Urinal (restroom)
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A urinal (, ) is a sanitary
plumbing fixture A plumbing fixture is an exchangeable device which can be connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water. Common fixtures Supply The most common plumbing fixtures are: * Bathtubs * Bidets * Channel drains * Drinking fountains * Hose b ...
for
urination Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. It is the urinary system's form of excretion. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and kno ...
only. Urinals are often provided in
public toilet A public toilet is a room or small building with toilets (or urinals) and sinks for use by the general public. The facilities are available to customers, travelers, employees of a business, school pupils and prisoners and are commonly sex segre ...

public toilet
s for male users in
Western countries The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabita ...

Western countries
(less so in
Muslim countries The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the ''Islamic community'', which is also known as the Ummah. This consists of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geo ...

Muslim countries
). They are usually used in a standing position. Urinals can be with manual flushing, automatic flushing, or without flushing, as is the case for waterless urinals. They can be arranged as single sanitary fixtures (with or without privacy walls) or in a trough design without privacy walls. Urinals designed for females ("
female urinal A female urinal is a urinal designed for the female anatomy to allow for ease of use by women and girls. Different models enable urination in standing, semi-squatting, or squatting position, squatting postures, but usually without direct bodily co ...
s") also exist but are rare. It is possible for females to use male urinals with a
female urination device A female urination device, female urination aid, or stand-to-pee device (STP) is a device which aids a female or a trans man A trans man is a man who was assigned female at birth. The label of transgender man is not always interchangeable w ...
. The term "urinal" may also apply to a small building or other structure containing such fixtures. It can also refer to a small container in which urine can be collected for medical analysis, or for use where access to toilet facilities is not possible, such as in small aircraft, during extended
stakeout
stakeout
s, or for the
bedriddenBeing bedridden is a form of immobility that can present as the inability to move or even sit upright. It differs from bed-rest, a form of non-invasive treatment that is usually part of recovery or the limitation of activities. Some of the more serio ...
.


Description

Urinals for males can be used conveniently and appropriately by someone who has a
penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' () is the primary sexual organ A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproducti ...

penis
or otherwise has adaptive means with which to urinate from a standing position. There is no age restriction, and urinals are commonly used by men and boys of all ages. Urinals for females also exist but are not common. In busy
public toilets A public toilet is a room or small building with toilets (or urinals) and sinks that does not belong to a particular household. Rather, the toilet is available for use by the general public, customers, travellers, employees of a business, sch ...

public toilets
, urinals are installed for efficiency. Compared with
urination Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. It is the urinary system's form of excretion. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and kno ...
in a general-purpose toilet, usage is faster and more sanitary because at the urinal there are no fecal germs, no additional doors or locks to touch, and no seat to turn up. Consistent use of urinals also keeps the toilet stalls cleaner and more available for males who need to defecate. A urinal takes less space, is simpler, and consumes less water per flush (or even no water at all) than a
flush toilet A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, water closet (WC) – see also toilet names) is a toilet A toilet is a piece of sanitary hardware that collects human urine and Human feces, feces, and sometimes toilet paper, usually for dis ...
. Large numbers of them are usually installed along a common supply pipe and drain. Urinals may also come in different heights, to accommodate tall and short users. Public urinals usually have a plastic mesh guard, which may optionally contain a deodorizing
urinal deodorizer block Urinal deodorizer block in a urinal Urinal deodorizer blocks (also called urinal cakes, para blocks, urinal mints, urinal pucks, urinal peons (pee-ons), urinal biscuits, urinal cookies, hockey pucks, toilet pucks, toilet lollies, trough lollies, pi ...
or "urinal cake". The mesh is intended to prevent solid objects (such as
cigarette butt A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing burnable material, typically tobacco, that is rolled into Rolling paper, thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder; the resulting smoke is orally inhaled via t ...
s, feces,
chewing gum Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. Modern chewing gum is composed of gum base, sweeteners, softeners/plasticizers, flavors, colors, and, typically, a hard or powdered polyol coating. Its te ...
, or paper) from being flushed and possibly causing a plumbing stoppage. In some restaurants, bars, and clubs, ice may be put in the urinals, serving some of the same purposes as the deodorizing block without dispensing odorous chemicals.


