HOME
The Info List - Uthman Ibn Al-Affan


--- Advertisement ---



Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(Arabic: عثمان بن عفان‎, translit. ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs". Born into a prominent Meccan clan, Banu Umayya of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe, he played a major role in early Islamic history, succeeding Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab
who died in office at the age of 59/60 years as caliph at the age of 64/65 years (the second-oldest ruler). According to Sunni Muslims
Sunni Muslims
Uthman
Uthman
was married to Ruqayyah, and then upon her death, married Umm Kulthum, both of them being daughters of Prophet Muhammad, which earned Uthman
Uthman
the honorific title Dhū al-Nurayn ("The Possessor of Two Lights").[4] Under the leadership of Uthman, the empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran) in 650, and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan) in 651. The empire's conquest of Armenia
Armenia
began by the 640s.[5] His reign also saw widespread protests and unrest that eventually led to armed revolt and his assassination.

Contents

1 Uthman's family 2 Early life

2.1 Conversion to Islam 2.2 Migration to Abyssinia 2.3 Migration to Medina 2.4 Life in Medina 2.5 Battles 2.6 Muhammad's last years

3 Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr's era (632–634) 4 Election of Uthman 5 Reign as Caliph
Caliph
(644–656)

5.1 Economical and social administration

5.1.1 Economic reforms 5.1.2 Military expansion

5.2 Public opposition to Uthman's policies

5.2.1 Uthman's attempts at appeasing the dissidents

6 Armed revolt against Uthman

6.1 Rebels in Medina 6.2 Siege of Uthman

7 Death

7.1 Assassination 7.2 Funeral 7.3 Burial

8 Causes of anti- Uthman
Uthman
revolt 9 Character 10 Sunni defence of Uthman 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Uthman's family[edit] Main article: Family tree of Uthman Uthman
Uthman
was born to Affan ibn Abi al-'As. Early life[edit] Seven years after Muhammad, Uthman
Uthman
was born in Ta'if
Ta'if
to the wealthy Umayyad
Umayyad
(Banu Umayya) clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe of Mecca. Uthman's father, Affan, died at a young age while travelling abroad, however, Uthman
Uthman
was left with a large inheritance. Uthman
Uthman
became a merchant, like his father. His business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Qurayshi tribe.[6][page needed] His mother was Arwa, daughter of Um Hakim bint Abdul Mutalib, the twin sister of Abdullah, father of Muhammad, making Uthman
Uthman
the first cousin of Muhammad. She died before 610.[7][8] Conversion to Islam[edit] On returning from a business trip to Syria
Syria
in 611, Uthman
Uthman
found out that Muhammad
Muhammad
had declared his mission. After a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr, Uthman
Uthman
decided to convert to Islam, and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
took him to Muhammad
Muhammad
to declare his faith. Uthman
Uthman
thus became one of the earliest converts to Islam, following Ali, Zayd, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and a few others. His conversion to Islam
Islam
angered his clan, the Banu Ummayyah, who strongly opposed Muhammad's teachings.[9][page needed] Migration to Abyssinia[edit] Uthman
Uthman
and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia) in 614–15, along with 11 men and 11 women, all of whom were Muslims. As Uthman
Uthman
already had some business contacts in Abyssinia, he continued to practice his profession as a trader, and he continued to flourish. After two years, the news had spread among the Muslims in Abyssinia that the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Mecca
Mecca
had accepted Islam, and this acceptance persuaded Uthman, Ruqayya and some other Muslims to return. However, when they reached Mecca, they found that the news about the Quraysh's acceptance of Islam
Islam
was false. Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned, but Uthman
Uthman
and Ruqayya stayed. In Mecca, Uthman
Uthman
had to start his business afresh, but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia worked in his favor and his business prospered once again.[10] Migration to Medina[edit] In 622, Uthman
Uthman
and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Medina. They were among the third batch of Muslims who migrated to Medina. Upon their arrival, Uthman
Uthman
stayed with Abu Talha
Talha
ibn Thabit. After a short while, Uthman
Uthman
purchased a house of his own and moved there. Being one of the richest merchants of Mecca, and having amassed a considerable fortune, Uthman
Uthman
did not need any financial help from his Ansari brothers, as he brought all his wealth with him to Medina. In Medina, the Muslims were generally farmers and were not very interested in trade, and thus most of the trading that took place in the town was handled by Jews. Thus, there was considerable space for the Muslims in promoting trade. Uthman
Uthman
took advantage of this position, soon establishing himself as a trader in Medina. He worked hard and honestly, and his business flourished, soon becoming one of the richest men in Medina.[11] Life in Medina[edit] When Ali
Ali
married Fatimah, Uthman
Uthman
bought Ali's shield for five hundred dirhams. Four hundred was set aside as mahr (dower) for Fatimah's marriage, leaving a hundred for all other expenses. Later, Uthman presented the armor back to Ali
Ali
as a wedding present.[12][13] Battles[edit] Main article: List of expeditions of Muhammad According to R. V. C. Bodley, during Muhammad's lifetime, Uthman
Uthman
was not an outstanding figure and was not assigned to any authority, and was not ever distinguished in any of Muhammad's campaigns.[14][15] Uthman
Uthman
had a reputation of favoring family members. One way he displayed this was he had a habit of splitting war booty among his relatives and keeping it from combatants.[16] During the Invasion of Hamra al-Asad a Meccan spy, Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah, the cousin of Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, had been captured. According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, Uthman
Uthman
gave him shelter after getting permission from Muhammad, and Muhammad
Muhammad
told him that if he was caught again after 3 days he would be executed. As such, Muawiyah was given a grace period of three days and arranged a camel and provisions for his return journey to Mecca. Uthman
Uthman
departed with Muhammad
Muhammad
for Hamra-al-Asad, and Muawiyah overstayed his grace. Though he fled by the time the army returned, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered his pursuit and execution. The orders were carried out.[17][18] Muhammad's last years[edit] In 632, the year Muhammad
Muhammad
died, Uthman
Uthman
participated in the Farewell Pilgrimage.[6] Uthman
Uthman
was also present at the event of Ghadir Khumm, where, according to both Shia and Sunni sources, he was among those who pledged allegiance to Ali.[19][20][21][22][23] Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr's era (632–634)[edit] Uthman
Uthman
had a very close relationship with Abu Bakr, as it was due to him that Uthman
Uthman
had converted to Islam. When Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was selected as the caliph, Uthman
Uthman
was the first person after Umar
Umar
to offer his allegiance. During the Ridda wars
Ridda wars
(Wars of Apostasy), Uthman
Uthman
remained in Medina, acting as Abu Bakr's adviser. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr dictated his will to Uthman, saying that his successor was to be Umar.[24] Election of Uthman[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: The election of Uthman Umar, on his deathbed formed a committee of six people to choose the next caliph from amongst themselves. This committee was:

