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The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (pronounced [ûstaʃe], Croatian: Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist,[2] ultranationalist and terrorist organization,[3] active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945. Its members murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews,[4] Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.[5][6][7] The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Roman Catholicism and Croatian nationalism.[5] The Ustaše
Ustaše
supported the creation of a Greater Croatia
Greater Croatia
that would span the Drina
Drina
River and extend to the border of Belgrade.[8] The movement emphasized the need for a racially "pure" Croatia
Croatia
and promoted genocide against Serbs, Jews
Jews
and Romani people, and persecution of anti-fascist or dissident Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks. The Ustaše
Ustaše
viewed the Bosniaks
Bosniaks
as "Muslim Croats," as a result, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were not persecuted.[9] Fiercely Roman Catholic, the Ustashe
Ustashe
espoused Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
and Islam
Islam
as the religions of the Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and condemned Orthodox Christianity, which was the main religion of the Serbs. Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
was identified with Croatian nationalism,[10] while Islam, which had a large following in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was praised by the Ustaše
Ustaše
as the religion that "keeps true the blood of Croats."[11] When it was founded in 1930,[12] it was a nationalist organization that sought to create an independent Croatian state. When the Ustaše came to power in the NDH, a quasi-protectorate established by Fascist Italy
Italy
and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II, its military wings became the Army of the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
and the Ustaše
Ustaše
militia (Croatian: Ustaška vojnica).[5] The movement functioned as a terrorist organization before World War II[5] but in April 1941, they were appointed to rule a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia as the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
(NDH), which has been described as both an Italian-German quasi-protectorate,[13] and as a puppet state[14][15][16] of Nazi Germany.[15][17][18] The NDH collaborated with the Italian and German occupation forces in Yugoslavia in fighting an increasingly unsuccessful campaign against the resistance forces, the Yugoslav Partisans, who were recognized in late November 1943 as the military of the Allied Yugoslav state. As German forces withdrew from Yugoslavia in 1944–1945, the Ustaše organized an exodus from the country, which led to the Bleiburg repatriations.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Name 2 Ideology

2.1 Ideological roots 2.2 Political programme and main agendas

3 History

3.1 Before World War II

3.1.1 Assassination of King Alexander I

3.2 World War II 3.3 Ustaše
Ustaše
Militia 3.4 After the war

4 Ethnic and religious persecution

4.1 Concentration camps

5 Connections with the Catholic Church 6 Structure 7 Symbols 8 Legacy 9 Use by Serbian nationalists 10 Modern usage of the term "Ustashe" 11 In popular culture 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Name The word ustaša (plural: ustaše) is derived from the intransitive verb ustati (Croatian for rise up). "Pučki-ustaša" (German: Landsturm) was a military rank in the Imperial Croatian Home Guard (1868–1918). The same term was the name of Croatian third-class infantry regiments (German: Landsturm
Landsturm
regiments) during World War One 1914–1918.[19] Another variation of the word ustati is ustanik (plural: ustanici) which means an insurgent, or a rebel. The name ustaša did not have fascist connotations during their early years in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
as the term "ustat" was itself used in Herzegovina
Herzegovina
to denote the insurgents from the Herzegovinian rebellion of 1875. The full original name of the organization appeared in April 1931 as the Ustaša – Hrvatska revolucionarna organizacija or UHRO (Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Organization); in 1933 it was renamed the Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret (Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement), a name it kept until World War II.[5] In English, Ustasha, Ustashe, Ustashas and Ustashi are used for the movement or its members. Ideology Ideological roots One of the major ideological influences on the Croatian nationalism
Croatian nationalism
of the Ustaše
Ustaše
was 19th century Croatian activist Ante Starčević,[9] an advocate of Croatian unity and independence, who was both anti- Habsburg
Habsburg
and anti-Serbian in outlook.[9]

Poglavnik
Poglavnik
Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
and Italy's Duce
Duce
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
on 18 May 1941 in Rome. The Ustaše
Ustaše
were heavily influenced by Italian Fascism and politically supported by Fascist Italy.

Germany's Führer
Führer
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
with Pavelić at the Berghof outside Berchtesgaden, Germany. The Ustaše
Ustaše
increasingly came under the influence of Nazism
Nazism
after the founding of the NDH in 1941.

He envisioned the creation of a Greater Croatia
Greater Croatia
that would include territories inhabited by Bosniaks, Serbs, and Slovenes, considering Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Serbs
Serbs
to be Croats
Croats
who had been converted to Islam
Islam
and Orthodox Christianity, while considering the Slovenes
Slovenes
to be "mountain Croats".[9] Starčević argued that the large Serb presence in territories claimed by a Greater Croatia
Greater Croatia
was the result of recent settlement, encouraged by Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers, and the influx of groups like Vlachs
Vlachs
who took up Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
and identified themselves as Serbs. Starčević admired Bosniaks
Bosniaks
because in his view they were Croats
Croats
who had adopted Islam
Islam
in order to preserve the economic and political autonomy of Bosnia and Croatia
Croatia
under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[9] The Ustaše
Ustaše
used Starčević's theories to promote the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
to Croatia
Croatia
and recognized Croatia
Croatia
as having two major ethnocultural components: Catholics and Muslims.[9] The Ustaše sought to represent Starčević as being connected to their views.[20] The Ustaše
Ustaše
promoted the theories of Dr Milan Šufflay, who is believed to have claimed that Croatia
Croatia
had been "one of the strongest ramparts of Western civilization for many centuries", which he claimed had been lost through its union with Serbia when the nation of Yugoslavia was formed in 1918.[21] Šufflay was killed in Zagreb
Zagreb
in 1931 by government supporters.[22][23][24] The Ustaše
Ustaše
accepted the 1935 thesis by a Franciscan friar, Father Krunoslav Draganović, who claimed that many Catholics in southern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
had been converted to Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
in the 16th and 17th centuries, in order to justify a policy of forcible conversion of Orthodox Christians in the area to Catholicism.[25] The Ustaše
Ustaše
were heavily influenced by Nazism
Nazism
and fascism. Pavelić's position of Poglavnik
Poglavnik
was based on the similar positions of Duce
Duce
held by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
and Führer
Führer
held by Adolf Hitler.[9] The Ustaše, like fascists, promoted a corporatist economy.[26] Pavelić and the Ustaše
Ustaše
were allowed sanctuary in Italy
Italy
by Mussolini after being exiled from Yugoslavia. Pavelić had been in negotiations with Fascist Italy
Italy
since 1927 that included advocating a territory-for-sovereignty swap in which he would tolerate Italy
Italy
annexing its claimed territory in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in exchange for Italy
Italy
supporting the sovereignty of an independent Croatia.[9] Mussolini's support of the Ustaše
Ustaše
was based on pragmatic considerations, such as maximizing Italian influence in the Balkans. After 1937, with the weakening of French influence in Europe following Germany's remilitarization of the Rhineland and with the rise of a quasi-fascist government in Yugoslavia under Milan Stojadinović, Mussolini abandoned support for the Ustaše
Ustaše
from 1937–39 and sought to improve relations with Yugoslavia, fearing that continued hostility towards Yugoslavia would result in Yugoslavia entering Germany's sphere of influence.[27] The collapse of the quasi-fascist Stojadinović regime resulted in Italy
Italy
restoring its support for the Ustaše, whose aim was to create an independent Croatia
Croatia
in personal union with Italy.[27] However, distrust of the Ustaše
Ustaše
grew. Mussolini's son-in-law and Italian foreign minister Count Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
noted in his diary that "The Duce
Duce
is indignant with Pavelić, because he claims that the Croats
Croats
are descendants of the Goths. This will have the effect of bringing them into the German orbit".[28] Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
initially didn't support an independent Croatia, nor did it support the Ustaše, with Hitler stressing the importance of a "strong and united Yugoslavia".[27] Nazi officials, including Hermann Göring, wanted Yugoslavia stable and officially neutral during the war so Germany
Germany
could continue to securely gain Yugoslavia's raw material exports.[27] The Nazis grew aggravated with the Ustaše, among them Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler, who was dissatisfied with the lack of full compliance by the NDH to the Nazis' agenda of extermination of the Jews, as the Ustaše
Ustaše
permitted Jews
Jews
who converted to Catholicism
Catholicism
to be recognized as "honorary Croats", thus putatively exempt from persecution.[9] Political programme and main agendas In 1932, an editorial in the first issue of the Ustaše
Ustaše
newspaper, signed by the Ustaše
Ustaše
leader Ante Pavelić, proclaimed that violence and terror would be the main means for the Ustaše
Ustaše
to attain their goals:

