Värmland (help·info) is a historical province or landskap
in the west of middle Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Dalsland,
Dalarna, Västmanland, and Närke, and is bounded by
Norway in the
Latin name versions are Varmelandia, Vermelandia,
Wermelandia, Værmalandia, Værmolandia, Virmolandia and
Vermillandia. Some of the Latinised forms show the origin of the name
to come from the large local lake by the name of Värmeln (from older
*Virmil); others from the river name *Værma, the main outlet of said
lake. The province was originally part of Götaland, and became
Svealand in 1815.
1.1 Western Värmland
1.2 Eastern Värmland
2.1 Culture and literature
2.3 Chartered cities
2.4 Provincial districts
3 Notable natives
8 External links
See also: Transscandinavian Igneous Belt
The largest lake is Vänern. Most streams of importance lead to
Vänern. However, the province is rich in small lakes, ponds and
streams. The scenery, with mountains and lakes, is usually regarded as
picturesque and has inspired painters and writers.
There are several mountain plateaus in the western part of Värmland,
which is in the Scandinavian Mountains. The highest elevations are
found in the northern parts, with plateaus of 500–700 metres
(1,600–2,300 ft). The highest peak is also located here,
Granberget at Höljes, 701 metres (2,300 ft).
The eastern part of
Värmland is counted as part of the Bergslagen,
the Central Swedish Mining District. Its terrain is rather hilly, with
a few high hills: Hvitklinten (414 m.), Dalkarlsberget (450 m.) and
Vålbergsrös (476 m.).
This part of
Värmland is rich in minerals, most notably iron ore
which exists in large quantities. Some notable sites in this area are
Långban and Nordmark Hundred. In the southeast, the ridge of
Kilsbergen marks the border with Närke.
Sunset on the lake Foxen located in the borderland between southwest
Värmland and Norway.
The view from Granberget.
The Skiresort Branäs.
Klarälven seen from Ullerud Church, near Deje.
Värmland sheep is one of the oldest Swedish sheep breeds.
Cottage at Sannsatra outside Torsby.
Fish ladder for
Salmon near the power station in Gullspång.
The population of
Värmland is 318,341 as of 31 December 2016. It is
distributed over three counties as follows:
Värmland County, partly
Örebro County, partly
Götaland County, peripherally
The province was sparsely populated in the pre-historic age compared
to Sweden's southern half. Its 5,500 registered ancient remains are
few, compared to other areas. The province was considered to be of
minor importance in the Swedish Realm. There are, however, interesting
histories told by
Snorri Sturlasson about
Värmland in the 13th
century. It extends back to
Ingjald Illråde a legendary king in the
The early history strongly influenced was not only by the proximity to
Västergötland, but also by its western neighbour Norway. Sweden's
Norway had a strong effect on
Värmland too. In 1225, Haakon
Norway (Haakon the Old) invaded
Sweden and burnt down all
villages if they did not pay a ransom. This feud was eventually
settled in 1249.
Värmland was originally considered a part of Götaland, and had a
strong connection to its southern neighbour Västergötland. Eastern
Värmland traditionally belongs to the
Bergslagen area, Sweden's
central mining district.
King Charles IX, Duke of
Värmland was granted its first city privileges,
Kristinehamn, but those were revoked. The second city, Karlstad, on
the north shore of lake Vänern, was granted by Duke Charles, later
king Charles IX of Sweden, in 1584. It became the capital of the
province and its name is derived from the King, and literally means
Charles' City. The third city was
Filipstad in 1611; however, its
privilege was revoked in 1694 after a devastating fire. King Charles
IX took great personal interest in expanding mining in the province
and the industry developed significantly during his reign.
The early 17th century marked the beginning of substantial immigration
from Finland. The areas where they centred were known as Finnskog.
They kept their Finnish customs and language until the late 19th
century. The last native resident to speak Finnish here died in the
The most significant coup d'état of modern Swedish history had its
beginning in Karlstad. The man behind the uprising was a liberal
nobleman and a prominent man of the opposition, the former officer
Georg Adlersparre. He was backed up by the radical captain Henrik
Anckarsvärds and used the part of the western army that was stationed
Värmland to occupy
Karlstad on the night of 7 March 1809. From
there he officially proclaimed a revolution, a proclamation which held
the view that wars and oppression had ruined the country and the
government therefore had to be overthrown. On 9 March, Adlersparre and
his enthusiastic soldiers (many of Finnish origin) finally began their
march towards Stockholm, and in the events that followed, the king
Gustav IV Adolf abdicated under pressure.
Continental system (1806–1814), the timber industry
Värmland and continuing into the modern era, forestry
became industrialized and is still the economic backbone of the
The peace monument at Morokulien, raised in 1914 to commemorate 100
years of peace between
Sweden and Norway.
