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The Uzbeks
Uzbeks
(Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
but are also found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia
Russia
and China.[12] Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins

2.1 Genetic origins

3 Uzbek tribes 4 History

4.1 Ancient history 4.2 Early Islamic period 4.3 Samanid Empire

4.3.1 Samanids
Samanids
defeat the Saffarids
Saffarids
and Zaydids

4.4 Turkification of Transoxiana 4.5 Mongol
Mongol
period 4.6 Rule of Mongols
Mongols
and Timurids 4.7 Uzbek period 4.8 Afghan Pashtun conquest 4.9 Russo-Soviet era

4.9.1 Russian Empire 4.9.2 Soviet Union

4.10 Post-Soviet era 4.11 Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Saudi Arabia 4.12 Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Pakistan

5 Attire 6 Language 7 Religion 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Etymology The origin of the word Uzbek remains disputed. One view holds that it is eponymously named after Oghuz Khagan, also known as Oghuz Beg, became the word Uzbek.[15] Another states that the name means independent or the lord itself, from Oʻz (self) and the Turkic title Bek/Bey/Beg. There is another theory which holds that the pronunciation of Uz comes from one of the Oghuz Turks
Oghuz Turks
variously known as Uz or Uguz united with the word Bey or Bek to form uguz-bey, meaning "leader of an oguz".[16] Origins Before, 5th century, what is today's Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
was part of Sogdia, mainly inhabited by Sogdians, an Indo-Iranian people. It was part of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
and later part of Sasanian Empire. From 5th to 6th century, what is today's Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
was part of the Hephthalite Empire. From 6th to 8th century, what is today's Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
was under the rule of Göktürk Khanate. Turkic and Chinese migration into central Asia occurred during the Chinese Tang Dynasty, and Chinese armies commanded by Turkic generals stationed in large parts of central Asia. But Chinese influence ended with the An Lushan rebellion. From the 9th century on, Transoxania
Transoxania
was under the rule of Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate, their arrival in Transoxania
Transoxania
signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia. Kara-Khanid ruler Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan
was the first Turkic ruler to convert Islam, most people of Central Asia
Central Asia
soon followed. In the 12th century, Transoxania
Transoxania
was conquered by Qara Khitai
Khitai
(Western Liao), a sinicized Khitan dynasty, they brought to Central Asia
Central Asia
the Chinese system of government. In the 13th century, Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
was destroyed by the Turkic Khwarazmian dynasty, a vassal of the Qara Khitai. Although Turko-Mongol
Turko-Mongol
infiltration into Central Asia
Central Asia
had started early,[17] as late as the 13th century when Turkic and Mongol
Mongol
armies finally conquered the entire region, the majority of Central Asia's peoples were Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
such as Sogdians, Bactrians
Bactrians
and, more ancient, the Saka– Massagetae
Massagetae
tribes. It is generally believed that these ancient Indo-European-speaking peoples were linguistically assimilated by smaller but dominant Turkic-speaking groups while the sedentary population finally adopted the Persian language, the traditional lingua franca of the eastern Islamic lands.[18] The language-shift from Middle Iranian to Turkic and New Persian was predominantly the result of an elite dominance process.[19][20] This process was dramatically boosted during the Mongol
Mongol
conquest when millions were either killed or pushed further south to the Pamir region. The modern Uzbek language
Uzbek language
is largely derived from the Chagatai language which gained prominence in the Timurid Empire. The position of Chagatai (and later Uzbek) was further strengthened after the fall of the Timurids and the rise of the Shaybanid Uzbek Khaqanate that finally shaped the Turkic language
Turkic language
and identity of modern Uzbeks, while the unique grammatical[21] and phonetical features of the Uzbek language as well as the modern Uzbek culture reflect the more ancient Iranian roots of the Uzbek people.[18][22][23][24] Genetic origins The modern Uzbek population represents varying degrees of diversity derived from the high traffic invasion routes through Central Asia. Once populated by Iranian tribes and other Indo-European people, Central Asia
Central Asia
experienced numerous invasions emanating out of Mongolia that would drastically affect the region. According to recent genetic genealogy testing from a University of Oxford study, the genetic admixture of the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
clusters somewhere between the Iranian peoples and the Mongols.

