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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

24 January 1950

CAPITAL Lucknow
Lucknow

DISTRICTS 75

GOVERNMENT

• BODY Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh

• GOVERNOR Ram Naik

• CHIEF MINISTER Yogi Adityanath
Yogi Adityanath
(BJP )

• DEPUTY CM 1. Keshav Prasad Maurya
Keshav Prasad Maurya
2. Dinesh Sharma
Dinesh Sharma

AREA

• TOTAL 243,290 km2 (93,930 sq mi)

AREA RANK 4th

POPULATION (2011)

• TOTAL 199,581,477

• RANK 1st

• DENSITY 820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)

DEMONYM(S) Uttar Pradeshi

LANGUAGES

• OFFICIAL Hindi
Hindi

• ADDITIONAL OFFICIAL Urdu
Urdu

TIME ZONE IST (UTC+05:30 )

UN/LOCODE IN-UP

VEHICLE REGISTRATION UP 01—XX

HDI 0.5415 (medium)

HDI RANK 18th (2007-08)

LITERACY

* 67.7% (29th ) * 77.3% (male) * 57.4% (female)

WEBSITE www.up.gov.in

UTTAR PRADESH (/ˈʊttˈər prəˈdɛʃ/ ), abbreviated as UP, is the most populous state in the Republic of India
India
as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world . The densely populated state, located in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent, has over 200 million inhabitants. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces during British rule, and was renamed _Uttar Pradesh_ in 1950. Lucknow
Lucknow
is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. The main ethnic group is the Hindi
Hindi
people , forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
, was carved out from the Himalayan hill region of Uttar Pradesh.

The state is bordered by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
to the west, Haryana
Haryana
, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi
Delhi
to the northwest, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Nepal
Nepal
to the north, Bihar
Bihar
to the east, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres (93,933 sq mi), equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, and is the fourth largest Indian state by area . Hindi is the official and most widely spoken language in its 75 districts along with English. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is the third largest Indian state by economy , with a GDP of ₹9,763 billion (US$150 billion) and the fourth-largest contributor to India's net domestic product. Agriculture
Agriculture
and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy. The service sector comprises travel and tourism , hotel industry , real estate , insurance and financial consultancies.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges
Ganges
and Yamuna
Yamuna
, join at Allahabad
Allahabad
and then flow as the Ganges
Ganges
further east. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as, Agra
Agra
, Varanasi
Varanasi
, Allahabad
Allahabad
, Kaushambi , Ballia
Ballia
, Shravasti , Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
, Chauri Chaura , Kushinagar
Kushinagar
, Lucknow
Lucknow
, Jhansi
Jhansi
, Bareilly
Bareilly
, Budaun
Budaun
, Meerut
Meerut
, Mathura
Mathura
, Faizabad
Faizabad
and Shahjahanpur
Shahjahanpur
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistory * 1.2 Ancient and Classical period

* 1.3 Medieval and Early Modern period

* 1.3.1 British India-era * 1.3.2 Post-independence

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Flora and Fauna * 4 Divisions, districts and cities * 5 Demographics * 6 Government and administration

* 7 Crime

* 7.1 Terror attacks

* 8 Economy * 9 Transportation * 10 Sports * 11 Education * 12 Tourism
Tourism

* 13 Culture

* 13.1 Language and literature * 13.2 Music and dance * 13.3 Fairs and festivals * 13.4 Cuisine * 13.5 Dress

* 14 Media * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 External links

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic / Microlithic
Microlithic
hunter-gatherer 's settlement, near Pratapgarh , from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period
Vedic period
and extending into the Iron Age
Iron Age
.

ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD

Rama
Rama
portrayed as an exile in the forest, accompanied by his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana

The kingdom of Kosala
Kosala
, in the Mahajanapada
Mahajanapada
era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu
Hindu
legend, the divine king Rama
Rama
of the Ramayana
Ramayana
epic reigned in Ayodhya
Ayodhya
, the capital of Kosala. Krishna
Krishna
, another divine king of Hindu
Hindu
legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation ( Avatar
Avatar
) of the Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu , is said to have been born in the city of Mathura
Mathura
, in Uttar Pradesh. The aftermath of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab
Doab
and Delhi
Delhi
, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava
Pandava
king Yudhishthira
Yudhishthira
. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware
Black and Red Ware
and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age
Iron Age
in northwest India, around 1000 BC.

Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (CE 100–250), Gupta (350–600), and Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
(650–1036) empires. Following the Huns
Huns
' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges- Yamuna
Yamuna
Doab
Doab
saw the rise of Kannauj
Kannauj
. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj
Kannauj
empire reached its zenith. It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat
Gujarat
in the west to Bengal
Bengal
in the east and Odisha
Odisha
in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain
Indo-Gangetic plain
. Many communities in various parts of India
India
claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire
Pala Empire
for control of the region. Kannauj
Kannauj
was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
, from the 8th century to the 10th century.

MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIOD

In the 16th century, Babur
Babur
, a Timurid descendant of Timur
Timur
and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
(modern-day Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
), swept across the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
and founded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
, covering India , along with modern-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol
Mongol
admixture). In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Babur
Babur
and Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam
Islam
Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
from their capital at Gwalior
Gwalior
. After the death of Islam Shah Suri
Islam Shah Suri
, his prime minister Hemu
Hemu
became the _de facto_ ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. He was bestowed the title of _Hemchandra Vikramaditya _ (title of Vikramāditya
Vikramāditya
adopted from Vedic Period ) at his formal coronation took place at Purana Quila
Purana Quila
in Delhi on 7 October 1556. Hemu
Hemu
died in the Second Battle of Panipat
Second Battle of Panipat
, and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
came under Emperor Akbar
Akbar
's rule. Akbar
Akbar
ruled from Agra and Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
, in the mid 18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohillkhand to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar . The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia . In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
, when the British East India
India
Company defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty.