Bordering on Norway,
Värmland was affected by Sweden's last war,
Crown Prince Jean Baptiste Bernadottes military campaign against
Norway in 1814. The province saw large troop movement and many
soldiers originating from the province were involved in battles. The
Värmland Regiment had three battalions attached to the 9th Brigade
under Colonel Klingspor and one battalion attached to the 10th Brigade
under Colonel Gahn af Colqhoun. Both brigades were part of the 5th
Army Division under Major General Rosenblad. The 9th Brigade crossed
the border to
Norway on 30 July 1814 and participated in the siege of
Fredrikstad Fortress, which capitulated on 4 August, while other parts
of the regiment a few days later followed later Lieutenant General
Vegesacks department north and participated in battles at Rakkestad
and Langenäs on 6 August 1814 and
Askim on 9 August 1814. A battalion
of the regiment, commanded by Major Lagerlöv, managed to fight back a
Norwegian attack from the bridgehead at Langenäs. The 10th Brigade
crossed the border on 1 August 1814 and went in the direction of
Morast. It participated in the battle of Lier south of
2 August 1814 and then retreated to the border, where the battalion
participated in the battle of Midskog on 5 August 1814 and suffered
During World War II, western
Värmland was again an area of heavy
military deployment. A major part of the
Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces was
Värmland following the German invasion of Norway.
Approximately 150,000 military personnel were mobilised to Värmland
in June 1941, by the time of German demands to transport the fully
armed Division Engelbrecht through the country and before the launch
of Operation Barbarossa, and with several large military exercises
being conducted in the province during the period. Even more military
personnel, possibly as many as 250,000, were mobilised to
the fall of 1943, due to the pending Swedish announcement to end
German military transits and fear of a German attack.
An agreement from the dissolution of the union with
Norway in 1905
stated that no fortification was allowed on the border between the two
nations, but after the German occupation of Norway, old fortifications
were renovated and many new constructed. Notably is the fortification
Skansen Hultet (Skans 153 Hultet) in Eda Municipality, constructed
1940-1941 (although improvements continued until 1945), and equipped
with a network of machine gun emplacements, casemates and other
concrete bunkers, surrounded by barbed wire, walls and several lines
of tank traps. The fortifications have been renovated by locals and
are now open to the public. Formerly classified Swedish military
documents shows that the
Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces spent approximately SEK
30 million on fortifications in
Värmland during the 1940s. There
are around 12,000 military objects, including 123 fortificated sites,
Värmland dating from World War II.
The film Gränsen (Eng. Beyond the Border) from 2011, telling the
story about the life of the young soldiers guarding the border between
Sweden and German-occupied
Norway in 1942, takes place in northern
Värmland and was filmed near Torsby.
The runestone Skramlestenen found outside
Gunnarskog is dated to early
Viking Age, between the 5th and 6th century.
The mining area
Långban in eastern Värmland, active between
The Norwegian and Swedish negotiators at
This monument outside Sunne was raised in 1953 to honor the
Värmland and those from
Värmland who emigrated to the
A workforce of log drivers ("Loggers") transporting timber on
Forshaga in 1918.
The Military Barracs of the
Värmland Regiment in 1920.
The Wooden Soldier in Charlottenberg, called 61:an Martinsson, reminds
of World War II.
Skoghall Mill, production of carton board owned by Stora Enso.
Culture and literature
A statue of
Gustaf Fröding in Karlstad.
Selma Lagerlöfs residence Mårbacka in Sunne.
The province has powerful literary and musical traditions and has
spawned some of the most well-known and loved authors of Sweden. In
the 19th century several leading authors had their origin here, and
retained links to Värmland, among them Erik Gustaf Geijer, Esaias
Gustaf Fröding and
Nobel Prize winner Selma Lagerlöf.
Lagerlöf's novel, Gösta Berlings Saga, is a neo-romantic saga that
takes place in
Värmland in the 1820s and 1830s. It was also made into
a film starring Greta Garbo.
Education, theatre and a somewhat glamorous lifestyle were buoyed by
the landed gentry and the wealth being generated through a lively
local iron trade, and also by the position of the landscape on the
edge between civilization and wilderness, which inspired art,
literature and folklore. During the second half of the 19th century,
the iron processing industry was largely put out of business by the
revolution in the steel industry which made Central Europe and the
United States vastly superior in this field, and the overall economic
crisis throughout Europe of the 1870s and 1880s, and the subsequent
emigration to North America, shook the landscape. The consequence,
however, was to make authors like Lagerlöf and Fröding more aware of
the heritage of their province, and they both drew on what they felt
to be an oral tradition of story-telling and local legends. This
emphasis on richly textured, often romantic or burlesque tales which
nonetheless transcend the local has remained a focus of later writers,
Göran Tunström (1937–2000) and Lars Andersson (b. 1954).