Ali Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Abdur Rahman bin Awf Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Al-Zubayr Talhah

Umar
Umar
asked that, after his death, the committee reach a final decision within three days, and the next caliph should take the oath of office on the fourth day. If Talhah
Talhah
joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina
Medina
within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed with the decision. Abdur Rahman bin Awf
Abdur Rahman bin Awf
withdrew his eligibility to be appointed as caliph in order to act as a moderator and began his task by interviewing every member of the committee separately. He asked them for whom they would cast their vote. When Ali
Ali
was asked, he didn't reply. When Uthman
Uthman
was asked, he voted for Ali, Zubayr said for Ali
Ali
or Uthman
Uthman
and Saad said for Uthman.[24] Uthman
Uthman
was a rich merchant who used his wealth to support Islam
Islam
yet at no time before his caliphate had he displayed any qualities of leadership or actually led an army. But despite this, according to Wilferd Madelung, he was chosen by the electors as the only strong counter candidate to Ali
Ali
as he alone could to some extent rival Ali's close kinship ties with the Prophet.[25] R. V. C. Bodley
R. V. C. Bodley
believed that after Umar's assassination, Ali
Ali
rejected the caliphate as he disagreed with governing according to regulations established by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, and that Uthman
Uthman
accepted those terms[26] which he failed to administrate during his ten years' caliphate.[14] Reign as Caliph
Caliph
(644–656)[edit]

Caliphate خِلافة

Main caliphates

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate Ottoman Caliphate

Parallel caliphates

Fatimid Caliphate Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba Almohad Caliphate Sokoto Caliphate

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Economical and social administration[edit] Economic reforms[edit]

The coins are of Persian origin and have an image of the last Persian emperor. Muslims added the sentence Bismillah to it.

Uthman
Uthman
was a shrewd businessman and a successful trader from his youth, which contributed greatly to the Rashidun
Rashidun
Empire. Umar
Umar
had fixed the allowance of the people and on assuming office, Uthman increased it by about 25%. Umar
Umar
had placed a ban on the sale of lands and the purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories.[27] Uthman
Uthman
withdrew these restrictions, in view of the fact that the trade could not flourish. Uthman
Uthman
also permitted people to draw loans from the public treasury. Under Umar, it had been laid down as a policy that the lands in conquered territories were not to be distributed among the combatants, but were to remain the property of the previous owners. The army felt dissatisfied at this decision, but Umar suppressed the opposition with a strong hand. Uthman
Uthman
followed the policy devised by Umar
Umar
and there were more conquests, and the revenues from land increased considerably.[24] Umar, the predecessor of Uthman, was very strict in the use of money from the public treasury. Apart from the meagre allowance that had been sanctioned in his favour, Umar
Umar
took no money from the treasury. He did not receive any gifts, nor did he allow any of his family members to accept any gifts from any quarter. During the time of Uthman, there was some relaxation in such strictness. Uthman
Uthman
did not draw any allowance from the treasury for his personal use, nor did he receive a salary, he was a wealthy man with sufficient resources of his own, but unlike Umar, Uthman
Uthman
accepted gifts and allowed his family members to accept gifts from certain quarters.[6] Uthman
Uthman
honestly expressed that he had the right to utilize the public funds according to his best judgment, and no one criticized him for that. The economic reforms introduced by Uthman
Uthman
had far reaching effects; Muslims as well as non-Muslims of the Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
enjoyed an economically prosperous life during his reign.[28] Military expansion[edit]

v t e

Early Muslim expansion

Byzantine (East Roman) Empire

Syria Armenia Egypt North Africa Cyprus Constantinople Georgia Crete Sicily Southern Italy

Sassanid Persian Empire

Armenia Caucasian Albania Georgia Afghanistan

Indus Valley

Rasil

Caucasus

Georgia Khazar Khaganate

Transoxiana Visigothic Kingdom (Hispania) Frankish Empire (Gaul)

v t e

Arab–Byzantine wars

Early conflicts

Mu'tah Dathin Firaz

Muslim conquest of the Levant

al-Qaryatayn Sanita-al-Uqab Marj Rahit Bosra Ajnadayn Yaqusa Marj al-Saffar Fahl Damascus Maraj-al-Debaj Emesa Yarmouk Jerusalem Hazir Aleppo Iron Bridge Germanicia

