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 Värmland (help·info) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Dalsland, Dalarna, Västmanland, and Närke, and is bounded by Norway
Norway
in the west. Latin
Latin
name versions are Varmelandia,[2] Vermelandia,[3] Wermelandia,[4] Værmalandia, Værmolandia, Virmolandia and Vermillandia. Some of the Latinised forms show the origin of the name to come from the large local lake by the name of Värmeln (from older *Virmil); others from the river name *Værma, the main outlet of said lake.[5] The province was originally part of Götaland, and became part of Svealand
Svealand
in 1815.[6]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Western Värmland 1.2 Eastern Värmland 1.3 Population

2 History

2.1 Culture and literature 2.2 Dukes 2.3 Chartered cities 2.4 Provincial districts

3 Notable natives 4 Sub-divisions 5 Sports 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit] See also: Transscandinavian Igneous Belt The largest lake is Vänern. Most streams of importance lead to Vänern. However, the province is rich in small lakes, ponds and streams. The scenery, with mountains and lakes, is usually regarded as picturesque and has inspired painters and writers. Western Värmland[edit] There are several mountain plateaus in the western part of Värmland, which is in the Scandinavian Mountains. The highest elevations are found in the northern parts, with plateaus of 500–700 metres (1,600–2,300 ft). The highest peak is also located here, Granberget at Höljes, 701 metres (2,300 ft). Eastern Värmland[edit] The eastern part of Värmland
Värmland
is counted as part of the Bergslagen, the Central Swedish Mining District. Its terrain is rather hilly, with a few high hills: Hvitklinten (414 m.), Dalkarlsberget (450 m.) and Vålbergsrös (476 m.). This part of Värmland
Värmland
is rich in minerals, most notably iron ore which exists in large quantities. Some notable sites in this area are around Långban
Långban
and Nordmark Hundred. In the southeast, the ridge of Kilsbergen marks the border with Närke.

Sunset on the lake Foxen located in the borderland between southwest Värmland
Värmland
and Norway.

The view from Granberget.

The Skiresort Branäs.

Klarälven
Klarälven
seen from Ullerud Church, near Deje.

The Värmland
Värmland
sheep is one of the oldest Swedish sheep breeds.

Cottage at Sannsatra outside Torsby.

Sysslebäck.

Fish ladder
Fish ladder
for Salmon
Salmon
near the power station in Gullspång.

Population[edit] The population of Värmland
Värmland
is 318,341 as of 31 December 2016. It is distributed over three counties as follows:[1]

County Population

Värmland
Värmland
County, partly 279,334

Örebro County, partly 38,575

Västra Götaland
Götaland
County, peripherally 432

History[edit] The province was sparsely populated in the pre-historic age compared to Sweden's southern half. Its 5,500 registered ancient remains are few, compared to other areas. The province was considered to be of minor importance in the Swedish Realm. There are, however, interesting histories told by Snorri Sturlasson
Snorri Sturlasson
about Värmland
Värmland
in the 13th century. It extends back to Ingjald Illråde
Ingjald Illråde
a legendary king in the 7th century. The early history strongly influenced was not only by the proximity to Västergötland, but also by its western neighbour Norway. Sweden's war with Norway
Norway
had a strong effect on Värmland
Värmland
too. In 1225, Haakon IV of Norway
Norway
(Haakon the Old) invaded Sweden
Sweden
and burnt down all villages if they did not pay a ransom. This feud was eventually settled in 1249. Värmland
Värmland
was originally considered a part of Götaland, and had a strong connection to its southern neighbour Västergötland. Eastern Värmland
Värmland
traditionally belongs to the Bergslagen
Bergslagen
area, Sweden's central mining district.

King Charles IX, Duke of Värmland
Värmland
(1560-1611).