British India-era

TIMELINE OF REORGANIZATION & NAME CHANGES OF UP

1807 Ceded and Conquered Provinces

14 NOV 1834 Presidency of Agra
Agra

1 JAN 1836 North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces

3 APR 1858 Oudh
Oudh
taken under British control, Delhi
Delhi
taken away from NWP and merged into Punjab

1 APR 1871 Ajmer
Ajmer
, Merwara Bengal
Bengal
regiment 's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment , Mangal Pandey
Mangal Pandey
, is widely credited as its starting point. It came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
. After the revolt failed, the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganising the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi
Delhi
region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab , while the Ajmer
Ajmer
- Marwar
Marwar
region was merged with Rajputana
Rajputana
and Oudh
Oudh
was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra
Agra
and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra
Agra
and Oudh
Oudh
. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.

In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad
Allahabad
to Lucknow
Lucknow
. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad
Allahabad
continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and has several administrative headquarters. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
hosted modern educational institutions such as the Benaras Hindu University
Benaras Hindu University
, Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University
and the Darul Uloom Deoband
Darul Uloom Deoband
. Nationally known figures such as Ram Prasad Bismil
Ram Prasad Bismil
and Chandra Shekhar Azad
Chandra Shekhar Azad
were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru , Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
, Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
. The All India
India
Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow
Lucknow
session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia
Ballia
district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey . Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement.

Post-independence

After India's independence, the United Provinces were renamed "Uttar Pradesh", preserving UP as the acronym, notification regarding this was done in union gazette on January 24, 1950. The state has provided eight of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
. Despite its political influence, its poor record in economic development and administration, organised crime and corruption have kept it amongst India's backward states. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence. In Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in December, 1992 the Babri Mosque was demolished by radical activists , leading to widespread violence across India. In 2000, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Uttar Pradesh A part of the Gangetic Plain

Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 square kilometres (93,935 sq mi), is India’s fourth largest state in terms of land area. It is situated on the northern spout of India
India
and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas
Himalayas
border the state on the north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. The larger Gangetic Plain region is in the north; it includes the Ganges- Yamuna
Yamuna
Doab
Doab
, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges
Ganges
plains and the Terai
Terai
. The smaller Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
and plateau region is in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps . The sluggish rivers of the bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick undergrowth. The terai runs parallel to the bhabhar in a thin strip. The entire alluvial plain is divided into three sub-regions. The first in the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the central and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system. They suffer from waterlogging and large-scale user tracts. In addition, the area is fairly arid. The state has more than 32 large and small rivers; of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati , Sarayu
Sarayu
, Betwa
Betwa
, and Ghaghara
Ghaghara
are larger and of religious importance in Hinduism
Hinduism
.

Cultivation is intensive. The valley areas have fertile and rich soil. There is intensive cultivation on terraced hill slopes, but irrigation facilities are deficient. The Siwalik Range
Siwalik Range
which forms the southern foothills of the Himalayas
Himalayas
, slopes down into a boulder bed called 'bhadhar'. The transitional belt running along the entire length of the state is called the terai and bhabhar area. It has rich forests, cutting across it are innumerable streams which swell into raging torrents during the monsoon .

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Uttar Pradesh
Climate of Uttar Pradesh
Monsoon
Monsoon
clouds over Lucknow
Lucknow

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September. Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0 °C and 50 °C in parts of the state. The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state. Primarily a summer phenomenon, the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
branch of the Indian monsoon is the major bearer of rain in most parts of state. It is the south-west monsoon which brings most of the rain here, although rain due to the _western disturbances _ and north-east monsoon also contribute small quantities towards the overall precipitation of the state.

CLIMATE DATA FOR UTTAR PRADESH

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 29.9 (85.8) 31.9 (89.4) 35.4 (95.7) 37.7 (99.9) 36.9 (98.4) 31.7 (89.1) 28.4 (83.1) 27.4 (81.3) 29.4 (84.9) 31.4 (88.5) 30.1 (86.2) 28.9 (84) 31.59 (88.86)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 12.1 (53.8) 15.8 (60.4) 19.9 (67.8) 22.4 (72.3) 22.9 (73.2) 22.2 (72) 21.6 (70.9) 20.8 (69.4) 18.5 (65.3) 14.4 (57.9) 11.5 (52.7) 17.76 (63.96)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 0 (0) 3 (0.12) 2 (0.08) 11 (0.43) 40 (1.57) 138 (5.43) 163 (6.42) 129 (5.08) 155 (6.1) 68 (2.68) 28 (1.1) 4 (0.16) 741 (29.17)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.1 3.3 10.9 17.0 16.2 10.9 5.0 2.4 0.3 67.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.44 270.0 288.3 2,896.34

Source:

_ Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
Sravasti
A hybrid nasturtium ( Tropaeolum majus
Tropaeolum majus
_) showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi district
Hardoi district

Average High and Low temperatures for various Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Cities

CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Lucknow
Lucknow
73/44 79/49 90/58 101/69 105/76 102/81 92/79 90/78 92/76 91/66 79/53 75/45

Kanpur
Kanpur
91/71 92/72 92/75 93/78 92/78 85/74 84/73 84/72 88/78 88/74 89/74 90/71

Ghaziabad 70/45 73/50 84/59 97/70 102/79 100/82 93/81 91/79 93/75 91/66 82/55 73/46

Allahabad
Allahabad
74/47 81/52 92/62 103/73 108/80 104/83 93/79 91/78 92/77 92/69 86/57 77/49

Agra
Agra
72/45 75/51 90/60 101/72 107/80 105/84 95/79 91/78 93/76 93/67 85/55 75/47

Varanasi
Varanasi
74/47 80/52 92/61 102/72 106/80 102/83 92/79 91/794 91/77 90/69 85/57 76/49

Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
74/49 80/53 91/72 103/77 99/79 92/78 91/78 91/76 91/70 85/59 76/51 76/49

Bareilly
Bareilly
71/47 77/57 88/60 99/70 105/77 102/81 93/79 91/78 92/76 90/67 83/56 74/48

The rain in U.P. can vary from an annual average of 170 cm in hilly areas to 84 cm in Western U.P. Given the concentration of most of this rainfall in the four months of the monsoon, excess rain can lead to floods and shortage to droughts. As such, these two phenomena, floods and droughts, commonly recur in the state. The climate of the Vindhya Range
Vindhya Range
and plateau is subtropical with a mean annual rainfall between 1000 and 1200 mm, most of which comes during the monsoon. Typical summer months are from March to June, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 38 °C (86 to 100 °F). There is low relative humidity of around 20% and dust-laden winds blow throughout the season. In summers, hot winds called _loo _ blow all across Uttar Pradesh.

