Võ Nguyên Giáp (Vietnamese: [vɔ̌ˀ ŋʷīən zǎːp]; 25
August 1911 – 4 October 2013) was a Vietnamese general in the
Vietnam People's Army and a politician.
Võ Nguyên Giáp is
considered one of the greatest military strategists of the 20th
century. He first grew to prominence during World War II, where he
served as the military leader of the
Viet Minh resistance against the
Japanese occupation of Vietnam. Giáp was a principal commander in two
First Indochina War
First Indochina War (1946–54) and the
(1960–75), participating in several historically significant
battles: Lạng Sơn (1950), Hòa Bình (1951–52), Điện Biên
Phủ (1954), the Tết Offensive (1968), the
Easter Offensive (1972),
and the final
Ho Chi Minh Campaign
Ho Chi Minh Campaign (1975).
Võ Nguyên Giáp was also a journalist, an interior minister in
President Hồ Chí Minh's Việt Minh government, the military
commander of the Viet Minh, the commander of the People's Army of
Vietnam (PAVN), and defense minister. He also served as a member of
the Politburo of the
Vietnam Workers' Party, which in 1976 became the
Communist Party of Vietnam.
Võ Nguyên Giáp was the most prominent military commander, beside Ho
Chi Minh, during the
Vietnam War, and was responsible for major
operations and leadership until the war ended.
1 Early life
2 Young activist
3 Young commander
5 Interwar years
7 Fall of Saigon
7.1 Standard view
12 External links
Võ Nguyên Giáp was born on 25 August 1911 (or 1912 according to
some sources) in Quảng Bình Province, French Indochina.
Giáp's father and mother,
Võ Quang Nghiêm and Nguyễn Thị
Kiên, worked the land, rented some to neighbors, and lived a
relatively comfortable lifestyle.
Giáp's father was both a minor official and a committed Vietnamese
nationalist, having played a part in the
Cần Vương movement
Cần Vương movement in the
1880s. He was arrested for subversive activities by the French
colonial authorities in 1919 and died in prison a few weeks later.
Giáp had two sisters and one brother, and soon after his father's
incarceration, one of his sisters was also arrested. Although she was
not held for long, the privations of prison life made her ill and she
too died a few weeks after being released.
Giáp was taught at home by his father before going to the village
school. His precocious intelligence meant that he was soon transferred
to the district school and in 1924, at the age of thirteen, he left
home to attend the Quốc Học (also known in English as the
"National Academy"), a French-run lycée in Huế. This school had
been founded by a Catholic official named Ngo Dinh Kha, and his son,
Ngô Đình Diệm
Ngô Đình Diệm also attended it. Diem later went on to become
President of South
Vietnam (1955–63). Years earlier the same school
had educated another boy, Nguyen Sinh Cung, also the son of an
official. In 1943 Cung adopted the name Ho Chi Minh.
At 14, Giáp became a messenger for the
Haiphong Power Company. He was
expelled from the school after two years for taking part in protests,
and went home to his village for a while. While there, he joined the
Tân Việt Revolutionary Party, an underground group founded in 1924,
which introduced him to communism. He returned to Hue and continued
his political activities. He was arrested in 1930 for taking part in
student protests and served 13 months of a two-year sentence at Lao
Bảo Prison. By Giáp's own account the reason for his release was
lack of evidence against him. He joined the Communist Party of
Vietnam in 1931 and took part in several demonstrations against
French rule in
Indochina as well as assisting in founding the
Democratic Front in 1933.
Although he has denied it, Giáp was said by the historian Cecil B.
Currey to have also spent some time in the prestigious
Albert Sarraut, where the local elite was educated to serve the
colonial regime. He was said to have been in the same class as Phạm
Văn Đồng, a future Prime Minister, who has also denied having
studied at Albert Sarraut, and Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of
Annam. From 1933 to 1938, Giáp studied at the
University of Hanoi where he earned a bachelor's degree in law
with a major in political economy.
While studying at university, Giáp had taken lodgings with Professor
Dang Thai Minh, whose daughter, Nguyen Thi Minh Giang (also cited
as Nguyễn Thị Quang Thái), he had first met at school in Hue.
She too had learned nationalism from her father and had joined the
revolutionary activities which Giáp was involved with. In June 1938
(or, according to some sources, April 1939) they were married and in
May 1939 they had a daughter, Hong Anh (Red Queen of Flowers).