From the 3d century B.C., Central Asia
Central Asia
experienced nomadic expansions of Altaic-speaking oriental-looking people, and their incursions continued for hundreds of years, beginning with the Hsiung-Nu (who may be ancestors of the Huns), in ~300 B.C., and followed by the Turks, in the 1st millennium A.D., and the Mongol
Mongol
expansions of the 13th century. High levels of haplogroup 10 [C-M130] and its derivative, haplogroup 36 [C-M210], are found in most of the Altaic-speaking populations and are a good indicator of the genetic impact of these nomadic groups. The expanding waves of Altaic-speaking nomads involved not only eastern Central Asia—where their genetic contribution is strong, [...]—but also regions farther west, like Iran, Iraq, Anatolia, and the Caucasus, as well as Europe, which was reached by both the Huns and the Mongols. In these western regions, however, the genetic contribution is low or undetectable (...), even though the power of these invaders was sometimes strong enough to impose a language replacement, as in Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan (...). The difference could be due to the population density of the different geographical areas. Eastern regions of Central Asia
Central Asia
must have had a low population density at the time, so an external contribution could have had a great genetic impact. In contrast, the western regions were more densely inhabited, and it is likely that the existing populations were more numerous than the conquering nomads, therefore leading to only a small genetic impact. Thus, the admixture estimate from North-East Asia is high in the east, but is barely detectable west of Uzbekistan.[25]

Uzbek tribes Uzbeks
Uzbeks
are said to have included 92 tribes in their orbit: Manghit, Qiyat, Qipchaq, Khitai, Qanghli, Keneges, Durman, Targhut, Shoran, Shirin, Tama, Bahrin, Girai, Aghrikur, Anghit, Barkut, Tubin, Tam, Ramdan, Matin, Busa, Yajqar, Qilwai, Dojar, Jaurat, Qurlaut, Mehdi, Kilaji, Sakhtiiyan, Qirq, Ming, Yuz, Saroi, Loqai, Qushchi, Kerait, Chaqmaq, Utarchi, Turcoman, Arlat, Kait, Qirghiz, Qalan, Uishun, Ormaq, Chubi, Lechi, Qari, Moghul, Hafiz dad Kaln, Belad Bustan, Quchi Qataghan, Barlas, Yabu, Jalair, Misit, Naiman, Samrjiq, Qarluq, Arghun, Oklan, Qalmaq, Fuladchi, Jaljat Uljin or Olchin, Chimbai, Tilabi, Machar or Majar, Ojinbai, Badai As, Kilchi, Ilaji, Jebergen, Botiyai, Timan, Yankuz, Tatar, Uighur, Baghlan or Baghan, Tanghut, Shagird, Pesha, Tushlub, Onk, Biyat, Ozjolaji, Josolaji, Tuwadiq, Ghariband Jit.[26][27][28] History Ancient history

Female statuette bearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the 2nd millennium BC

The heart of Central Asian history goes back to the earliest Bronze Age colonists of the Tarim Basin were people of Caucasoid physical type who entered probably from the north and west, who may have spoken languages ancestral to the Indo-European Tocharian languages documented later in the Tarim Basin. These early settlers occupied the northern and eastern parts of the Tarim Basin, where their graves have yielded mummies dated about 1800 BC. They participated in a cultural world centered on the eastern steppes of central Eurasia, including modern northeastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.

Alexander at the Battle of Issus.