The KNIFE, REVOLVER, MACHINE GUN and TIME BOMB; these are the idols, these are bells that will announce the dawning and THE RESURRECTION OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF CROATIA.[29]

In 1933, the Ustaše
Ustaše
presented "The Seventeen Principles" that formed the official ideology of the movement. The Principles stated the uniqueness of the Croatian nation, promoted collective rights over individual rights and declared that people who were not Croat by "blood" would be excluded from political life.[9] Those considered "undesirables" were subjected to mass murder.[30] These principles called for the creation of a new economic system that would be neither capitalist nor communist[9] and which emphasized the importance of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
and the patriarchial family as means to maintain social order and morality.[9] (The name given by modern historian to this particular aspect of Ustaše
Ustaše
ideology varies; "national Catholicism",[31] "political Catholicism" and "Catholic Croatism"[32] have been proposed among others.) In power, the Ustaše banned contraception and tightened laws against blasphemy.[33]

Joseph Deniker's map of European races (1899) identified "Dinarics" as the dominant group in parts of Central Europe, northern Italy
Italy
and the northwest Balkans.

The Ustaše
Ustaše
accepted that Croats
Croats
are part of the Dinaric race,[34] but rejected the idea that Croats
Croats
are primarily Slavic, claiming they are primarily descended from Germanic roots with the Goths.[35] The Ustaše
Ustaše
believed that a government must naturally be strong and authoritarian. The movement opposed parliamentary democracy for being "corrupt" and Marxism
Marxism
and Bolshevism
Bolshevism
for interfering in family life and the economy and for their materialism. The Ustaše
Ustaše
considered competing political parties and elected parliaments to be harmful to its own interests.[26] The Ustaše
Ustaše
recognized both Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
and Islam
Islam
as national religions of the Croatian people but initially rejected Orthodox Christianity as being incompatible with their objectives.[21] Although the Ustaše
Ustaše
emphasized religious themes, it stressed that duty to the nation took precedence over religious custom.[36] In power, the Ustaše
Ustaše
banned the use of the term "Serbian Orthodox faith", requiring "Greek-Eastern faith" in its place.[30] The Ustaše forcefully converted many Orthodox to Catholicism, murdered and expelled 85% of Orthodox priests[37], plundered and burnt many Orthodox Christian churches.[37] The Ustaše
Ustaše
also persecuted Old Catholics who did not recognize papal infallibility.[30] The Ustaše altered their stance towards the Orthodox faith in August 1941 when the NDH allowed Orthodox Serbs
Serbs
who held no political association with Serbia to be permitted to attain Croatian citizenship and be declared Aryans.[citation needed] On 2 July 1942 the Croatian Orthodox Church was founded, as a further means to destroy the Serbian Orthodox Church, but this new Church gained very few followers.[38] While initial focus was against Serbs, as the Ustase grew closer to the Nazis they adopted antisemitism.[39] In 1936, in “The Croat Question”, Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
placed Jews
Jews
third among “the Enemies of the Croats” (after Serbs
Serbs
and Freemasons, but before Communists): writing:

″Today, practically all finance and nearly all commerce in Croatia is in Jewish hands. This became possible only through the support of the state, which thereby seeks, on one hand, to strengthen the pro-Serbian Jews, and on the other, to weaken Croat national strength. The Jews
Jews
celebrated the establishment of the so-called Yugoslav state with great joy, because a national Croatia
Croatia
could never be as useful to them as a multi-national Yugoslavia; for in national chaos lies the power of the Jews... In fact, as the Jews
Jews
had foreseen, Yugoslavia became, in consequence of the corruption of official life in Serbia, a true Eldorado of Jewry.”[40]

Once in power, the Ustaše
Ustaše
immediately introduced a series of Nazi-style Racial Laws, sent most Jews
Jews
to Ustaše
Ustaše
and Nazi concentration camps – including the notorious, Ustaše-run, Jasenovac – where all told nearly, 32.000, or 80% of the Jews
Jews
in the Independent State of Croatia, were exterminated.[41] The Ustaše
Ustaše
attached conditions to the Croatian citizenship of Muslims, such as asserting that a Muslim who supported Yugoslavia would not be considered a Croat nor a citizen but would instead be considered a "Muslim Serb" who could be denied property and imprisoned. The Ustaše
Ustaše
claimed that such "Muslim Serbs" had to earn Croat status. The Ustaše
Ustaše
persecuted Jews
Jews
who practiced Judaism
Judaism
but authorized Jewish converts to Catholicism
Catholicism
to be recognized as Croatian citizens and be given honorary Aryan citizenship that allowed them to be reinstated at the jobs from which they had previously been separated.[36] After they stripped Jews
Jews
of their citizenship rights, the Ustaše
Ustaše
allowed some to apply for Aryan rights via bribes and/or through connections to prominent Ustaše> The whole process was highly arbitrary. Only 2% of Zagreb's Jews
Jews
were granted Aryan rights, for example. Also, Aryan rights did not guarantee permanent protection from being sent to concentration camps or other persecution.[42] Economically, the Ustaše
Ustaše
supported the creation of a corporatist economy.[26][33][43] The movement believed that natural rights existed to private property and ownership over small-scale means of production free from state control. Armed struggle, revenge and terrorism were glorified by the Ustaše.[26] The Ustaše
Ustaše
introduced widespread measures, to which many Croats themselves fell victim. Jozo Tomasevich in his book War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941-1945, states that "never before in history had Croats
Croats
been exposed to such legalized administrative, police and judicial brutality and abuse as during the Ustasha regime." Decrees enacted by the regime formed the basis that allowed it to get rid of all unwanted employees in state and local government and in state enterprises, the "unwanted" being all Jews, Serbs
Serbs
and Yugoslav-oriented Croats
Croats
who were all thrown out except for some deemed specifically needed by the government. This would leave a multitude of jobs to be filled by Ustashas and pro-Ustasha adherents, and would lead to government jobs being filled by people with no professional qualifications.[44]

Map of a Greater Croatia
Greater Croatia
in a 26 October 1939 article of the Ustaše Hrvatski Domobran
Hrvatski Domobran
newspaper associated with the Ustaše
Ustaše
organization of the same name, Hrvatski Domobran, which sought recruitment of Croatian diaspora
Croatian diaspora
emigrants in Argentina
Argentina
and elsewhere. The article rejected the Cvetković–Maček Agreement
Cvetković–Maček Agreement
and the borders it provided to Croatia
Croatia
as insufficient.