FLORA AND FAUNA

See also: Pilibhit Tiger Reserve and Dudhwa National Park
Dudhwa National Park

STATE SYMBOLS OF UTTAR PRADESH STATE ANIMAL Swamp deer
Swamp deer
_

STATE BIRD Sarus crane
Sarus crane

STATE TREE Ashoka

STATE FLOWER Palash

STATE DANCE Kathak
Kathak

STATE SPORT Field hockey
Field hockey

View of the Terai
Terai
region Gharial
Gharial
(Gavialis gangeticus_) is found in the Ganges
Ganges
river

The state has an abundance of natural resources. In 2011 the recorded forest area in the state was 16,583 km2 (6,403 sq mi) which is about 6.88% of the state's geographical area. In spite of rapid deforestation and poaching of wildlife, a diverse flora and fauna continue to exist in the state. Several species of trees, large and small mammals , reptiles , and insects are found in the belt of temperate upper mountainous forests. Medicinal plants are found in the wild and are also grown in plantations . The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands support cattle. Moist deciduous trees grow in the upper Gangetic plain, especially along its riverbanks. This plain supports a wide variety of plants and animals. The Ganges
Ganges
and its tributaries are the habitat of large and small reptiles, amphibians , fresh-water fish, and crabs. Scrubland
Scrubland
trees such as the babool and animals such as the chinkara are found in the arid Vindhyas.

Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in all parts of the plains. Since much sunlight reaches the ground, shrubs and grasses are also abundant. Large tracts of these forests have been cleared for cultivation. Tropical thorny forests, consisting of widely scattered thorny trees, mainly babool are mostly found in the southwestern parts of the state. These forests are confined to areas which have low annual rainfall (50–70 cm), a mean annual temperature of 25-27 °C and low humidity.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is known for its extensive avifauna . The most common birds which are found in the state are doves , peafowl , junglefowl , black partridges , house sparrows , songbirds , blue jays , parakeets , quails , bulbuls , comb ducks , kingfishers , woodpeckers , snipes , and parrots. Bird
Bird
sanctuaries in the state include Bakhira Sanctuary
Bakhira Sanctuary
, National Chambal Sanctuary , Chandra Prabha Sanctuary
Chandra Prabha Sanctuary
, Hastinapur Sanctuary , Kaimoor Sanctuary , and Okhla Sanctuary
Okhla Sanctuary
.

Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards , cobras , kraits , and gharials . Among the wide variety of fishes, the most common ones are mahaseer and trout . Some animal species in Uttar Pradesh have gone extinct in recent years, while others, like the lion from the Gangetic Plain and the rhinoceros from the Terai
Terai
region , have become endangered . Many species are vulnerable to poaching despite regulation by the government .

DIVISIONS, DISTRICTS AND CITIES

Main articles: Divisions of Uttar Pradesh and Districts of Uttar Pradesh See also: Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh
, Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Eastern Uttar Pradesh
, and Central Uttar Pradesh
Central Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is divided into 75 districts under these 18 divisions:

* Saharanpur * Moradabad * Bareilly
Bareilly
* Lucknow
Lucknow
* Devipatan * Basti * Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
* Meerut
Meerut
* Aligarh

* Agra
Agra
* Kanpur
Kanpur
* Faizabad
Faizabad
* Azamgarh * Jhansi
Jhansi
* Chitrakoot * Allahabad
Allahabad
* Varanasi
Varanasi
* Mirzapur

Divisions of Uttar Pradesh

The following is a list of top six districts from state of Uttar Pradesh by population in India.

RANK (IN INDIA) DISTRICT POPULATION GROWTH RATE (%) SEX RATIO (FEMALES PER 1000 MALES) LITERACY RATE (%)

13 Allahabad
Allahabad
5,954,391 20.63 901 72.32

26 Moradabad 4,772,006 25.22 906 56.77

27 Ghaziabad 4,681,645 42.27 881 78.07

30 Azamgarh 4,613,913 17.11 1019 70.93

31 Lucknow
Lucknow
4,589,838 25.82 917 77.29

32 Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar 4,581,268 9.92 862 79.65

MILLION PLUS CITIES OF UTTAR PRADESH BY POPULATION (2011 CENSUS )

* view * talk * edit

NAME POPULATION

NAME POPULATION

Kanpur
Kanpur
2,920,067

Lucknow
Lucknow
2,901,474

Ghaziabad 2,358,525

Agra
Agra
1,746,467

Varanasi
Varanasi
1,435,113

Meerut
Meerut
1,424,908

Allahabad
Allahabad
1,216,719

Bareilly
Bareilly
979,933

Each district is governed by a district collector or District Magistrate, who is an Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
officer appointed Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
and reports to Divisional Commissioner of the division in which his district falls. Each district is divided into subdivisions, governed by a sub-divisional magistrate , and again into Blocks . Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities . These blocks consists of urban units viz. census towns and rural units called gram panchayat .

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has more metropolitan cities than any other state in India. The absolute urban population of the state is 44.4 million, which constitutes 11.8% of the total urban population of India, the second highest of any state. According to the 2011 census, there are 15 urban agglomerations with a population greater than 500,000. There are 14 municipal corporations, while Noida
Noida
is specially administered by a statuary authority.