The first people known to have inhabited Central Asia
Central Asia
were Iranian nomads who arrived from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
sometime in the first millennium BC. These nomads, who spoke Iranian dialects, settled in Central Asia
Central Asia
and began to build an extensive irrigation system along the rivers of the region. At this time, cities such as Bukhoro (Bukhara) and Samarqand
Samarqand
(Samarkand) began to appear as centers of government and culture. By the 5th century BC, the Bactrian, Soghdian, and Tokharian states dominated the region. As China
China
began to develop its silk trade with the West, Iranian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centers of trade. Using an extensive network of cities and settlements in the province of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
(a name given the region after the Arab conquest) in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and farther east in what is today China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Soghdian intermediaries became the wealthiest of these Iranian merchants. Because of this trade on what became known as the Silk Route, Bukhoro and Samarqand
Samarqand
eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
(Transoxiana) was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.[29][full citation needed] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered Sogdiana
Sogdiana
and Bactria
Bactria
in 327 BC, marrying Roxana, daughter of a local Bactrian chieftain. The conquest was supposedly of little help to Alexander as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region that became the northern part of Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
was ruled by Persian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
Empires. Early Islamic period The conquest of Central Asia
Central Asia
by Muslim Arabs, which was completed in the 8th century AD, brought to the region a new religion that continues to be dominant. The Arabs
Arabs
first invaded Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
in the middle of the 7th century through sporadic raids during their conquest of Persia. Available sources on the Arab conquest suggest that the Soghdians and other Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
of Central Asia
Central Asia
were unable to defend their land against the Arabs
Arabs
because of internal divisions and the lack of strong indigenous leadership. The Arabs, on the other hand, were led by a brilliant general, Qutaybah ibn Muslim, and were also highly motivated by the desire to spread their new faith (the official beginning of which was in AD 622). Because of these factors, the population of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
was easily subdued. The new religion brought by the Arabs
Arabs
spread gradually into the region. The native religious identities, which in some respects were already being displaced by Persian influences before the Arabs
Arabs
arrived, were further displaced in the ensuing centuries. Nevertheless, the destiny of Central Asia
Central Asia
as an Islamic region was firmly established by the Arab victory over the Chinese armies in 750 in a battle at the Talas River.[30][full citation needed] Despite brief Arab rule, Central Asia
Central Asia
successfully retained much of its Iranian characteristic, remaining an important center of culture and trade for centuries after the adoption of the new religion. Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
continued to be an important political player in regional affairs, as it had been under various Persian dynasties. In fact, the Abbasid Caliphate, which ruled the Arab world for five centuries beginning in 750, was established thanks in great part to assistance from Central Asian supporters in their struggle against the then-ruling Umayyad Caliphate.[30] During the height of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
in the 8th and 9th centuries, Central Asia
Central Asia
and Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
experienced a truly golden age. Bukhoro became one of the leading centers of learning, culture, and art in the Muslim world, its magnificence rivaling contemporaneous cultural centers such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba. Some of the greatest historians, scientists, and geographers in the history of Islamic culture were natives of the region.[30] As the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
began to weaken and local Islamic Iranian states emerged as the rulers of Iran and Central Asia, the Persian language continued its preeminent role in the region as the language of literature and government. The rulers of the eastern section of Iran and of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
were Persians. Under the Samanids
Samanids
and the Buyids, the rich Perso-Islamic culture of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
continued to flourish.[30] Samanid Empire The Samanids
Samanids
were a Persian state that reigned for 180 years, encompassing a vast territoriy stretching from Central Asia
Central Asia
to West Asia.[31][32] The Samanids
Samanids
were descendants of Bahram Chobin,[33][34] and thus descended from the House of Mihrān, one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran. In governing their territory, the Samanids
Samanids
modeled their state organization after the Abbasids, mirroring the caliph's court and organization.[35] They were rewarded for supporting the Abbasids
Abbasids
in Transoxania
Transoxania
and Khorasan, and with their established capitals located in Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, and Herat, they carved their kingdom after defeating the Saffarids.[33] The Samanid Empire was the first native Persian dynasty to arise after the Muslim Arab conquest. The four grandsons of the dynasty's founder, Saman Khuda, had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun: Nuh obtained Samarkand; Ahmad, Fergana; Yahya, Shash; and Elyas, Herat. Ahmad's son Nasr became governor of Transoxania
Transoxania
in 875, but it was his brother and successor, Ismail Samani
Ismail Samani
who overthrew the Saffarids
Saffarids
and the Zaydites of Tabaristan, thus establishing a semiautonomous rule over Transoxania and Khorasan, with Bukhara
Bukhara
as his capital. Samanids
Samanids
defeat the Saffarids
Saffarids
and Zaydids Samanid rule in Bukhara
Bukhara
was not formally recognized by the caliph until the early 10th century when the Saffarid ruler 'Amr-i Laith had asked the caliph for the investiture of Transoxiana. The caliph, Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid
however sent the Samanid amir, Ismail Samani, a letter urging him to fight Amr-i Laith and the Saffarids
Saffarids
whom the caliph considered usurpers. According to the letter, the caliph stated that he prayed for Ismail who the caliph considered as the rightful ruler of Khorasan.[36] The letter had a profound effect on Ismail, as he was determined to oppose the Saffarids. The two sides fought in Balkh, northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during the spring of 900. During battle, Ismail was significantly outnumbered as he came out with 20,000 horsemen against Amr's 70,000 strong cavalry.[37] Ismail's horsemen were ill-equipped with most having wooden stirrups while some had no shields or lances. Amr-i Laith's cavalry on the other hand, were fully equipped with weapons and armor. Despite fierce fighting, Amr was captured as some of his troops switched sides and joined Ismail.[38] Isma'il thereafter sent an army to Tabaristan in accordance with the caliph's directive.[39] The area at that time was then controlled by the Zaydids. The Samanid army defeated the Zaydid
Zaydid
ruler and the Samanids
Samanids
gained control of the region. Turkification of Transoxiana

