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The Info List - Utah Prairie Dog





The Utah
Utah
prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is the smallest species of prairie dog, a member of the squirrel family of rodents native to the south central steppes of the US state of Utah.

Contents

1 Description

1.1 Body size

2 Ecology

2.1 Range and habitat 2.2 Diet 2.3 Reproduction 2.4 Behavior

3 Conservation status 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Description[edit] The fur is multicolor, which consists of black, brown, and dark brown at the tip. Face have dark brown cheeks and whitish tone of chins and mouth.[2] Body size[edit] The total body length of typical adult ranges from 30.5 cm to 36.0 cm with 3 cm to 6 cm of tail.[2] Adult prairie dogs weigh about 0.77 kg to 1.41 kg in males, and 0.64 kg to 1.13 kg in females.[3] Utah
Utah
prairie dogs show sexual dimorphism that males are 27% bigger than female, although the ratio varies by season.[4] In 1952, Durant noted that Utah
Utah
prairie dogs have larger in every aspect of skull than that of Gunnison's prairie dog.[5] Ecology[edit] Range and habitat[edit] Utah
Utah
prairie dogs prefer swale land area with abundant herbaceous plants. They build burrows on soils with adequate drain ability, and depth to protect themselves from predators and other environmental factors such as temperature.[6][7][8] Utah
Utah
prairie dogs are only found in the southern part of Utah; today they are only found in the central and southwestern part of Utah
Utah
in Beaver, Garfield, Iron, Kane, Piute, Sevier, and Wayne Counties.[8] However, it was recorded that Utah prairie dogs existed as far north as Nephi, and south to Bryce Canyon National Park, and Aquarius Plateau
Aquarius Plateau
to the east in 1920, but the number declined from the 1920s to 1970s by 87%, and this was thought due to human settlers who caused overgrazing of soil, thus catalyzed the invasion of shrub to the grass land.[2] Diet[edit] Utah
Utah
prairie dogs are mainly herbivores, but they sometimes choose small insects also, such as cicadas.[9] and highly prefer grasses but they do consume flowers in shrubs. Utah
Utah
prairie dogs choose only few species of grasses only that are native to the soil.[10] Reproduction[edit] Utah
Utah
prairie dog shows polyandry behavior, and lays only one litter per year, which generally consists of 1 to 8 litter size.[11] The breeding occurs generally from mid-March through early April.[11] Behavior[edit] They build extensive "towns" of underground tunnels and chambers, each town composed of a population of members of an extended prairie dog family group called “clan”, and they forage from dawn to dusk.[9] Conservation status[edit] The species appears in the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species, with a status of Endangered, last assessed in 2008.[1] The Utah
Utah
prairie dog is listed as a threatened species by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1972, studies estimated a population of 3,300 Utah
Utah
prairie dogs in 37 colonies. Studies by the Utah
Utah
Division of Wildlife Resources in spring 2004 reported 4,022 Utah prairie dogs, a number believed to reflect half of the total current population.[12] The Utah
Utah
prairie dog can do significant damage to farms by digging holes and eating crops, drawing the ire of Utah farmers, who have used poison liberally to destroy the animal.[13] This is a major reason for the population decline, though there are other factors, such as "land development, deteriorating rangeland health, the encroachment of woody vegetation, sylvatic plague, and drought." Conservation efforts include encouraging landowners to improve the health of their rangelands, and compensating farmers who set aside areas the prairie dogs may use.[13] References[edit]