In 1582, Värmland
Värmland
was granted its first city privileges, Kristinehamn, but those were revoked. The second city, Karlstad, on the north shore of lake Vänern, was granted by Duke Charles, later king Charles IX of Sweden, in 1584. It became the capital of the province and its name is derived from the King, and literally means Charles' City. The third city was Filipstad
Filipstad
in 1611; however, its privilege was revoked in 1694 after a devastating fire. King Charles IX took great personal interest in expanding mining in the province and the industry developed significantly during his reign. The early 17th century marked the beginning of substantial immigration from Finland. The areas where they centred were known as Finnskog. They kept their Finnish customs and language until the late 19th century. The last native resident to speak Finnish here died in the 1980s. The most significant coup d'état of modern Swedish history had its beginning in Karlstad. The man behind the uprising was a liberal nobleman and a prominent man of the opposition, the former officer Georg Adlersparre. He was backed up by the radical captain Henrik Anckarsvärds and used the part of the western army that was stationed in Värmland
Värmland
to occupy Karlstad
Karlstad
on the night of 7 March 1809. From there he officially proclaimed a revolution, a proclamation which held the view that wars and oppression had ruined the country and the government therefore had to be overthrown. On 9 March, Adlersparre and his enthusiastic soldiers (many of Finnish origin) finally began their march towards Stockholm, and in the events that followed, the king Gustav IV Adolf abdicated under pressure.[7] Under the Continental system
Continental system
(1806–1814), the timber industry flourished in Värmland
Värmland
and continuing into the modern era, forestry became industrialized and is still the economic backbone of the province.

The peace monument at Morokulien, raised in 1914 to commemorate 100 years of peace between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway.

Bordering on Norway, Värmland
Värmland
was affected by Sweden's last war, Crown Prince Jean Baptiste Bernadottes military campaign against Norway
Norway
in 1814. The province saw large troop movement and many soldiers originating from the province were involved in battles. The Värmland
Värmland
Regiment had three battalions attached to the 9th Brigade under Colonel Klingspor and one battalion attached to the 10th Brigade under Colonel Gahn af Colqhoun. Both brigades were part of the 5th Army Division under Major General Rosenblad. The 9th Brigade crossed the border to Norway
Norway
on 30 July 1814 and participated in the siege of Fredrikstad Fortress, which capitulated on 4 August, while other parts of the regiment a few days later followed later Lieutenant General Vegesacks department north and participated in battles at Rakkestad and Langenäs on 6 August 1814 and Askim
Askim
on 9 August 1814. A battalion of the regiment, commanded by Major Lagerlöv, managed to fight back a Norwegian attack from the bridgehead at Langenäs. The 10th Brigade crossed the border on 1 August 1814 and went in the direction of Morast. It participated in the battle of Lier south of Kongsvinger
Kongsvinger
on 2 August 1814 and then retreated to the border, where the battalion participated in the battle of Midskog on 5 August 1814 and suffered heavy losses.[8] During World War II, western Värmland
Värmland
was again an area of heavy military deployment. A major part of the Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
was concentrated to Värmland
Värmland
following the German invasion of Norway. Approximately 150,000 military personnel were mobilised to Värmland in June 1941, by the time of German demands to transport the fully armed Division Engelbrecht through the country and before the launch of Operation Barbarossa, and with several large military exercises being conducted in the province during the period. Even more military personnel, possibly as many as 250,000, were mobilised to Värmland
Värmland
in the fall of 1943, due to the pending Swedish announcement to end German military transits and fear of a German attack.[9] An agreement from the dissolution of the union with Norway
Norway
in 1905 stated that no fortification was allowed on the border between the two nations, but after the German occupation of Norway, old fortifications were renovated and many new constructed. Notably is the fortification Skansen Hultet (Skans 153 Hultet) in Eda Municipality, constructed 1940-1941 (although improvements continued until 1945), and equipped with a network of machine gun emplacements, casemates and other concrete bunkers, surrounded by barbed wire, walls and several lines of tank traps. The fortifications have been renovated by locals and are now open to the public.[10] Formerly classified Swedish military documents shows that the Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
spent approximately SEK 30 million on fortifications in Värmland
Värmland
during the 1940s.[11] There are around 12,000 military objects, including 123 fortificated sites, in Värmland
Värmland
dating from World War II.[11][12] The film Gränsen (Eng. Beyond the Border) from 2011, telling the story about the life of the young soldiers guarding the border between Sweden
Sweden
and German-occupied Norway
Norway
in 1942, takes place in northern Värmland
Värmland
and was filmed near Torsby.[13]

The runestone Skramlestenen found outside Gunnarskog
Gunnarskog
is dated to early Viking Age, between the 5th and 6th century.

The mining area Långban
Långban
in eastern Värmland, active between 1711-1972.

The Norwegian and Swedish negotiators at Karlstad
Karlstad
1905.

This monument outside Sunne was raised in 1953 to honor the Finns
Finns
who immigrated to Värmland
Värmland
and those from Värmland
Värmland
who emigrated to the USA.

A workforce of log drivers ("Loggers") transporting timber on Klarälven, near Forshaga
Forshaga
in 1918.

The Military Barracs of the Värmland
Värmland
Regiment in 1920.