Clothing of Uzbek men, Khiva

In the 9th century, the continued influx of nomads from the northern steppes brought a new group of people into Central Asia. These people were the Turks who lived in the great grasslands stretching from Mongolia
Mongolia
to the Caspian Sea. Introduced mainly as slave soldiers to the Samanid Dynasty, these Turks served in the armies of all the states of the region, including the Abbasid army. In the late 10th century, as the Samanids
Samanids
began to lose control of Transoxiana (Mawarannahr) and northeastern Iran, some of these soldiers came to positions of power in the government of the region, and eventually established their own states, albeit highly Persianized. With the emergence of a Turkic ruling group in the region, other Turkic tribes began to migrate to Transoxiana.[40] The first of the Turkic states in the region was the Persianate Ghaznavid Empire, established in the last years of the 10th century. The Ghaznavid state, which captured Samanid domains south of the Amu Darya, was able to conquer large areas of Iran, Afghanistan, and northern India
India
apart from Central Asia, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud. The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
were closely followed by the Turkic Qarakhanids, who took the Samanid capital Bukhara
Bukhara
in 999 AD, and ruled Transoxiana
Transoxiana
for the next two centuries. Samarkand
Samarkand
was made the capital of the Western Qarakhanid state.[41] The dominance of Ghazna was curtailed, however, when the Seljuks led themselves into the western part of the region, conquering the Ghaznavid territory of Khorazm
Khorazm
(also spelled Khorezm and Khwarazm).[40] The Seljuks also defeated the Qarakhanids, but did not annex their territories outright. Instead they made the Qarakhanids
Qarakhanids
a vassal state.[42] The Seljuks dominated a wide area from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to the western sections of Transoxiana
Transoxiana
in the 11th century. The Seljuk Empire then split into states ruled by various local Turkic and Iranian rulers. The culture and intellectual life of the region continued unaffected by such political changes, however. Turkic tribes from the north continued to migrate into the region during this period.[40] The power of the Seljuks however became diminished when the Seljuk Sultan Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
was defeated by the Kara-Khitans
Kara-Khitans
at the Battle of Qatwan
Battle of Qatwan
in 1141. In the late 12th century, a Turkic leader of Khorazm, which is the region south of the Aral Sea, united Khorazm, Transoxiana, and Iran under his rule. Under the rule of the Khorazm
Khorazm
shah Kutbeddin Muhammad and his son, Muhammad II, Transoxiana
Transoxiana
continued to be prosperous and rich while maintaining the region's Perso-Islamic identity. However, a new incursion of nomads from the north soon changed this situation. This time the invader was Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
with his Mongol
Mongol
armies.[40] Mongol
Mongol
period The Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Central Asia
Central Asia
is one of the turning points in the history of the region. The Mongols
Mongols
had such a lasting impact because they established the tradition that the legitimate ruler of any Central Asian state could only be a blood descendant of Genghis Khan.[43] The Mongol
Mongol
conquest of Central Asia, which took place from 1219 to 1225, led to a wholesale change in the population of Mawarannahr. The conquest quickened the process of Turkification in some parts of the region because, although the armies of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
were led by Mongols, they were made up mostly of Turkic tribes that had been incorporated into the Mongol
Mongol
armies as the tribes were encountered in the Mongols' southward sweep. As these armies settled in Mawarannahr, they intermixed with the local populations which did not flee. Another effect of the Mongol
Mongol
conquest was the large-scale damage the soldiers inflicted on cities such as Bukhoro and on regions such as Khorazm. As the leading province of a wealthy state, Khorazm
Khorazm
was treated especially severely. The irrigation networks in the region suffered extensive damage that was not repaired for several generations.[43] Many Iranian-speaking populations were forced to flee southwards in order to avoid persecution. Rule of Mongols
Mongols
and Timurids

Timur
Timur
feasts in Samarkand

Following the death of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1227, his empire was divided among his four sons and his family members. Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, Mongol
Mongol
law of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
stayed in the hands of direct descendants of Chaghatai, the second son of Genghis. Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire as a whole remained strong and united.[44][full citation needed] In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts, the Chaghatai territory also was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence. One tribal chieftain, Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane), emerged from these struggles in the 1380s as the dominant force in Mawarannahr. Although he was not a descendant of Genghis, Timur
Timur
became the de facto ruler of Mawarannahr and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea. He also invaded Russia
Russia
before dying during an invasion of China in 1405.[44] Timur
Timur
initiated the last flowering of Mawarannahr
Mawarannahr
by gathering in his capital, Samarqand, numerous artisans and scholars from the lands he had conquered. By supporting such people, Timur
Timur
imbued his empire with a very rich Perso-Islamic culture. During Timur's reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction projects were undertaken in Samarqand
Samarqand
and other population centers. Timur
Timur
also patronized scientists and artists; his grandson Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
was one of the world's first great astronomers. It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Mawarannahr, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature. The greatest Chaghataid writer, Ali Shir Nava'i, was active in the city of Herat, now in northwestern Afghanistan, in the second half of the 15th century.[44] The Timurid state quickly broke into two halves after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea. In 1501 the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
began a wholesale invasion of Mawarannahr.[44] Under the leadership of Muhammad Shaybani, the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
conquered the key cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Herat
Herat
in 1505 and 1507, respectively, and founded the Khanate of Bukhara. Uzbek period

A lithograph of two notable Uzbeks
Uzbeks
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1841.