In 2011, state's cabinet ministers headed by the then Chief Minister Mayawati
Mayawati
announced the separation of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
into four different states of Purvanchal, Bundelkhand, Avadh Pradesh and Paschim Pradesh with twenty eight, seven, twenty three and seventeen districts respectively, later the proposal was turned down when Akhilesh Yadav lead Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
came to power in the 2012 election.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Uttar Pradesh
Demographics of Uttar Pradesh
See also: List of people from Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Pathans of Uttar Pradesh

POPULATION GROWTH

CENSUS POP.

1951 60,274,000

1961 70,144,000

16.4%

1971 83,849,000

19.5%

1981 105,137,000

25.4%

1991 132,062,000

25.6%

2001 166,198,000

25.8%

2011 199,581,477

20.1%

Source:Census of India

Religions in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(2011) Hinduism
Hinduism
(79.73%) Islam (19.26%) Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.32%) Christianity
Christianity
(0.18%) Jainism
Jainism
(0.11%) Other religions (0.51%)

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has a large population and a high population growth rate. From 1991 to 2001 its population increased by over 26%. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India
India
, with 199,581,477 people on 1 March 2011. The state contributes 16.16% of India's population. The population density is 828 people per square kilometre, making it one of the most densely populated states in the country.

The sex ratio in 2011, at 908 women to 1000 men, was lower than the national figure of 933. The state's 2001–2011 decennial growth rate (including Uttrakhand) was 20.09%, higher than the national rate of 17.64%. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has a large number of people living below the poverty line . Estimates released by the Planning Commission for the year 2009-10 revealed that Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
had 59 million people below the poverty line, the most for any state in India.

As per 2011 census , Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India, is home to the highest numbers of both Hindus and Muslims. By religion, the population in 2011 was Hindus 79.73%, Muslims 19.26%, Sikhs 0.32%, Christians 0.18%, Jains 0.11%, Buddhists
Buddhists
0.10%, and Others 0.30%. The literacy rate of the state at the 2011 census was 67.7%, which was below the national average of 74%. The literacy rate for men is 79% and for women 59%. In 2001 the literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
stood at 56.27% overall, 67% for men and 43% for women.

Hindi
Hindi
is the sole official language of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and is spoken by the majority of the population (91.32%). Urdu
Urdu
is given the status of a second official language.

GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Main articles: Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
and Uttar Pradesh Legislature (Vidhan Bhawan) Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), the lower house of the bicameral legislature

The state is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy . Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is one of the seven states in India, where the state legislature is bicameral, comprising two houses: the Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
(Legislative Assembly) and the Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council). The Legislative Assembly consists of 404 members who are elected for five-year terms. The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 100 members with one-third (33 members) retiring every two years. Since Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
sends the largest number of legislators to the national Parliament, it is often considered to be one of the most important states with respect to Indian politics. The state contributes 80 seats to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and 31 seats to the upper house of the Indian Parliament, Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government is a democratically elected body in India with the Governor as its constitutional head and is appointed by the President of India
India
for a five-year term. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The governor remains a ceremonial head of the state, while the Chief Minister and his council are responsible for day-to-day government functions.

The administration in each district is headed by a District Magistrate who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to state services. The Superintendent of Police (India)
Superintendent of Police (India)
, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Uttar Pradesh Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The judiciary in the state consists of the Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court in Allahabad
Allahabad
, the Lucknow
Lucknow
Bench of Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court , district courts and session courts in each district or Sessions Division, and lower courts at the taluka level. The President of India
India
appoints the chief justice of the High Court of the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
judiciary on the advice of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India
India
as well as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh. Other judges are appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Chief Justice of the High Court. _Subordinate Judicial Service_, categorized into two divisions viz. Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
higher judicial service is another vital part of the judiciary of Uttar Pradesh. While the Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services comprises the Civil Judges (Junior Division)/Judicial Magistraes and civil judges (Senior Division)/Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
higher judicial service comprises civil and sessions judges. The Subordinate judicial service (viz. The district court of Etawah
Etawah
and the district court of Kanpur Dehat) of the judiciary at Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is controlled by the District Judge.

Politics in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has been dominated by four political parties, the Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
, the Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
, the Indian National Congress , and the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
. Politicians from Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
have played prominent roles in federal government of India
India
with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has been called India's under-achiever, because it has provided India
India
with eight prime ministers while remaining a poor state.

CRIME

According to the National Crime Records Bureau (2011 data), Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of crimes among any state in India, but due to its high population, the actual per capita crime rate is low. Because of this, the NCRB states that UP is the third safest state in the country to live in. The value of human development index in Uttar Pradesh has steadily increased over time. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has the second largest Civil police force with 107,840 members, accounting for 9.5% of the total civil police in the country.

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
also reported the highest number of deaths - 23,219 - due to road and rail accidents in 2015, according to NCRB data. This included 8,109 deaths due to careless driving.

TERROR ATTACKS

Main articles: 2006 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombings , 2007 Uttar Pradesh bombings , and 2010 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombing Ghat
Ghat
on the Ganges, where the 2010 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombing occurred

Since 2006, there have been a number of terrorist attacks, including explosions in a landmark holy place, a court and a temple. The 2006 Varanasi
Varanasi
bombings were a series of bombings that occurred across the Hindu
Hindu
holy city of Varanasi
Varanasi
on 7 March 2006. At least 28 people were killed and as many as 101 others were injured. The blasts occurred simultaneously shortly after 18:00 IST. The first blast took place at 18:20 in the crowded Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple near the Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University . Other blasts followed at the Varanasi
Varanasi
Cantonment Railway Station near the waiting area next to the travel office. Initially, another blast was reported inside the stationary Shivganga Express bound for Delhi
Delhi
.

