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LATIN LITURGICAL RITES, or Western liturgical rites, are the Catholic liturgical rites used within the Latin Church
Latin Church
, that part of Catholic Church originating in the area where the Latin language once dominated.

The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches . Their number is now much reduced. In the aftermath of the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries (see Tridentine Mass and Roman Missal
Roman Missal
). Many local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, most of the religious orders that had a distinct liturgical rite chose to adopt in its place the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
as revised in accordance with the decrees of the Second Vatican Council (see Mass of Paul VI ). A few such liturgical rites persist today for the celebration of Mass, since 1965-1970 in revised forms, but the distinct liturgical rites for celebrating the other sacraments have been almost completely abandoned.

CONTENTS

* 1 Liturgical rites currently in use within the Latin Church
Latin Church

* 1.1 Roman Rite
Roman Rite

* 1.1.1 Anglican Use
Anglican Use
* 1.1.2 Algonquian and Iroquoian Uses * 1.1.3 Zaire Use

* 1.2 Western Rites of "Gallican" type

* 1.2.1 Ambrosian Rite * 1.2.2 Rite of Braga * 1.2.3 Mozarabic Rite
Mozarabic Rite
* 1.2.4 Carthusian
Carthusian
Rite

* 1.3 Western Rite of sui generis type

* 1.3.1 Benedictine Rite

* 2 Defunct Catholic Western liturgical rites

* 2.1 African Rite * 2.2 Celtic Rite
Celtic Rite
* 2.3 Gallican Rite * 2.4 Regional Latin rites or uses

* 3 Rites of religious orders * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

LITURGICAL RITES CURRENTLY IN USE WITHIN THE LATIN CHURCH

Part of a series on

Particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church

Latin cross
Latin cross
and Byzantine Patriarchal cross
Patriarchal cross

Particular churches are grouped by rite.

LATIN RITE

* Latin

ALEXANDRIAN RITE

* Coptic * Ethiopian * Eritrean

ARMENIAN RITE

* Armenian

BYZANTINE RITE

* Albanian * Belarusian * Bulgarian * Croatian and Serbian * Greek * Hungarian * Italo-Albanian * Macedonian * Melkite * Romanian * Russian * Ruthenian * Slovak * Ukrainian

EAST SYRIAN RITE

* Chaldean * Syro-Malabar

WEST SYRIAN RITE

* Maronite * Syriac * Syro-Malankara

Catholicism portal Eastern Christianity portal

* v * t * e

ROMAN RITE

The Roman Rite
Roman Rite
is by far the most widely used. Like other liturgical rites , it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium and a half of its existence (see Pre- Tridentine Mass ). The forms that Pope Pius V , as requested by the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
, established in the 1560s and 1570s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition (the edition to which other printings are to conform) of the Roman Missal
Roman Missal
(see Tridentine Mass ) and of the other liturgical books superseded the previous one.

The 20th century saw more profound changes. Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
radically rearranged the Psalter
Psalter
of the Breviary
Breviary
and altered the rubrics of the Mass. Later Popes continued to make such changes, beginning with Pope Pius XII , who significantly revised the Holy Week
Holy Week
ceremonies and certain other aspects of the Roman Missal
Roman Missal
in 1955.

The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) was followed by a general revision of the rites of all the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
sacraments, including the Eucharist
Eucharist
. As before, each new typical edition of an official liturgical book supersedes the previous one. Thus, the 1970 Roman Missal , which superseded the 1962 edition, was superseded by the edition of 1975. The 2002 edition in turn supersedes the 1975 edition both in Latin and, as official translations into each language appear, also in the vernacular languages. Under the terms of Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
, the Mass of Paul VI
Mass of Paul VI
is known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite.

The Tridentine Mass , as in the 1962 Roman Missal
Roman Missal
, is still authorized for use as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
under the conditions indicated in the document Summorum Pontificum .

Anglican Use

The Anglican Use
Anglican Use
is a use (variation) of the Roman Rite, rather than a unique rite itself. During the Liturgy of the Eucharist, especially the Eucharistic Prayer, it is closest to the Roman Rite, while it differs more during the Liturgy of the Word and the Penitential Rite. The language used, which differs from that of the ICEL translation of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of Mass, is based upon the Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
, originally written in the 16th century. Anglican Use
Anglican Use
parishes originally used the Book of Divine Worship , an adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer. The Book of Divine Worship has been replaced with the similar Divine Worship: The Missal for use in the Ordinariates. Anglican liturgical rituals, whether those used in the Anglican Use
Anglican Use
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
or in the various prayer books and missals of the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and other denominations trace their origin back to the Sarum rite
Sarum rite
, which was a variation of the Latin Rite used in England
England
before introduction the 1549 Book
Book
of Common Prayer, following the break from the Roman church under the previous monarch Henry VIII .