By 1510 the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
had completed their conquest of Central Asia[citation needed], including the territory of the present-day Uzbekistan. Of the states they established, the most powerful, the Khanate of Bukhoro, centered on the city of Bukhoro. The khanate controlled Mawarannahr, especially the region of Tashkent, the Fergana Valley in the east, and northern Afghanistan. A second Uzbek state, the Khanate of Khiva
Khiva
was established in the oasis of Khorazm
Khorazm
at the mouth of the Amu Darya. The Khanate of Bukhoro
Khanate of Bukhoro
was initially led by the energetic Shaybanid Dynasty, the successors of Muhammad Shaybani. The Shaybanids initially competed against Iran for a few years, which was led by the Safavid Dynasty, for the rich far-eastern territory of present-day Iran.[45] The struggle with the Safavids also had a religious aspect because the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
were Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, and Iran was Shia.[46][full citation needed] Near the end of the 16th century, the Uzbek states[citation needed] of Bukhoro and Khorazm
Khorazm
began to weaken because of their endless wars against each other and the Persians and because of strong competition for the throne among the khans in power and their heirs. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Shaybanid Dynasty
Shaybanid Dynasty
was replaced by the Janid Dynasty.[46] Another factor contributing to the weakness of the Uzbek khanates in this period was the general decline of trade moving through the region. This change had begun in the previous century when ocean trade routes were established from Europe to India
India
and China, circumventing the Silk Route. As European-dominated ocean transport expanded and some trading centers were destroyed, cities such as Bukhoro, Merv, and Samarqand
Samarqand
in the Khanate of Bukhoro
Khanate of Bukhoro
and Khiva
Khiva
and Urganch
Urganch
(Urgench) in Khorazm
Khorazm
began to steadily decline.[46] The Uzbeks' struggle with Iran also led to the cultural isolation of Central Asia
Central Asia
from the rest of the Islamic world. In addition to these problems, the struggle with the nomads from the northern steppe continued. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Kazakh nomads and Mongols continually raided the Uzbek khanates, causing widespread damage and disruption. In the beginning of the 18th century, the Khanate of Bukhoro lost the fertile Fergana
Fergana
region, and a new Uzbek khanate was formed in Quqon.[46] Afghan Pashtun conquest Main articles: Balkh, Kunduz, and Maymana An Uzbek Khanate existed in Maimana.[47] The Pashtuns
Pashtuns
battled and conquered the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and forced them into the status of ruled people who were discriminated against.[48][when?] Out of anti-Russian strategic interests, the British assisted the Afghan conquest of the Uzbek Khanates, giving weapons to the Afghans and backed the Afghan colonization of northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
which involved sending massive amounts of Pashtun colonists onto Uzbek land and British literature from the period demonized the Uzbeks.[49][when?] Soviet era arrivals in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
are referred to as Jogi.[50] Russo-Soviet era

The Defence of the Samarkand
Samarkand
Citadel in 1868. From the Russian Illustrated Magazine "Niva" (1872).