The Wooden Soldier in Charlottenberg, called 61:an Martinsson, reminds of World War II.

The Skoghall
Skoghall
Mill, production of carton board owned by Stora Enso.

Culture and literature[edit]

A statue of Gustaf Fröding
Gustaf Fröding
in Karlstad.

Selma Lagerlöfs residence Mårbacka in Sunne.

The province has powerful literary and musical traditions and has spawned some of the most well-known and loved authors of Sweden. In the 19th century several leading authors had their origin here, and retained links to Värmland, among them Erik Gustaf Geijer, Esaias Tegnér, Gustaf Fröding
Gustaf Fröding
and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner Selma Lagerlöf. Lagerlöf's novel, Gösta Berlings Saga, is a neo-romantic saga that takes place in Värmland
Värmland
in the 1820s and 1830s. It was also made into a film starring Greta Garbo. Education, theatre and a somewhat glamorous lifestyle were buoyed by the landed gentry and the wealth being generated through a lively local iron trade, and also by the position of the landscape on the edge between civilization and wilderness, which inspired art, literature and folklore. During the second half of the 19th century, the iron processing industry was largely put out of business by the revolution in the steel industry which made Central Europe and the United States vastly superior in this field, and the overall economic crisis throughout Europe of the 1870s and 1880s, and the subsequent emigration to North America, shook the landscape. The consequence, however, was to make authors like Lagerlöf and Fröding more aware of the heritage of their province, and they both drew on what they felt to be an oral tradition of story-telling and local legends. This emphasis on richly textured, often romantic or burlesque tales which nonetheless transcend the local has remained a focus of later writers, such as Göran Tunström
Göran Tunström
(1937–2000) and Lars Andersson (b. 1954). The musical traditions have inspired a number of prominent musicians, such as singers Zarah Leander, Monica Zetterlund
Monica Zetterlund
and Rigmor Gustafsson. Dukes[edit] Since 1772, Sweden's Princes have been created Dukes of various provinces in Sweden. This is solely a nominal title.

Prince Carl Adolf (1798) Crown Prince Gustaf (from his birth in 1858 until he became King in 1907) Prince Carl Philip (1979-)

Chartered cities[edit]

Arvika
Arvika
(town charter 1811, city charter 1911) Filipstad
Filipstad
(city charter 1611-1695, town charter 1720, city charter 1835) Hagfors
Hagfors
(city charter 1950) Karlskoga
Karlskoga
(city charter 1940) Karlstad
Karlstad
(city charter 1584) Kristinehamn
Kristinehamn
(city charter 1582-1584, city charter 1642) Säffle
Säffle
(town charter 1882, city charter 1951)

Provincial districts[edit]

Fryksdal Färnebo Gillberg Grums Jösse Karlskoga Karlstad Kil Nordmark Nyeds (ceded from Kil, 1681) Näs Visnums Väse Älvdal Ölme

Notable natives[edit]

Adam Alsing, radio and television host Gunnar Andersson, former football player, famous in Olympique de Marseille Johanna Anderson, Baptist missionary in Burma Marcus Berg, football player in Al Ain Andreas Bergwall, bandy goalkeeper Kenny Bräck, 1999 Indy 500 Winner Adolph Olson Eberhart, (1870–1944), Swedish-American
Swedish-American
Governor of Minnesota August Hjalmar Edgren
August Hjalmar Edgren
(1840–1903), Swedish-American
Swedish-American
linguistics professor John Alexis Edgren (1839–1908), Swedish-American
Swedish-American
Minister Nils Ericson
Nils Ericson
(1802–1870), inventor and mechanical engineer John Ericsson
John Ericsson
(1803–1889), inventor and mechanical engineer Lars Magnus Ericsson, inventor, founder of Ericsson Sven-Göran Eriksson, football (soccer) coach (Finnish origin), former head coach of England national football team Tage Erlander, Prime Minister of Sweden
Sweden
from 1946-1969 (Finnish origin) Nils Ferlin, poet Gustaf Fröding, poet Erik Gustaf Geijer, writer, composer, historian Bengt-Åke Gustafsson, retired ice hockey player and former head coach of Sweden
Sweden
men's national ice hockey team Stefan Holm, high jumper and the winner of Olympic gold in 2004 Göran Hägglund, Minister for Social Affairs of Sweden
Sweden
(2006-2014) (Swedish-Finnish origin) Selma Lagerlöf, author Zarah Leander, singer, actress Oscar F. Mossberg, Swedish-American
Swedish-American
manufacture of firearms, co-founder of O.F. Mossberg & Sons[14] Adolf Noreen, linguist Harry Nyquist, physicist Victor Sjöström, film director and actor Ola Toivonen, football player in Toulouse FC Sten Tolgfors, Minister for Defence Göran Tunström, author Östen Undén, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden
Sweden
(1924–1926 and 1945–1962) Monica Zetterlund, singer actress

