occult Establishment. La Salle, Illinois : Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-434-4 . pp. 276–277 * ^ Petteri Pietikäinen, "The Volk and Its Unconscious: Jung, Hauer and the 'German Revolution'" Journal of Contemporary History 35.4 (October 2000: 523–539) p. 524 * ^ A B C Hans Jürgen Lutzhöft (1971) Der Nordische Gedanke in Deutschland 1920–1940 (Stuttgart. Ernst Klett Verlag), p. 19. * ^ Transatlantic Intelligencer: "The Ummah and das Volk: On the Islamist and "Völkisch" Ideologies ": accessed 7 September 2010 * ^ A. J. Nicholls, reviewing George L. Mosse, The Crisis in German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich in The English Historical Review 82 No. 325 (October 1967), p 860. Mosse was characterised as "the foremost historian of völkisch ideology" by Petteri Pietikäinen 2000:524 note 6. * ^ George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson) 1966 sees this in the context of a broader revolt against modernity, contrasting healthy rural life with the debased materialism of city culture. * ^ "The Swastika
Swastika
and the Nazis". Intelinet.org. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. * ^ Austrian manifestations were surveyed by Rudolf G. Ardelt, Zwischen Demoktratie und Faschismus: Deutschnationales Gedankengut in Österreich, 1919-1930 (Vienna and Salzburg) 1972, not translated into English. * ^ Heidi Paris and Peter Gente (1982). Monte Verita: A Mountain for Minorities. Translated by Hedwig Pachter, Semiotext, the German Issue IV(2):1. * ^ Calvin.edu * ^ Franz Weidenreich in Science New Series, 104No. 2704 (October 1946:399). * ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 150, 221 * ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 149, 201

REFERENCES

* Dohe, Carrie b. Jung's Wandering Archetype: Race and Religion in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge, 2016. * Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. 1985. The Occult Roots of Nazism: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany 1890-1935. Wellingborough, England: Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-402-4 . (1992. The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3060-4 ) * Kurlander, E. 2002. "The Rise of Völkisch- Nationalism and the Decline of German Liberalism: A Comparison of Liberal Political Cultures in Schleswig-Holstein and Silesia 1912–1924", European Review of History 9(1): 23-36. Abstract * Mosse, George L. 1964. The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins Of The Third Reich. New York: Grosset ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Fascism

THEORY

CORE TENETS

* Nationalism * Imperialism * Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
* One-party state * Dictatorship * Social Darwinism * Social interventionism * Proletarian nation * Propaganda * Eugenics * Heroism * Militarism
Militarism
* Economic interventionism * Anti-communism

TOPICS

* Definitions * Economics * Fascism and ideology * Fascism worldwide * Symbolism

IDEAS

* Actual Idealism * Class collaboration * Corporatism * Heroic capitalism * National Socialism * National syndicalism * State capitalism
State capitalism
* Supercapitalism * Third Position * Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
* Social order

VARIANTS

* Italian * National Socialism * Japanese fascism * Falangism
Falangism
* British * Austrian * Metaxism * National Radicalism * Rexism
Rexism
* Clerical * Legionarism * Integralism

MOVEMENTS

AFRICA

* Greyshirts * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag

ASIA

* Brit HaBirionim * Ganap Party * Sakurakai * Tōhōkai * Blue Shirts Society

NORTHERN / NORTHWESTERN EUROPE

* Ailtirí na hAiséirghe
Ailtirí na hAiséirghe
* Black Front (Netherlands) * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Breton Social-National Workers\' Movement * British Fascists * British People\'s Party (1939) * British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
* La Cagoule * Clerical People\'s Party * Faisceau * Flemish National Union * French Popular Party * General Dutch Fascist League * Imperial Fascist League * Lapua Movement * Nasjonal Samling * National Corporate Party (Greenshirts ) * National Fascisti * Nationalist Party (Iceland) * National Socialist Bloc * National Socialist Dutch Workers Party * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
* National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Movement of Norway * National Socialist Workers\' Party (Sweden) * New Party (UK) * Patriotic People\'s Movement (Finland) * Pērkonkrusts
Pērkonkrusts
* Rexism
Rexism

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
* Austrian National Socialism * Fatherland Front (Austria)
Fatherland Front (Austria)
* Hungarian National Socialist Party * National Front (Switzerland) * Nazism * Nazi Party * Sudeten German Party

