Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas,
"the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban
areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change. It
is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and
become larger as more people begin living and working in central
United Nations projected that half of the world's
population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is
predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of
the developed world will be urbanized. That is equivalent to
approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in
Africa and Asia. Notably, the
United Nations has also recently
projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030
will be absorbed by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the
next 13 years.
Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including
geography, sociology, economics, urban planning, and public health.
The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization,
industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization.
Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time (e.g.
the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns) or as
an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be
quantified either in terms of, say, the level of urban development
relative to the overall population, or as the rate at which the urban
proportion of the population is increasing.
enormous social, economic and environmental changes, which provide an
opportunity for sustainability with the “potential to use resources
more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect
the biodiversity of natural ecosystems.”
Urbanization is not merely a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and
historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale,
whereby predominantly rural culture is being rapidly replaced by
predominantly urban culture. The first major change in settlement
patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many
thousand years ago. Village culture is characterized by common
bloodlines, intimate relationships, and communal behavior, whereas
urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar
relations, and competitive behavior. This unprecedented movement of
people is forecast to continue and intensify during the next few
decades, mushrooming cities to sizes unthinkable only a century ago.
As a result, the world urban population growth curve has up till
recently followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern.
Today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Osaka, Karachi, Jakarta,
Mumbai, Shanghai, Manila,
Beijing are each already home to
over 20 million people, while
Tokyo are forecast to approach
or exceed 40 million people each within the coming decade. Outside
Asia, Mexico City, São Paulo, London, New York City, Istanbul, Lagos
Cairo are, or soon will be, home to over 10 million people each.
3 Dominant conurbation
4 Economic effect
5 Environmental effects
6 Health and social effects
7 Changing forms
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
From the development of the earliest cities in
Mesopotamia and Egypt
until the 18th century, an equilibrium existed between the vast
majority of the population who engaged in subsistence agriculture in a
rural context, and small centres of populations in the towns where
economic activity consisted primarily of trade at markets and
manufactures on a small scale. Due to the primitive and relatively
stagnant state of agriculture throughout this period, the ratio of
rural to urban population remained at a fixed equilibrium. However, a
significant increase in the percentage of the global urban population
can be traced in the 1st millennium BCE. Another significant
increase can be traced to Mughal India, where 15% of its population
lived in urban centers during the 16th–17th centuries, higher than
in Europe at the time. In comparison, the percentage of the
European population living in cities was 8–13% in 1800.
With the onset of the British agricultural and industrial revolution
in the late 18th century, this relationship was finally broken and an
unprecedented growth in urban population took place over the course of
the 19th century, both through continued migration from the
countryside and due to the tremendous demographic expansion that
occurred at that time. In England, the proportion of the population
living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891 (for other
countries the figure was: 37% in France, 41% in
Prussia and 28% in the
Historical global urban/rural population trends.
As labourers were freed up from working the land due to higher
agricultural productivity they converged on the new industrial cities
Birmingham which were experiencing a boom in
commerce, trade and industry. Growing trade around the world also
allowed cereals to be imported from
North America and refrigerated
Australasia and South America. Spatially, cities also
expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which
facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the
Urbanization rapidly spread across the Western world and, since the
1950s, it has begun to take hold in the developing world as well. At
the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived
in cities. According to the UN, the year 2007 witnessed the
turning point when more than 50% of the world population were living
in cities, for the first time in human history.
Yale University in June 2016 published urbanization data from the time
period 3700 BC to 2000 AD, the data was used to make a video showing
the development of cities on the world during the time
Population age comparises between rural
Pocahontas County, Iowa
Pocahontas County, Iowa and
urban Johnson County, Iowa, illustrating the flight of young adults
(red) to urban centres in Iowa.
The City of
Chicago, Illinois is an example of the early American grid
system of development. The grid is enforced even on uneven topography.