In the afternoon of 23 November 2007, within a span of 25 minutes, six consecutive serial blasts occurred in the Lucknow, Varanasi, and Faizabad
Faizabad
courts, in which 28 people were killed and several others injured. The blasts came a week after the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
police and central security agencies busted Jaish-e-Mohammed
Jaish-e-Mohammed
terrorists who had planned to abduct Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi
. The Indian Mujahidin has claimed responsibility of these blasts in an email sent to TV stations five minutes before the blast. The first blast occurred in the premises of the Varanasi
Varanasi
civil court and collectorate between 13:05 and 13:07. Two successive blasts occurred in the Faizabad
Faizabad
district court around 13:12 and 13:15, closely followed by one at Lucknow
Lucknow
at 13:32. Bombs were explicitly targeted at the lawyers who were working in the courts.

On 7 December 2010, another blast occurred at Sheetla Ghat, adjacent to the main Dashashwamedh Ghat , in which more than 38 people were killed and several others injured. The blast came a day after the anniversary of the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition
Babri Masjid demolition
, in which a mosque was demolished at Ayodhya
Ayodhya
leading to nationwide religious riots that killed over 2,000 people.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Uttar Pradesh
Economy of Uttar Pradesh
See also: List of urban agglomerations in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Roadside vendors in a town. A large proportion of residents are employed in the informal sector.

NET STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST AT CURRENT PRICES (2004–05 BASE)

figures in crores of Indian Rupees

YEAR NET STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT

2004–2005 229,074

2005–2006 256,699

2006–2007 294,031

2007–2008 332,352

2008–2009 384,718

2009–2010 453,020

In terms of net state domestic product (NSDP), Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
is the third largest economy in India
India
after Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and contributes 7.8% to India’s GDP, with an NSDP of ₹9,760 billion (US$150 billion). Agriculture
Agriculture
is the leading occupation in Uttar Pradesh. According to the report generated by India
India
Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), in 2014-15, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has accounted for 19% share in the country’s total food grain output. The state has experienced a high rate of economic growth in the past few years. Food grain production in the state in 2014-15 stood at 47,773.4 thousand tonnes. Wheat is the state's principal food crop and sugarcane is the main commercial crop. About 70% of India's sugar comes from Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane
Sugarcane
is the most important cash crop as the state is country’s largest producer of Sugar. As per the report generated by Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA), total sugarcane production in India
India
was estimated to be 28.3 million tonne in the fiscal ending September 2015 which includes 10.47 million tonne from Maharashtra and 7.35 million tonne from Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh

State industries are localised in the Kanpur
Kanpur
region, the fertile purvanchal lands and the Noida
Noida
region. The Mughalsarai is home to a number of major locomotive plants. Major manufacturing products include engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches, and wagons. More small-scale industrial units are situated in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
than in any other state, with 12 percent of over 2.3 million units. With 359 manufacturing clusters cement is top sector of SMEs in UP.

The Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Financial Corporation (UPFC) was established in the year 1954 under the SFCs Act of 1951 mainly to develop small and medium scale industries in the state. UPFC provides financial assistance to new and existing units undergoing diversification , modernisation, expansion, or acquisition of fixed assets such as land, buildings, and machinery. The UPFC also provides working capital to existing units with a sound track record and to new units under a single window scheme. As of July 2012, due to financial constraints and directions from the state government, lending activities have been suspended except for State Government Schemes. The state has reported total private investment worth over Rs. 25,081 crores during the years of 2012 and 2016. According to a recent report of World Bank on Ease of Doing Business in India, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
was ranked among the top 10 states and first among Northern states.

In 2009–10, the tertiary sector of the economy (service industries) was the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of the state, contributing 44.8% of the state domestic product compared to 44% from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, and tourism) and 11.2% from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing). MSME sector is the second largest employment generator in Uttar Pradesh, the first being agriculture and employs over 92 lakh people across the state. Under the leadership of Akhilesh Yadav, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has exceeded 11th five-year plan targets and has established several Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) and generated 6.5 lakh employment opportunities across the state. During the 11th five-year plan (2007–2012), the average gross state domestic product (GSDP) growth rate was 7.28%, lower than 15.5%, the average for all states of the country. The state’s per capita GSDP was ₹29,417 (US$460), lower than the national per capita GSDP of ₹60,972 (US$950). The state's total financial debt stood at ₹2,000 billion (US$31 billion) in 2011. Labour efficiency is higher at an index of 26 than the national average of 25. The economy also benefits from the state's tourism industry.

The state is attracting foreign direct investment which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields; Noida
Noida
and Lucknow
Lucknow
are becoming a major hub for the information technology (IT) industry and houses the headquarters of most of the major corporate, media and financial institutions. Sonebhadra , a district in eastern Uttar Pradesh , has large-scale industries. Its southern region is known as the _Energy Capital of India_. In May 2013 Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
had the largest number of mobile subscribers in the country, a total of 121.60 million mobile phone connections out of 861.66 million in India, according to the telecom regulator, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
India
TRAI
TRAI
.

TRANSPORTATION

Further information: List of state highways in Uttar Pradesh , List of airports in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
State Road Transport Corporation Terminal-2 at CCS International Airport , Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow
Metro , launched in July 2017.