History Before World War II In October 1928, after the assassination of leading Croatian politician Stjepan Radić, Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
President in the Yugoslav Assembly by radical Montenegrin politician Puniša Račić, a youth group named the Croat Youth Movement was founded by Branimir Jelić at the University of Zagreb. A year later Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
was invited by the 21-year-old Jelić into the organization as a junior member. A related movement, the Domobranski Pokret—which had been the name of the legal Croatian army in Austria-Hungary—began publication of Hrvatski Domobran, a newspaper dedicated to Croatian national matters. The Ustaše
Ustaše
sent Hrvatski Domobran
Hrvatski Domobran
to the United States to garner support for them from Croatian-Americans.[45] The organization around the Domobran tried to engage with and radicalize moderate Croats, using Radić's assassination to stir up emotions within the divided country. By 1929 two divergent Croatian political streams had formed: those who supported Pavelić's view that only violence could secure Croatia's national interests, and the Croatian Peasant Party, led then by Vladko Maček, successor to Stjepan Radić, which had much greater support among Croats.[26] Various members of the Croatian Party of Rights
Party of Rights
contributed to the writing of the Domobran, until around Christmas 1928 when the newspaper was banned by authorities of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In January 1929 the king banned all national parties,[46] and the radical wing of the Party of Rights
Party of Rights
was exiled, including Pavelić, Jelić and Gustav Perčec. This group was later joined by several other Croatian exiles. On 20 April 1929 Pavelić and others co-signed a declaration in Sofia, Bulgaria, with members of the Macedonian National Committee, asserting that they would pursue "their legal activities for the establishment of human and national rights, political freedom and complete independence for both Croatia
Croatia
and Macedonia".[citation needed] The Court for the Preservation of the State in Belgrade
Belgrade
sentenced Pavelić and Perčec to death on 17 July 1929. The exiles started organizing support for their cause among the Croatian diaspora
Croatian diaspora
in Europe, as well as North and South America. In January 1932 they named their revolutionary organization "Ustaša". The Ustashe
Ustashe
carried out terrorist acts, to cause as much damage as possible to Yugoslavia. From their training camps in fascist Italy
Italy
and Hungary, they planted time bombs on international trains bound for Yugoslavia, causing deaths and material damage.[47] In November 1932 ten Ustaše, led by Andrija Artuković
Andrija Artuković
and supported by four local sympathizers, attacked a gendarme outpost at Brušani in the Lika/ Velebit
Velebit
area, in an apparent attempt to intimidate the Yugoslav authorities. The incident has sometimes been termed the "Velebit uprising".[citation needed] Assassination of King Alexander I

Play media

Universal Newsreel's film about the assassination of Alexander I.

The Ustashe’s most famous terrorist act was carried out on 9 October 1934, when working with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), they assassinated King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. The perpetrator, a Bulgarian mercenary, Vlado Chernozemski, was killed by French police.[48] Three Ustashe
Ustashe
members who had been waiting at different locations for the king – Mijo Kralj, Zvonimir Popišil and Milan Rajić – were captured and sentenced to life imprisonment by a French court.[47] Ante Pavelić, along with Eugen Kvaternik
Eugen Kvaternik
and Ivan Perčević, were subsequently sentenced to death in absentia by a French court, as the real organizers of the deed. The Ustaše
Ustaše
believed that the assassination of King Alexander had effectively "broken the backbone of Yugoslavia" and that it was their "most important achievement."[48] Soon after the assassination, all organizations related to the Ustaše as well as the Hrvatski Domobran, which continued as a civil organization, were banned throughout Europe. Under pressure from France, the Italian police arrested Pavelić and several Ustaše emigrants in October 1934. Pavelić was imprisoned in Turin
Turin
and released in March 1936. After he met with Eugen Dido Kvaternik, he stated that assassination was "the only language Serbs
Serbs
understand". While in prison, Pavelić was informed of the 1935 election in Yugoslavia, when the coalition led by Croat Vladko Maček
Vladko Maček
won. He stated that his victory was aided by the activity of Ustaše.[49][full citation needed] By the mid-1930s, graffiti with the initials ŽAP meaning "Long live Ante Pavelić" (Croatian: Živio Ante Pavelić) had begun to appear on the streets of Zagreb.[50][full citation needed] After March 1937, when Italy
Italy
and Yugoslavia signed a pact of friendship, Ustaše
Ustaše
and their activities were banned, which attracted the attention of young Croats, especially university students, who would become sympathizers or members. In February 1939 two returnees from detention, Mile Budak
Mile Budak
and Ivan Oršanić, became editors of Hrvatski narod, known in English as The Croatian Nation, a pro-Ustaše journal. World War II The Axis Powers
Axis Powers
invaded Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
(HSS), which was the most influential party in Croatia
Croatia
at the time, rejected German offers to lead the new government. On 10 April the most senior home-based Ustashe, Slavko Kvaternik, took control of the police in Zagreb
Zagreb
and in a radio broadcast that day proclaimed the formation of the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH). The name of the state was an attempt to capitalise on the Croat struggle for independence. Maček issued a statement that day, calling on all Croatians to cooperate with the new authorities.[51]

A unit of Ustaše
Ustaše
in Sarajevo

Meanwhile Pavelić and several hundred Ustaše
Ustaše
left their camps in Italy
Italy
for Zagreb, where he declared a new government on 16 April 1941.[9] He accorded himself the title of "Poglavnik"—a Croatian approximation to "Führer". The Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
was declared on Croatian "ethnic and historical territory",[52] what is today Republic of Croatia
Croatia
(without Istria), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Syrmia
Syrmia
and the Bay of Kotor. However, a few days after the declaration of independence, the Ustaše
Ustaše
were forced[9] to sign the Treaty of Rome where they surrendered part of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Krk, Rab, Korčula, Biograd, Šibenik, Split, Čiovo, Šolta, Mljet
Mljet
and part of Konavle and the Bay of Kotor
Bay of Kotor
to Italy. De facto control over this territory varied for the majority of the war, as the Partisans grew more successful, while the Germans and Italians increasingly exercised direct control over areas of interest. The Germans and Italians split the NDH into two zones of influence, one in the southwest controlled by the Italians and the other in the northeast controlled by the Germans. As a result, the NDH has been described as "an Italian-German quasi-protectorate". In September 1943, after Italian capitulation, the NDH annexed the whole territory which was annexed by Italy according to Treaty of Rome.[53] Ustaše
Ustaše
Militia