Giáp's busy political activities took a toll on his postgraduate
studies, and he failed to pass the examinations for the Certificate of
Administrative Law. Unable therefore to practice as a lawyer, he took
a job as a history teacher at the Thăng Long School in Hanoi.
As well as teaching in school, Giáp was busy producing and writing
articles for Tieng Dan (Voice of the People) founded by Huỳnh Thúc
Kháng and many other revolutionary newspapers, while actively
participating in various revolutionary movements. All the while, Giáp
was a dedicated reader of military history and philosophy, revering
Sun Tzu. He also made a particular study of Napoleon's
generalship, and greatly admired T. E. Lawrence's Seven Pillars of
Wisdom, learning from it practical examples of how to apply minimum
military force to maximum effect. During the Popular Front years
in France, he founded Hon Tre Tap Moi (Soul of Youth), an
underground socialist newspaper. He also founded the French-language
paper Le Travail (on which
Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng also worked).
After the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the French
authorities outlawed the Indochinese Communist Party. Its leaders
decided that Giáp should leave
Vietnam and go into exile in China. On
3 May 1940 he said farewell to his wife, left
Hanoi and crossed the
border into China. Giáp's wife went to her family home in Vinh, where
she was arrested, sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment, and
incarcerated in the
Hoa Lo Central Prison
Hoa Lo Central Prison in Hanoi. In China,
Giáp joined up with Hồ Chí Minh, then an adviser to the People's
Liberation Army. Giáp adopted the alias Duong Huai-nan, learned to
speak and write Chinese, and studied the strategy and tactics of the
Chinese Communist Party.
In September 1940,
Vichy France agreed to the Japanese occupation of
Vietnam, to 'protect' Indochina. In May 1941 the Eighth Congress of
the Indochinese Communist Party decided to form the Viet Minh; Giáp
was made responsible for establishing an intelligence network and
organising political bases in the far north of the country. To begin
propaganda work among the population, a news-sheet called Viet Nam Doc
Lap was produced. Giáp wrote many articles for it, and was repeatedly
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh for the excessive verbosity of his writing
In 1942 Giáp and about forty men moved back into
established themselves in remote caves near the village of Vu Nhai.
This and similar small groups in the mountains were the basis of the
Viet Minh, the armed wing of the
Vietnam Independence League. The
local Nung hill people spoke little Vietnamese, so Giap and his
colleagues had to learn local dialects and draw pictures to
communicate. When Vichy security patrols approached, they would
conceal themselves in a cave under a waterfall, or, at times, in the
lands of the Man Trang people. For the next few years he and his
comrades worked steadily to build up a small military force and to win
local people over to the communist cause. By the end of 1943 several
hundred men and women had joined the Viet Minh. It was in the
summer of 1943 that Giáp was told that his wife had been beaten to
death by guards in the central prison in Hanoi. Her sister was
guillotined and Giáp's daughter died in prison of unknown causes
In September 1944 the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference
was held and it was agreed that the time was now right to take the
military struggle forward into a new phase. The formation of the
Vietnam Liberation army was proclaimed, with Giáp as its commander.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh directed him to establish Armed Propaganda Brigades and
the first one, consisting of thirty one men and three women, was
formed in December 1944. Named the Tran Hung Dao Platoon after the
great Vietnamese hero, it was armed with two revolvers, seventeen
rifles, one light machine gun, and fourteen breech-loading flintlocks
dating from the Russo-Japanese War.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh decided that for
propaganda purposes, the Armed Propaganda Unit had to win a military
victory within a month of being established, so on 25 December 1944
Giáp led successful attacks against French outposts at Khai Phat and
Na Ngan. Two French lieutenants were killed and the Vietnamese
soldiers in the outposts surrendered. The
Viet Minh attackers suffered
no casualties. A few weeks later, Giáp was wounded in the leg when
his group attacked another outpost at Dong Mu.
Through the first half of 1945, Giáp's military position strengthened
as the political position of the French and Japanese weakened. On 9
March the Japanese removed the titular French regime and placed the
Bảo Đại at the head of a puppet state, the Empire of
Vietnam. By April the Vietminh had nearly five thousand members, and
was able to attack Japanese posts with confidence. In one of the
ironies of history, between May and August 1945 the United States,
keen to support anti-Japanese forces in mainland Asia, actively
supplied and trained Giáp and the Viet Minh. Major Archimedes Patti,
in charge of the so-called 'Deer Team' unit, taught the
Viet Minh to
use flamethrowers, grenade launchers and machine guns. In a single
month they succeeded in training around 200 hand-picked future leaders
of the army they were to oppose a few decades later. Growing stronger,
Giáp's forces took more territory and captured more towns up until
the announcement on 15 August by the Japanese Emperor of his country's
unconditional surrender to the allies.