Arrangement

For purposes of space and economic practicality, urinals are not typically placed inside stalls. Unlike in female public toilets, optimal resource efficiency in men's or boys' public toilets therefore requires urinating in full visibility of other males. In recent years, it has become more common in some countries for dividers or partitions to be installed between urinals to eliminate any chance of incidental exposure during the process of urination. Urinals in high-capacity public toilets are usually arranged in one or more rows directly opposite the door, so that users have their backs to people entering or standing outside. Often, one or two of the urinals, typically at one end of a long row, will be mounted lower than the others; they are meant for the disabled and other users who cannot reach the regular urinals. In facilities where people of various heights are present, such as schools, urinals that extend down to floor level may be used to allow anyone of any height to use any urinal. Instead of individual fixtures, trough urinals may be installed. These designs can be used by a number of people simultaneously, but they do not allow for much privacy. They are often installed where there is a high peak demand, such as in schools, music festivals, theatrical events, sports stadiums, discos, dance clubs, and convention halls. Urinals were once installed exclusively in commercial or institutional settings, but are also now available for private homes. They offer the advantages of substantial water savings in residences with many occupants, and reduction of "splash back", making cleaning easier. File:Urinal with urinal cake gsu cit 2004.jpg, Urinal with pink-colored urinal cake File:Many urinals rows with amber lighting in the Tokyo Cinema's toilet.jpg, Urinals in
Tokyo, Japan Tokyo (Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Tokyo, Japan
; one at far right is fitted with handle bars for people with disabilities File:2007-08-cesko-344.jpg, Urinals in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
File:Urinal 3.jpg, Trough urinal in
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the List of cities and towns in California, largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four millio ...

Los Angeles
File:Urinals Munich, Germany.JPG, Train station urinal in
Munich, Germany Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria Bavaria (; german: Bayern, , officially the Free State of Bavaria (german: Freistaat Bayern, link=no, ; bar, Freistoot Bayern, link=no), is a ...

Munich, Germany
File:GOMA toilets 02.jpg, Modern trough urinal in an art museum in
Brisbane, Australia Brisbane ( ) is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland Queensland ( ,) is a state situated in northeastern Australia, and is the States and territories of Australia, second-largest and third-most popul ...
File:Wallurinal.jpg, Old-style wall urinal at
Stetson Bowl StadiumThe Cloverdale Fairgrounds (also known as the Cloverdale Exhibition Grounds) are located in the town of Cloverdale in Surrey, British Columbia Surrey is a city in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a cou ...
in
Surrey, British Columbia Surrey is a city in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman E ...
, Canada File:Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer June 1959 URINAL DETAIL, BOYS' TOILET, BASEMENT SOUTH WING - Mayhew School, Poplar and Chambers Streets, Boston, HABS MASS,13-BOST,67-8.tif, Vintage urinals in
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unite ...

Boston
secondary school (c. 1933–59) File:Urinal at the school ,showing boys and girls side. (5075089050).jpg, Outdoor urinals at school for boys (left) and girls (right) in
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Tamil Nadu
, India


Urinals with flushing

Most public urinals incorporate a water flushing system to rinse urine from the bowl of the device, to prevent foul odors. The flush can be triggered by one of several methods:


Manual handles

This type of flush might be regarded as standard in the United States. Each urinal is equipped with a button or short lever to activate the flush, with users expected to operate it as they leave. Such a directly controlled system is the most efficient, provided that patrons remember to use it. This is far from certain, however, often because of fear of touching the handle, which is located too high to kick. Urinals with foot-activated flushing systems are sometimes found in high-traffic areas; these systems have a button set into the floor or a pedal on the wall at ankle height. The
Americans with Disabilities Act The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or ADA () is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Disability in the United States, Americans with disabilities ...
requires that flush valves be mounted no higher than AFF (above the finished floor). Additionally, the urinal is to be mounted no higher than AFF, and to have a rim that is tapered and elongated and protrudes at least from the wall. This enables users in wheelchairs to straddle the lip of the urinal and urinate without having to "arc" the flow of urine upwards. Some urinals are equipped with water-saving "dual-flush" handles, which use half as much water when pushed upwards, and operate a standard full flush when pressed downwards. The handles are often color-coded green to alert users to this feature.