Urbanization occurs as individual, commercial flight[clarification
needed], social[clarification needed] and government action reduce the
time and expense of commuting and transportation and improve
opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living
in a city can provide opportunities of proximity, diversity, and
marketplace competition. As against this, there may be alienation
issues, stress, increased cost of living, and negative social aspects
that result from mass marginalization.[clarification needed]
Suburbanization, which is happening in the cities of the largest
developing countries, may be regarded as an attempt to balance these
negative aspects of urban life while still allowing access to the
large extent of shared resources.
In cities, money, services, wealth and opportunities are centralized.
Many rural inhabitants come to the city to seek their fortune and
alter their social position. Businesses, which provide jobs and
exchange capital, are more concentrated in urban areas. Whether the
source is trade or tourism, it is also through the ports or banking
systems, commonly located in cities, that foreign money flows into a
Many people move into cities for the economic opportunities, but this
does not fully explain the very high recent urbanization rates in
places like China and India.
Rural flight is a contributing factor to
urbanization. In rural areas, often on small family farms or
collective farms in villages, it has historically been difficult to
access manufactured goods, though the relative overall quality of life
is very subjective, and may certainly surpass that of the city. Farm
living has always been susceptible to unpredictable environmental
conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence, survival may
become extremely problematic.
Thai farmers are seen as poor, stupid, and unhealthy. As young people
flee the farms, the values and knowledge of rice farming and the
countryside are fading, including the tradition of long kek, helping
neighbors plant, harvest, or build a house. We are losing what we call
Thai-ness, the values of being kind, helping each other, having mercy
and gratefulness. — Iam Thongdee, Professor of Humanities, Mahidol
University in Bangkok
In a New York Times article concerning the acute migration away from
farming in Thailand, life as a farmer was described as "hot and
exhausting". "Everyone says the farmer works the hardest but gets the
least amount of money". In an effort to counter this impression, the
Agriculture Department of Thailand is seeking to promote the
impression that farming is "honorable and secure".
However, in Thailand, urbanization has also resulted in massive
increases in problems such as obesity. City life, especially in modern
urban slums of the developing world, is certainly hardly immune to
pestilence or climatic disturbances such as floods, yet continues to
strongly attract migrants. Examples of this were the 2011 Thailand
floods and 2007
Urban areas are also far more prone to
violence, drugs, and other urban social problems. In the United
States, industrialization of agriculture has negatively affected the
economy of small and middle-sized farms and strongly reduced the size
of the rural labour market.
These are the costs of participating in the urban economy. Your
increased income is canceled out by increased expenditure. In the end,
you have even less left for food. — Madhura Swaminathan, economist
at Kolkata’s Indian Statistical Institute
Particularly in the developing world, conflict over land rights due to
the effects of globalization has led to less politically powerful
groups, such as farmers, losing or forfeiting their land, resulting in
obligatory migration into cities. In China, where land acquisition
measures are forceful, there has been far more extensive and rapid
urbanization (54%) than in India (36%), where peasants form militant
groups (e.g. Naxalites) to oppose such efforts. Obligatory and
unplanned migration often results in rapid growth of slums. This is
also similar to areas of violent conflict, where people are driven off
their land due to violence. Bogotá,
Colombia is one example of this.
Cities offer a larger variety of services, including specialist
services not found in rural areas. These services requires workers,
resulting in more numerous and varied job opportunities. Elderly
people may be forced to move to cities where there are doctors and
hospitals that can cater for their health needs. Varied and high
quality educational opportunities are another factor in urban
migration, as well as the opportunity to join, develop, and seek out
Urbanization also creates opportunities for women that are not
available in rural areas. This creates a gender-related transformation
where women are engaged in paid employment and have access to
education. This may cause fertility to decline. However, women are
sometimes still at a disadvantage due to their unequal position in the
labour market, their inability to secure assets independently from
male relatives and exposure to violence.
People in cities are more productive than in rural areas. An important
question is whether this is due to agglomeration effects or whether
cities simply attract those who are more productive. Economists have
recently shown that there exists a large productivity gain due to
locating in dense agglomerations. It is thus possible that
agents[clarification needed] locate in cities in order to benefit from
these agglomeration effects.