Meeting in Bosnia between representatives of the Chetniks
Chetniks
and Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
officers (including the Ustaše
Ustaše
militia and the Croatian Home Guard)

The Army of the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
was composed of enlistees who did not participate in Ustaše
Ustaše
activities. The Ustaše
Ustaše
Militia was organised in 1941 into five (later 15) 700-man battalions, two railway security battalions and the elite Black Legion and Poglavnik
Poglavnik
Bodyguard Battalion (later Brigade).[54] On 27 April 1941 a newly formed unit of the Ustaše
Ustaše
army killed members of the largely Serbian community of Gudovac, near Bjelovar. Eventually all who opposed and/or threatened the Ustaše
Ustaše
were outlawed. The HSS was banned on 11 June 1941, in an attempt by the Ustaše
Ustaše
to take their place as the primary representative of the Croatian peasantry. Vladko Maček
Vladko Maček
was sent to the Jasenovac concentration camp, but later released to serve a house arrest sentence due to his popularity among the people. Maček was later again called upon by foreigners to take a stand and oppose the Pavelić government, but refused. In early 1941 Jews
Jews
and Serbs
Serbs
were ordered to leave certain areas of Zagreb.[55][56] Pavelić first met with Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
on 6 June 1941. Mile Budak, then a minister in Pavelić's government, publicly proclaimed the violent racial policy of the state on 22 July 1941. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburić, a chief of the secret police, started building concentration camps in the summer of the same year. Ustaše
Ustaše
activities in villages across the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
led the Italians and the Germans to express their disquiet. According to writer/historian Srđa Trifković, as early as 10 July 1941 Wehrmacht Gen. Edmund Glaise von Horstenau reported the following to the German High Command, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW):

Our troops have to be mute witnesses of such events; it does not reflect well on their otherwise high reputation . . . I am frequently told that German occupation troops would finally have to intervene against Ustaše
Ustaše
crimes. This may happen eventually. Right now, with the available forces, I could not ask for such action. Ad hoc intervention in individual cases could make the German Army look responsible for countless crimes which it could not prevent in the past.[57][58]

Historian Jonathan Steiberg describes Ustashe
Ustashe
crimes against Serbian and Jewish civilians: "Serbian and Jewish man [sic] woman [sic] and children were literally hacked to death". Reflecting on the photos of Ustashe
Ustashe
crimes taken by Italians, Steinberg writes: "There are photographs of Serbian woman [sic] with breasts hacked off by kitchen knives, man [sic] with eyes gouged out, emasculated and mutilated".[59] A Gestapo report to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, dated 17 February 1942, stated:

Increased activity of the bands [of rebels] is chiefly due to atrocities carried out by Ustaše
Ustaše
units in Croatia
Croatia
against the Orthodox population. The Ustaše
Ustaše
committed their deeds in a bestial manner not only against males of conscript age, but especially against helpless old people, women and children. The number of the Orthodox that the Croats
Croats
have massacred and sadistically tortured to death is about three hundred thousand.[60]

In September 1942 an Ustaše
Ustaše
Defensive Brigade was formed, and during 1943 the Ustaše
Ustaše
battalions were re-organised into eight four-battalion brigades (1st to 8th).[54] In 1943 the Germans suffered major losses on the Eastern Front and the Italians signed an armistice with the Allies, leaving behind significant caches of arms which the Partisans would use.

An Ustashe, disguised as a woman, captured by Partisans of the 6th Krajina Brigade

By 1944 Pavelić was almost totally reliant on Ustaše
Ustaše
units, now 100,000 strong, formed in Brigades 1 to 20, Recruit Training Brigades 21 to 24, three divisions, two railway brigades, one defensive brigade and the new Mobile Brigade. In November 1944 the army was effectively put under Ustaše
Ustaše
control when the Armed Forces of the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
were combined with the units of the Ustaše
Ustaše
to form 18 divisions, comprising 13 infantry, two mountain and two assault divisions and one replacement division, each with its own organic artillery and other support units. There were several armored units.[54] Fighting continued for a short while after the formal surrender of German Army Group E on 9 May 1945, as Pavelić ordered the NDH forces to attempt to escape to Austria, together with a large number of civilians. The Battle of Poljana, between a mixed German and Ustaše column and a Partisan force, was the last battle of World War II
World War II
on European soil. Most of those fleeing, including both Ustaše
Ustaše
and civilians, were handed over to the Partisans at Bleiburg and elsewhere on the Austrian border. Pavelić hid in Austria and Rome, with the help of Catholic clergy, later fleeing to Argentina.[61] After the war See also: Terrorism in Yugoslavia After World War II, many of the Ustaše
Ustaše
went underground or fled to countries such as Canada, Australia, Germany
Germany
and some countries in South America, notably Argentina, with the assistance of Roman Catholic churches and their own grassroots supporters.[62][62][63] For several years some Ustaše
Ustaše
tried to organize a resistance group called the Crusaders, but their efforts were largely foiled by the Yugoslav authorities.[5] With the defeat of the Independent State of Croatia, the active movement went dormant. Infighting fragmented the surviving Ustaše. Pavelić formed the Croatian Liberation Movement, which drew in several of the former state's leaders. Vjekoslav Vrančić founded a reformed Croatian Liberation Movement
Croatian Liberation Movement
and was its leader. Maks Luburić formed the Croatian National Resistance. Blagoje Jovović, a Montenegrin, shot Pavelić near Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
on 9 April 1957; Pavelić later died of his injuries.[64]

An entire Serb family lies slaughtered in their home following a raid by the Ustashe
Ustashe
militia, 1941.

Ethnic and religious persecution See also: The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
and World War II persecution of Serbs The Ustashe
Ustashe
intended to create an ethnically "pure" Croatia, and they viewed those Serbs
Serbs
then living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
as the biggest obstacle to this goal. Ustaše
Ustaše
ministers Mile Budak, Mirko Puk and Milovan Žanić declared in May 1941 that the goal of the new Ustaše
Ustaše
policy was an ethnically pure Croatia. The strategy to achieve their goal was:[65][66]

One-third of the Serbs
Serbs
were to be killed One-third of the Serbs
Serbs
were to be expelled One-third of the Serbs
Serbs
were to be forcibly converted to Catholicism

The NDH government cooperated with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the Holocaust and exercised their own version of the genocide against Serbs, Jews
Jews
and Roma (aka "gypsies") inside its borders. State policy towards Serbs had first been declared in the words of Milovan Žanić, a minister of the NDH Legislative council, on 2 May 1941:

Ustaše
Ustaše
soldiers sawing off the head of Branko Jungić, an ethnic Serb, near Bosanska Gradiška.