Timed flush

In Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong and some parts of Sweden and Finland, manual flush handles are unusual. Instead, the traditional system is a timed flush that operates automatically at regular intervals. Groups of up to ten or more urinals will be connected to a single overhead cistern, which contains the timing mechanism. A constant drip-feed of water slowly fills the cistern until a tipping point is reached, when the valve opens (or a
siphon A siphon (from grc, σίφων, síphōn, "pipe, tube", also spelled nonetymologically syphon) is any of a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes. In a narrower sense, the word refers particularly to a tube in an ...

siphon
begins to drain the cistern), and all the urinals in the group are flushed. Electronic controllers performing the same function are also used. This system does not require any action from its users, but it is wasteful of water when toilets are used irregularly. However, in these countries users are so used to the automatic system, that attempts to install manual flushes to save water are generally unsuccessful. Users ignore them not through deliberate laziness or fear of infection, but because activating the flush is not habitual. To help reduce water usage when public toilets are closed, some public toilets with timed flushing use an electric water valve connected to the room's light switch. When the building is in active use during the day and the lights are on, the timed flush operates normally. At night when the building is closed, the lights are turned off and the flushing action stops.


Door-regulated flush

This is an older method of water-saving automatic flushing, which only operates when the public toilet has been used. A
push-button A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism to control some aspect of a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines ...
switch is mounted in the door frame, and triggers the flush valve for all urinals every time the door is opened. While it cannot detect the use of individual urinals, it provides reasonable flushing action without wasting excessive amounts of water when the urinals are not being used. This method requires a spring-operated automatic
door closer A door is a hinge A barrel hinge A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a ...

door closer
, since the flush mechanism only operates when the door opens. Alternatively, a flushing system connected to the door can count the number of users, and operate when the number of door opening events reaches a certain value. At night, the door never opens, so flushing never occurs.


Automatic flush

Electronic automatic flushes solve the problems of previous approaches, and are common in new installations. A
passive infrared sensor A passive infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic sensor In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other el ...

passive infrared sensor
identifies when the urinal has been used, by detecting when someone has stood in front of it and moved away, and then activates the flush. There usually is also a small override button, to allow optional manual flushing. Automatic flush facilities can be retrofitted to existing systems. The handle-operated valves of a manual system can be replaced with a suitably designed self-contained electronic valve, often battery-powered to avoid the need to add cables. Older timed-flush installations may add a device that regulates the water flow to the cistern according to the overall activity detected in the room. This does not provide true per-fixture automatic flushing, but is simple and cheap to add because only one device is required for the whole system. To prevent false-triggering of the automatic flush, most infrared detectors require that a presence be detected for at least five seconds, such as when a person is standing in front of it. This prevents a whole line of automatic flush units from triggering in succession if someone just walks past them. The automatic flush mechanism also typically waits for the presence to go out of sensor range before flushing. This reduces water usage, compared to a sensor that would trigger a continuous flushing action the whole time that a presence is detected.


Waterless urinals

Since about the 1990s urinals have been available on the market that use no water at all. These are called waterless urinals or flushless urinals. The first waterless urinal was developed at the end of the 19th century by the German-Austrian Wilhelm Beetz using an oil-based syphon with a liquid that he called Urinol. Waterless urinals can save between of water per urinal per year, depending on the amount of water used in the water-flushed urinal for comparison purposes, and the number of uses per day. For example, these numbers assume that the urinal would be used between 40 and 120 times per business day. Waterless urinals allow the collection of undiluted pure
urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and ...

urine
which can be used as a
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
.von Münch, E., Winker, M. (2011)
Technology review of urine diversion components – Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Chapter 4


Odor control

Models of waterless urinals introduced by the Waterless Company in 1991 and others in 2001 by Falcon Waterfree Technologies and
Sloan Valve Company Sloan Valve Company is a privately owned American company specializing in plumbing valves and fixtures. History The company was founded by William Elvis Sloan in Chicago, Chicago, Illinois in 1906 with the introduction of the Royal flushometer, a ...
, as well as Duravit, use a trap insert filled with a sealant liquid instead of water. The lighter-than-water sealant floats on top of the urine collected in the U-bend, preventing odors from being released into the air. The cartridge and sealant must be periodically replaced. Waterless urinals may also use an outlet system that traps the odor, preventing the smell often present in toilet blocks. Another method to eliminate odor was introduced by Caroma, which installed a Urinal deodorizer block, deodorizing block in their waterless urinal that was activated during use. Odor control in waterless urinals is also achieved with simple one-way valves which are manufactured as a flat rubber tube (the tube opens when urine flows through) or with two silicone "curtain" pieces. The former is used in the waterless urinals by the company Keramag in Germany (model Centaurus) and the latter is marketed by the company Addicom in South Africa who called it the EcoSmellStop device.