An early version of the Anglican Use
Anglican Use
was introduced in the United States under a Pastoral Provision in 1980, establishing personal parishes that introduced adapted Anglican traditions to the Catholic Church from members' former Episcopal parishes. That provision also permitted, as an exception and on a case by case basis, the ordination of married former Episcopal ministers as Catholic priests. As personal parishes, these parishes were part of the local Roman Catholic diocese , but accepted as members any Anglican convert who wished to make use of the provision.

On 9 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
established a worldwide provision for Anglicans who joined the church. This process set up personal Ordinariates for former Anglicans and other converts. These Ordinariates would be similar to dioceses, but encompassing entire regions or nations. Parishes belonging to an Ordinariate would not be part of the local diocese. These Ordinariates are charged with maintaining the Anglican liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions and they have full faculties to celebrate the Eucharist
Eucharist
and the other sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgy of the Hours
and other liturgical functions in accordance with the liturgical books proper to Anglican tradition, in revisions approved by the Holy See
Holy See
. This faculty does not exclude liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite.

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham
Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham
was set up for England
England
and Wales
Wales
on 15 January 2011, and the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States and Canada on 1 January 2012, and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia on 15 June 2012. As of 2017 it was decreed that all parishes in the United States established under the Pastoral Provision be transferred to the Ordinariate.

Algonquian And Iroquoian Uses

Also called "Indian Masses", a number of variations on the Roman Rite developed in the Indian missions of Canada and the United States. These originated in the 17th century, and some remained in use until the Second Vatican Council. The priest's parts remained in Latin, while the ordinaries sung by the schola were translated into the vernacular (e.g., Mohawk, Algonquin, Micmac, and Huron). They also generally featured a reduced cycle of native-language propers and hymns. At present they are rarely used.

Zaire Use

The Zaire Use is an inculturated variation of the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
of the Roman Catholic Church. It is used to a very limited extent in some African countries since the late 1970s

WESTERN RITES OF "GALLICAN" TYPE

Ambrosian Rite

The Ambrosian Rite is celebrated in most of the Archdiocese of Milan , Italy
Italy
and in parts of some neighbouring dioceses in Italy
Italy
and Switzerland. The language used is now usually Italian, rather than Latin. With some variant texts and minor difference in the order of readings, it is similar in form to the Roman Rite. Its classification as Gallican-related is disputed.

Rite Of Braga

The Rite of Braga is used, but since 18 November 1971 only on an optional basis, in the Archdiocese of Braga
Archdiocese of Braga
in northern Portugal
Portugal
.

Mozarabic Rite

The Mozarabic Rite
Mozarabic Rite
, which was prevalent throughout Spain
Spain
in Visigothic times, is now celebrated only in limited locations, principally the cathedral of Toledo .

Carthusian
Carthusian
Rite

The Carthusian
Carthusian
rite is in use in a version revised in 1981. Apart from the new elements in this revision, it is substantially the rite of Grenoble in the 12th century, with some admixture from other sources. Among other differences from the Roman Order of Mass, the deacon prepares the gifts while the Epistle is being sung, the celebrating priest washes his hands twice at the offertory and says the eucharistic prayer with arms extended in the form of a cross except when using his hands for some specific action, and there is no blessing at the end of Mass.

This is now the only extant Mass rite of a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
; but by virtue of the Ecclesia Dei indult some individuals or small groups are authorized to use some now defunct rites.

WESTERN RITE OF SUI GENERIS TYPE

Benedictine Rite

The Order of Saint Benedict
Order of Saint Benedict
has never had a rite of the Mass peculiar to it, but it keeps its very ancient Benedictine Rite of the Liturgy of the Hours .

DEFUNCT CATHOLIC WESTERN LITURGICAL RITES

AFRICAN RITE

In Africa Proconsulare , located in present-day Tunisia
Tunisia
(of which Carthage
Carthage
was the capital), the African Rite was used before the 8th-century Arab conquest. It was very close to the Roman Rite; so much so that Western liturgical traditions have been classified as belonging to two streams, the North African-Rome tradition, and the Gallican (in the broad sense) tradition encompassing the rest of the Western Roman Empire, including northern Italy.

CELTIC RITE

The ancient Celtic Rite
Celtic Rite
was a composite of non-Roman ritual structures (possibly Antiochian ) and texts not exempt from Roman influence, that was similar to the Mozarabic Rite
Mozarabic Rite
in many respects and would have been used at least in parts of Ireland
Ireland
, Scotland
Scotland
, the northern part of England
England
and perhaps even Wales
Wales
, Cornwall
Cornwall
and Somerset
Somerset
, before being authoritatively replaced by the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
in the early Middle Ages . "Celtic" is possibly a misnomer and it may owe its origins to Augustine's re-evangelisation of the British Isles in the 6th century. Little is known of it, though several texts and liturgies survive.

Some Christians–typically groups not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, especially some Western Orthodox Christian communities in communion with Eastern Orthodox Churches
Eastern Orthodox Churches
, e.g. Celtic Orthodoxy–have attempted to breathe life into a reconstruction of the Celtic Rite
Celtic Rite
the historical accuracy of which is debated. Historical evidence of this rite is found in the remnants of the Stowe (Lorrha) Missal .