On 28 August 1945 Giáp led his men into Hanoi, and on 2 September Ho
Chi Minh declared the independence of the Democratic Republic of
Vietnam. He formed a new government, with Giáp as Minister of the
Interior. Unknown to the Việt Minh, President Harry S. Truman,
Winston Churchill and Premier
Joseph Stalin had already
decided the future of postwar
Vietnam at a summit meeting at Potsdam.
They agreed that the country would be occupied temporarily to get the
Japanese out; the northern half would be under the control of the
Nationalist Chinese and the southern half under the British. On 9
Nationalist Chinese forces crossed the border and
quickly took control of the north, while on 12 September the British
Indian Army arrived in Saigon. By October French forces had begun
to arrive in Vietnam, and the British handed control of the south back
to them and in May 1946 an agreement between the French and the
Chinese saw the Chinese withdraw from the north and the French move in
there as well.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh and
Võ Nguyên Giáp pursued lengthy
negotiations with the French, seeking to avoid an all-out war to
cement their independence. Giáp led the Vietnamese delegation at the
Dalat conference in April 1946, which yielded nothing, and,
returning to Hanoi, he was made Minister of Defense. Ho Chi Minh
departed for France on 31 May to negotiate with the French at
Fontainebleau, and he remained in France until November.
With Ho in France, Giáp was effectively in charge of the government
in Hanoi. Up till then the Democratic Republic of
Vietnam had allowed
nationalist and other newspapers to publish, but when they began
attacking and vilifying Giáp he cracked down on them and closed them
all. He also deployed
Viet Minh forces against non-communist
nationalist troops in the suburbs of Hanoi, and had their leaders
arrested, imprisoned, or killed. During this period he also began a
relationship with a famous and beautiful dancer, Thuong Huyen, and was
seen in public with her at nightclubs. This conduct caused serious
concern in the upper ranks of the Party as it was contrary to the very
strict and abstemious moral code by which all members were expected to
abide. Wanting to protect him,
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh arranged for him to meet a
graduate from a well-known family, Ba Hanh. In August 1946 they were
married, and went on to have two boys and two girls.
Main articles: North Vietnam, First
Indochina War, and Battle of Dien
The tense standoff between the Vietnamese government and the French
occupiers escalated dramatically on 23 October when the French
commander Argenlieu ordered the cruiser Suffren to bombard
response to repeated skirmishes with Vietnamese forces as they tried
to bring arms and contraband into the port. Around six thousand people
were killed, and fourteen thousand wounded in the bombardment.
Giáp, acting as de facto President in the absence of Ho Chi Minh,
tried to maintain some kind of peace but by the time Ho returned in
November, both sides were on a war footing. Local fighting broke out
repeatedly and on 27 November Ho's government, concluding that it
could not hold
Hanoi against the French, retreated back up into the
northern hills where it had been based two years previously. On 19
December the Vietnamese government officially declared war on France
and fighting erupted all over the country. After this time,
detailed information on Giáp's personal life becomes much scarcer and
in most sources the emphasis is on his military achievements and,
later, on his political roles.
The first few years of the war involved mostly a low-level,
semi-conventional resistance fight against the French occupying
Võ Nguyên Giáp first saw real fighting at Nha Trang,
when he traveled to south-central
Vietnam in January–February 1946
to convey the determination of leaders in
Hanoi to resist the
French. However, after the Chinese communists reached the northern
Vietnam in 1949 and the Vietnamese destruction of French
posts there, the conflict turned into a conventional war between two
armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the
United States and
the Soviet Union.
French Union forces included colonial troops from many parts of the
French former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Laotian,
Cambodian, Vietnamese and Vietnamese ethnic minorities), French
professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of
metropolitan recruits (i.e. recruits from France itself) was forbidden
by French governments to prevent the war from becoming even more
unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by
supporters of the Left in France and intellectuals (including Sartre)
Henri Martin affair in 1950.
When it became clear that France was becoming involved in a long
drawn-out and so far not very successful war, the French government
tried to negotiate an agreement with the Viet Minh. They offered to
help set up a national government and promised that they would
Vietnam its independence.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh and the other
leaders of the
Viet Minh did not trust the word of the French and
continued the war.