Russian Empire In the 19th century, Russian interest in the area increased greatly, sparked by nominal concern over British designs on Central Asia; by anger over the situation of Russian citizens held as slaves; and by the desire to control the trade in the region and to establish a secure source of cotton for Russia. When the United States
United States
Civil War prevented cotton delivery from Russia's primary supplier, the southern United States, Central Asian cotton assumed much greater importance for Russia.[51][full citation needed] As soon as the Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
was completed in the late 1850s, the Russian Ministry of War began to send military forces against the Central Asian khanates. Three major population centers of the khanates—Tashkent, Bukhoro, and Samarqand—were captured in 1865, 1867, and 1868, respectively. In 1868 the Khanate of Bukhoro signed a treaty with Russia
Russia
making Bukhoro a Russian protectorate. Khiva
Khiva
became a Russian protectorate in 1873, and the Quqon
Quqon
Khanate finally was incorporated into the Russian Empire, also as a protectorate, in 1876.[51] By 1876, Russia
Russia
had incorporated all three khanates (hence all of present-day Uzbekistan) into its empire, granting the khanates limited autonomy. In the second half of the 19th century, the Russian population of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
grew and some industrialization occurred.[52] The Jadidists engaged in educational reform among Muslims of Central Asia. To escape Russians slaughtering them in 1916, Uzbeks
Uzbeks
escaped to China.[53] Soviet Union Further information: Amersfoort
Amersfoort
concentration camp, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, Islam
Islam
in the Netherlands § The Second World War, and Soviet Central Asia In the 1940s, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
invaded the Soviet Union. In response, many Central Asians, including Uzbeks
Uzbeks
or Samarqandites, were sent to fight the Germans in the area of Smolensk. However, a number of them, including Hatam Kadirov and Zair Muratov, were captured, transported to the Netherlands, abused and killed. Their bodies were buried in Rusthof cemetery near Amersfoort. For some time, these 101 victims were not identified, apart from the fact that they were Soviets, until an investigation by journalist Remco Reiding. Their plight was also studied by Uzbek historian Bahodir Uzakov of Gouda, South Holland. Witness Henk Broekhuizen
Henk Broekhuizen
said that, despite having seeing them once as a teenager, he would recall the soldiers' faces, whenever he closed his eyes.[54][55] Moscow's control over Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
weakened in the 1970s as Uzbek party leader Sharaf Rashidov
Sharaf Rashidov
brought many cronies and relatives into positions of power. In the mid-1980s, Moscow attempted to regain control by again purging the entire Uzbek party leadership. However, this move increased Uzbek nationalism, which had long resented Soviet policies such as the imposition of cotton monoculture and the suppression of Islamic traditions. In the late 1980s, the liberalized atmosphere of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
under Mikhail S. Gorbachev (in power 1985–91) fostered political opposition groups and open (albeit limited) opposition to Soviet policy in Uzbekistan. In 1989, a series of violent ethnic clashes, involving Uzbeks, brought the appointment of ethnic Uzbek outsider Islam
Islam
Karimov as Communist Party chief.[citation needed] Post-Soviet era When the Supreme Soviet of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
reluctantly approved independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, Karimov became president of the Republic of Uzbekistan.[52] On August 31, 1991, Uzbekistan declared independence, marking September 1 as a national holiday.[citation needed] Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Saudi Arabia Main articles: Soviet_Central_Asia § Exiles, and Minorities_in_ Turkey
Turkey
§ Uzbeks Dissident Islamist and anti-Soviet Central Asians fled to Afghanistan, British India, and to the Hijaz in Saudi Arabia.[56][57] The last Emir of Bukhara
Bukhara
Mohammed Alim Khan
Mohammed Alim Khan
fled to Afghanistan. The Islamist Uzbek As-Sayyid Qāsim bin Abd al-Jabbaar Al-Andijaani(السيد قاسم بن عبد الجبار الأنديجاني) was born in Fergana valley's Andijan city in Turkestan (Central Asia). He went to British India
India
was educated at Darul Uloom Deoband,[58] and then returned to Turkestan where he preached against Communist Russian rule.[59] He then fled to Afghanistan, then to British India
India
and then to Hijaz where he continued his education in Mecca and Medina and wrote several works on Islam
Islam
and engaged in anti-Soviet activities. Uzbek exiles in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
from Soviet ruled Central Asia
Central Asia
also adopted the identity "Turkistani".[60][61] A lot of them are also called "Bukhari".[62] A number of Saudi "Uzbeks" do not consider themselves as Uzbek and instead consider themselves as Muslim Turkestanis.[63] Many Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
adopted the Arabic
Arabic
nisba of their home city in Uzbekistan, such as Al Bukhari from Bukhara, Al Samarqandi from Samarqand, Al Tashkandi from Tashkent, Al Andijani from Andijan, Al Kokandi from Kokand, Al Turkistani from Turkistan. Bukhari and Turkistani were labels for all the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in general while specific names for Uzbeks
Uzbeks
from different places were Farghani, Marghilani, Namangani, and Kokandi.[64][65] Kokandi was used to refer to Uzbeks
Uzbeks
from Ferghana.[66] Shami Domullah introduced Salafism to Soviet Central Asia.[67][68] Mosques in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
are funded by Saudi-based Uzbeks.[69] Saudis have tried to propagate their version of Islam
Islam
into Uzbekistan following the collapse of the Soviet Union.[70][71][72][73] Saudi Arabia's "Bukharian brethren" were led by Nuriddin al-Bukhari as of 1990.[74] Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Pakistan Main article: Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Pakistan Uzbeks
Uzbeks
moved there due to the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[75] Due to aid requirements for refugees repatriation of camp dweller took place.[76] In the 1800s Konya's north Bogrudelik was settled by tatar Bukharlyks. In 1981 Afghan Turkestan refugees in Pakistan
Pakistan
moved to Turkey
Turkey
to join the existing Kayseri, Izmir, Ankara, and Zeytinburnu based communities.[77] Attire

Traditional paranja, Samarkand, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(present-day Uzbekistan), c. 1910

Uzbek clothing includes the Chapan, Kaftan, the headgear Tubeteika
Tubeteika
for men and the Paranja
Paranja
veil for women. Uzbek men traditionally carry hand crafted knives around called pichoq,[78][79] Chust made knives are famous in particular[80][81][82][83][84] Language

A page in Uzbek language
Uzbek language
Arabic
Arabic
script printed in Tashkant 1911