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See also: List of largest cities throughout history
See also: Primate city
The dominant conurbation(s) of a country can benefit to a greater
extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not
just the non-urban population, but also urban and suburban population
from other cities. Dominant conurbations are quite often primate
cities, but do not have to be. For instance Greater
Manila is rather a
conurbation than a city: its 20 million overall population (over 20%
national population) make it very much a primate city, but Quezon City
(2.7 million), the largest municipality in Greater Manila, and Manila
(1.6 million), the capital, are not. A conurbation's dominance can be
measured by output, wealth, and especially population, each expressed
as a percentage of an entire country. Greater
Seoul is one conurbation
with massive dominance over South Korea, it is home to 50% of the
entire national population.
Though Greater Busan-Ulsan (15%, 8 million) and Greater Osaka (14%, 18
million) exhibit strong dominance in their respective countries, yet
they are losing population to their even more dominant rivals, Seoul
As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase and change
in costs, often pricing the local working class out of the market,
including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities.
For example, Eric Hobsbawm's book The age of revolution: 1789–1848
(published 1962 and 2005) chapter 11, stated "Urban development in our
period [1789–1848] was a gigantic process of class segregation,
which pushed the new labouring poor into great morasses of misery
outside the centres of government and business and the newly
specialized residential areas of the bourgeoisie. The almost universal
European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end of
large cities developed in this period." This is likely due the
prevailing south-west wind which carries coal smoke and other airborne
pollutants downwind, making the western edges of towns preferable to
the eastern ones. Similar problems now affect the developing
world, rising inequality resulting from rapid urbanization trends. The
drive for rapid urban growth and often efficiency can lead to less
equitable urban development. Think tanks such as the Overseas
Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage
labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of
low-skilled and unskilled labor. One problem these migrant workers
are involved with is the growth of slums. In many cases, the
rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by
economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford
housing in cities and have to dwell in slums. Urban problems,
along with infrastructure developments, are also fueling
suburbanization trends in developing nations, though the trend for
core cities in said nations tends to continue to become ever denser.
Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are
positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation
while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and
transportation. Living in cities permits individuals and families to
take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and
diversity. While cities have a greater variety of
markets and goods than rural areas, infrastructure congestion,
monopolization, high overhead costs, and the inconvenience of
cross-town trips frequently combine to make marketplace competition
harsher in cities than in rural areas.
In many developing countries where economies are growing, the growth
is often erratic and based on a small number of industries. For young
people in these countries barriers exist such as, lack of access to
financial services and business advisory services, difficulty in
obtaining credit to start a business, and lack of entrepreneurial
skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries.
Investment in human capital so that young people have access to
quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational
facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers.
The existence of urban heat islands has become a growing concern over
the years. An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban
areas produce and retain heat. Much of the solar energy that reaches
rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and
soil. In cities, where there is less vegetation and exposed soil, most
of the sun's energy is instead absorbed by buildings and asphalt;
leading to higher surface temperatures. Vehicles, factories and
industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more
heat. As a result, cities are often 1 to 3 °C (1.8 to
5.4 °F) warmer than surrounding landscapes. Impacts also
include reducing soil moisture and a reduction in reabsorption of
carbon dioxide emissions.
The occurrence of eutrophication in bodies of water is another effect
large urban populations have on the environment. When rain occurs in
these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2
and other green house gases in the air onto the ground below. Then,
those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams and oceans,
causing a decline in water quality and damaging marine ecosystems.
In his book Whole Earth Discipline, Stewart Brand argues that the
effects of urbanization are primarily positive for the environment.
First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to
replacement rate, and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses
caused by population growth. Secondly, emigration from rural areas
reduces destructive subsistence farming techniques, such as improperly
implemented slash and burn agriculture.