Võ Nguyên Giáp (left) and
Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh in Hà Nội, October 1945
French public opinion continued to move against the war. There were
five main reasons for this:
Between 1946 and 1952 many French troops had been killed, wounded, or
France was attempting to build up her economy after the devastation of
the Second World War. The cost of the war had so far been twice what
they had received from the
United States under the Marshall Plan.
The war had lasted for seven years and there was still no sign of a
clear French victory.
A growing number of people in France had reached the conclusion that
their country did not have any moral justification for being in
Parts of the French left supported the goals of the Việt Minh to
form a socialist state.
While growing stronger in Vietnam, the Việt Minh also expanded the
war and lured the French to spread their force to remote areas such as
Laos. In December 1953, French military commander General Henri
Navarre set up a defensive complex at
Ðiện Biên Phủ
Ðiện Biên Phủ in the
Mường Thanh Valley, disrupting Việt Minh supply lines passing
through Laos. He surmised that in an attempt to reestablish the route,
Giáp would be forced to organize a mass attack on Ðiện Biên
Phủ, thus fighting a conventional battle, in which Navarre could
expect to have the advantage.
Giáp took up the French challenge. While the French dug in at their
outpost, the Việt Minh were also preparing the battlefield. While
diversionary attacks were launched in other areas, Giáp ordered
his men to covertly position their artillery by hand. Defying standard
military practice, he had his twenty-four 105mm howitzers placed on
the forward slopes of the hills around Dien Bien Phu, in deep, mostly
hand-dug emplacements protecting them from French aircraft and
With antiaircraft guns supplied by the Soviet Union, Giáp was able to
severely restrict the ability of the French to supply their garrison,
forcing them to drop supplies inaccurately from high altitude. Giáp
ordered his men to dig a trench system that encircled the French. From
the outer trench, other trenches and tunnels were gradually dug inward
towards the center. The
Viet Minh were now able to move in close to
the French troops defending Dien Bien Phu.
When Navarre realized that he was trapped, he appealed for help. The
United States was approached and some advisers suggested the use of
tactical nuclear weapons against the Viet Minh, but this was never
seriously considered. Another suggestion was that conventional air
raids would be enough to scatter Giáp's troops. U.S. President Dwight
D. Eisenhower, however, refused to intervene unless the British and
other Western allies agreed. British Prime Minister Churchill
declined, claiming that he wanted to wait for the outcome of the peace
negotiations taking place in Geneva, Switzerland, before becoming
involved in escalating the war.
On 13 March 1954, Giap launched his offensive. For 54 days, the
Viet Minh seized position after position, pushing the French until
they occupied only a small area of Dien Bien Phu. Colonel Piroth, the
artillery commander, blamed himself for the destruction of French
artillery superiority. He told his fellow officers that he had been
"completely dishonoured" and committed suicide with a hand
grenade. General De Castries, French Commander in Dien Bien Phu,
was captured alive in his bunker. The French surrendered on 7 May.
Their casualties totaled over 2,200 men dead, 5,600 wounded and 11,721
taken prisoner. The following day the French government announced that
it intended to withdraw from Vietnam.
Giáp's victory over the French was an important inspiration to
anti-colonial campaigners around the world, particularly in French
colonies, and most particularly in North Africa, not least because
many of the troops fighting on the French side in
Indochina were from
North Africa. The victory at Dien Bien Phu marked the
beginning of a new era in the military struggles against colonialism
for national liberation and independence movements in Morocco,
Tunisia and other colonised countries.
After the French surrender, Giáp moved back into
Hanoi as the
Vietnamese government re-established itself. He expanded and
modernised the army, re-equipping it with Russian and Chinese weapons
systems. On 7 May 1955 he inaugurated the Vietnamese Maritime Force
and on 1 May 1959, the Vietnamese People's Air Force. During the
late 1950s Giáp served as Minister of Defence, Commander in Chief of
the People's Army of Vietnam, Deputy Prime Minister, and deputy
chairman of the Defence Council. In terms of his personal life, he
was also able to move back in with his wife, from whom he had been
separated for eight years during the war. She was working as a
professor of history and social science at this time. Together
they raised two boys and two girls. In the little spare time he had,
he said in interviews that he enjoyed occasionally playing the piano,
as well as reading Goethe, Shakespeare and Tolstoy.