Applications

Waterless urinals can be installed in high-traffic facilities, and in situations where providing a water supply may be difficult or where water conservation is desired. Waterless urinals have become rather common in Germany since about 2009 and can be found at restaurants, cinemas, highway rest stops, train stations and so forth. It was estimated in 2009 that there are about 6 million urinals in Germany, and about 100,000 of those were of the waterless type in that year.Oeko-Innovationen: Wasserlose Urinale. Kein Wasserverbrauch und mehr Hygiene
(in German), 2009
Due to high-level Water restrictions in Australia#Queensland, water restrictions during about 2005-2008 the city council of Brisbane, Australia mandated conversion to waterless urinals. Flush urinals are nowadays rarely seen in Brisbane.


Installation and maintenance

The drain pipes from waterless urinals need to be installed correctly in terms of diameter, slope and pipe materials in order to prevent buildup of struvite ("urine stone") and calcium phosphate precipitates in the pipes, which would cause blockages and could require expensive repairs. Also, the undiluted urine is corrosive to metals (except for stainless steel), which is why plastic pipes are generally preferred for urine drain pipes. Most waterless urinals do not prevent odorous staining on the surface of the urinals, and periodic cleaning of the fixture and its surrounds is still required. When maintained according to manufacturers' recommendations, well-designed waterless urinals do not emit any more odors than flushed urinals do. However, some odor-trapping devices work better than others in the longer term. Regular, thorough maintenance of the respective odor control device is needed for all types of waterless urinals, as per the manufacturer's recommendation.


Situation in the United States

US federal law has mandated no more than one gallon per flush since 1994, and the EPA estimates that the average urinal is flushed 20 times per day, which gives an average water use of per year. Mechanical traps are not allowed by US building codes but are allowed in many other countries. Plumbers' Trade union, unions initially opposed waterless urinals, citing concerns about health and safety, which have been debunked by scientists who have studied the devices. Facing opposition to their attempts to have the devices allowed in plumbing codes, manufacturers devised a compromise. The Uniform Plumbing Code was modified to allow waterless urinals to be installed, provided that unneeded water lines were nevertheless run to the back of the urinals. This allows conventional water-flushing urinals to be retrofitted later, if waterless models were judged to be unsatisfactory over time. In March 2006, the Associated Press reported that the plumbers' union in Philadelphia had become upset because developer Liberty Property Trust had decided to use waterless urinals in the Comcast Center (office building), Comcast Center. Many in the union believed that this would lead to less work for them. The developer cited saving the city of water per year as its deciding factor. In February 2010, the headquarters of the California EPA removed waterless urinals that were installed in 2003 due to "hundreds of complaints", including odors and splashed urine on the floors. Officials blamed the failure of the project on incompatibility with the building's existing plumbing systems. File:McDonald's waterless urinal.JPG, Waterless urinals used in British McDonald's restaurants File:Waterless urinals grab bars for disabled.jpg, Waterless urinal (waterless urinal at right is for people with disabilities) File:Waterless urinals (2921485136).jpg, Waterless urinals in Switzerland File:Sloan Waterfree urinal.JPG, Waterless urinal in California File:Mingitorios secos (6025791175).jpg, Waterless boys' urinals in Argentina File:Waterless urinal for females (5880398360).jpg, Waterless urinal for women at a station in Frankfurt, Germany File:The flat rubber tube for odour control in waterless urinal of Keramag Centaurus model.jpg, Flat rubber tube for odor control in waterless urinal of Keramag File:Urine stone in urinals from Uridan (2957167291).jpg, "Urine stone" deposits on plumbing components of a waterless urinal in the Netherlands