Muslim conquest of Egypt

Heliopolis Babylon Fortress Alexandria Nikiou

Muslim conquest of North Africa

Sufetula Vescera Mamma Carthage

Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople

1st Constantinople Sebastopolis Tyana 2nd Constantinople Nicaea Akroinon

Arab–Byzantine border warfare

Kamacha Abbasid
Abbasid
invasion of 782 Kopidnadon Krasos Abbasid
Abbasid
invasion of 806 Anzen and Amorium Mauropotamos Faruriyyah Lalakaon Bathys Ryax

Sicily and Southern Italy

1st Syracuse 2nd Syracuse 1st Malta 3rd Syracuse Caltavuturo Campaigns of Leo Apostyppes and Nikephoros Phokas the Elder Stelai (1st Milazzo) (2nd) Milazzo 1st Taormina Garigliano Campaigns of Marianos Argyros 2nd Taormina Rometta Straits of Messina George Maniakes
George Maniakes
in Sicily 2nd Malta

Naval warfare and raids

Phoenix Keramaia Muslim conquest of Crete Thasos Damietta Ragusa Kardia Gulf of Corinth Cephalonia Euripos Thessalonica

Byzantine Reconquest

Campaigns of John Kourkouas Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla

Marash Raban Andrassos

Campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas

Crete Cilicia Antioch

Alexandretta Campaigns of John Tzimiskes

Syria

Orontes Apamea Campaigns of Basil II Azaz

v t e

Muslim conquest of Persia

Mesopotamia

Chains River Walaja Ullais Hira Al-Anbar Ayn al-Tamr Muzayyah Saniyy Zumail Firaz 1st Babylon Namaraq Kaskar Bridge Buwaib al-Qādisiyyah Burs 2nd Babylon Ctesiphon Jalula

Khuzestan

Hormizd-Ardashir Susa Ram-Hormizd Shushtar Gundishapur

Central Persia

Nahavand Spahan Waj Rudh Ray

Northern Persia

Tabaristan Armenia Azerbaijan Caucasian Albania Iberia

Pars

Bishapur Darabgerd 1st Estakhr Gor 2nd Estakhr

Kerman

Sirjan Qeshm

Sakastan

Zaranj

Khorasan

Oxus River Nishapur Herat Badghis

Further information: Military campaigns under Caliph
Caliph
Uthman During his rule, Uthman's military style was more autonomical in nature as he delegated so much military authority to his trusted kinsmen like Abdullah ibn Aamir, Muawiyah I and Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn Abī as-Sarâḥ, unlike the tenure of Umar
Umar
where the military expansion was generally centralized in Umar's authority. Consequently, this more independent expansion enabled more overarching expansion until Sindh, Pakistan, which was not touched during the tenure of Umar.[29] Muawiyah I was appointed the governor of Syria
Syria
by Umar
Umar
in 639 to stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars. This appointment occurred after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, the governor before him and 25,000 other people. Now, under Uthman's rule in 649, Muawiyah was allowed to set up a navy, manned by Monophysitic Christians, Copts, and Jacobite Syrian Christian sailors and Muslim troops. This resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean.[30][31][32][33][34] In Hijri year
Hijri year
31 or around AD 651, Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
sent Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Saad to lead reconquest expedition towards Maghreb where he met the army of Gregory the Patrician, Exarch of Africa and relative of Heraclius
Heraclius
which is recorded numbers between 120,000 and 200,000 soldiers,[35] Although another estimation was recorded, Gregory's army was put in 20,000.[36][37] The opposing forces clashed in Sabuthilag (alternately called Sufetula), which became the name of this battle. Records from al-Bidayah wal Nihayah state that Abdullah's troops were completely surrounded by Gregory's army in a circular fashion and the situation was very dire for the Muslim army as they were threatened with annihilation. However, Abdullah ibn Zubayr spotted Gregory in his chariot and soon he asked Abdullah ibn Sa'd to lead a small detachment to intercept him. The interception was successful, and Gregory was slain by Zubayr's ambush party. Consequently, the morale of Byzantine army started crumbling and soon they were routed.[35] Some Muslim sources claim that after the conquest of northern Africa was complete by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari,[38] Abdullah ibn Sa'd continued the conquest to Spain. Spain
Spain
was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman. Other prominent Muslim historians like, Ibn Kathir,[39] have also quoted the same narration. In the description of this campaign, during which North Africa was conquered by Abdullah ibn Saad, two of his generals, Abdullah ibn Nafiah ibn Husain, and Abdullah ibn Nafi' ibn Abdul Qais, were commissioned to invade the coastal areas of Spain
Spain
by sea aided by a Berber force. They succeeded in conquering the coastal areas of Al-Andalus. It is not known where the Muslim force landed, what resistance they met, and what parts of Spain
Spain
they actually conquered. However, it is clear that the Muslims did conquer some portion of Spain
Spain
during the caliphate of Uthman, presumably establishing colonies on its coast. On this occasion, Uthman
Uthman
is reported to have addressed a letter to the invading force:

Constantinople
Constantinople
will be conquered from the side of Al-Andalus. Thus, if you conquer it, you will have the honor of taking the first step towards the conquest of Constantinople. You will have your reward in this behalf both in this world and the next. ”

Although raids by Berbers and Muslims were conducted against the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain
Spain
during the late 7th century, there is no evidence that Spain
Spain
was invaded or that parts of it were conquered or settled by Muslims prior to the 711 campaign by Tariq. Abdullah ibn Saad also continued his success in the very first Caliphate
Caliphate
Naval battle against the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the Battle of the Masts which is described as the first decisive conflict of Islam on the deep of Byzantine offshore.[40]

Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
at its peak under third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman- 654   Strongholds of Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate

On the east Ahnaf ibn Qais, chief of Banu Tamim and a veteran commander who conquer Shustar
Shustar
earlier. Now in Uthman's regime, Ahnaf launched a series of successful further military expansions by further mauling Yazdegerd III near Oxus River
Oxus River
in Turkmenistan[41][42] and later crushing the military coalition of Sassanid empire
Sassanid empire
loyalists and Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
in the Siege of Herat.[41] Later the governor of Basra, Abdullah ibn Aamir also lead successful various campaign which ranged from punitive Re-conquest of the revolting population of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Khorasan to the opening of new conquest fronts in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Afghanistan.[43] In the next year of AD 652, the translation of records from Futh Al-Buldan of Baladhuri write that Balochistan
Balochistan
was re-conquered during the campaign against the revolt in Kermān, under the command of Majasha ibn Mas'ud. It was the first time that western Balochistan
Balochistan
had come directly under the Laws of Caliphate
Caliphate
and it paid an agricultural tribute.[44][45] The military campaigns under Uthman's rule was generally successful, except a few campaigns in the kingdom of Nubia in the lower Nile. Public opposition to Uthman's policies[edit] The situation was becoming tense and so the Uthman's administration had to investigate the origins and extent of anti-government propaganda and its aims. Some time around 654, Uthman
Uthman
called all the governors of his 12 provinces to Medina
Medina
to discuss the problem. In this Council of Governors, Uthman
Uthman
directed the governors that they should adopt all the expedients they had suggested, according to local circumstances. Later, in the Majlis al Shurah (council of ministry), it was suggested to Uthman
Uthman
that reliable agents should be sent to various provinces to investigate the matter and report about the sources of such rumors. Uthman
Uthman
then sent his agents to the main provinces, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Maslamah was sent to Kufa; Usama ibn Zayd was sent to Basra; Ammar ibn Yasir was sent to Egypt, while `Abd Allah ibn Umar
Umar
was sent to Syria. The emissaries who had been sent to Kufa, Basra
Basra
and Syria
Syria
submitted their reports to Uthman, that all was well in Kufa, Basra
Basra
and Syria. The people were satisfied with the administration, and they had no legitimate grievance against it. Some individuals in various locations had some personal grievances of minor character, with which the people at large were not concerned. Ammar ibn Yasir, the emissary to Egypt, however, did not return to Medina. The rebels had carried on with their propaganda in favor of the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Ali. Ammar ibn Yasir had been affiliated with Ali; he left Uthman, and instead joined the opposition in Egypt. Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, reported about the activities of the opposition in Egypt. He wanted to take action against Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr (foster son of Ali), Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abi Hudhaifa (adopted son of Uthman) and Ammar ibn Yasir.[46] Uthman's attempts at appeasing the dissidents[edit] In 655, Uthman
Uthman
directed the people who had any grievance against the administration to assemble at Mecca
Mecca
for the Hajj. He promised them that all their legitimate grievances would be redressed. He directed the governors and the "Amils" throughout the empire to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. In response to the call of Uthman, the opposition came in large delegations from various cities to present their grievances before the gathering.[47] The rebels realized that the people in Mecca
Mecca
supported the defense offered by Uthman
Uthman
and were not in the mood to listen to them.[9] That was a great psychological victory for Uthman. It is said, according to Sunni Muslim accounts, that before returning to Syria, the governor Muawiyah, Uthman’s cousin, suggested that Uthman
Uthman
should come with him to Syria
Syria
as the atmosphere there was peaceful. Uthman
Uthman
rejected his offer, saying that he didn't want to leave the city of Muhammad (referring to Medina). Muawiyah then suggested that he be allowed to send a strong force from Syria
Syria
to Medina
Medina
to guard Uthman
Uthman
against any possible attempt by rebels to harm him. Uthman
Uthman
rejected it too, saying that the Syrian forces in Medina
Medina
would be an incitement to civil war, and he could not be party to such a move.[46] Armed revolt against Uthman[edit] The politics of Egypt played the major role in the propaganda war against the caliphate, so Uthman
Uthman
summoned Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, to Medina
Medina
to consult with him as to the course of action that should be adopted. Abdullah ibn Saad came to Medina, leaving the affairs of Egypt to his deputy, and in his absence, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abi Hudhaifa staged a coup d'état and took power. On hearing of the revolt in Egypt, Abdullah hastened back, but Uthman
Uthman
was not in a position to offer him any military assistance and, accordingly, Abdullah ibn Saad failed to recapture his power due to his Great Islamic Power coming from East .[48] Several Sunni scholars such as Ibn Qutaybah, Ali
Ali
Ibn Burhanuddin al-Halabi, Ibne Abi-al-Hadeed and Ibne Manzur reported that there were several leading Sahaba along those who openly opposing and asking Uthman
Uthman
to step down for reasons such as nepotism and a profligate lifestyle. Talha
Talha
and Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
were among those leading the rebels while A'isha
A'isha
had even called for Uthman's head with her famous statement "Kill this Na'thal (a Jew) for he has turned apostate" as recorded by several leading historians.[49] Rebels in Medina[edit] From Egypt, a contingent of about 1,000 people were sent to Medina, with instructions to assassinate Uthman
Uthman
and overthrow the government. Similar contingents marched from Kufa and Basra
Basra
to Medina.[50] They sent their representatives to Medina
Medina
to contact the leaders of public opinion. The representatives of the contingent from Egypt waited on Ali, and offered him the Caliphate
Caliphate
in succession to Uthman, which Ali turned down. The representatives of the contingent from Kufa waited on Al-Zubayr, while the representatives of the contingent from Basra waited on Talhah, and offered them their allegiance as the next Caliph, which were both turned down. In proposing alternatives to Uthman
Uthman
as Caliph, the rebels neutralized the bulk of public opinion in Medina
Medina
and Uthman's faction could no longer offer a united front. Uthman
Uthman
had the active support of the Umayyads, and a few other people in Medina.[51] Siege of Uthman[edit] Main article: Siege of Uthman The early stage of the siege of Uthman's house was not severe, but as the days passed, the rebels intensified their pressure against Uthman.[52] With the departure of the pilgrims from Medina
Medina
to Mecca, the hands of the rebels were further strengthened, and as a consequence the crisis deepened further. The rebels understood that after the Hajj, the Muslims gathered at Mecca
Mecca
from all parts of the Muslim world
Muslim world
might march to Medina
Medina
to relieve Uthman. They therefore decided to take action against Uthman
Uthman
before the pilgrimage was over. During the siege, Uthman
Uthman
was asked by his supporters, who outnumbered the rebels, to let them fight against the rebels and rout them. Uthman prevented them in an effort to avoid the bloodshed of Muslim by Muslim. Unfortunately for Uthman, violence still occurred. The gates of the house of Uthman
Uthman
were shut and guarded by the renowned warrior, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr.[52] The sons of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali, were also among the guards.[53][54] Death[edit] Assassination[edit] On 20 July 656, finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Egyptian[55] rebels climbed the back wall and crept inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. The rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head.[56] Naila, the wife of Uthman, threw herself on his body to protect him and raised her hand to deflect a sword. She had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside. The next blow killed Uthman. Some of Uthman's slaves counter-attacked, one of whom killed the assassin and was in turn killed by the rebels.[57]:216 The rioters tried to decapitate Uthman's corpse, but his two widows, Nailah and Umm al-Banin, threw themselves across the body and screamed, beating their faces and tearing their clothing, until the rioters were deterred. Instead, they looted the house, even snatching at the women's veils.[57]:216,248 The rebels left the house and the supporters of Uthman
Uthman
at the gate heard them and entered, but it was too late.[58] Funeral[edit]