^ a b Linzey, A. V.; Rosmarino, N.; Willson, K.; Roth, E.; Hammerson, G. (NatureServe) & Cannings, S. (NatureServe) (2008). "Cynomys parvidens". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T6090A12420124. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T6090A12420124.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.  ^ a b c Pizzimenti JJ, Collier GD (1975) Cynomys parvidens. Mamm Spec 52:1–3 ^ Wright-Smith, M.A. 1978. The ecology and social organization of Cynomys parvidens ( Utah
Utah
prairie dog) in south central Utah. M.A. Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington. 44 pp. ^ Hoogland J.L. 2003b. Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
in five species of prairie dogs. J Mammal
Mammal
84:1254–1266 ^ Durrant, S. D. 1952. Mammals of Utah. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 6:1-549. ^ Template:Collier, G.D. 1975. "The Utah
Utah
prairie dog: Abundance, distribution, and habitat requirements". Pub. No. 75-10. Utah
Utah
Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT. 94 pp. ^ Turner, B. 1979. An evaluation of the Utah
Utah
prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens). Unpublished report. Prepared for the Utah
Utah
Division of Wildlife Resources. 53 pp. ^ a b Template:McDonald, K.P. 1993. Analysis of the Utah
Utah
prairie dog recovery program, 1972-1992. Publication No. 93-16. Utah
Utah
Division of Wildlife Resources, Cedar City, UT. 81 pp. ^ a b Hoogland, J. L. 2003a. Black-tailed prairie dog: Cynomys ludovicianus and allies. Pp. 232–247 in Wild mammals of North America (G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. ^ Hoogland, J.L. 2001. Black-tailed, Gunnison’s, and Utah
Utah
prairie dogs all reproduce slowly. Journal of Mammalogy 82:917-927 ^ a b Hoogland, J. L. 2013. Why do female prairie dogs copulate with more than one male?—Insights from long-term research. Journal of Mammalogy, 94(4), 731-744. ^ " Utah
Utah
prairie dog". Mountain-Prairie Region Species
Species
Website. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 4 January 2013.  ^ a b "Economic Incentives Can Save The Threatened Utah
Utah
Prairie Dog". Environmental Defense Fund. 

Further reading[edit]

Manno, Theodore G. The Utah
Utah
Prairie Dog: Life among the Red
Red
Rocks. Salt Lake City: University of Utah
Utah
Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-60781-366-8

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cynomys parvidens.

Smithsonian: North American Mammals: Cynomys parvidens Mammalian Species
Species
account for Utah
Utah
prairie dog Audio recordings of the Utah
Utah
Prairie Dog Videos of Prairie dogs (in English)

v t e

Living species of tribe Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Order: Rodentia  Suborder: Sciuromorpha  Family: Sciuridae  Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

Harris's antelope squirrel
Harris's antelope squirrel
(A. harrisii)  Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis)  Texas antelope squirrel
Texas antelope squirrel
(A. interpres)  White-tailed antelope squirrel
White-tailed antelope squirrel
(A. leucurus)  San Joaquin antelope squirrel
San Joaquin antelope squirrel
(A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. lateralis)  Sierra Madre ground squirrel
Sierra Madre ground squirrel
(C. madrensis)  Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

Gunnison's prairie dog
Gunnison's prairie dog
(C. gunnisoni)  White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus)  Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus)  Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
(C. mexicanus)  Utah
Utah
prairie dog (C. parvidens)

Eutamias

Siberian chipmunk
Siberian chipmunk
(E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

Mexican ground squirrel
Mexican ground squirrel
(I. mexicanus)  I. parvidens  Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
(I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots)

Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot
Gray marmot
(M. baibacina) 

Bobak marmot
Bobak marmot
(M. bobak)  Alaska marmot
Alaska marmot
(M. broweri)  Black-capped marmot
Black-capped marmot
(M. camtschatica)  Long-tailed marmot
Long-tailed marmot
(M. caudata)  Himalayan marmot
Himalayan marmot
(M. himalayana)  Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(M. marmota)  Menzbier's marmot
Menzbier's marmot
(M. menzbieri)  Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)  Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
(M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata)  Yellow-bellied marmot
Yellow-bellied marmot
(M. flaviventris)  Olympic marmot
Olympic marmot
(M. olympus)  Vancouver Island marmot
Vancouver Island marmot
(M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