Street urinals

In some localities, urinals may be located on public sidewalks or in public areas such as parks. These urinals are often equipped with partitions for the sake of privacy, and some are fully enclosed structures. They may or may not be equipped with water flushing mechanisms. The first 'pissoirs' were installed in Paris in the 1830s, and the idea gradually gained popularity in other European cities. From a peak in the 1930s when there were over 1000 in Paris alone, historic urinals have gradually disappeared, in favour of facilities for both sexes. In the 21st century, public urination by men in some locations was again seen as a nuisance, and modern versions of street urinals have been installed. The Netherlands has a number of strategically placed street urinals in various cities, intended to reduce public urination by drunken men. Amsterdam has the largest collection of historic urinals, with about 30 'Plaskrul' ('pisscurl'), a flushless urinal with a curved privacy screen, in the central city. In recent years, urinals that can be retracted into the ground during the day or between special events have been installed, in order to save space when they are not expected to be needed. When closed they look like a large manhole in a sidewalk. Similar retractable models, such as the model by the Dutch company Urilift, are also seen in the UK and other countries. At night when bars are open they rise out of the sidewalk; some time after the bars close, the urinals return to their manhole configuration so that they are unseen by people during the day. In the Philippines, Marikina was the first city to install street urinals in the late 1990s. When Marikina Mayor Bayani Fernando was appointed chair of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, he installed street urinals in the rest of Metro Manila as well. File:Public urinal, Adelaide Street - geograph.org.uk - 1528654.jpg, Modern street urinal in London File:Urinal Vauxhall Cross.jpg, Street urinal in Vauxhall, London File:Public urinal Urilift London Charterhouse Street.jpg, Urilift street urinal can be retracted underground when not needed File:Public Urinal, The Parade, Watford - geograph.org.uk - 714173.jpg, Only a circular ring indicates location of a retracted Urilift urinal when not in use File:Dutch street urinal Sarah Stierch.jpg, Movable temporary urinal in Amsterdam File:Krul urinoir in Amsterdam.jpg, Traditional ''krul'' urinal in Amsterdam File:Stockholm urinal.jpg, Street urinal in Stockholm File:20111128 Urinoir Hoge der A Groningen NL.jpg, Street urinal in Groningen File:Pissoir Spielbudenplatz 003.jpg, Modernist street urinal in Hamburg, Germany File:India - Varanasi public toilet - 2118.jpg, "Public Convenience" in Varanasi, Benares, India


Special urinals


Urinals designed for females

In the Western world, women/girls are generally taught to sit or squat while urinating. Many therefore do not know how – or even that it is possible – for a female to aim her urine stream as would be required to use a male urinal. Thus, several different types of urinals have been designed for females that do not require the user to aim her urine stream. A typical female user could thus theoretically approach such a urinal squatting backwards over it without necessarily trying to aim her stream. File:Femaleurinal.jpg, Urinals designed for female users File:Unisex Urinals.jpg, Unisex urinals which can be used by men or women


Arts and interactive urinals

''Kisses!'' is a controversial urinal designed by the female Dutch designer Meike van Schijndel. It is shaped like an open pair of red lips. In early March 2004, the National Organization for Women (NOW) took offense to the new urinals that Virgin Atlantic decided to install in the Virgin Atlantic clubhouse at John F Kennedy International Airport in New York City. After receiving many angry phone calls from female customers, Virgin Atlantic Vice President John Riordan called NOW to apologize. Protestors surmised a connection to oral sex or urolagnia, and based their complaints on the urinals being sexist. A McDonald's restaurant in the Netherlands removed them after a customer complained to the head office in the United States. Interactive urinals have been developed in a number of countries, allowing users to entertain themselves during urination. One example is the Toylet, a video game system produced by the Japanese company Sega that allows users to play video games using their urine to control the on-screen action. File:Urinal mouth.jpg, Controversial ''Kisses!'' urinals were designed by a woman File:CaptiveMedia ExhibitBalham.jpg, Advertising displays for a "captive audience" in London


Makeshift urinals

During military operations, such as the Korean War, Vietnam War, or Operation Desert Storm, "piss tubes" were used as makeshift urinals. To make one, soldiers would affix an inverted disposable water bottle on one end of a rigid tube, burying the other end. Removing the base of the bottle made a funnel which would be left at the proper height. Deposited urine simply soaked into the ground; when the area became saturated, the device was relocated.


In vehicles

, the aircraft manufacturer Airbus offered its customers the option of installing urinals in its Airbus A380, A380 aircraft.


History

Until the 1990s, street urinals were a common sight in Paris (France), and in the 1930s more than 1200 were in service. They were famous among foreign tourists. Parisians referred to them as ''vespasiennes'', the name being derived from that of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, who, according to an anecdote, imposed a tax on urine. Beginning in the 1990s, the ''vespasiennes'' (renowned for their smell and lack of hygiene) were gradually replaced by Sanisettes. Today only one ''vespasienne'' remains in the city (on Boulevard Arago), and it is still regularly used. They still exist in other French cities and in other countries. VespasienneLarge.jpg, The last surviving ''vespasienne'', on Boulevard Arago in Paris Vespasienne Honfleur.JPG, ''Vespasienne'' in Honfleur, France Vespasienne à Honfleur.JPG, Interior of Honfleur ''vespasienne'' Urinal, Bewdley Station - geograph.org.uk - 1148738.jpg, Vintage British urinal, no longer in service Charles Marville, Urinoir en ardoise à 3 stalles, Chaussée du Maine, ca. 1865.jpg, A pissoir on Avenue du Maine, Paris c. 1865. Photographed by Charles Marville. Pisejo sur Largo de António Calém (Porto, Portugalujo) 002.jpg, Outdoor urinal in Porto, Portugal BS Pissoir Fallersleber Tor.JPG, Restored cultural heritage, heritage protected public urinal in Braunschweig, Germany Cast Iron Pissoir - Miller's Point, Sydney, NSW (7875768066).jpg, Victorian cast iron urinal in Sydney, Australia (c.1890) Rothesay Victorian Toilets - men's urinals.jpg, Urinals in the Rothesay Victorian Toilets, Rothesay, Bute (c.1899)