During the late 1950s the top priority of the re-established
Vietnamese government was the rapid establishment of a socialist
economic order and Communist Party rule. This involved
collectivisation of agriculture and central management of all economic
production. This process did not go smoothly and it led to food
shortages and revolts. At the 10th Plenum of the Communist Party,
27–29 October 1956, Giáp stood in front of the assembled delegates
'Cadres, in carrying out their antifeudal task, created contradictions
in the tasks of land reform and the Revolution, in some areas treating
them as if they were separate activities......we indiscriminately
attacked all families owning land. Many thousands were executed. We
saw enemies everywhere and resorted to widespread violence and terror.
In some places, in our efforts to implement land reform, we failed to
respect religious freedoms and the right to worship..... we placed too
much emphasis on class origins rather than political attitudes.....
There were grave errors.' 
The departure of the French and the de facto partition of Vietnam
meant that the
Hanoi government only controlled the north part of the
country. In South
Vietnam there were still several thousand guerillas,
known as Viet Cong, fighting against the government in Saigon. The
Party Plenum in 1957 ordered changes to the structure of these units
and Giáp was put in charge of implementing these and building their
strength to form a solid basis for an insurrection in the South.
The 1959 Plenum decided that the time for escalating the armed
struggle in the South was right and in July that year Giáp ordered
the opening up of the
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh trail to improve supply lines to
Viet Cong units.
Vietnam War, Tet Offensive, Easter Offensive, and
Operation Linebacker II
Hanoi Citadel was the military headquarters of General Giáp
during the war
Giáp remained commander in chief of the People's Army of Vietnam
throughout the war against South
Vietnam and its allies, the United
States, Australia, Thailand, South Korea, and the Philippines. He
oversaw the expansion of the PAVN from a small self-defense force into
a large conventional army, equipped by its communist allies with
considerable amounts of relatively sophisticated weaponry, although
this did not usually match the weaponry of the Americans. Giáp has
often been assumed to have been the planner of the Tết Offensive of
1968, but this appears not to have been the case. The best evidence
indicates that he disliked the plan, and when it became obvious that
Lê Duẩn and
Văn Tiến Dũng were going to conduct it anyway, he
Vietnam for medical treatment in Hungary, and did not return
until after the offensive had begun. Although this attempt to
spark a general uprising against the southern government failed
disastrously, it was a significant political victory through
convincing American politicians and the public that their commitment
Vietnam could not be open-ended. Giáp later argued that the
Tết Offensive was not a "purely military strategy" but part of a
"general strategy, an integrated one, at once military, political and
Peace talks between representatives from the United States, South
Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the NLF began in Paris in January 1969.
President Richard Nixon, like President
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson before him,
was convinced that a U.S. withdrawal was necessary, but four years
would pass before the last American troops departed. In October 1972,
the negotiators came close to agreeing to a formula to end the
conflict. The proposal was that the remaining U.S. troops would
withdraw from South
Vietnam in exchange for a cease-fire and the
return of American prisoners held by Hà Nội. It was also agreed
that the governments in North and South
Vietnam would remain in power,
and reunification would be “carried out step by step through
peaceful means”. Although the North's Nguyễn Huệ Offensive
during the spring of 1972 was beaten back with high casualties, the
proposal did not require them to leave the South. PAVN would thus be
able to maintain a foothold in South
Vietnam from which to launch
In an effort to put pressure on both North and South
the negotiations, President Nixon ordered a series of air raids on Hà
Nội and Hải Phòng, codenamed Operation Linebacker II. The
operation ended on 27 January 1973, after 12 days with heavy
casualties and destruction. Both the U.S. and North
agreed to sign the
Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords that had been proposed in
Vietnam objected, but had little choice but to accept
it. Clearly, the advantage had been given to Hanoi.
The last U.S. combat troops left in March 1973. Despite the treaty,
there was no end in fighting. South Vietnamese attempts to regain
communist controlled territory inspired their opponents to change
strategy. Communist leaders met in
Hanoi in March for a series of
meetings to plan for a massive offensive against the South. In June
1973, the U.S. Congress passed the Case–Church Amendment, which
prohibited any further U.S. military involvement, and the PAVN supply
routes could operate normally without any fear of U.S. bombing.