This country can only be a Croatian country, and there is no method we would hesitate to use in order to make it truly Croatian and cleanse it of Serbs, who have for centuries endangered us and who will endanger us again if they are given the opportunity.[67]

The Ustaše
Ustaše
enacted race laws patterned after those of the Third Reich, which persecuted Jews, Romani and Serbs, who were collectively declared to be enemies of the Croatian people.[9] Serbs, Jews, Roma and Croatian and Bosniak dissidents, including Communists, were interned in concentration camps, the largest of which was Jasenovac. By the end of the war the Ustaše, under Pavelić's leadership, had exterminated an estimated 30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gypsies, and between 300,000 and 600,000 Serbs.[68] The history textbooks in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia cited 700,000 as the total number of victims at Jasenovac. This was promulgated from a 1946 calculation of the demographic loss of population (the difference between the actual number of people after the war and the number that would have been, had the pre-war growth trend continued). After that, it was used by Edvard Kardelj
Edvard Kardelj
and Moša Pijade in the Yugoslav war reparations claim sent to Germany. The United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum says:

Due to differing views and lack of documentation, estimates for the number of Serbian victims in Croatia
Croatia
range widely, from 25,000 to more than one million. The most reliable figures place the number of Serbs killed by the Ustaše
Ustaše
between 330,000 and 390,000.[69]

Serb civilians forced to convert to Catholicism
Catholicism
by the Ustashe
Ustashe
in Glina

The Jasenovac Memorial Area maintains a list of 83,145 names of Jasenovac victims that was gathered by government officials in Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1964, as well as names and biographical data for the victims identified in recent inquiries.[70] As the gathering process was imperfect, they estimated that the list represented between 60%–75% of the total victims, putting the number of killed in that complex at between roughly 80,000–100,000. The previous head of the Memorial Area Simo Brdar estimated at least 365,000 dead at Jasenovac. The analyses of statisticians Vladimir Žerjavić and Bogoljub Kočović were similar to those of the Memorial Area. In all of Yugoslavia, the estimated number of Serb deaths was 487,000 according to Kočović, and 530,000 according to Žerjavić, out of a total of 1,014,000 or 1,027,000 deaths (respectively). Žerjavić further stated there were 197,000 Serb civilians killed in NDH (78,000 as prisoners in Jasenovac and elsewhere) as well as 125,000 Serb combatants. The Belgrade
Belgrade
Museum of Holocaust compiled a list of over 77,000 names of Jasenovac victims. It was previously headed by Milan Bulajić, who supported the claim of a total of 700,000 victims. The current administration of the Museum has further expanded the list to include a bit over 80,000 names. During World War II
World War II
various German military commanders and civilian authorities gave different figures for the number of Serbs, Jews
Jews
and others killed inside the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. Historian Prof. Jozo Tomasevich has posited that some of these figures may have been a "deliberate exaggeration" fostered to create further hostility between Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
so that they would not unite in resisting the Axis.[71] These figures included 400,000 Serbs
Serbs
(Alexander Löhr);[72] 500,000 Serbs (Lothar Rendulic);[73] 250,000 to March 1943 (Edmund Glaise von Horstenau);[71] more than "3/4 of a million Serbs" (Hermann Neubacher) in 1943;[74] 600,000–700,000 in concentration camps until March 1944 (Ernst Fick);[71] 700,000 (Massenbach).[75] Of some 39,000 Jews
Jews
who had lived in territory which became the Independent State of Croatia, at least 30,000 died.[68][69] Concentration camps Main article: Concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia

Ustaše militia
Ustaše militia
execute prisoners near the Jasenovac concentration camp

A knife nicknamed "Srbosjek" or "Serbcutter", strapped to the hand, which was used by the Ustaše militia
Ustaše militia
for the speedy killing of inmates in Jasenovac.

The first group of camps was formed in the spring of 1941. These included:

Danica near Koprivnica Pag Jadovno near Gospić Kruščica near Vitez
Vitez
and Travnik
Travnik
in Bosnia Đakovo Loborgrad in Zagorje Tenja near Osijek

These camps were closed by October 1942. The Jasenovac complex was built between August 1941 and February 1942. The first two camps, Krapje and Bročica, were closed in November 1941. The three newer camps continued to function until the end of the war:

Ciglana (Jasenovac III) Kozara
Kozara
(Jasenovac IV) Stara Gradiška (Jasenovac V)

There were also other camps in:

Gospić Jastrebarsko
Jastrebarsko
between Zagreb
Zagreb
and Karlovac
Karlovac
Jastrebarsko
Jastrebarsko
Children's Concentration Camp[76] Kerestinec prison near Zagreb Lepoglava prison
Lepoglava prison
near Varaždin

Numbers of prisoners:

between 300,000–350,000 up to 700,000 in Jasenovac (disputed) around 35,000 in Gospić around 8,500 in Pag around 3,000 in Đakovo 1,018 in Jastrebarsko around 1,000 in Lepoglava

Connections with the Catholic Church Main article: Catholic clergy involvement with the Ustaše The Ustaše
Ustaše
policies against Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
are incorrectly associated with "Uniatism" in some Eastern Orthodox circles. This term has not been used by the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
except for Vatican condemnation of the idea in 1990.[77] The Ustaše
Ustaše
represented an extreme example of "Uniatism" which was based on nationalism rather than on religion. They supported violent aggression or force to convert Serbo-Croatian speaking Orthodox believers to Roman Catholicism. The Ustaše
Ustaše
held the position that Eastern Orthodoxy, as a symbol of Serbian nationalism, was their greatest foe and never recognized the existence of a Serb people on the territories of Croatia
Croatia
or Bosnia – they recognized only " Croats
Croats
of the Eastern faith". They called Bosniaks
Bosniaks
" Croats
Croats
of the Islamic faith", but tolerated Muslims and in fact received some support from Bosniak Muslims during World War II
World War II
in the form of the Handschar division.[citation needed]

Marko Došen (far left, giving Nazi salute) and Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac (far right)