In July 2013 a report issued by the
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs warned that with 2.4 billion more
people by 2050, the amount of food produced will have to increase by
70%, straining food resources, especially in countries already facing
food insecurity due to changing environmental conditions. The mix of
changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban
regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems
and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and
Health and social effects
When cities don’t plan for increases in population it drives up
house and land prices, creating rich (ghettos) and poor ghettos. "You
get a very unequal society and that inequality is manifested where
people live, in our neighbourhoods, and it means there can be less
capacity for empathy and less development for all society." — Jack
Finegan, Urban Programme Specialist at UN-Habitat
In the developing world, urbanization does not translate into a
significant increase in life expectancy. Rapid urbanization has
led to increased mortality from non-communicable diseases associated
with lifestyle, including cancer and heart disease. Differences in
mortality from contagious diseases vary depending on the particular
disease and location.
Urban health levels are on average better in comparison to rural
areas. However, residents in poor urban areas such as slums and
informal settlements suffer "disproportionately from disease, injury,
premature death, and the combination of ill-health and poverty
entrenches disadvantage over time." Many of the urban poor have
difficulty accessing health services due to their inability to pay for
them; so they resort to less qualified and unregulated providers.
While urbanization is associated with improvements in public hygiene,
sanitation and access to health care, it also entails changes in
occupational, dietary and exercise patterns. It can have mixed
effects on health patterns, alleviating some problems and accentuating
One such effect is the formation of food deserts. Nearly 23.5 million
people in the
United States lack access to supermarkets within one
mile of their home. Several studies suggest that long distances to
a grocery store are associated with higher rates of obesity and other
Food deserts in developed countries often correspond to areas with a
high-density of fast food chains and convenience stores that offer
little to no fresh food.
Urbanization has been shown to be
associated with the consumption of less fresh fruits, vegetables, and
whole grains and a higher consumption of processed foods and
sugar-sweetened beverages. Poor access to healthy food and high
intakes of fat, sugar and salt are associated with a greater risk for
obesity, diabetes and related chronic disease. Overall, body mass
index and cholesterol levels increase sharply with national income and
the degree of urbanization.
Food deserts in the
United States are most commonly found in
low-income and predominately African American neighborhoods. One
study on food deserts in Denver, Colorado found that, in addition to
minorities, the affected neighborhoods also had a high proportion of
children and new births. In children, urbanization is associated
with a lower risk of under-nutrition but a higher risk of
Urbanization has also been associated with an increased risk for
asthma as well. Throughout the world, as communities transition from
rural to more urban societies, the number of people effected by asthma
increases. The odds of reduced rates of hospitalization and death from
asthmas has decreased for children and young adults in urbanized
municipalities in Brazil. This finding indicates that urbanization may
have a negative impact on population health particularly affecting
people’s susceptibility to asthma.
In low and middle income countries many factors contribute to the high
numbers of people with asthma. Similar to areas in the United States
with increasing urbanization, people living in growing cities in low
income countries experience high exposure to air pollution, which
increases the prevalence and severity of asthma among these
populations. Links have been found between exposure to
traffic-related air pollution and allergic diseases. Children
living in poor, urban areas in the
United States now have an increased
risk of morbidity due to asthma in comparison to other low-income
children in the United States. In addition, children with croup
living in urban areas have higher hazard ratios for asthma than
similar children living in rural areas. Researchers suggest that this
difference in hazard ratios is due to the higher levels of air
pollution and exposure to environmental allergens found in urban
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants such as nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter with a
diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), can cause DNA
methylation of CpG sites in immune cells, which increases children’s
risk of developing asthma. Studies have shown a positive correlation
between Foxp3 methylation and children’s exposure to NO2, CO, and
PM2.5. Furthermore, any amount of exposure to high levels of air
pollution have shown long term effects on the Foxp3 region.
Despite the increase in access to health services that usually
accompanies urbanization, the rise in population density negatively
affects air quality ultimately mitigating the positive value of health
resources as more children and young adults develop asthma due to high
pollution rates. However, urban planning as well as emission
control can lessen the effects of traffic-related air pollution on
allergic diseases such as asthma.