Fall of Saigon
1975 Spring Offensive
1975 Spring Offensive and Fall of Saigon
The standard view of this period is that after Ho Chi Minh's death in
September 1969, Giáp lost a power struggle in 1972 shortly after the
Easter Offensive where he was blamed by the Politburo for the
offensive's failure. Giáp was recalled to
Hanoi where he was replaced
as field commander of the PAVN and from then on watched subsequent
events from the sidelines, with the glory of victory in 1975 going to
the chief of the general staff, General Văn Tiến Dũng, and that
Giáp's role in the 1975 victory is largely ignored by official
Soon after the fall of Saigon, the Socialist Republic of
established. In the new government, Giáp maintained his position as
Minister of National Defense and he was made Deputy Prime Minister in
July 1976. In December 1978 he oversaw the successful Vietnamese
Cambodia which drove the
Khmer Rouge from power and ended
the Cambodian genocide. In retaliation, Cambodia's ally China
responded by invading the Cao Bang province of
Vietnam in January 1979
and once again Giáp was in overall responsibility for the response,
which drove the Chinese out after a few months. He finally retired
from his post at the Defense Ministry in 1981 and retired from the
Politburo in 1982. He remained on the Central Committee and Deputy
Prime Minister until he retired in 1991.
Giáp wrote extensively on military theory and strategy. His works
include Big Victory, Great Task; People's Army, People's War; Ðiện
Biên Phủ; and We Will Win.
In 1995, former U.S. Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara met Giáp to
ask what happened on 4 August 1964 in the second Gulf of Tonkin
Incident. "Absolutely nothing", Giáp replied. Giáp claimed that
the attack on 4 August 1964, had been imaginary.
In a 1998 interview,
William Westmoreland criticized the battlefield
prowess of Giáp. He further stated that " By his own admission, by
early 1969, I think, he had lost, what, a half million soldiers? He
reported this. Now such a disregard for human life may make a
formidable adversary, but it does not make a military genius. An
American commander losing men like that would hardly have lasted more
than a few weeks." However, American historian Derek Frisby
criticized Westmoreland's view, which he said reflected a failure in
understanding Giáp's core philosophy of "revolutionary war".
According to Frisby, "Giap understood that protracted warfare would
cost many lives but that did not always translate into winning or
losing the war. In the final analysis, Giap won the war despite losing
many battles, and as long as the army survived to fight another day,
the idea of
Vietnam lived in the hearts of the people who would
support it, and that is the essence of 'revolutionary war'."
General Giáp in 2008.
In 2010, Giáp became a prominent critic of bauxite mining in Vietnam
following government plans to open large areas of the Central
Highlands to the practice. Giáp indicated that a 1980s study led
experts to advise against mining due to severe ecological damage and
Main article: Death and state funeral of
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp in Quảng Bình Province
On 4 October 2013, the Communist Party of
Vietnam and government
official announced that
Võ Nguyên Giáp had died, aged 102, at 18:09
hours, local time, at Central Military Hospital 108 in Hanoi, where he
had been living since 24 September 2009. He was given a state
funeral on 12 and 13 October 2013 and his body lay in state at the
national morgue in
Hanoi until his burial at the Vũng Chùa - Đảo
Yến in his home province of Quảng Bình.
Big Victory, Great Task
People's Army, People's War
Ðiện Biên Phủ
We Will Win
^ "General Vo Nguyen Giap: Soldier who led Vietnamese forces against
France and the US". Independent Print Ltd. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4
^ Gregory, Joseph (4 October 2013). "Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Who Ousted
U.S. From Vietnam, Is Dead".
^ Asian Heroes, Time
^ a b c d e "
Vietnam war leader General dies, aged 102". Radio France
Internationale. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.19
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.19–20
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p20
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p21
^ Currey (2005), pp. 28–31
^ Currey (2005), p. 36
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.22
^ a b c Willbanks (2013), p. 229
^ Davidson, Phillip B. (1988).
Vietnam at War: The History. Novato:
Presidio Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-89141-306-5.
^ Currey (2005), p. 32
^ For details of Sun Tzu's influence on Giáp see: Forbes, Andrew
& Henley, David (2012), The Illustrated Art of War: Sun Tzu,
Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, ASIN B00B91XX8U.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.23
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 22–23
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 27
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 28
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 29
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 31
^ Caputo, Philip (15 November 2011). "10,000 Days of Thunder: A
History of the
Vietnam War". Simon and Schuster – via Google
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 32
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 33
^ "WGBH Open Vault - Interview with Archimedes L. A. Patti, 1981".
Retrieved 19 August 2015.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 34–6
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.60
^ Woods (2002), p. 60
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 63
^ Eric T. Jennings, Imperial Heights: Dalat and the Making and Undoing
of French Indochina, University of California Press 2011 pp.233-4
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.70–73
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 73–4
^ Barnet, Richard J. (1968). Intervention and Revolution: The United
States in the Third World. World Publishing. p. 185.