Main article: Uzbek language The Uzbek language
Uzbek language
is a Turkic language
Turkic language
of the Karluk group. Modern Uzbek is written in wide variety of scripts including Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic. After the independence of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
from the former Soviet Union, the government decided to replace the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script with a modified Latin
Latin
alphabet, specifically for Turkic languages. Religion Main article: Islam
Islam
in Uzbekistan Uzbeks
Uzbeks
come from a predominantly Sunni
Sunni
Muslim background, usually of the Hanafi
Hanafi
school,[85] but variations exist between northern and southern Uzbeks. According to a 2009 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
report, Uzbekistan's population is 96.3% Muslim.[86] The majority of Uzbeks from the former USSR
USSR
came to practice religion with a more liberal interpretation due to the movement of Jadidism
Jadidism
which arose as an indigenous reform movement during the time of Russian imperial rule, while Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and other countries to the south have remained more conservative adherents of Islam. However, with Uzbek independence in 1991 came an Islamic revival amongst segments of the population. People living in the area of modern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
were first converted to Islam
Islam
as early as the 8th century, as Arabs
Arabs
conquered the area, displacing the earlier faith of Manichaeism. See also

Uzbek language Uzbeks
Uzbeks
In Russia Turkic peoples Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Central Asia Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Pakistan Ethnic groups in Afghanistan Culture of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
portal

Notes

^ "Population: 28,661,637 (July 2013 est.) [ Uzbeks
Uzbeks
= 80%]". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "Afghan Population: 31,108,077 (July 2013 est.) [ Uzbeks
Uzbeks
= 9%]". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "Population: 7,910,041 (July 2013 est.) [ Uzbeks
Uzbeks
= 15.3%]". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Factbook. Retrieved 10 June 2013.  ^ "Kyrgyzstan". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 July 2017.  ^ a b (in Russian) Russia
Russia
Census 2002[permanent dead link] ^ Ethnic groups in Kazakhstan, official estimation 2010-01-01 based on National Census 2009 Archived 2010-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ Rhoda Margesson (January 26, 2007). "Afghan Refugees: Current Status and Future Prospects" p.7. Report RL33851, Congressional Research Service. ^ "PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 April 2014.  ^ Evrenpaşa Köyü Güney Türkistan'dan Anadoluya Urfa Ceylanpınar Özbek Türkleri. Evrenpasakoyu.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine: The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue Archived 2008-12-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Uzbek Minority – Chinese Nationalities (Ozbek)". Retrieved 26 April 2016.  ^ Census of Mongolia, slide# 23. http://www.toollogo2010.mn/doc/Main%20results_20110615_to%20EZBH_for%20print.pdf ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012 ^ A. H. Keane, A. Hingston Quiggin, A. C. Haddon, Man: Past and Present, p.312, Cambridge University Press, 2011, Google Books, quoted: "Who take their name from a mythical Uz-beg, Prince Uz (beg in Turki=a chief, or hereditary ruler)." ^ MacLeod, Calum; Bradley Mayhew. Uzbekistan: Golden Road to Samarkand. p. 31. [unreliable source?] ^ "Irano-Turkish Relations in the Late Sasanian Period". The Cambridge History of Iran. III/1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. pp. 613–24. 0-521-24693-8.  ^ a b Richard H. Rowland, Richard N. Frye, C. Edmund Bosworth, Bertold Spuler, Robert D. McChesney, Yuri Bregel, Abbas Amanat, Edward Allworth, Peter B. Golden, Robert D. McChesney, Ian Matley, Ivan M. Steblin-Kamenskij, Gerhard Doerfer, Keith Hitchins, Walter Feldman. Central Asia, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, v., Online Edition, 2007, (LINK) ^ A. H. Nauta, "Der Lautwandel von a > o and von a > ä in der özbekischen Schriftsprache," Central Asiatic Journal 16, 1972, pp. 104–18. ^ A. Raun, Basic course in Uzbek, Bloomington, 1969. ^ A. von Gabain, "Özbekische Grammatik", Leipzig and Vienna, 1945 ^ J. Bečka, "Tajik Literature from the 16th Century to the Present," in Rypka, Hist. Iran. Lit., pp. 520–605 ^ A. Jung, Quellen der klassischen Musiktradition Mittelasiens: Die usbekisch-tadshikischen maqom-Zyklen und ihre Beziehung zu anderen regionalen maqam-Traditionen im Vorderen and Mittleren Orient, Ph.D. dissertation, Berlin, 1983. ^ T. Levin, The Music and Tradition of the Bukharan Shashmaqam in Soviet Uzbekistan, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton, 1984 ^ Tatjana Zerjal; et al. (2002). "A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 71 (3): 466–482. doi:10.1086/342096. PMC 419996 . PMID 12145751.  ^ Султанов Т. Кочевые племена Приаралья в XV—XVII вв.// Вопросы этнической и социальной истории. М., 1982 ^ Allworth Edward, The modern Uzbeks
Uzbeks
from the fourteenth century to the present: a cultural history, Hoover Press, 1990, p.74 ^ Firdaws al-iqbal. History of Khorezm by Shir Muhammad Mirab Munis and Muhammad Riza Mirab Aghahi. Translated from Chaghatay and annotated by Yuri Bregel. Brill, 1999,р.55 ^ Lubin, Nancy. "Early history". In Curtis. ^ a b c d Lubin, Nancy. "Early Islamic period". In Curtis. ^ Tabaḳāt-i-nāsiri: a general history of the Muhammadan dynastics of Asia, pg.31, By Minhāj Sirāj Jūzjānī ^ The historical, social and economic setting By M. S. Asimov, pg.79 ^ a b Iran and America: Re-Kind[l]ing a Love Lost By Badi Badiozamani, Ghazal Badiozamani, pg. 123 ^ History of Bukhara
Bukhara
by Narshakhi, Chapter XXIV, Pg 79 ^ The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana By Sheila S. Blair, pg. 27 ^ The book of government, or, Rules for kings: the Siyar al-Muluk, or, Siyasat-nama of Nizam al-Mulk, Niẓām al-Mulk, Hubert Darke, pg.18–19 ^ History of Islam
Islam
(Vol 3) By Akbar Shah
Shah
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Mongol
period". In Curtis. ^ a b c d Lubin, Nancy. "Rule of Timur". In Curtis. ^ Abraham Eraly (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.  ^ a b c d Lubin, Nancy. "Uzbek period". In Curtis. ^ David Chaffetz (1981). A Journey Through Afghanistan. University of Chicago Press. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-0-226-10064-7.  ^ Brian Glyn Williams (22 September 2011). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
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References