Uthman's tomb after demolition by Saudi regime.

The magnificent tomb of Uthman
Uthman
before demolition by Saudi regime.

After the body of Uthman
Uthman
had been in the house for three days, Naila, Uthman's wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. These included Marwan, Zayd ibn Thabit, 'Huwatib bin Alfarah, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, Abu Jahm bin Hudaifa, Hakim bin Hazam and Niyar bin Mukarram.[59] The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that martyrs' bodies are not supposed to be washed before burial. Thus, Uthman
Uthman
was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.[60] His body was buried by Hassan, Hussein, Ali
Ali
and others, however; some people rejected that Ali
Ali
attended the funeral[61] Naila followed the funeral with a lamp, but in order to maintain secrecy the lamp had to be extinguished. Naila was accompanied by some women including Aisha, Abu Bakr's daughter and widow of the Prophet Muhammad.[57]:247,248 Burial[edit] The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi, the Muslim graveyard.[citation needed] It appeared that some people gathered there, and they resisted the burial of Uthman
Uthman
in the graveyard of the Muslims. The supporters of Uthman
Uthman
insisted that the body should be buried in Jannat al-Baqi. They later buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. Some decades later, the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers demolished the wall separating the two cemeteries and merged the Jewish cemetery into the Muslim one to ensure that his tomb was now inside a Muslim cemetery.[62] The funeral prayers were led by Jabir bin Muta'am, and the dead body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After burial, Naila the widow of Uthman
Uthman
and Aisha his daughter wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters.[63][57]:247 Causes of anti- Uthman
Uthman
revolt[edit] The actual reason for the anti- Uthman
Uthman
movement is disputed among the Shia and Sunni Muslims.[51] According to Sunni sources, unlike his predecessor, Umar, who maintained discipline with a stern hand, Uthman was less rigorous upon his people; he focused more on economic prosperity. Under Uthman, the people became economically more prosperous and on the political plane they came to enjoy a larger degree of freedom. No institutions were devised to channel political activity, and, in the absence of such institutions, the pre-Islamic tribal jealousies and rivalries, which had been suppressed under earlier caliphs, erupted once again. In view of the lenient policies adopted by Uthman, the people took advantage of such liberties, which became a headache for the state, and it culminated in the assassination of Uthman.[47] According to Wilferd Madelung, during Uthman’s reign, “grievances against his arbitrary acts were substantial by standards of his time. Historical sources mention a lengthy account of the wrongdoings he was accused of... It was only his violent death that came to absolve him in Sunni ideology from any ahdath and make him a martyr and the third Rightly Guided Caliph.”[64] According to Keaney Heather, Uthman, as a caliph, relied solely on his own volition in picking his cabinet, which led to decisions that bred resistance within the Muslim community. Indeed, his style of governance made Uthman
Uthman
one of the most controversial figures in Islamic history.[65] The resistance against Uthman
Uthman
originated because he favoured family members over any others in choosing his governors, reasoning that by doing this, he would be able to exact more influence on how the caliphate was run and consequently improve the capitalist system he worked to establish. The contrary turned out to be true and his appointees had more control over how he conducted business than he had originally planned.[16] They went so far as to impose authoritarianism over their provinces. Indeed, many anonymous letters were written to the leading companions of Muhammad, complaining about the alleged tyranny of Uthman's appointed governors. Moreover, letters were sent to the leaders of public opinion in different provinces concerning the reported mishandling of power by Uthman's family. This contributed to unrest in the empire and finally Uthman
Uthman
had to investigate the matter in an attempt to ascertain the authenticity of the rumours.[66] Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
discredits the alleged role of Abdullah ibn Saba in the rebellion against Uthman
Uthman
and observes that few if any modern historians would accept Sayf's legend of Ibn Saba.[67] Further information: Abdullah_ibn_Saba' § Other_sources_on_Ibn_Saba Bernard Lewis, a 20th-century scholar, says of Uthman:

Uthman, like Mu'awiya, was a member of the leading Meccan family of Ummaya and was indeed the sole representative of the Meccan patricians among the early companions of the Prophet with sufficient prestige to rank as a candidate. His election was at once their victory and their opportunity. That opportunity was not neglected. Uthman
Uthman
soon fell under the influence of the dominant Meccan families and one after another, the high posts of the Empire went to members of those families.