Johanna Anderson

Andreas Bergwall

John Ericsson

Sven-Göran Eriksson

Tage Erlander

Bengt-Åke Gustafsson

Stefan Holm

Selma Lagerlöf

Monica Zetterlund

Sub-divisions[edit] Sweden's provinces were sub-divided into hundreds or districts. Värmland
Värmland
was historically divided into chartered cities and districts. One district formed part of Bergslagen
Bergslagen
and was a mountain district, and all the other districts were hundreds.

Edsberg Hundred Fryksdal Hundred Färnebo Hundred Gillberg Hundred Grums
Grums
Hundred Jösse Hundred Karlstad
Karlstad
Hundred Karlskoga
Karlskoga
Mountain District Kil Hundred Nordmark Hundred Nyed Hundred Näs Hundred Visnum Hundred Väse Hundred Älvdal Hundred Ölme Hundred

Sports[edit] Football in the province is administered by Värmlands Fotbollförbund. Ice hockey is also popular, with Färjestads BK. The area hosts the Rally Sweden[15][16] and is the site of the Höljesbanan
Höljesbanan
rallycross circuit. Notes[edit]

Citations

^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.  ^ "... de Varmelandia a Suecis occupata ..." vide p. 142 at Google Books ^ Fredrik Fryxell as per Svenskt biografiskt lexikon below pdf here Archived 12 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Graesse ^ The entry Värmland
Värmland
in Svensk etymologisk ordbok by Elof Hellquist (1922). ^ Dahlbäck, Göran (1996). " Värmland
Värmland
• Historia". Nationalencyklopedin. 20. Bokförlaget Bra Böcker AB. p. 141. ISBN 91-7024-620-3.  ^ Norberg, p. 56-57 ^ Högman, Hans (13 August 2017). "Närke-Värmlands regemente". www.hhogman.se (in Swedish). Sollentuna: Hans Högman. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ Klang, Ingvar; Dyegård, Carl Henrik; Modin, Sven-Åke (5 February 2007). "Foredrag: Bredskapsperioden ur ett Värmländskt perspektiv". oslomilsamfund.no (in Swedish). Oslo: Oslo Militære Samfund. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ http://www.varmland.org/event.asp?typ=detail&id=11815&ty=3&su=29&lang= ^ a b Skoglund, Tomas (29 December 2011). "Miljardsatsning skulle skydda Värmland". Värmlands Folkblad
Värmlands Folkblad
(in Swedish). Karlstad: Värmlands Folkblad
Värmlands Folkblad
Drift AB. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ Rung Klint, Gunilla (6 September 2016). "Här skulle Hitler stoppas". Nya Wermlands-Tidningen (in Swedish). Karlstad: Nya Wermlands-Tidningens AB. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ http://www.vf.se/kultur-noje/noje/en-krigsfilm-fran-varmlandsskogarna ^ Sandqvist, Anders (27 October 2016). "Svenska släkten som har beväpnat Amerika" [The Swedish family that has armed America]. Expressen
Expressen
(in Swedish). Stockholm: AB Kvällstidningen Expressen. Retrieved 27 October 2016.  ^ http://visitkarlstad.se/Container---Global/Produkter--Evenemang/Artiklar/Rallypaket_2016_Rally_Sweden_Karlstad/ ^ http://sverigesradio.se/sida/default.aspx?programid=2505

References[edit]

Norberg, Johan (1999), Den Svenska Liberalismens historia, Timbro, ISBN 91-7566-429-1 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Wermland.

(in Swedish) Värmland
Värmland
- Tourist site

v t e

Lands and Provinces of Sweden

Götaland

Blekinge Bohuslän Dalsland Gotland Halland Öland Östergötland Scania Småland Västergötland

Svealand

Dalarna Närke Södermanland Uppland Värmland Västmanland

Norrland

Ångermanland Gästrikland Hälsingland Härjedalen Jämtland Lappland Medelpad Norrbotten Västerbotten

Coordinates: 59°45′N 13°15′E / 59.750°N 13.250°E / 59

.