The state has the largest railway network in the country and the sixth highest railway density. As of 2011, there were 8,546 km (5,310 mi) of rail in the state. Allahabad
Allahabad
is the headquarters of the North Central Railway and Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
is the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway . Other than Zonal Headquarters of Allahabad
Allahabad
and Gorakhpur, Lucknow
Lucknow
and Moradabad serve as divisional Headquarters of the Northern Railway Division. Lucknow
Lucknow
Swarna Shatabdi
Shatabdi
Express , the second fastest shatabdi train, connects the Indian capital of New Delhi
Delhi
to Lucknow
Lucknow
. This was the first train in India
India
to get the new German LHB coaches. The railway stations of Lucknow
Lucknow
NR , Kanpur Central , Varanasi
Varanasi
Junction , Agra
Agra
Cantt , Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
and Mathura Junction were included in the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
list of 50 world-class railway stations. New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge in Allahabad
Allahabad
is part of National Highway 30

The state has a large, multimodal transportation system with the largest road network in the country. The state is well connected to its nine neighbouring states and almost all other parts of India through the national highways (NH). It boasts 42 national highways, with a total length of 4,942 km (9.6% of the total NH length in India). The Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
was established in 1972 to provide economical, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the state with connecting services to adjoining states and boasts as being the only State Transport Corporation that runs in profit in the entire nation. All cities are connected to state highways , and all district headquarters are being connected with four lane roads which carry traffic between major centres within the state. One of them is Agra
Agra
Lucknow
Lucknow
Expressway, which is a 302 km (188 mi) controlled-access highway constructed by Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Expressways Industrial Development Authority (UPEIDA) to reduce vehicular traffic in previously congested roads. This expressway is country’s largest Greenfield Expressway which reduced the travel time between Lucknow
Lucknow
and Agra
Agra
from 6 hours to 3.30 hours. Other district roads and village roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major district roads provide a secondary function of linking between main roads and rural roads. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has the highest road density in India, (1,027 km per 1000 km2) and the largest surfaced urban-road network in the country (50,721 km).

The state has excellent civil aviation infrastructure with Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport in Lucknow
Lucknow
and Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport in Varanasi, providing international service. and four domestic airports located at Agra, Allahabad, Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
and Kanpur. The Lucknow
Lucknow
Airport is the second busiest airport in North India
India
after the Indira Gandhi International Airport
Indira Gandhi International Airport
, New Delhi. The state has also proposed creating the Taj International Airport at Kurikupa near Hirangaon, Tundla in Firozabad district
Firozabad district
. An international Airport is also proposed at Kushinagar
Kushinagar
.

The Lucknow
Lucknow
Metro is being constructed in the city of Lucknow
Lucknow
as an alternative mode of transport. The capital city is witnessing a swift rise in the number of immigrants and this has called for the transformation of Public modes of transport.

SPORTS

See also: Indian Grand Prix and Uttar Pradesh Cricket Association
Uttar Pradesh Cricket Association
Indian hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
Dhyan Chand

Traditional sports, now played mostly as a pastime, include wrestling , swimming , kabaddi , and track- or water-sports played according to local traditional rules and without modern equipment. Some sports are designed to display martial skills such as using a sword or 'Pata' (stick). Due to lack of organised patronage and requisite facilities, these sports survive mostly as individuals' hobbies or local competitive events. Among modern sports, field hockey is popular and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has produced some of the finest players in India, including Dhyan Chand
Dhyan Chand
and, more recently, Nitin Kumar and Lalit Kumar Upadhyay.

Recently, cricket has become more popular than field hockey . Uttar Pradesh won its first Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
tournament in February 2006, beating Bengal
Bengal
in the final. It can also boast of routinely having 3 or 4 players on the national side. Green Park Stadium in Kanpur
Kanpur
, the only internationally recognised cricket stadium in the state, has witnessed some of India's most famous victories. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Cricket Association (UPCA) has headquarters in Kanpur. An International Cricket
Cricket
Stadium with a capacity of 50,000 spectators, is being set up in the capital city of Uttar Pradesh.

Greater Noida
Noida
Cricket
Cricket
Stadium is another newly built international cricket stadium. The Buddh International Circuit hosted India’s inaugural F1 Grand Prix race on 30 October 2011. The 5.14 km long circuit was designed by German architect and racetrack designer Herman Tilke to compete with other world-class race circuits. But the race was only held three times before being cancelled, due to falling attendance, lack of government support and the government of Uttar Pradesh considered Formula One to be entertainment and not a sport, and imposed taxes on the event and participants.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Uttar Pradesh
Education in Uttar Pradesh
See also: List of institutions of higher education in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
JRHU is the world's first school for handicap

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has a long tradition of education, although historically it was primarily confined to the elite class and religious schools. Sanskrit-based learning formed the major part of education from the Vedic to the Gupta periods . As cultures travelled through the region they brought their bodies of knowledge with them, adding Pali
Pali
, Persian , and Arabic
Arabic
scholarship to the community. These formed the core of Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education until the rise of British colonialism. The present schools-to-university system of education owes its inception and development in the state (as in the rest of the country) to foreign Christian missionaries
Christian missionaries
and the British colonial administration . Schools in the state are either managed by the government or by private trusts. Hindi
Hindi
is used as a medium of instruction in most of the schools except those affiliated to the CBSE or the Council for ICSE boards. Under the 10+2+3 plan , after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college , also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Board of High School and Intermediate Education or a central board. Students choose from one of three streams, namely liberal arts , commerce, or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs. Central Drug Research Institute , an autonomous multidisciplinary research institute

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has more than 45 universities, including 5 central universities , 28 state universities , 8 deemed universities , 2 IITs , 1 IIM in Lucknow
Lucknow
, 1 NIT in Allahabad
Allahabad
, 2 I IITs
IITs
, 1 National Law University in Lucknow
Lucknow
and several polytechnics, engineering colleges and industrial training institutes . Prestigious institutes like the Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University
, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences , Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur) , Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) , the Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow) , Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (Allahabad) , Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad) , Indian Institute of Information Technology (Lucknow) , University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kanpur
Kanpur
, King George\'s Medical University , Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University
National Law University
and the Harcourt Butler Technical University
Harcourt Butler Technical University
are known worldwide for their quality education and research in their respective fields. The presence of such institutions provides the students of the state with ample opportunities for higher education. Other universities in the state include Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University
, University of Allahabad
Allahabad
, University of Lucknow
Lucknow
, Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences
Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences
, Chandra Shekhar Azad
Chandra Shekhar Azad
University of Agriculture
Agriculture
and Technology , Chaudhary Charan Singh University
Chaudhary Charan Singh University
, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University , Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University , Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University , Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
University of Technology , Gautam Buddha University , Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
University , Indian Veterinary Research Institute Bareilly
Bareilly
, IMT Ghaziabad , Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Institute of Medical Sciences , Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University , M.J.P. Rohilkhand University
M.J.P. Rohilkhand University
, Bundelkhand University , Narendra Dev University of Agriculture
Agriculture
and Technology , Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
, Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University , Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts , Siddharth University , Allahabad
Allahabad
State University and Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti Urdu, Arabi~Farsi University .