^ Sheehan, Neil (1988). A Bright Shining Lie. New York: Random House.
p. 155. ISBN 0-394-48447-9.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp. 74–78
^ Lawrence (2007), p. 82
^ Marr, David G. (2013). Vietnam: State, War, Revolution, 1945–1946.
Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 132.
ISBN 978-0-520-27415-0. Between 18 January and 5 February, Võ
Nguyên Giáp traveled to south-central
Vietnam to convey the
determination of leaders in
Hanoi to back armed resistance to the
French invaders." p133 "Giap seemed to think it was still feasible to
move weapons and troops from north to south along the coast, a
capacity the French had eliminated a few days later.64 The Nha Trang
front was the first time Giáp ...
^ "Those named Martin, Their history is ours – The Great History,
Indochina War". documentary (in French). Channel 5
(France). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved
20 May 2007.
^ Ruscio, Alain (2 August 2003). "Guerre d'Indochine: Libérez Henri
Martin" (in French). l'Humanité. Archived from the original on 4
August 2003. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
^ Arthur J. Dommen. The Indochinese experience of the French and the
Americans: nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
Indiana University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-253-33854-9, page 233,
citing Rapport concernant la conduite des opérations en Indochine
sous la direction du général Navarre as reproduced in G. Elgey,
Histoire de la IVe République, volume 2, annex 1, pages 641–722.
^ Davidson, Philip B. (1988).
Vietnam at War: The History 1946–1975.
Novato: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-306-5.
^ Pringle, James (1 April 2004). "Au revoir, Dien Bien Phu".
International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 8 February
2008. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
^ Windrow, Martin The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat
in Vietnam. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.134
^ Chiviges Naylor, P., France and Algeria: A History of Decolonization
and Transformation, University Press of Florida, 2000 p.18
^ a b Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.169
^ a b Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, p.170
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.171-2
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.174
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.181
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.181-2
^ Pribbenow, Merle (2008). "General
Võ Nguyên Giáp and the
Mysterious Evolution of the Plan for the 1968 Tết Offensive".
Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 3 (2): 1–33.
^ "Interview with Vo Nguyen Giap." 1982. WGBH Media Library &
Archives. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
^ Davidson (1991), pp. 712–13
^ Chris Brummitt and Margie Mason (4 October 2013). "Legendary Vietnam
Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap Dies at 102". Time. AP. Archived from the original
on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013. (HANOI,
Vietnam)...Throughout most of the war, Giáp served as defense
minister, armed forces commander and a senior member of Vietnam's
ruling Communist Party, but he was slowly elbowed from the center of
power after Ho Chi Minh's death in 1969. The glory for victory in 1975
went not to Giáp, but to Gen. Van Tien Dung, chief of the general
staff. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
^ "Vo Nguyen Giap, Vietnamese commander whose army defeated French,
U.S. forces, dies". Washington Post. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4
October 2013. By Bart Barnes, Published: October 4 ... In an internal
power struggle three years earlier, Gen. Giáp was replaced as field
commander of the communist forces and in 1975, he watched from the
sidelines as the army he created and nurtured took the enemy capital.
Nevertheless, 25 years later, he would recall the fall of Saigon as
the “happiest moment in this short life of mine.”
^ "Vo Nguyen Giap, Vietnamese general, 1911–2013". Financial Times.
4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013. By Jonathan Birchall ...
After Ho's death in 1969, Giáp's influence within the leadership
waned steadily. His role in the final victory of 1975 is largely
ignored by official Vietnamese accounts.
^ Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam, pp.337-8
^ McNamara asks Giap: What happened in Tonkin Gulf? Archived 6 March
2015 at the Wayback Machine., Associated Press, 1995
^ The final evidence that there had not been any Vietnamese attack
against U.S. ships on the night of 4 August 1964 was provided by the
release of a slightly sanitized version Archived 31 January 2016 at
the Wayback Machine. of a classified analysis by a National Security
Agency historian, Robert J. Hanyok, "Skunks, Bogies, Silent Hounds,
and the Flying Fish: The Gulf of Tonkin Mystery, 2–4 August 1964",
Cryptologic Quarterly, Winter 2000/Spring 2001 Edition (Vol. 19, No. 4
/ Vol. 20, No. 1), pp. 1–55.
^ Boston Publishing Company (7 November 2014). The American Experience
in Vietnam: Reflections on an Era. Zenith Press. pp. 56–.
^ Gabriel Domínguez, "Vo Nguyen Giap - 'A master of revolutionary
war'", Deutsche Welle, 7 October 2013.