On April 28, 1941, the head of the Catholic Church in Croatia, Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac, issued a public letter in support for the new Ustaše
Ustaše
state, and asked the clergy to pray for its Leader, Ante Pavelić.[78] This despite the fact that the Ustaše
Ustaše
had already proclaimed a series of anti-Serb and anti-Jewish measures,[79] and he knew they were preparing Nazi-style Racial Laws, which Pavelić signed only 2 days after.[80] While Stepinac later objected to certain Ustaše
Ustaše
policies, and helped some Jews
Jews
and Serbs, he continued to publicly support he Ustaše
Ustaše
state until its very end, served as the state’s War Vicar, and in 1944 received a medal from Pavelić[81] (for more on Stepinac’s wartime activities, see Alojzije Stepinac – World War II) The vast majority of the Catholic clergy in Croatia
Croatia
supported the Ustaše, some priests, mostly Franciscans, particularly in, but not limited to, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Bosnia, took part in the atrocities themselves.. Priests, lke Ivan Guberina, served as Pavelić’s bodyguards, while Dionizije Juričev, responsible the forced conversion of Serbs
Serbs
in the Ustaše
Ustaše
government, wrote that it is no longer a crime to a kill seven-year-olds if they stand in the way of the Ustaše
Ustaše
movement.[82] In his diocesan newspaper, the Archbishop of Sarajevo, Ivan Šarić, published that the “liberation of the world from the Jews
Jews
is a movement for the renewal of humanity”.[83] In Bosnia the Ustaše
Ustaše
largely ruled through the Catholic clergy, with the priest Božidar Bralo serving as a chief Ustaše
Ustaše
delegate for Bosnia.[84] Miroslav Filipović
Miroslav Filipović
was a Franciscan friar (from the Petrićevac monastery) who allegedly joined the Ustashe
Ustashe
as chaplain and, on 7 February 1942, joined in the massacre of roughly 2730 Serbs
Serbs
of the nearby villages, including some 500 children. He was allegedly subsequently dismissed from his order and defrocked, although he wore his clerical garb when he was hanged for war crimes. He became Chief Guard of Jasenovac concentration camp
Jasenovac concentration camp
where he was nicknamed "Fra Sotona" by fellow Croats. Mladen Lorković, the Croat minister of foreign affairs, formulated it like this: "In Croatia, we can find few real Serbs. The majority of Pravoslavs are as a matter of fact Croats who were forced by foreign invaders to accept the infidel faith. Now it's our duty to bring them back into the Roman Catholic fold."[85] For the duration of the war, the Vatican kept up full diplomatic relations with the Ustashe
Ustashe
state (granting Pavelić an audience), with its papal nuncio in Zagreb, the Croatian capital city. The nuncio was briefed on the efforts of religious conversions to Roman Catholicism. After World War II
World War II
ended, the Ustaše
Ustaše
who had managed to escape from Yugoslav territory (including Pavelić) were smuggled to South America.[61] This was largely done through rat lines operated by Catholic priests who had previously secured positions at the Vatican. Some of the more infamous members of the Illyrian College of San Girolamo in Rome
Rome
involved in this were Franciscan friars Krunoslav Draganović and Dominik Mandić, and a third friar surnamed Petranović (first name unknown).[86] The Ustaše
Ustaše
regime had deposited large amounts of gold plundered from Serbs
Serbs
and Jews
Jews
during World War II
World War II
into Swiss bank
Swiss bank
accounts. Out of a total of 350 million Swiss francs,[citation needed] an estimated 150 million was seized by British troops;[86][not in citation given] however, the remaining 200 million (ca. $47 million) reached the Vatican. In October 1946 the American intelligence agency SSU alleged that these funds were still held in the Vatican Bank. This issue was the theme of a class-action suit against the Vatican Bank
Vatican Bank
and others (see Alperin v. Vatican Bank).[86] Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, Archbishop of Zagreb
Zagreb
during World War II, was accused of supporting the Ustaše
Ustaše
and of exonerating those in the clergy who collaborated with them and were hence complicit in forced conversions. Stepinac stated on 28 March 1941, noting early attempts to unite Croatians and Serbs:

"All in all, Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
are of two worlds, northpole and southpole, never will they be able to get together unless by a miracle of God. The schism (between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy) is the greatest curse in Europe, almost greater than Protestantism. Here there is no moral, no principles, no truth, no justice, no honesty."[87]

In 1998 Stepinac was beatified by Pope John Paul II. On 22 June 2003 John Paul II visited Banja Luka. During the visit he held a Mass at the aforementioned Petrićevac
Petrićevac
monastery. This caused public uproar due to the connection of the monastery with Filipović. At the same location the Pope proclaimed the beatification of a Roman Catholic layman Ivan Merz
Ivan Merz
(1896–1928), who was the founder of the "Association of Croatian Eagles" in 1923, which some view as a precursor to the Ustaše. Roman Catholic apologists defend the Pope's actions by stating the convent at Petrićevac
Petrićevac
was one of the places that went up in flames, causing the death of 80-year-old Friar Alojzije Atlija. Further, it was claimed by the apologists that the war had produced "a total exodus of the Catholic population from this region"; that the few who remained were "predominantly elderly"; and that the church in Bosnia then allegedly risked "total extinction" due to the war.[citation needed] Structure At the top of the command was the Poglavnik
Poglavnik
(meaning "head") Ante Pavelić. Pavelić was appointed the office as Head of State of Croatia
Croatia
after Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had accepted Benito Mussolini's proposal of Pavelić, on 10 April 1941. The Croatian Home Guard was the armed forces of Croatia, it subsequently merged into the Croatian Armed Forces.[1] Symbols

The symbol of the Ustaše
Ustaše
was a capital blue letter "U" with an exploding grenade emblem within it.[88][89] The flag of the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
was a red-white-blue horizontal tricolor with the shield of the Coat of Arms or Croatia
Croatia
in the middle and the U in the upper left. Its currency was the NDH kuna. The checkered coat of arms of the NDH started with a white field in the corner, and that of today's Croatia
Croatia
starts with a red field in the corner. Some possible explanations are that the white field symbolizes the Croatian nationality, as opposed to the red field which symbolizes the Croatian state; or that the white field is used on the so-called war flag.[citation needed] The Ustaše
Ustaše
greeting was "Za dom – spremni!":

Salute: Za dom! For home(land)! Reply: Spremni! (We are) ready!

This was used instead of the Nazi greeting Heil Hitler
Heil Hitler
by the Ustaše. Today it is nominally associated with Ustaše
Ustaše
sympathisers by Serbs
Serbs
or non- Ustaše
Ustaše
conservatives associated with the Croatian Party of Rights. However, some Croats
Croats
see it as a patriotic salute, emphasising defending one's home and country. On the internet, it is sometimes abbreviated as ZDS.[citation needed] Legacy

This section should include a summary of Far-right
Far-right
politics in Croatia. See:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text.

Use by Serbian nationalists Since the end of World War II, Serbian historians have used the Ustaše
Ustaše
to promote that Serbs
Serbs
resisted the Axis, while Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
widely supported them. However, the Ustaše
Ustaše
never received massive support.[90] In the 1980s, Serbian historians produced many works about the forced conversion during World War Two of Serbs
Serbs
to Catholicism
Catholicism
in Ustashe
Ustashe
Croatia.[91] These debates between historians openly became nationalistic and also entered the wider media.[92] Historians in Belgrade
Belgrade
during the 1980s who had close government connections often went on television during the evenings to discuss invented or real details about the Ustashe
Ustashe
genocide against Serbs during World War Two.[93] Serb clergy and nationalists blamed all Croats
Croats
for crimes committed by the Ustaše, and for planning a genocide against Serb people. These propagandistic activities were aimed at justifying planned crimes and ethno-demographic engineering in Croatia.[94][93] Modern usage of the term "Ustashe" After World War II, the Ustashe
Ustashe
movement was split into several organizations and there is presently no political or paramilitary movement that claims its legacy as their "successor". The term "ustaše" is today used as a derogatory term for Croatian ultranationalism. The term "Ustashe" is sometimes used among Serbs
Serbs
to describe Serbophobia
Serbophobia
or more generally to defame political opponents. When Slobodan Milošević's rule was approaching its end, some protesters called him an "Ustashe".[95] In popular culture The Ustashe
Ustashe
plays an important role in Harry Turtledove's short alternate history story, Ready for the Fatherland. It plays a brief background role in In the Presence of Mine Enemies, an unrelated work by the same author. In both these works, the regime founded by Pavelić lasted several decades beyond the 1940s. See also