The Integral University , a state level institution, was established by the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Government to provide education in different technical, applied science , and other disciplines . The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was founded as an autonomous organisation by the national ministry of culture . Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Handicapped University is the only university established exclusively for the disabled in the world. A large number of Indian scholars are educated at different universities in Uttar Pradesh. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in the geographic area of the state include Harivansh Rai Bachchan , Motilal Nehru , Harish Chandra and Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
See also: Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
and Architecture of Uttar Pradesh
Architecture of Uttar Pradesh
Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
2013 at Sangam, Allahabad
Allahabad

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
ranks first in domestic tourist arrivals among all states of India
India
with more than 71 million, owing to its rich and varied topography , vibrant culture, festivals, monuments, ancient places of worship, and viharas . Millions gather at Allahabad
Allahabad
to take part in the Magh Mela
Magh Mela
festival on the banks of the Ganges. This festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
, where over 10 million Hindu
Hindu
pilgrims congregate in one of the largest gatherings of people in the world.

The historically important towns of Sarnath
Sarnath
and Kushinagar
Kushinagar
are near to gorakhpur and are located not far from Varanasi. Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon after his enlightenment at Sarnath
Sarnath
and died at Kushinagar; both are important pilgrimage sites for Buddhists
Buddhists
. Also at Sarnath
Sarnath
are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka , both important archaeological artefacts with national significance. At a distance of 80 km from Varanasi, Ghazipur is famous not only for its Ghats
Ghats
on the Ganges
Ganges
but also for the tomb of Lord Cornwallis
Lord Cornwallis
, the 18th century Governor of East India
India
Company ruled Bengal
Bengal
Presidency . The tomb is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
. The state also has a bird sanctuary in Etah district called Patna Bird Sanctuary .

Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments . It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident
British Resident
's quarters, which are being restored. Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
gives access to three World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
: the Taj Mahal , Agra
Agra
Fort , and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
. Varanasi
Varanasi
is an ancient city famous for its ghats . To promote tourism, the Directorate of Tourism
Tourism
was established in the 1972 with a Director General who is an I.A.S. officer. In 1974 the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
State Tourism
Tourism
Development Corporation was established to look after the commercial tourist activities.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Uttar Pradesh
Culture of Uttar Pradesh

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Main article: Languages of Uttar Pradesh
Languages of Uttar Pradesh
The battle of Kurukshetra, folio from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata

Several texts and hymns of the Vedic literature were composed in Uttar Pradesh. The festival of _ Guru Purnima
Guru Purnima
_ is dedicated to Sage Vyasa
Vyasa
, and also known as _ Vyasa
Vyasa
Purnima_ as it is the day which is believed to be his birthday and also the day he divided the Vedas. There is a long literary and folk Hindi
Hindi
language tradition in the state. In the 19th and 20th century, Hindi
Hindi
literature was modernised by authors such as Jaishankar Prasad , Maithili Sharan Gupt
Maithili Sharan Gupt
, Munshi Premchand , Suryakant Tripathi Nirala
Suryakant Tripathi Nirala
, Babu Gulabrai , Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan \'Agyeya\' , Rahul Sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan
, Harivansh Rai Bachchan , Dharamvir Bharati
Dharamvir Bharati
, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
, Dushyant Kumar
Dushyant Kumar
, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi , Acharya Kuber Nath Rai , Bharatendu Harishchandra
Bharatendu Harishchandra
, Kamleshwar Prasad Saxena
Kamleshwar Prasad Saxena
, Shivmangal Singh Suman , Mahadevi Varma
Mahadevi Varma
, and Vibhuti Narain Rai
Vibhuti Narain Rai
.

The state is sometimes called the ' Hindi
Hindi
heartland of India'. Hindi became the language of state administration with the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act of 1951. A 1989 amendment to the act added Urdu , as an additional language of the state. Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central, and Eastern zones of the Hindi
Hindi
Belt , the major Hindi
Hindi
dialects of the state being Awadhi
Awadhi
, Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
, Bundeli , Braj Bhasha
Braj Bhasha
, Kannauji and the vernacular form of Khariboli
Khariboli
.

MUSIC AND DANCE

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has produced musicians, including Anup Jalota , Girija Devi
Devi
, Kishan Maharaj , Vikash Maharaj
Vikash Maharaj
Naushad Ali
Naushad Ali
, Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
, Shubha Mudgal
Shubha Mudgal
, Siddheshwari Devi
Siddheshwari Devi
, Talat Mehmood , and Ustad Bismillah Khan . The Ghazal
Ghazal
singer Begum Akhtar
Begum Akhtar
was a native of Uttar Pradesh. The region's folk heritage includes songs called rasiya (especially popular in Braj
Braj
), which celebrate the divine love of Radha
Radha
and Krishna
Krishna
. Other forms of music are kajari , sohar , qawwali , rasiya , thumri , birha, chaiti , and sawani . Traditional dance and musical styles are taught at the Bhatkhande Music Institute University in Lucknow, named after the musician Pandit Vishnu
Vishnu
Narayan Bhatkhande .

Kathak
Kathak
, a classical dance form, owes its origin to the state of Uttar Pradesh. The dance form is connected to classical Hindustani music where the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the Tabla
Tabla
or Pakhawaj
Pakhawaj
. Four of the six schools of this dance form, Lucknow
Lucknow
gharana , Ajrara gharana , Farukhabad gharana and Benares gharana , are situated in Uttar Pradesh.