The weakness and nepotism of Uthman
Uthman
brought to a head the resentment which had for some time been stirring obscurely among the Arab warriors. The Muslim tradition attribute the breakdown which occurred during his reign to the personal defects of Uthman. But, the causes lie far deeper and the guilt of Uthman
Uthman
lay in his failure to recognize, control or remedy them.[68]

According to R. V. C. Bodley, Uthman
Uthman
subjected most of the Islamic nation to his relatives, Bani Umayya, who were partially accursed during Muhammad's lifetime.[15][69][70] Character[edit]

This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

(Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Uthman
Uthman
was a family man[16] who led a simple life even after becoming the Caliph
Caliph
of the Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
and regardless of the fact that he was rich due to his flourishing family business. The caliphs were paid for their services from bait al-mal, the public treasury, but Uthman never took any salary for his service as a Caliph, as he was independently wealthy.[9] Uthman
Uthman
was also a humanitarian: He developed a custom to free slaves every Friday, look after the widows and orphans, and give unlimited charity. His patience and endurance were among the characteristics that made him a successful leader. As a way of taking care of Muhammad's wives, he doubled their allowances. Uthman
Uthman
wasn't completely plain and simple, however: Uthman
Uthman
built a Palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar, with a notable feature being doors of precious wood. Although Uthman
Uthman
paid for the palace with his own money, Shia Muslims considered it his first step towards ruling like a King.[6] Sunni defence of Uthman[edit]

  Part of a series on

Sunni Islam

Beliefs

Monotheism Prophets and messengers Holy books Angels Judgement Day Predestination

Five Pillars

Declaration of Faith Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage

Rightly-Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Sunni schools of law

Hanafi Maliki Shafi'i Hanbali

Others

Zahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri

Sunni schools of theology

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalist

Others:

Mu'tazila Murji'ah

Contemporary movements

Ahl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi movement Wahhabism

Holy sites

Jerusalem Mecca Medina Mount Sinai

Lists

Literature

Kutub al-Sittah

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

The general opinion of the Sunni Muslim community and Sunni historians regarding Uthman's rule were positive regarding his leniency and accused nepotism was in fact the kinsmen whom he appointed such as Muawiya and Abdullah ibn Aamir was proven to be competent and effective in both of military and political management affairs. Historians, like Zaki Muhammad, accused Uthman
Uthman
for allegation corruption particularly in the case of Waleed ibn Uqba. Muhammad
Muhammad
Zaki also accused Walid for being one of the worst of Uthman's nepotistic relative as he points out the diminishing features of Walid's dishonesty and unpopularity among the peoples of caliphate.[71] However modern Sunni historian regard Walid was not as bad. Dr. A.M. Sallabi asserting Walid has fine qualities which is trusted and reliable by both of these two caliphs, one of those to whom important tasks could be entrusted. He further said Al- Waleed was one of the most beloved to the people, and one of the kindest to them. For five years there was no gate at his house.[72] Another case is Uthman's other relative named Marwan bin Hakam, the one which instigate the controversy regarding nepotism was the case of the Marwan corruption of the spoils of war from the conquest of northern Africa. However, it is argued that that is non existent because the allegation of corruption was originated from the misconception regarding of how Marwan transported the spoils tribute to the capital. Marwan did not directly send the tribute of spoils of war because it was not efficient as the spoils of war was in the form of cattle and hardware. As such, he sold the spoils of war first and then the treasury in the form of Dinars, which easier to be transported was sent directly to the caliph.[73] This treatment was similar with Abdullah ibn Saad. Despite him being unpopular among the newly conquered populace in northern Africa, particularly after he replaced popular Amr ibn al 'Aas. He was; however, proven as capable as Muawiya and Abd-Allah ibn Amr.[73] Perhaps the most significant act of Uthman
Uthman
was allowing Muawiya and Abdullah ibn Saad, both respectively governor of Syria
Syria
and Northern Africa, to form the first integrated Muslim navy in the Mediterranean Sea, rivaling the maritime domination of the Byzantine Empire.[74][75] Abdullah ibn Saad's feats in conquering the southeast coast of Spain, his stunning victory at the Battle of the Masts in Lycia
Lycia
and the extension of conquests to the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea
Sea
are generally overlooked. These achievements successfully gave birth to the very first Muslim standing navy thus helping the first maritime colonial expansion of Muslims towards Cyprus[74][75] and Rhodes.[76][77] This subsequently paved the way for the establishment of several Muslim states in the Mediterranean Sea
Sea
during the later Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
eras,[78][79] which came in the form of the Emirate of Sicily[80] and its minor vassal the Emirate of Bari,[81][82] as well as the Emirate of Crete[83] and the Aglabid Dynasty.[84] The significance of Uthman's naval development and its political legacy was agreed upon by Muhammad
Muhammad
M.Ag, author of Islamic Fiscal and Monetary Policy[85] and further strengthened by Hassan Khalileh referencing Tarikh al Bahriyya wal Islamiyya fii Misr wal Sham by Ahmad Abaddy and Esayyed Salem.[86] From an expansionist perspective, Uthman
Uthman
is regarded as skilled in conflict managements as is evident from how he dealt with the heated and troubled early Muslim colonies such as Kufa and Basra
Basra
by directing the hot-headed Arab settlers to the new military campaigns and expansions.[87] This not only resulted in settling the internal conflicts in those settlement garrisons, but also further expanded the Rashidun's territory which reached as far west as southern Iberia[88] and as far east as Sindh, Pakistan.[89] See also[edit]