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Albanian Fascist Party * Democratic Fascist Party * Falange * Greek National Socialist Party * Italian Fascism * Italian Social Republic * Metaxism * National Fascist Party * National Union (Portugal)
National Union (Portugal)
* Republican Fascist Party * Sammarinese Fascist Party
Sammarinese Fascist Party
* Ustaše * ZBOR

EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

* Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* Crusade of Romanianism * Iron Guard * National Fascist Community * National Fascist Movement * National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement * National Social Movement (Bulgaria) * National Radical Camp Falanga
National Radical Camp Falanga
* National Romanian Fascio * National Renaissance Front * Ratniks (Bulgaria) * Romanian Front * Russian Fascist Party
Russian Fascist Party
* Russian Women\'s Fascist Movement * Slovak People\'s Party * Union of Bulgarian National Legions * Vlajka
Vlajka

NORTH AMERICA

* Fascism in Canada

* Canadian Union of Fascists * Parti national social chrétien

* Gold shirts * German American Bund * Silver Legion of America

SOUTH AMERICA

* Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America * Brazilian Integralism * Bolivian Socialist Falange * National Socialist Movement of Chile * Revolutionary Union

PEOPLE

* Abba Ahimeir * Nimio de Anquín * Sadao Araki * Marc Augier * Maurice Bardèche * Jacques Benoist-Méchin * Henri Béraud * Zoltán Böszörmény * Giuseppe Bottai * Robert Brasillach
Robert Brasillach
* Alphonse de Châteaubriant
Alphonse de Châteaubriant
* Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
* Gustavs Celmiņš * Enrico Corradini * Carlo Costamagna * Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Marcel Déat * Léon Degrelle * Pierre Drieu La Rochelle * Gottfried Feder * Giovanni Gentile
Giovanni Gentile
* Joseph Goebbels * Hans F. K. Günther * Heinrich Himmler * Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
* Adolf Hitler * Hideki Tojo
Hideki Tojo
* Ikki Kita * Vihtori Kosola * Agostino Lanzillo * Dimitrije Ljotić * Leopoldo Lugones * Curzio Malaparte * Ioannis Metaxas * Robert Michels
Robert Michels
* Oswald Mosley * Benito Mussolini * Eoin O\'Duffy * Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin * Sergio Panunzio * Giovanni Papini * Ante Pavelić * William Dudley Pelley
William Dudley Pelley
* Alfred Ploetz * Robert Poulet * Vidkun Quisling * José Antonio Primo de Rivera
José Antonio Primo de Rivera
* Lucien Rebatet
Lucien Rebatet
* Dionisio Ridruejo * Alfredo Rocco * Konstantin Rodzaevsky * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Plínio Salgado
Plínio Salgado
* Rafael Sánchez Mazas
Rafael Sánchez Mazas
* Margherita Sarfatti
Margherita Sarfatti
* Carl Schmitt * Ardengo Soffici * Othmar Spann * Ugo Spirito * Ferenc Szálasi * Gonzalo Torrente Ballester * Georges Valois
Georges Valois
* Anastasy Vonsyatsky

WORKS

LITERATURE

* The Doctrine of Fascism * Fascist Manifesto * Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals
Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals
* Mein Kampf * My Life * The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
* Zweites Buch * Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

PERIODICALS

* La Conquista del Estado * Das Reich * Der Angriff * Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung * Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen * Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden * Figli d\'Italia * Fronten * Gândirea * Gioventù Fascista * Je suis partout * La France au travail * Münchener Beobachter * Novopress
Novopress
* NS Månedshefte * Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift * Das Schwarze Korps * Der Stürmer * Il Popolo d\'Italia * Sfarmă-Piatră * Signal * Vlajka
Vlajka
* Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
* Nash Put\' * Fashist * l\'Alba

FILM

* Der Sieg des Glaubens * Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht * Triumph of the Will

SCULPTURE

* Allach

RELATED TOPICS

* Art of the Third Reich * Fascist architecture * Heroic realism * Nazi architecture
Nazi architecture
* Nazism and cinema * Nazi plunder * Syndicalism * Conservatism

ORGANIZATIONS

INSTITUTIONAL

* Ahnenerbe
Ahnenerbe
* Chamber of Fasci and Corporations * Grand Council of Fascism * Imperial Way Faction * Italian Nationalist Association * Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen * Quadrumvirs