^ Lam, Tran Dinh Thanh.
Vietnam farmers fall to bauxite bulldozers.
Asia Times. 2 June 2009.
Vietnam Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap Dies". Associated Press.
Retrieved 4 October 2013.
^ "Nơi an nghỉ của Đại tướng đẹp huyền ảo như trong
^ "Vũng Chùa - Yến Island, nơi yên nghỉ của tướng
Currey, Cecil B., Senior General Vo Nguyen Giap Remembers, in Journal
of Third World Studies, Fall 2003.
Currey, Cecil B. (2000). Victory at Any Cost: The Genius of Viet Nam's
Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's Inc.
Currey, Cecil B. (2005). Victory at Any Cost: The Genius of Viet Nam's
Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap. Potomac Books, Inc.
Davidson, Phillip B. (1991).
Vietnam at War: The History, 1946–1975.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195067924.
Dupuy, Trevor N.; Curt Johnson; David L. Bongard (1995). The Harper
Encyclopedia of Military Biography. New York: Castle Books.
Giap, Vo Nguyen (1970). Military Art of People's War: Selected
Writings. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Karnow, Stanley (1997). Vietnam: A History. New York: Penguin.
Lawrence, Mark Atwood; Logevall, Fredrik (2007). The First Vietnam
War: Colonial Conflict and Cold War Crisis. Harvard University Press.
Booknotes interview with Peter MacDonald on Giap: The Victor in
Vietnam, 29 August 1993, C-SPAN
Macdonald, Peter (1993). Giap: The Victor in Vietnam. Fourth Estate.
ISBN 1 85702 107 X.
Morris, Virginia and Hills, Clive (2018). Ho Chi Minh's Blueprint for
Revolution: In the Words of Vietnamese Strategists and Operatives,
McFarland & Co Inc.
Nguyen, Lien-Hang T. Hanoi's War: An International History of the War
for Peace in Vietnam. University of North Carolina Press 2012
Pribbenow, Merle (Translator) (2002). Victory in Vietnam: A History of
the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Lawrence, Kansas:
University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1175-1.
Pribbenow, Merle (Translator) (2002). Victory in Vietnam: A History of
the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975. Lawrence, Kansas:
University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1175-1.
Secrets of War:
Special Operations. Documedia Group.
Willbanks, James H. (2013).
Vietnam War: The Essential Reference
Guide. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610691031.
Woods, L. Shelton (2002). Vietnam: A Global Studies Handbook.
ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576074169.
Military history portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vo Nguyen Giap.
"Vo Nguyen Giap" at the
Wayback Machine (archived 25 September 2000).
(interview) CNN. Conducted in May 1996, translated from Vietnamese
General Giap Biography
National Liberation Front
General Vo Nguyen Giap – Asian Hero
Vo Nguyen Giap's interview – PBS
Bibliography: Writings of Vo Nguyen Giap, and Books about Him
Vo Nguyen Giap on Britannica
Generals of the
Vietnam People's Army
Võ Nguyên Giáp (1948)
Nguyễn Chí Thanh
Nguyễn Chí Thanh (1959)
Văn Tiến Dũng (1974)
Hoàng Văn Thái
Hoàng Văn Thái (1980)
Chu Huy Mân (1982)
Lê Đức Anh
Lê Đức Anh (1984)
Lê Trọng Tấn
Lê Trọng Tấn (1984)
Đoàn Khuê (1990)
Nguyễn Quyết (1990)
Phạm Văn Trà
Phạm Văn Trà (2003)
Lê Văn Dũng (2007)
Phùng Quang Thanh
Phùng Quang Thanh (2007)
Đỗ Bá Tỵ (2015)
Ngô Xuân Lịch
Ngô Xuân Lịch (2015)
Vietnamese Ministers of Defence
Chu Văn Tấn (1945–46)
Phan Anh (1946)
Võ Nguyên Giáp (1946–47)
Tạ Quang Bửu (1947–48)
Võ Nguyên Giáp (1948–76)
Trần Nam Trung (1969–76)
Võ Nguyên Giáp (1976–80)
Văn Tiến Dũng (1980–87)
Lê Đức Anh
Lê Đức Anh (1987–91)
Đoàn Khuê (1991–97)
Phạm Văn Trà
Phạm Văn Trà (1997–2006)
Phùng Quang Thanh
Phùng Quang Thanh (2006–2016)
Ngô Xuân Lịch
Ngô Xuân Lịch (2016–present)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2018 8758
BNF: cb120196412 (data)