The musical traditions have inspired a number of prominent musicians,
such as singers Zarah Leander,
Monica Zetterlund and Rigmor
Since 1772, Sweden's Princes have been created Dukes of various
provinces in Sweden. This is solely a nominal title.
Prince Carl Adolf (1798)
Crown Prince Gustaf (from his birth in 1858 until he became King in
Prince Carl Philip (1979-)
Arvika (town charter 1811, city charter 1911)
Filipstad (city charter 1611-1695, town charter 1720, city charter
Hagfors (city charter 1950)
Karlskoga (city charter 1940)
Karlstad (city charter 1584)
Kristinehamn (city charter 1582-1584, city charter 1642)
Säffle (town charter 1882, city charter 1951)
Nyeds (ceded from Kil, 1681)
Adam Alsing, radio and television host
Gunnar Andersson, former football player, famous in Olympique de
Johanna Anderson, Baptist missionary in Burma
Marcus Berg, football player in Al Ain
Andreas Bergwall, bandy goalkeeper
Kenny Bräck, 1999 Indy 500 Winner
Adolph Olson Eberhart, (1870–1944),
Swedish-American Governor of
August Hjalmar Edgren
August Hjalmar Edgren (1840–1903),
John Alexis Edgren (1839–1908),
Nils Ericson (1802–1870), inventor and mechanical engineer
John Ericsson (1803–1889), inventor and mechanical engineer
Lars Magnus Ericsson, inventor, founder of Ericsson
Sven-Göran Eriksson, football (soccer) coach (Finnish origin), former
head coach of England national football team
Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of
Sweden from 1946-1969 (Finnish
Nils Ferlin, poet
Gustaf Fröding, poet
Erik Gustaf Geijer, writer, composer, historian
Bengt-Åke Gustafsson, retired ice hockey player and former head coach
Sweden men's national ice hockey team
Stefan Holm, high jumper and the winner of Olympic gold in 2004
Göran Hägglund, Minister for Social Affairs of
Selma Lagerlöf, author
Zarah Leander, singer, actress
Oscar F. Mossberg,
Swedish-American manufacture of firearms,
co-founder of O.F. Mossberg & Sons
Adolf Noreen, linguist
Harry Nyquist, physicist
Victor Sjöström, film director and actor
Ola Toivonen, football player in Toulouse FC
Sten Tolgfors, Minister for Defence
Göran Tunström, author
Östen Undén, Minister for Foreign Affairs of
Sweden (1924–1926 and
Monica Zetterlund, singer actress
Sweden's provinces were sub-divided into hundreds or districts.
Värmland was historically divided into chartered cities and
districts. One district formed part of
Bergslagen and was a mountain
district, and all the other districts were hundreds.
Karlskoga Mountain District
Football in the province is administered by Värmlands
Fotbollförbund. Ice hockey is also popular, with Färjestads BK.
The area hosts the Rally Sweden and is the site of the
Höljesbanan rallycross circuit.
^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish).
Statistics Sweden. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
^ "... de Varmelandia a Suecis occupata ..." vide p. 142 at Google
^ Fredrik Fryxell as per
Svenskt biografiskt lexikon below pdf here
Archived 12 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ The entry
Värmland in Svensk etymologisk ordbok by Elof Hellquist
^ Dahlbäck, Göran (1996). "
Värmland • Historia".
Nationalencyklopedin. 20. Bokförlaget Bra Böcker AB. p. 141.
^ Norberg, p. 56-57
^ Högman, Hans (13 August 2017). "Närke-Värmlands regemente".
www.hhogman.se (in Swedish). Sollentuna: Hans Högman. Retrieved 23
^ Klang, Ingvar; Dyegård, Carl Henrik; Modin, Sven-Åke (5 February
2007). "Foredrag: Bredskapsperioden ur ett Värmländskt perspektiv".
oslomilsamfund.no (in Swedish). Oslo: Oslo Militære Samfund.
Retrieved 25 September 2017.
^ a b Skoglund, Tomas (29 December 2011). "Miljardsatsning skulle
Värmlands Folkblad (in Swedish). Karlstad:
Värmlands Folkblad Drift AB. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
^ Rung Klint, Gunilla (6 September 2016). "Här skulle Hitler
Nya Wermlands-Tidningen (in Swedish). Karlstad: Nya
Wermlands-Tidningens AB. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
^ Sandqvist, Anders (27 October 2016). "Svenska släkten som har
beväpnat Amerika" [The Swedish family that has armed America].
Expressen (in Swedish). Stockholm: AB Kvällstidningen Expressen.
Retrieved 27 October 2016.
Norberg, Johan (1999), Den Svenska Liberalismens historia, Timbro,
Wikisource has the text of the 1879
American Cyclopædia article
Värmland - Tourist site
Lands and Provinces of Sweden
Coordinates: 59°45′N 13°15′E / 59.750°N 13.250°E /