Book: Sahabah

Islam
Islam
portal

List of Sahabah

References[edit]

^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Lisan Al-Mizan: * Uthman
Uthman
bin al-Affan.  ^ University of Zurich
University of Zurich
Institute of Oriental Studies Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Islamic Calendar". Archived from the original on 1 August 2009.  ^ Asma Afsaruddin, Oliver (2009). "ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Ochsenweld, William; Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2004). The Middle East: A History (6th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-244233-6.  ^ a b c d Al-Mubarakphuri, Safi-ur-Rahman (1996), Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum [The Sealed Nectar], Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications . ^ Bewley & Saad, p. 32. ^ Laundau-Tasseron & Tabari, p. 198. ^ a b c Ahmad; Basit, Abdul (2000), Uthman
Uthman
bin Affan, the Third Caliph of Islam, Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications . ^ Hazrat Usman – by Rafi Ahmad Fidai, Publisher: Islamic Book Service Pages: 32 ^ " Talhah
Talhah
bin 'Ubaydullah R". Archived from the original on 1 June 2006.  ^ Rogerson, Barnaby. The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And The Roots Of The Sunni–Shia Schism. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015.  ^ A Chronology Of Islamic History 570–1000 CE, by H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 48 and Page 52–53 ^ a b R.V.C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed, pgs. 348–9. ^ a b Uthman-ibn-Affan Archived 2010-03-28 at the Wayback Machine., Britannica ^ a b c Levi Della Vida, G. and Khoury, R.G. (2012). "ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). Brill. (Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar Archived 14 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine., p. 183 ^ Ibn Hisham 2/60–129; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91–108; Fath Al-Bari 7/345–377; Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.242–275 ^ "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project.  ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281.  ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Kabir, Volume 12. pp. 49–50.  ^ al-Tabrizi, al-Khatib. Mishkat al-Masabih. p. 557.  ^ Khand, Mir. Habib al-Siyar, Volume 1, Part 3. p. 144.  ^ a b c The Early Islamic Conquests, Fred Donner, Princeton 1981. ^ Madelung, Wilferd (1998). The Succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3.  ^ R. V. C. Bodley, The Messenger – the Life of Mohammed. The six counselors appointed by Umar
Umar
met as soon as the funeral was over. The caliphate was first offered to Ali
Ali
with the condition that he governs according to the Qur'an (Islamic Book), the traditions of Mohammed, and the regulations established by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar. Ali
Ali
accepted the first two conditions, and refused the third. The offer was, accordingly, withdrawn and Uthman
Uthman
was approached with the same terms. Being less honest than Ali, he accepted them without demur. ^ A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
and Muslims on Al-Islam.org Archived 4 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. referencing Al-Fitna Al-Kubra (The Great Upheaval), published by Dar-ul-Ma'arif, Cairo, 1959, p. 47 ^ "The Gold Coins of Muslim Rulers". Archived from the original on 22 July 2007.  ^ History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Tabari) Vol. 04 The Ancient Kingdoms: pg:183. ^ Lewis, Archibald Ross; Runyan, Timothy J. (1 January 1990). "European Naval and Maritime History, 300–1500". Indiana University Press – via Google Books.  ^ Kroll, Leonard Michael (16 March 2005). "History of the Jihad: Islam Versus Civilization". AuthorHouse. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Gregory, Timothy E. (26 August 2011). "A History of Byzantium". John Wiley & Sons. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Weston, Mark (28 July 2008). "Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad
Muhammad
to the Present". John Wiley & Sons – via Google Books.  ^ Bradbury, Jim (1 January 1992). "The Medieval Siege". Boydell & Brewer – via Google Books.  ^ a b Kisah Hidup Utsman ibn Affan citing Tarikh at Thabari and al Bidayah wal Nihayah (71/158). 1990. p. 87. ISBN 9790241372.  ^ Hollingsworth (1991), p. 875 ^ Moore (1999) ^ See: History of the Prophets and Kings (Tarikh al-Tabari) ^ See: Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
(Tarikh ibn Kathir) ^ Ridpath's Universal History, Merrill & Baker, Vol. 12, New York, p. 483. ^ a b The Muslim Conquest of Persia by A.I. Akram. Ch:17 ISBN 0-19-597713-0, ^ Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War, By Kaveh Farrokh, Published by Osprey Publishing, 2007 ISBN 1-84603-108-7 ^ Morony, Michael G. (1 January 2005). "Iraq After the Muslim Conquest". Gorgias Press – via Google Books.  ^ Boyle, John Andrew (1968). The Cambridge History of Iran. 5. Cambridge University Press. p. 87.  ^ Daryaee, Touraj (1977). The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Bookland. p. 117.  ^ a b The Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, Cambridge, 1970 ^ a b Sirat-i-Hazrat Usman-i-Ghani, by Mohammad Alias Aadil. Publishers: Mushtaq Ahmed Lahore ^ Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya’ 1:92–100 #3; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ 1/2: 566–614 #4. ^ Ali
Ali
Ibn Burhan-uddin al-Halabi, Seerah al-Halabiyah Ibne Manzur, Lisan ul Arab, under word Na'thal and Ibn Qutaybah, al-Imamah wal-Siyasah ^ " Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.  ^ a b Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Conquests of Islam, Francesco Gabrieli, London 1968 ^ a b "The Murder of the Caliph
Caliph
Uthman," M. Hinds, in International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 1972 ^ Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad
Muhammad
to the Present, pg 63, by Mark Weston ^ Al Nahaya, Volume 5 page 80; Qamus, page 500 "lughut Nathal" by Firozabadi; Lisan al Arab, Volume 11 Chapter "Lughuth Nathal" page 670; Sharh Nahjul Balagha Ibn al Hadeed Volume 2 page 122; Sheikh al-Mudhira, by Mahmoud Abu Raya, p170 (foot note); Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, Volume 1 page 52; Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Duwal, by Ibn Al-Ebrei, v1 p55; Al-Mahsol, by al-Razi, v4 p343; Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 pages 192–193.Tarikh e Tibri by Tibri V8 P343. ^ Hinds, Martin (October 1972). "The Murder of the Caliph
Caliph
'Uthman". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 3 (4): 457.  ^ Richard R. Losch, The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions ^ a b c d Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rasul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Humphreys, R. S. (1990). Volume 15: The Crisis of the Early Caliphate. Albany: State University of New York Press. ^ " Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan". about.com. Archived from the original on 13 November 2007.  ^ Hazrat Usman Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ A, Amatullah (29 November 2005). "` Uthman
Uthman
ibn `Affan : The Man With Two Lights (Part Two)". Archived from the original on 9 November 2007.  ^ Philip Khuri Hitti, Makers of Arab History. St. Martin's Press 1968. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 21 November 2006 ^ Textual Sources for the Study of Islam
Islam
by Knappert, Jan, Andrew Rippin ^ The Encyclopaedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged by Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer ^ Madelung, Wilfred. The Succession to Muhammad. p. 78.  ^ Keaney, Heather (2011). "Confronting the Caliph: ʻUthmân b. ʼAffân in Three ʻ Abbasid
Abbasid
Chronicles". Studia Islamica. 106 (1).  ^ A Chronology of Islamic History, 570–1000 CE by Habibur U. Rahman. ISBN 978-0-8161-9067-6 ^ The Succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
p. 2 ^ The Arabs in History, p 59, Oxford University Press, 2002 ^ Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Page 90. ^ Sir John Glubb, The Great Arab Conquests, p.300 ^ History of Muslim Rule – The Prophet and The Early Rulers by Dr. Muhammad
Muhammad
Zaki. Google Books. ^ Dr. A.M. Sallabi, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
– Dhun Nurayn, pg. 295, DAR US-SALAM Publications, 2007 ^ a b Latif Osman. Opcit. Hal.67; . Abdul Karim. Sejarah Pemikiran dan Peradaban Islam. (Pustaka Book
Book
Publisher, Yogyakarta, 2007). p. 89; Prof. DR. Abubakar Aceh. Sejarah Al Quran, print 6th, (Ramadhani, Surakarta, 1989). page, 37–39; William Muir. The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall. (The R.T. Society, Esinbargh, 1892). Hal. 216–217 Archived 3 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b A Chronology Of Islamic History 570-1000 CE, by H.U. Rahman 1999 Page 48–49 ^ a b The Great Arab Conquests By Hugh Kennedy, page 326 ^ Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 313. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.  ^ Warren Treadgold, A history of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press 1997, 314. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 ^ Khadra Jayyusi, Salma; Marín, Manuela (1992). The Legacy of Muslim Spain. p. 649. ISBN 9004095993.  ^ Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Maqqarī (1848). History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain
Spain
Oriental translation Fund. p. 383.  ^ "Brief history of Sicily" (PDF). Archaeology.Stanford.edu. 24 November 2008. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009.  ^ Kreutz, Barbara M. Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991 ^ Kreutz citation of Baladhuri, 38. ^ Makrypoulias (2000), pp. 347–348 ^ Goldschmidt, Arthur (2002). A Concise History of the Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-8133-3885-9.  ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
(2009) [2002]. Kebijakan fiskal dan moneter dalam ekonomi Islami. Salemba Empat. ISBN 9789796911189.  ^ Khalileh, Hassan (2006). "Navy". In Meri, Josef; Bacharach, Jere L. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia (Volume 2). Taylor & Francis. p. 558. ISBN 0-415-96692-2.  ^ Shaban, M. A. (1979). The 'Abbāsid Revolution. p. 17–18. ^ Stephen Humphreys, R. (1990). translation The History of al-Tabari Vol. 15. p. 22.  ^ Tabri vol: 4 page no: 180–181