Society and culture

Examples of urinals in popular culture include: * Marcel Duchamp's ''Fountain (Duchamp), Fountain'' (1917), which some have called the most influential modern artwork, is a urinal which Duchamp signed "R. Mutt". * Police in Nassau County, New York adopted talking urinals in an anti-drunk driving initiative. Using Wizmark, a talking urinal display screen, police can provide bars with free pre-programmed urinal messages urging patrons not to drink and drive. * Ernest Hemingway converted a urinal from Sloppy Joe's bar into a water fountain for his cats. The fountain remains a prominent feature at his former home in Key West, Florida, a popular tourist destination in the town. * ''Pissoir (film), Pissoir'', retitled ''Urinal'' in some countries, was the first feature film directed by John Greyson. It was released in 1980 and takes place in a toilet. * Gabriel Chevallier's 1934 satirical novel ''Clochemerle'' deals with the ramifications of plans to install a new urinal in a French village. * ''Indiana Urinalysis'' (1988) is a documentary on the subject of urinals. Topics include "types of urinals, urinal etiquette, usage of urinal cakes, why urinals are always white, preference of urinal vs. toilet, and urinals for women, as well as a collection of urinal anecdotes." It received a Citation Award from the Indiana Film Society in 1990.


Gallery of unusual or historical urinals

File:Jiangxi Sheng Bowuguan 20120627-54.jpg, Ancient portable urinal, Western Jin Dynasty (c. 265–316 CE) File:Duchamp Fountaine.jpg, ''Fountain (Duchamp), Fountain'', a urinal which Marcel Duchamp exhibited as a controversial artwork File:Charles Marville, Urinoir en fonte à 2 stalles avec portes, ca. 1865.jpg, Ornate illuminated French urinal, c.1865 File:Charles Marville, Urinoir en ardoise à 6 stalles avec écran surélevé, Place de l'Église, ca. 1865.jpg, Basic 6-stall Paris urinal, c.1865 File:Gothic urinal in the men's room at The Mini Bottle Museum in Oslo, Norway.jpg, Gothic art, Goth-inspired urinal in Oslo File:Urinal at the Industrial Saloon.jpg, "Steampunk" styled urinal at a bar File:Hand Wash Sink on the Urinal in Mito-SA 2014.jpg, Japanese sink/urinal saves water and physical space File:Bucket Urinals.jpg, Urinals with a view, at the restaurant UFO (restaurant), UFO in Bratislava File:Madonna inn restroom (5641720565).jpg, Fancy decorative urinal at Madonna Inn File:Publika necesejo en Jardim do Passeio Alegre (Porto, Portugalujo) 002.jpg, Public urinals in Portugal File:Victorian Toilets Rothesay.jpg, Victorian urinals in Scotland from 1899 File:Eléments d'architecture - urinoir (Biennale d'architecture 2014, Venise) (15281481685).jpg, Neo-baroque style decorated urinal File:Open plan Men's toilet in Japan.jpg, Open plan public toilet in Japan File:Urinal in Tropfenform.Jpg, Styled urinals in St. Peter Port, Guernsey File:Brewery urinals.jpg, Brewery urinals in Christchurch, New Zealand File:Cheap waterless urinal in Burkina Faso (2957045465).jpg, Low-cost waterless portable urinal in Burkina Faso File:JR Tower 38th floor Men's Room -Hokkaido (2008.9.11).jpg, Urinal with a 38th floor view in Hokkaido, Japan File:Washbasin & Urinal panorama.jpg, Male urinals in open arrangement


See also

* Interactive urinal communicator * Public toilet * Reuse of excreta * Sanistand


References


External links


Collection of urinals worldwide
(e.g
Berlin wallflowers
and at th
South Pole

Photos of waterless urinals worldwide

Urilift website
{{DEFAULTSORT:Urinal (Restroom) Public toilets Toilets Urinals,