ACTIVIST

* Fascist Union of Youth * German American Bund * National Youth Organisation (Greece)
National Youth Organisation (Greece)
* Russian Fascist Organization * Union of Fascist Little Ones * Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) * Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

PARAMILITARY

* Albanian Militia * Black Brigades * Blackshirts * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Einsatzgruppen * Gold shirts * Greenshirts * Greyshirts * Hitler Youth * Heimwehr * Iron Wolf (organization) * Lăncieri * Makapili * Silver Legion of America * Schutzstaffel * Sturmabteilung * Waffen-SS * Werwolf
Werwolf

INTERNATIONAL

* Axis powers * NSDAP/AO * ODESSA
ODESSA

HISTORY

1910S

* Arditi * Fascio

1920S

* Aventine Secession * Acerbo Law
Acerbo Law
* Corfu incident
Corfu incident
* March on Rome
March on Rome
* Beer Hall Putsch * Italian economic battles

1930S

* March of the Iron Will * German federal election, November 1932 * German federal election, March 1933
German federal election, March 1933
* Enabling Act * 6 February 1934 crisis * 1934 Montreux Fascist conference * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 4th of August Regime * Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact

1940S

* World War II
World War II
* The Holocaust * End in Italy * Denazification
Denazification
* Nuremberg Trials

LISTS

* Anti-fascists * Books about Hitler * British fascist parties * Fascist movements by country (A-F * G-M * N-T * U-Z ) * Nazi ideologues * Nazi leaders * Speeches by Hitler * SS personnel

RELATED TOPICS

* Alt-right * Anti-fascism * Anti-Nazi League * Christofascism * Clerical fascism * Cryptofascism * Esoteric Nazism * Fascist (epithet)
Fascist (epithet)
* Fascist mysticism * Germanisation * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Hitler salute * Italianization
Italianization
* Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol * Islamofascism * Japanization * Ku Klux Klan * Neo-fascism * Neo- Nazism * Roman salute * Social fascism
Social fascism
* Synarchism * Unite Against Fascism * Völkisch movement * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Nazism

ORGANIZATIONS

* National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung (SA) * Schutzstaffel (SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth (HJ) * National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) * League of German Girls
League of German Girls
(BDM) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Reich Labour Service (RAD) * Werwolf
Werwolf

HISTORY

* Early timeline * Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * Re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives * Nuremberg Rally * Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
* Kristallnacht * World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact * The Holocaust * Nuremberg trials * Denazification
Denazification
* Consequences

IDEOLOGY

* Architecture * Gleichschaltung * Anti-democratic thought * Strasserism
Strasserism
* Hitler\'s political views * Mein Kampf (Hitler ) * Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg ) * National Socialist Program * New Order * Preussentum und Sozialismus * Propaganda * Religious aspects * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

RACE

* Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* Eugenics * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich * Lebensborn
Lebensborn
* Master race * Racial policy * Religion

ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Final Solution * Human experimentation * Porajmos

Outside Germany

* Nazism in the United States

* American Nazi Party * German American Bund * National Socialist Movement (United States)

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party * Nasjonal Samling (Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League
National Socialist League
(UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile * National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nationalist Liberation Alliance
Nationalist Liberation Alliance
(Argentina) * Nazism in Brazil * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists

LISTS

* Books by or about Hitler * Ideologues * Leaders and officials * Nazi Party members * Speeches given by Hitler * SS personnel

PEOPLE

* Adolf Hitler * Joseph Goebbels * Heinrich Himmler * Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
* Martin Bormann * Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser * Albert Speer * Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Adolf Eichmann * Joachim von Ribbentrop * Houston Stewart Chamberlain
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Wilhelm Frick * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
* Josef Mengele
Josef Mengele
* Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Baldur von Schirach * Artur Axmann
Artur Axmann
* Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
* Dietrich Eckart * Gottfried Feder * Ernst Hanfstaengl * Julius Streicher * Hermann Esser * George Lincoln Rockwell

Related topics

* Esoteric Nazism * Far-right politics * German resistance * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Nazi salute * Neo- Nazism * Social Darwinism * Stormfront * Swastika
Swastika
* Völkisch movement * Zweites Buch

* CATEGORY

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