FAIRS AND FESTIVALS

Saraswati festival, in which people worship the goddess of knowledge , music, arts , and science Hindu
Hindu
priest saluting the sun in the Ganges, Varanasi
Varanasi

Diwali
Diwali
(celebrated between mid-October and mid-December) and Rama Navami are popular festivals in Uttar Pradesh. Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
, organised in the month of Maagha (Feb-March), is a major festival held every twelve years in rotation at Allahabad, Haridwar
Haridwar
, Ujjain
Ujjain
, on the river Ganges
Ganges
and Nasik
Nasik
on the Godavari river
Godavari river
. Lath mar Holi
Lath mar Holi
is a local celebration of the Hindu
Hindu
festival of Holi. It takes place well before the actual Holi in the town of Barsana near Mathura. Taj Mahotsav , held annually at Agra, is a colourful display of the culture of the Braj
Braj
area. Buddha Purnima , which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
, is a major Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist festival, while Christmas is celebrated by the minority Christian population. Other festivals are Eid-ul-Fitr , Eid-ul-Adhaa/Bakreed , Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
, Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
, Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
, Ayudha Puja
Ayudha Puja
, Ganga Mahotsava, Janmashtami
Janmashtami
, Sardhana Christian Fair, Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
, Mahavir Jayanti , Bārah Wafāṭ , Chhath
Chhath
puja , Lucknow
Lucknow
Mahotsav , Moharram , Kabob
Kabob
and Hanuman Jayanti
Hanuman Jayanti
.

CUISINE

Main article: Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh
Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan , sultani dal , raita , and shahi paneer Paan, (betel leaves) being served with silver foil

A typical day-to-day traditional vegetarian meal of Uttar Pradesh, like any other North Indian thali , consists of roti (flatbread), chawal , dal , sabji , raita and papad . Many people still drink the traditional drink chaach (traditional Butter milk
Butter milk
) with meals. On festive occasions, usually 'tava' (flat pan for roti) is considered inauspicious, and instead fried foods are consumed. A typical festive thali consists of Puri, Kachauri, sabji, pulav, papad , raita , salad and desserts (such as sewai or Kheer
Kheer
).

Many communities have their own particular style of cuisines, such as the Jains, Kayasths and Muslims. There are also certain sub-regional delicacies. Awadhi
Awadhi
cuisine is world-famous for dishes such as kebab , biryani , keema and nihari . Sweets occupy an important place in the Hindu
Hindu
diet and are eaten at social ceremonies. People make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including khurchan, peda , gulabjamun , petha , makkhan malai, and chamcham . The chaat in Lucknow
Lucknow
and Banarasi Paan
Paan
is known across India
India
for its flavour and ingredients.

Awadhi
Awadhi
cuisine is from the city of Lucknow
Lucknow
. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh
Awadh
has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques , and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of Central Asia
Central Asia
, Kashmir
Kashmir
, Punjab and Hyderabad ; and the city is known for Nawabi foods. The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh
Awadh
gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today. Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs , kormas , biryani , kaliya, nahari-kulchas , zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis , and warqi parathas . The richness of Awadh
Awadh
cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton , paneer , and rich spices including cardamom and saffron .

Mughlai cuisine is a style of cooking developed in the Indian subcontinent by the imperial kitchens of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
. It represents the cooking styles used in North India
India
, especially Uttar Pradesh. The cuisine is strongly influenced by the cuisine of Central Asia , and has in turn strongly similarities to the regional cuisines of Kashmir
Kashmir
and the Punjab region. The tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices.

DRESS

The people of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
dress in a variety of traditional and Western styles. Traditional styles of dress include colourful draped garments – such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men – and tailored clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta -pyjama for men. Men often sport head-gear like topi or pagri . Sherwani
Sherwani
is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions. European-style trousers and shirts are also common among the men.

MEDIA

A number of newspapers and periodicals are published in Hindi, English, and Urdu. _The Pioneer _ was founded in Allahabad
Allahabad
in 1865 by George Allen. _ Amar Ujala
Amar Ujala
_, _ Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar
_, _ Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
_, and _ Hindustan Dainik _ have a wide circulation, with local editions published from several important cities. Major English language newspapers which are published and sold in large numbers are _The Telegraph _, _The Times of India
India
_, _ Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
_, _The Hindu
Hindu
_, _ The Statesman
The Statesman
_, _ The Indian Express
The Indian Express
_, and _ Asian Age _. Some prominent financial dailies like _ The Economic Times
The Economic Times
_, _Financial Express _, _ Business Line _, and _ Business Standard
Business Standard
_ are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi
Hindi
, Nepali , Gujarati , Odia , Urdu
Urdu
, and Punjabi are also read by a select readership.

Doordarshan
Doordarshan
is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Hindi, English, Bengali, Nepali and international channels via cable . Hindi
Hindi
24-hour television news channels are _ NDTV
NDTV
India
India
_, _ DD News _, _Zee News Uttar Pradesh_, _Jan TV _, _IBN-7_, and _ ABP News
ABP News
_. _All India
India
Radio _ is a public radio station. There are 32 private FM stations available in major cities like Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, and Noida. Cell phone providers include _Vodafone _, _Airtel _, _ BSNL
BSNL
_, _Reliance Communications _, _ Telenor
Telenor
_, _ Aircel
Aircel
_,_ Tata Indicom
Tata Indicom
_, _Idea Cellular _, and _ Tata DoCoMo _. Broadband internet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL
BSNL
and by private companies. Dial-up access
Dial-up access
is provided throughout the state by BSNL
BSNL
and other providers.

SEE ALSO

* India
India
portal * Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
portal

* Outline of India
India
* List of Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh
Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh
* List of Governors of Uttar Pradesh
Governors of Uttar Pradesh
* List of people from Uttar Pradesh
List of people from Uttar Pradesh
* Nawabganj Bird
Bird
Sanctuary

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