Bibliography[edit]

Barnaby Rogerson (4 November 2010), The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni-Shia Schism, Little, Brown Book
Book
Group, ISBN 978-0-7481-2470-1  Barnaby Rogerson (2008), The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni-Shia Split, Overlook, ISBN 978-1-59020-022-3  Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
(15 October 1998), The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-64696-3 

External links[edit] Media related to Uthman
Uthman
at Wikimedia Commons Views of various Islamic historians on Uthman:

Uthman
Uthman
in History Quilliam Press: Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan

Views of the Arab Media on Uthman:

Ever Since the Murder of Uthman

Shia view of Uthman:

Uthman's election The assassination of ` Uthman
Uthman
Ibn `Affan Uthman
Uthman
and Abdullah bin Massood

Uthman Banu Umayya Cadet branch of the Quraysh  Died: June 20 656

Sunni Islam
Islam
titles

Preceded by Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab Caliph
Caliph
of Islam Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph 11 November 644 – 20 June 656 Succeeded by Ali
Ali
ibn Abi-Talib

Regnal titles

Preceded by Yazdgerd III Ruler of Persia 651–656 Merged into Caliphate

v t e

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Ali

v t e

Ten companions of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali Talha
Talha
ibn Ubayd-Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awam Abdur Rahman bin Awf Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Saeed bin Zaid

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 35779764 LCCN: n81094980 ISNI: 0000 0001 1757 9950 GND: 119073765 SUDOC: 078147875 BNF:

.