HOME
The Info List - Uruguay Round


--- Advertisement ---



The Uruguay
Uruguay
Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1994 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties". The Round led to the creation of the World Trade Organization, with GATT
GATT
remaining as an integral part of the WTO agreements. The broad mandate of the Round had been to extend GATT
GATT
trade rules to areas previously exempted as too difficult to liberalize (agriculture, textiles) and increasingly important new areas previously not included (trade in services, intellectual property, investment policy trade distortions).[1] The Round came into effect in 1995 with deadlines ending in 2000 (2004 in the case of developing country contracting parties) under the administrative direction of the newly created World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO).[2] The Doha Development Round
Doha Development Round
was the next trade round, beginning in 2001 and still unresolved after missing its official deadline of 2005.[3]

Contents

1 Goals 2 History

2.1 Background

3 Achievements 4 Criticism 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Goals[edit] The main objectives of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round were:

to reduce agricultural subsidies to lift restrictions on foreign investment, and to begin the process of opening trade in services like banking and insurance. to include the protection of intellectual property

They also wanted to draft a code to deal with copyright violation and other forms of intellectual property rights. History[edit] The round was launched in Punta del Este, Uruguay
Uruguay
in September 1986, followed by negotiations in Geneva, Brussels, Washington, D.C., and Tokyo, with the 20 agreements finally being signed in Marrakesh—the Marrakesh
Marrakesh
Agreement—in April 1994. Background[edit] The 1982 Ministerial Declaration identified problems including structural deficiencies, spill-over impacts of certain countries' policies on world trade GATT
GATT
could not manage. To address these issues, the eighth GATT
GATT
round (known as the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round) was launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay.[4] It was the biggest negotiating mandate on trade ever agreed: the talks were going to extend the trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT articles were up for review.[2] The round was supposed to end in December 1990, but the US and EU disagreed on how to reform agricultural trade and decided to extend the talks.[5] Finally, In November 1992, the US and EU settled most of their differences in a deal known informally as "the Blair House accord", and on April 15, 1994, the deal was signed by ministers from most of the 123 participating governments at a meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco.[6] The agreement established the World Trade Organization, which came into being upon its entry into force on January 1, 1995, to replace the GATT
GATT
system.[2] It is widely regarded as the most profound institutional reform of the world trading system since the GATT's establishment.[7] The position of Developing Countries was detailed in the book: Brazil in the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round of the GATT: The Evolution of Brazil’s Position in the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round, with Emphasis on the Issue of Services. In this book, the polemics about the issue of services are described, as well as the opposition of Developing Countries to the so called "New Issues". [8] Achievements[edit] The GATT
GATT
still exists as the WTO's umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round negotiations (a distinction is made between GATT
GATT
1994, the updated parts of GATT, and GATT
GATT
1947, the original agreement which is still the heart of GATT
GATT
1994).[9] The GATT
GATT
1994 is not, however, the only legally binding agreement included in the Final Act; a long list of about 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and understandings was adopted. In fact, the agreements fall into a simple structure with six main parts:

an umbrella agreement (the Agreement Establishing the WTO); goods and investment (the Multilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods including the GATT
GATT
1994 and the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS)); services ( General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)); intellectual property (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)); dispute settlement (DSU); reviews of governments' trade policies (TPRM).[10]

The agreements for the two largest areas under the WTO, goods and services, share a three-part outline:

broad principles (such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and General Agreement on Trade in Services); extra agreements and annexes; lengthy schedules (lists) of commitments made by individual countries.[2]

One of the achievements of the Uruguay
Uruguay
round would be the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, administered by the WTO, which brings agricultural trade more fully under the GATT. Prior to the Uruguay Round, conditions for agricultural trade were deteriorating with increasing use of subsidies, build-up of stocks, declining world prices and escalating costs of support.[11] It provides for converting quantitative restrictions to tariffs and for a phased reduction of tariffs. The agreement also imposes rules and disciplines on agricultural export subsidies, domestic subsidies, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures through the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Criticism[edit] Groups such as Oxfam
Oxfam
have criticized the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round for paying insufficient attention to the special needs of developing countries. One aspect of this criticism is that figures very close to rich country industries—such as former Cargill
Cargill
executive Dan Amstutz—had a major role in the drafting of Uruguay
Uruguay
Round language on agriculture and other matters. As with the WTO in general, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Health Gap and Global Trade Watch also criticize what was negotiated in the Round on intellectual property and industrial tariffs as setting up too many constraints on policy-making and human needs. An article asserts that the developing countries’ lack of experience in WTO negotiations and lack of knowledge of how the developing economies would be affected by what the industrial countries wanted in the WTO new areas; the intensified mercantilist attitude of the GATT/WTO’s major power, the US.; the structure of the WTO that made the GATT
GATT
tradition of decision by consensus ineffective, so that a country would not preserve the status quo, were the reasons for this imbalance.[12] See also[edit]

Cairns Group Cultural exception Doha Round Golan v. Gonzales, a challenge to the copyright restoration provisions of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round Agreements Act of 1996, the implementation of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round agreements in the United States Code Tokyo
Tokyo
Round

References[edit]

^ Cline, William (January 1995). "Evaluating the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round". The World Economy. 18 (1): 1. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9701.1995.tb00198.x.  ^ a b c d The Uruguay
Uruguay
Round, World Trade Organization ^ "UNDERSTANDING THE WTO: THE DOHA AGENDA". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4 ^ A. Bredimas, International Economic Law, 16 ^ Even after agreement was reached in December 1993, and the Final Act was signed, the effort almost foundered in the US Congress, and the member states engaged in a quarrel for close to a year about who would be the first Director General of the WTO (A.F. Lowenfeld, Preface, ix). ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 10 * Martin-Winters, The Uruguay
Uruguay
Round, 2 *Kay, Adrian and Ackrill, Robert (2009) Institutional Change in the International Governance of Agriculture: A Revised Account, Governance 22.3: 483–506 ^ CALDAS, Ricardo. Brazil in the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round of the GATT: The Evolution of Brazil’s Position in the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round, with Emphasis on the Issue of Services. ^ P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4 * The Uruguay
Uruguay
Round, World Trade Organization ^ Overview: a Navigational Guide, World Trade Organization. For the complete list of "The Uruguay
Uruguay
Round Agreements", see WTO legal texts, World Trade Organization, and Urugua Round Agreements, Understandings, Decisions and Declarations, WorldTradeLaw.net ^ Tanner, Carolyn (April 1996). "AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALISATION AND THE URUGUAY ROUND". Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 40 (1): 1. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8489.1996.tb00726.x. Retrieved 8 April 2013.  ^ Finger, J. Michae; Julio J. Nogués (March 2002). "The Unbalanced Uruguay
Uruguay
Round Outcome: The New Areas in Future WTO Negotiations". The World Economy. 25 (3): 321. doi:10.1111/1467-9701.00435. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 

External links[edit]

WTO history of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round WTO Final Act of the Uruguay
Uruguay
Round Peter Gallagher (15 December 2005). The First Ten Years of the WTO: 1995-2005. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86215-8. 

v t e

World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese

.