GALLICAN RITE

The Gallican Rite is a retrospective term applied to the sum of the local variants, on similar lines to that designated elsewhere as the Celtic Rite
Celtic Rite
(above) and the Mozarabic Rite
Mozarabic Rite
, which faded from use in France by the end of the first millennium. It should not be confused with the so-called Neo-Gallican liturgical books published in various French dioceses after the Council of Trent, which had little or nothing to do with it.

REGIONAL LATIN RITES OR USES

Several local rites (more properly uses or variants of the Roman Rite (most with Galican elements some with Byzantine liturgical and tradition elements) of limited scope existed, but are now defunct.

* The Sarum Rite
Sarum Rite
(more properly Sarum Use), a defunct variant on the Roman rite originating in the Diocese of Salisbury , which had come to be widely practised in England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
around the 1530s, while the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
swept across continental Europe; practised alongside limited other variants such as the Use of York , Lincoln Use, Bangor Use, and Hereford
Hereford
Use. * The Cologne Use , used in the diocese of Cologne (German : Köln) prior to 1570. * The Metz Use , created by Arnulf of Metz
Arnulf of Metz
and Amalarius of Metz in the ninth century–used in Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, and Flemish and Wallonian lands until the beginning of the twentieth century. * The Lyonese Rite of the Diocese of Lyon , France, which some consider to have been (rather than Milan) the centre of diffusion of the Gallican liturgy; it is maintained in a few parishes in Lyon. * The Nidaros Use
Nidaros Use
, long defunct, based mainly on imported English liturgical books, used in pre- Reformation
Reformation
Norway
Norway
. * The Uppsala Use , suppressed during the Reformation
Reformation
, formerly the dominant variant of the Roman Rite
Roman Rite
used in northern Sweden
Sweden
. * The Aquileian Rite , a defunct rite originating in the former patriarchate of Aquileia
Aquileia
in northern Italy. * The Benevento Rite , a defunct Latin rite originated in this city in Italy. * The Durham Rite (defunct: Durham, England) * The Esztergom Use (defunct: Archdiocese of Esztergom
Archdiocese of Esztergom
, used between the 12th and 17th centuries primarily in the Archdiocese of Esztergom, and in its suffragan dioceses. Similar rites where also in Slovakia
Slovakia
and in sothern, central, and western Poland. These usages of Roman liturgy was the closest to Roman (today Vatican) rites with some small Byzantine-Slavic elements.

RITES OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS

Main article: Catholic Order Rites

Some religious orders celebrated Mass according to rites of their own, dating from more than 200 years before the papal bull Quo primum . These rites were based on local usages and combined elements of the Roman and Gallican Rites. Following the Second Vatican Council , they have mostly been abandoned, except for the Carthusian
Carthusian
Rite (see above ). Religious orders of more recent origin have never had special rites.

The following previously existing rites of Mass, distinct from the Roman Rite, continue to be used on a limited basis by the permission of ecclesiastical superiors:

* Carmelite Rite * Cistercian Rite * Dominican Rite
Dominican Rite
* Premonstratensian or Norbertine Rite

The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
applied the word "rite" also to the practices followed (to some extent even now, a century later) by certain Catholic religious orders , while at the same time stating that they in fact followed the Roman Rite:

* Franciscan Rite * Friars Minor Capuchin Rite * Servite Rite

SEE ALSO

* Alexandrian Rite * Antiochene Rite * Armenian Rite
Armenian Rite
* Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
* East Syrian Rite
East Syrian Rite
* West Syrian Rite
West Syrian Rite
* List of Catholic rites and churches * General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar

REFERENCES

* ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Sarum Rite". Newadvent.org. 1912-02-01. Retrieved 2010-04-02. * ^ Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus, art. III * ^ Salvucci, Claudio R. 2008. The Roman Rite
Roman Rite
in the Algonquian and Iroquoian Missions. Merchantville, NJ:Evolution Publishing. See also http://mysite.verizon.net/driadzbubl/IndianMasses.html * ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3 ), article Ambrosian rite * ^ (in Portuguese) Braga - Capital de Distrito Archived September 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "New Liturgical Movement: Rádio Renascença: Fr. Joseph Santos and the Rite of Braga". newliturgicalmovement.org. * ^ The text of the Carthusian
Carthusian
Missal and the Order's other liturgical books is available at Carthusian
Carthusian
Monks and Carthusian
Carthusian
nuns Archived 2006-12-05 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ The Carthusian
Carthusian
Order in Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. The text of the former Ordo Missae of the Carthusian
Carthusian
Missal is available at this site. * ^ Non-Roman Latin or Western Rites Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Liturgica.com - Liturgics - Western Roman Liturgics - Early Western Liturgics". liturgica.com. Archived from the original on 2015-05-21. * ^ Anscar J. Chupungco (1997), Handbook for Liturgical Studies: Introduction to the liturgy, Liturgical Press, ISBN 9780814661611 * ^ See the section Liturgy of the article Lyons in the Catholic Encyclopedia * ^ A B Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Rites". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.

EXTERNAL

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