Allworth, Edward. The Modern Uzbeks: From the 14th Century to the Present, Hoover Institution Press (July 1990). Calum MacLeod, Bradley Mayhew "Uzbekistan. Golden Road to Samarkand" page31. Critchlow, James. Nationalism in Uzbekistan: Soviet Republic's Road to Sovereignty, Westview Press (October 1991). Noble, Ivan. BBC News, DNA analysis tracks Silk Road forbears Rashid, Ahmad. The Resurgence of Central Asia : Islam
Islam
or Nationalism? Zed Books (April 15, 1995) Zerjal, Tatiana, et al. A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 71:466–482, 2002. Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Part 9, pages 483–489

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Uzbeks.

Josuah Project: Uzbek

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Turkic peoples

Altays Afshar Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulaqs Bulgars Chelkans Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Karaites Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmen Karachays Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Kryashens Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Lipka Tatars Meskhetian Turks Mishar Tatars

Finnish Tatars

Nağaybäk Naimans Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Qizilbash Salar Siberian Tatars Shatuo Shors Syrian Turkmen Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Tubalar Turgesh Turks (proper)

diaspora

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Volga Tatars Yakuts Yugur

Italics indicate extinct group

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Ethnic groups in Uzbekistan

Uzbeks

Armenians Azerbaijanis Bukharan Jews Greeks Karakalpaks Kazakhs Koreans Kyrgyz Romani Russians Tajiks

Chagatai Kharduri

Tatars Turks

Links to related articles

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Ethnic groups in Afghanistan

Ethnic groups

Aimak Arabs Baloch Brahui Dalak Gurjars Hazaras Jat Kho Moghol Nuristanis Pamiris Pashayi Pashtuns Punjabis Tajiks Turkmens Uzbeks Qizilbash Wakhi

Foreign nationals

Armenians Indians Pakistanis Russians Turks

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Ethnic groups in China

Sino-Tibetan

Sinitic

Han Bai Hui

Burmic

Achang Hani Jino Lahu Lisu Nu Yi

Qiangic

Nakhi Pumi Qiang

Others

Derung Jingpo Lhoba Monpa Tibetan Tujia

Austroasiatic

Blang Gin Palaung Va

Hmong-Mien

Miao

Hmong

She Yao

Mongolic

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mongol Monguor Yugur

Tai-Kadai

Bouyei Dai Dong Gelao Li Maonan Mulao Sui Zhuang

Tungusic

Evenk Manchu Nanai Oroqen Sibe

Turkic

Kazakh Kyrgyz Salar Tatar Uyghur Uzbek Yugur

Unrecognized

Lai Deng Gejia Utsul Khmu Macanese Mang Jews

Others

Filipinos Gaoshan Japanese Koreans Russian Tajik

Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
China
· Immigrant ethnic groups in China
China
· Historic ethnic groups

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Ethnic groups in Kazakhstan

Majority

Kazakhs

Minorities >1%

Germans Russians Tatars Ukrainians Uyghurs Uzbeks

Minorities <1%

Armenians Azerbaijanis Bulgarians Chinese Dungan Greeks Koreans Kurds Poles Turks

See also

Demographics of Central Asia Demographics of Kazakhstan Assembly of People of Kazakhstan

v t e

Ethnic groups in Tajikistan

Tajiks

Afghans Armenians Badzhui Gharmi Kazakhs Koreans Kulobi Pamiris Romani Russians Uzb

.