Historically crime and urbanization have gone hand in hand. The
simplest explanation is that areas with a higher population density
are surrounded by a greater availability of goods. Committing crimes
in urbanized areas is also more feasible.
Modernization has led to
more crime as well. There is a greater awareness of the income gap
between the rich and poor due to modern media. This leads to feelings
of deprivation which can lead to crime. In some regions where
urbanization happens in wealthier areas, a rise in property crime and
a decrease in violent crime is seen.
Data shows that there is an increase of crime in urbanized areas. Some
factors include per capita income, income inequality, and overall
population size. There is also a smaller association between
unemployment rate, police expenditures and crime. The presence of
crime also has the ability to produce more crime. These areas have
less social cohesion, and therefore less social control. This is
evident in the geographical regions that crime occurs in. As most
crime tends to cluster in city centers, the further the distance from
the center of the city, the lower the occurrence of crimes are.
Migration is also a factor that can increase crime in urbanized areas.
People from one area are displaced and forced to move into an
urbanized society. Here they are in a new environment with new norms
and social values. This can lead to less social cohesion and more
Although urbanization tends to produce more negative effects, one
positive effect that urbanization has impacted is an increase in
physical activity in comparison to rural areas. Residents of rural
areas and communities in the
United States have higher rates of
obesity and engage in less physical activity than urban residents.
Rural residents consume a higher percent of fat calories and are less
likely to meet the guidelines for physical activity and more likely to
be physically inactive. In comparison to regions within the
United States, the west has the lowest prevalence of physical
inactivity and the south has the highest prevalence of physical
inactivity. Metropolitan and large urban areas across all regions
have the highest prevalence of physical activity among residents.
Barriers such as geographic isolation, busy and unsafe roads, and
social stigmas lead to decreased physical activity in rural
environments. Faster speed limits on rural roads prohibits the
ability to have bike lanes, sidewalks, footpaths, and shoulders along
the side of the roads. Less developed open spaces in rural areas,
like parks and trails, suggest that there is lower walkability in
these areas in comparison to urban areas. Many residents in rural
settings have to travel long distances to utilize exercise facilities,
taking up too much time in the day and deterring residents from using
recreational facilities to obtain physical activity. Additionally,
residents of rural communities are traveling further for work,
decreasing the amount of time that can be spent on leisure physical
activity and significantly decreases the opportunity to partake in
active transportation to work.
Neighborhoods and communities with nearby fitness venues, a common
feature of urbanization, have residents that partake in increased
amounts of physical activity. Communities with sidewalks, street
lights, and traffic signals have residents participating in more
physical activity than communities without those features. Having
a variety of destinations close to where people live, increases the
use of active transportation, such as walking and biking. Active
transportation is also enhanced in urban communities where there is
easy access to public transportation due to residents walking or
biking to transportation stops.
In a study comparing different regions in the United States, opinions
across all areas were shared that environmental characteristics like
access to sidewalks, safe roads, recreational facilities, and
enjoyable scenery are positively associated with participation in
leisure physical activity. Perceiving that resources are nearby
for physical activity increases the likelihood that residents of all
communities will meet the guidelines and recommendations for
appropriate physical activity. Specific to rural residents, safety
of outdoor developed spaces and convenient availability to
recreational facilities matters most when making decisions on
increasing physical activity. In order to combat the levels of
inactivity in rural residents, more convenient recreational features,
such as the ones discussed in this paragraph, need to be implemented
into rural communities and societies.
Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the
style of architecture and planning methods as well as historic growth
In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited
a concentration of human activities and settlements around the
downtown area, the so-called in-migration. In-migration refers to
migration from former colonies and similar places. The fact that many
immigrants settle in impoverished city centres led to the notion of
the "peripheralization of the core", which simply describes that
people who used to be at the periphery of the former empires now live
right in the centre.