Independent State of Croatia World War II
World War II
in Yugoslavia

References Notes

^ a b Goldstein, Ivo (2001). Croatia: A History. Hurst & Co. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7735-2017-2.  ^ "Ustasa (Croatian political movement)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 32. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 351–352. ^ a b c d e f Ladislaus Hory und Martin Broszat. Der kroatische Ustascha-Staat, Deutsche Verlag-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1965, pp. 13–38, 75–80. (in German) ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 29 November 2001. Retrieved 29 September 2010.  ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 29 September 2010. No one really knows how many died here. Serbs
Serbs
talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.  ^ Meier, Viktor. Yugoslavia: a history of its demise (English), London, UK: Routledge, 1999, p. 125. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–208, 210, 226. ISBN 978-1-55753-455-2.  ^ Kent, Peter C. The lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: the Roman Catholic Church and the division of Europe, 1943–1950, McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), 2002 p. 46; ISBN 978-0-7735-2326-5 "Fiercely nationalistic, the Ustaše
Ustaše
were also fervently Catholic, identifying, in the Yugoslav political context, Catholicism
Catholicism
with Croatian nationalism..." ^ Butić-Jelić, Fikreta. Ustaše
Ustaše
i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska 1941–1945. Liber, 1977 ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 30. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233–241. ^ "Independent State of Croatia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ a b Yugoslavia, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States
United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum website; accessed 25 April 2014. ^ History of Croatia: World War II
World War II
Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite ^ Watch, Helsinki (1993). War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-083-4. Retrieved 23 April 2008.  ^ Raič, David (2002). Statehood and the law of self-determination. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-1890-5. Retrieved 23 April 2008.  ^ See: hr:Pučki-ustaše ^ Ramet 2006, p. 117. ^ a b Ramet 2006, p. 118. ^ "Einstein accuses Yugoslavian rulers in savant's murder", New York Times, 6 May 1931. mirror ^ "Raditch left tale of Yugoslav plot". New York Times. 23 August 1931. p. N2. Retrieved 6 December 2008. mirror ^ Cohen, Philip J. and David Riesman. Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press, 1996, pp. 10–11. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 126. ^ a b c d e Đilas, Aleksa. The contested country: Yugoslav unity and communist revolution, 1919–1953, Harvard University Press, 1991, pp. 114–115, 129. ^ a b c d Van Creveld, Martin L. Hitler's Strategy 1940–1941: The Balkan Clue. 2nd edition. London/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974. pp. 6–8 ^ Galeazzo Ciano, Count; Malcolm Muggeridge
Malcolm Muggeridge
(translator). Ciano's diary, 1939–1943. W. Heinemann, 1950, p. 392. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 92. ^ a b c Ramet 2006, p. 119. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.  ^ Lampe, John R. Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Central European University Press. 2004. p. 102. ISBN 978-963-9241-82-4.  ^ a b Atkin, Nicholas and Frank Tallet. Priests, prelates and people: a history of European Catholicism
Catholicism
since 1750. New York, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2003. p. 248. ^ Caccamo Trinchese. Rotte adriatiche. Tra Italia, Balcani e Mediterraneo. FrancoAngeli, 2011. p. 158. ^ Rich, Norman. Hitler's War Aims: the Establishment of the New Order (1974), pp. 276–77. W.W. Norton & Co: New York. ^ a b Greble, Emily. Sarajevo, 1941–1945: Muslims, Christians, and Jews
Jews
in Hitler's Europe. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2011. p. 125. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, p. 529. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 546. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 93. ^ Ante Pavelic: The Croat Question http://chnm.gmu.edu/history/faculty/kelly/blogs/h312/wp-content/sources/pavelic.pdf ^ "Holocaust Era in Croatia
Croatia
1941-1945: Jasenovac" United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, pp. 127–35. ^ Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. Digital Printing edition. New York, New York: Routledge, 2003, p. 120. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941-1945. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 381–82. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.  ^ Kivisto, Peter. The Ethnic enigma: the salience of ethnicity for European-origin groups. Cranbury, NJ/London, UK/Mississauga, Canada: Associated University Press, 1989. p. 107 ^ Jović, Dejan. Yugoslavia: a state that withered away, p. 51 ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 33. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 33–34. ^ Matković 2002, p. 17. ^ Goldstein 2006, p. 229. ^ Maček, Vladko. In the Struggle for Freedom (New York: Robert Speller & Sons, 1957), p. 230. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 466 "… ethnic and historical territory". ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233–302. ^ a b c Thomas, N./Mikulan, K. Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941–45. London: Osprey, 1995; ISBN 978-1-85532-473-2. ^ "PHOTOGRAPHY". Jewish Historical Museum of Yugoslavia. 1941. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  ^ Some were sent to concentration camps and subsequently killed. For a description of these deportations and the treatment in the camps C.f. Djuro Schwartz, "In the Jasenovac camps of death" (ג'ורו שווארץ, במחנות המוות של יאסנובאץ", קובץ מחקרים כ"ה, יד-ושם) ^ Trifković, Srđa (21 April 2000). "The Real Genocide
Genocide
in Yugoslavia: Independent Croatia
Croatia
of 1941 Revisited". Chronicles.  ^ Trifković, Srđa (21 April 2000). "The Real Genocide
Genocide
in Yugoslavia: Independent Croatia
Croatia
of 1941 Revisited". The Centre for Peace in the Balkans.  ^ Phayer, Michael (2000). The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 33.  ^ Goñi, Uki. The real Odessa: smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina; Granta, 2002, p. 202. ^ a b "Tied up in the Rat Lines", Haaretz, 17 January 2006. ^ a b "US Army File: Krunoslav Draganović". jasenovac-info.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2015.  ^ "CIC Memorandum". jasenovac-info.com. 12 September 1983. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.  ^ "Two Bullets for Pavelić" (PDF). 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2009.  ^ Jones, Adam & Nicholas A. Robins. (2009), Genocides by the oppressed: subaltern genocide in theory and practice, p. 106, Indiana University Press; ISBN 978-0-253-22077-6 ^ Jacobs, Steven L. Confronting genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, pp. 158–59, Lexington Books, 2009 ^ "Deciphering the Balkan Enigma: Using History to Inform Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ a b Ball, Howard (2010). Genocide: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-488-7. [better source needed] ^ a b "Jasenovac". Us-israel.org. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ Jasenovac Memorial Site official web site; accessed 25 August 2016. ^ a b c Tomasevich 2001, p. 722. ^ Summers, Craig & Eric Markusen. Collective violence: harmful behavior in groups and governments; Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, p. 55 ^ Rummel, Rudolph J. Democide: Nazi Genocide
Genocide
and Mass Murder; Transaction Publishers, 1992, p. 75.; "While German troops were still in several places in Croatia, the Croatians began a beastly persecution of the Orthodox [Serbs]. At this time at least a half-million people were killed. An unbelievable governing mentality was responsible, as I learned in August 1943 when I received the answer to a question of mine from a government functionary in the circle of the chief of state." ^ Neubacher, page 31 ^ Lituchy, Barry M. (2006). Jasenovac and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia. New York: Jasenovac Research Institute. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-9753432-0-3.  ^ Group portrait of naked, emaciated children in the Jastrebarsko concentration camp for children. [Photograph #46562] ^ "Uniatism, Method of Union of the Past, and the Present Search For Full Communion". Vatican Publishing House. 17–24 June 1993. Retrieved 4 October 2007. With regard to the method which has been called "uniatism", it was stated at Freising (June 1990) that "we reject it as a method for the search for unity because it is opposed to the common tradition of our Churches".  ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 555. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 381–384. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 490. ^ Što je nama Stepinac? http://www.autograf.hr/sto-je-nama-stepinac/ ^ Phayer, 2000. p.34 ^ Phayer, 2000. p.35 ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 490, 496. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (editor), A Mosaic of Victims. Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, NYU Press, pp. 74–79 (1 March 1992); ISBN 0814711758/ISBN 978-0814711750 ^ a b c Gorin, Julia (23 February 2010). "Mass grave of history: Vatican's WWII identity crisis". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Stanojević, Branimir. Alojzije Stepinac, zločinac ili svetac: dokumenti o izdaji i zločinu, Nova knjiga, 1986, p. 51 ^ Littlejohn, David (1994). Foreign Legions of the Third Reich. 3. R. James Bender Publishing. pp. 216–17. ISBN 978-0-912138-29-9.  ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 327. ^ Philip J. Cohen (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda
Propaganda
and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. p. 85.  ^ Aleksov 2007, p. 106. ^ Brunnbauer, Ulf (2011). "Historical Writing in the Balkans". In Woolf, Daniel; Schneider, Axel. The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 5: Historical Writing Since 1945. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 9780199225996.  ^ a b Stojanović 2011, p. 221. ^ Michael A. Sells (10 December 1998). The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide
Genocide
in Bosnia. University of California Press. pp. 61–62.  ^ Regional Express, prosvjedi-operacija-nije-uspjela-pacijent-je-umro "Prosvjedi- Operacija nije uspjela, pacijent je umro", regionalexpress.hr; accessed 25 August 2016.(in Croatian)