Alpine chipmunk
Alpine chipmunk
(N. alpinus)  Yellow-pine chipmunk
Yellow-pine chipmunk
(N. amoenus)  Buller's chipmunk
Buller's chipmunk
(N. bulleri)  Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes)  Gray-collared chipmunk
Gray-collared chipmunk
(N. cinereicollis)  Cliff chipmunk
Cliff chipmunk
(N. dorsalis)  Durango chipmunk
Durango chipmunk
(N. durangae)  Merriam's chipmunk
Merriam's chipmunk
(N. merriami)  Least chipmunk
Least chipmunk
(N. minimus)  California chipmunk
California chipmunk
(N. obscurus)  Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
(N. ochrogenys)  Palmer's chipmunk
Palmer's chipmunk
(N. palmeri)  Panamint chipmunk
Panamint chipmunk
(N. panamintinus)  Long-eared chipmunk
Long-eared chipmunk
(N. quadrimaculatus)  Colorado chipmunk
Colorado chipmunk
(N. quadrivittatus)  Red-tailed chipmunk
Red-tailed chipmunk
(N. ruficaudus)  Hopi chipmunk
Hopi chipmunk
(N. rufus)  Allen's chipmunk
Allen's chipmunk
(N. senex)  Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
(N. siskiyou)  Sonoma chipmunk
Sonoma chipmunk
(N. sonomae)  Lodgepole chipmunk
Lodgepole chipmunk
(N. speciosus)  Townsend's chipmunk
Townsend's chipmunk
(N. townsendii)  Uinta chipmunk
Uinta chipmunk
(N. umbrinus)

Notocitellus

Tropical ground squirrel
Tropical ground squirrel
(N. adocetus)  Ring-tailed ground squirrel
Ring-tailed ground squirrel
(N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

Baja California rock squirrel
Baja California rock squirrel
(O. atricapillus)  California ground squirrel
California ground squirrel
(O. beecheyi)  Rock squirrel
Rock squirrel
(O. variegatus)

Poliocitellus

Franklin's ground squirrel
Franklin's ground squirrel
(P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

Père David's rock squirrel
Père David's rock squirrel
(S. davidianus)  Forrest's rock squirrel
Forrest's rock squirrel
(S. forresti)

Spermophilus
Spermophilus
sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

Alashan ground squirrel
Alashan ground squirrel
(S. alashanicus)  S. brevicauda  European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus)  Daurian ground squirrel
Daurian ground squirrel
(S. dauricus)  Red-cheeked ground squirrel
Red-cheeked ground squirrel
(S. erythrogenys)  Yellow
Yellow
ground squirrel (S. fulvus)  Russet ground squirrel
Russet ground squirrel
(S. major)  S. pallicauda  Little ground squirrel
Little ground squirrel
(S. pygmaeus)  S. ralli  S. relictus  Speckled ground squirrel
Speckled ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
suslicus)  Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
taurensis)  Asia Minor ground squirrel
Asia Minor ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
xanthoprymnus)

Tamias

Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

Uinta ground squirrel
Uinta ground squirrel
(U. armatus)  Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel
(U. beldingi)  Northern Idaho ground squirrel
Northern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. brunneus)  Southern Idaho ground squirrel
Southern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. endemicus)  Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
(U. canus)  Columbian ground squirrel
Columbian ground squirrel
(U. columbianus)  Wyoming ground squirrel
Wyoming ground squirrel
(U. elegans)  Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
(U. mollis)  Arctic ground squirrel
Arctic ground squirrel
(U. parryii)  Richardson's ground squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel
(U. richardsonii)  Townsend's ground squirrel
Townsend's ground squirrel
(U. townsendii)  Washington ground squirrel
Washington ground squirrel
(U. washingtoni)  Long-tailed ground squirrel
Long-tailed ground squirrel
(U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

Mohave ground squirrel
Mohave ground squirrel
(X. mohavensis)  Perote ground squirrel
Perote ground squirrel
(X. perotensis)  Spotted ground squirrel
Spotted ground squirrel
(X. spilosoma)  Round-tailed ground squirrel
Round-tailed ground squirrel
(X. tereticaudus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q304415 ADW: Cynomys_parvidens ARKive: cynomys-parvidens EoL: 311549 Fossilworks: 45501 GBIF: 2437235 iNaturalist: 46178 ITIS: 180187 IUCN: 6090 MSW: 12400920

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