Recent developments, such as inner-city redevelopment schemes, mean
that new arrivals in cities no longer necessarily settle in the
centre. In some developed regions, the reverse effect, originally
called counter urbanization has occurred, with cities losing
population to rural areas, and is particularly common for richer
families. This has been possible because of improved communications,
and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor
urban environments. It has contributed to the phenomenon of shrinking
cities experienced by some parts of the industrialized world.
When the residential area shifts outward, this is called
suburbanization. A number of researchers and writers suggest that
suburbanization has gone so far to form new points of concentration
outside the downtown both in developed and developing countries such
as India. This networked, poly-centric form of concentration is
considered by some emerging pattern of urbanization. It is called
variously exurbia, edge city (Garreau, 1991), network city (Batten,
1995), or postmodern city (Dear, 2000). Los Angeles is the best-known
example of this type of urbanization. Interestingly, in the United
States, this process has reversed as of 2011, with "re-urbanization"
occurring as suburban flight due to chronically high transport
Rural migrants are attracted by the possibilities that cities can
offer, but often settle in shanty towns and experience extreme
poverty. The inability of countries to provide adequate housing for
these rural migrants is related to overurbanization, a phenomenon in
which the rate of urbanization grows more rapidly than the rate of
economic development, leading to high unemployment and high demand for
resources. In the 1980s, this was attempted to be tackled with the
urban bias theory which was promoted by Michael Lipton.
...the most important class conflict in the poor countries of the
world today is not between labour and capital. Nor is it between
foreign and national interests. It is between rural classes and urban
classes. The rural sector contains most of the poverty and most of the
low-cost sources of potential advance; but the urban sector contains
most of the articulateness, organization and power. So the urban
classes have been able to win most of the rounds of the struggle with
the countryside...". — Michael Lipton, author of urban bias
Most of the urban poor in developing countries unable to find work,
can spend their lives in insecure, poorly paid jobs. According to
research by the
Overseas Development Institute pro-poor urbanization
will require labour-intensive growth, supported by labour protection,
flexible land use regulation and investments in basic services.'
Urbanization can be planned urbanization or organic. Planned
urbanization, i.e.: planned community or the garden city movement, is
based on an advance plan, which can be prepared for military,
aesthetic, economic or urban design reasons. Examples can be seen in
many ancient cities; although with exploration came the collision of
nations, which meant that many invaded cities took on the desired
planned characteristics of their occupiers. Many ancient organic
cities experienced redevelopment for military and economic purposes,
new roads carved through the cities, and new parcels of land were
cordoned off serving various planned purposes giving cities
distinctive geometric designs. UN agencies prefer to see urban
infrastructure installed before urbanization occurs. Landscape
planners are responsible for landscape infrastructure (public parks,
sustainable urban drainage systems, greenways etc.) which can be
planned before urbanization takes place, or afterward to revitalize an
area and create greater livability within a region. Concepts of
control of the urban expansion are considered in the American
Institute of Planners.
As population continues to grow and urbanize at unprecedented rates,
new urbanism and smart growth techniques are implemented to create a
transition into developing environmentally, economically, and socially
sustainable cities. Smart Growth and New Urbanism’s principles
include walkability, mixed-use development, comfortable high-density
design, land conservation, social equity, and economic diversity.
Mixed-use communities work to fight gentrification with affordable
housing to promote social equity, decrease automobile dependency to
lower use of fossil fuels, and promote a localized economy. Walkable
communities have a 38% higher average GDP per capita than less
walkable urban metros (Leinberger, Lynch). By combining economic,
environmental, and social sustainability, cities will become
equitable, resilient, and more appealing than urban sprawl that
overuses land, promotes automobile use, and segregates the population
Back to the land
Division of labour
Megalopolis (city type)
Urbanization by country
Contributors to urbanization:
British Agricultural Revolution
Urbanization in Africa
Urbanization in China
Urbanization in India
Urbanization in Pakistan
Urbanization in the United States
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Library resources about
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