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Bibliography

Aleksov, Bojan (2007). "Adamant and treacherous: Serbian historians on religious conversions". In Washburn, Dennis; Reinhart, Kevin. Converting Cultures: Religion, Ideology and Transformations of Modernity. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15822-1.  Paris, Edmond (1961). Genocide
Genocide
in Satellite Croatia, 1941-1945: A Record of Racial and Religious Persecutions and Massacres. Chicago: American Institute for Balkan Affairs.  Aarons, Mark and Loftus, John: Unholy Trinity: How the Vatican's Nazi Networks Betrayed Western Intelligence to the Soviets. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 372 pages; ISBN 978-0-312-07111-0. Krizman, Bogdan (1978). ANTE PAVELIĆ I USTAŠE. Zagreb: Globus.  Krizman, Bogdan (1980). PAVELIĆ IZMEĐU HITLERA I MUSSOLINIJA. Zagreb: Globus.  Krizman, Bogdan (1983). USTAŠE I TREĆI REICH – knjiga 1. Zagreb: Globus.  Krizman, Bogdan (1983). USTAŠE I TREĆI REICH – knjiga 2. Zagreb: Globus.  Neubacher, Hermann. Sonderauftrag Suedost 1940–1945, Bericht eines fliegendes Diplomaten, 2. durchgesehene Auflage, Goettingen, 1956. Bulajić, Milan (1994). The Role of the Vatican in the break-up of the Yugoslav State: The Mission of the Vatican in the Independent State of Croatia. Ustashi Crimes of Genocide. Belgrade: Stručna knjiga.  Bulajić, Milan (2002). Jasenovac: The Jewish-Serbian Holocaust (the role of the Vatican) in Nazi-Ustasha Croatia
Croatia
(1941-1945). Belgrade: Fund for Genocide
Genocide
Research, Stručna knjiga.  Goldstein, Ivo; Goldstein, Slavko (2016). The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Croatia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 9780822944515.  Lituchy, Barry M. (2006). Jasenovac and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia. New York: Jasenovac Research Institute. ISBN 978-0-9753432-0-3.  Srdja Trifkovic: Ustaša: Croatian Separatism and European Politics 1929–1945 Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies, London, 1998. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Israel Gutman (editor-in-chief), Vol. 4, "Ustase" entry. Macmillan, 1990. Biondich, Mark (2005). "Religion and Nation in Wartime Croatia: Reflections on the Ustaša Policy of Forced Religious Conversions, 1941-1942". The Slavonic and East European Review. 83 (1): 71–116.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.  Rivelli, Marco Aurelio (1998). Le génocide occulté: État Indépendant de Croatie 1941–1945 [Hidden Genocide: The Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
1941–1945] (in French). Lausanne: L'age d'Homme.  Rivelli, Marco Aurelio (1999). L'arcivescovo del genocidio: Monsignor Stepinac, il Vaticano e la dittatura ustascia in Croazia, 1941-1945 [The Archbishop of Genocide: Monsignor Stepinac, the Vatican and the Ustaše
Ustaše
dictatorship in Croatia, 1941-1945] (in Italian). Milano: Kaos.  Rivelli, Marco Aurelio (2002). "Dio è con noi!": La Chiesa di Pio XII complice del nazifascismo ["God is with us!": The Church of Pius XII accomplice to Nazi Fascism] (in Italian). Milano: Kaos.  Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: The Chetniks. Stanford Univ: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9.  Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford Univ: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.  Yeomans, Rory. Visions of Annihilation: The Ustasha Regime and the Cultural Politics of Fascism, 1941–1945 (2013) excerpt and text search Korb, Alexander (2010). "A Multipronged Attack: Ustaša Persecution of Serbs, Jews, and Roma in Wartime Croatia". Eradicating Differences: The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 145–163.  Novak, Viktor (2011). Magnum Crimen: Half a Century of Clericalism in Croatia. 1. Jagodina: Gambit.  Novak, Viktor (2011). Magnum Crimen: Half a Century of Clericalism in Croatia. 2. Jagodina: Gambit.  Stojanović, Dubravka (2011). "Value changes in the interpretations of history in Serbia". In Listhaug, Ola. Civic and uncivic values: Serbia in the post-Milošević era. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9776-98-2. 

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Jasenovac Research Institute — "a non-profit human rights organization and research institute committed to establishing the truth about the Holocaust in Yugoslavia" Holocaust era in Croatia: Jasenovac 1941–1945, an on-line museum by the United States
United States
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Research, Jasenovac death camp, guskova.ru Eichmann Trial, Tel Aviv 1961, nizkor.org Lawsuit against the Vatican Bank
Vatican Bank
and Franciscans
Franciscans
for return of the Ustasha Treasury by Holocaust victims

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