The Info List - Upton Sinclair

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Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres. Sinclair's work was well known and popular in the first half of the 20th century, and he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1943. In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic muck-raking novel The Jungle, which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the U.S. meatpacking industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.[1] In 1919, he published The Brass Check, a muck-raking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the “free press” in the United States. Four years after publication of The Brass Check, the first code of ethics for journalists was created.[2] Time magazine called him "a man with every gift except humor and silence".[3] He is also well remembered for the line: "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it."[4] He used this line in speeches and the book about his campaign for governor as a way to explain why the editors and publishers of the major newspapers in California
would not treat seriously his proposals for old age pensions and other progressive reforms.[5] Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized America from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of view. Novels such as King Coal
King Coal
(1917), The Coal War
The Coal War
(published posthumously), Oil!
(1927), and The Flivver King
The Flivver King
(1937) describe the working conditions of the coal, oil, and auto industries at the time. The Flivver King
The Flivver King
describes the rise of Henry Ford, his "wage reform", and the company's Sociological Department to his decline into antisemitism as publisher of The Dearborn Independent. King Coal confronts John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and his role in the 1913 Ludlow Massacre in the coal fields of Colorado. Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a nominee from the Socialist
Party. He was also the Democratic Party candidate for Governor of California
Governor of California
during the Great Depression, running under the banner of the End Poverty in California campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections.


1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Other interests 4 Political career 5 Personal life 6 Writing

6.1 The Jungle 6.2 The Brass Check 6.3 Sylvia novels 6.4 I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty 6.5 Lanny Budd series 6.6 Other works

7 Representation in popular culture 8 Films 9 Quotes 10 Works 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early life and education[edit] Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Upton Beall Sinclaira and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and coffee. As a child, Sinclair slept either on sofas or cross-ways on his parents' bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep alone in the bed with his mother.[6] Sinclair did not get along with her when he became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him independence. Sinclair later told his son, David, that around Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would start if they met.[7] His mother's family was very affluent: her parents were very prosperous in Baltimore, and her sister married a millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the poor lived during the late 19th century. Living in two social settings affected him and greatly influenced his books. Upton Beall Sinclair, Sr., was from a highly respected family in the South, but the family was financially ruined by the Civil War, disruptions of the labor system during the Reconstruction era, and an extended agricultural depression. As he was growing up, Upton's family moved frequently, as his father was not successful in his career. He developed a love for reading when he was five years old. He read every book his mother owned for a deeper understanding of the world. He did not start school until he was 10 years old. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up quickly because of his embarrassment.[8] In 1888, the Sinclair family moved to Queens, New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered the City College of New York
City College of New York
five days before his 14th birthday,[9] on September 15, 1892.[10] He wrote jokes, dime novels, and magazine articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition.[11] With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment when he was seventeen years old.[12] He graduated in June 1897 and studied for a time at Columbia University.[13] His major was law, but he was more interested in writing, and he learned several languages, including Spanish, German, and French. He paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a variety of things. He would sign up for a class and then later drop it.[14] He again supported himself through college by writing boys' adventure stories and jokes. He also sold ideas to cartoonists.[12] Using stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per day. His only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to educate him about socialism.[15] After leaving Columbia, he wrote four books in the next four years; they were commercially unsuccessful though critically well-received: King Midas (1901), Prince Hagen (1902), The Journal of Arthur Stirling
The Journal of Arthur Stirling
(1903), and a Civil War novel titled Manassas (1904).[citation needed] Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir specialized in sexual abstinence and taught his beliefs to Sinclair. He was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic.[8] Career[edit] Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
imagined himself a poet and dedicated his time to writing poetry.[16]

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
early in his career

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the Rockefeller Building in New York City

In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his novel, The Jungle
The Jungle
(1906), a political exposé that addressed conditions in the plants, as well as the lives of poor immigrants. When it was published two years later, it became a bestseller. With the income from The Jungle, Sinclair founded the utopian--but non-Jewish white only-- Helicon Home Colony in Englewood, New Jersey ( Helicon Home Colony was a white-only space [17]). He ran as a Socialist
candidate for Congress.[18][19] The colony burned down under suspicious circumstances within a year.[20] In the spring of 1905, Sinclair issued a call for the formation of a new organization, a group to be called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society.[21] In 1913–1914, Sinclair made three trips to the coal fields of Colorado, which led him to write King Coal
King Coal
and caused him to begin work on the larger, more historical The Coal War. In 1914, Sinclair helped organize demonstrations in New York City against Rockefeller at the Standard Oil offices. The demonstrations touched off more actions by the Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
(IWW) and the Mother Earth group, a loose association of anarchists and IWW members, in Rockefeller's hometown of Tarrytown.[22] The Sinclairs moved to California
in the 1920s and lived there for nearly four decades. During his years with his second wife, Mary Craig, Sinclair wrote or produced several films. Recruited by Charlie Chaplin, Sinclair and Mary Craig produced Eisenstein's ¡Qué viva México! in 1930–32.[23] Other interests[edit] Aside from his political and social writings, Sinclair took an interest in occult phenomena and experimented with telepathy. His book Mental Radio
Mental Radio
(1930) included accounts of his wife Mary's telepathic experiences and ability.[24][25] William McDougall read the book and wrote an introduction to it, which led him to establish the parapsychology department at Duke University.[26] Political career[edit] Sinclair broke with the Socialist
party in 1917 and supported the war effort. By the 1920s, however, he had returned to the party. In the 1920s, the Sinclairs moved to Monrovia, California, near Los Angeles, where Sinclair founded the state's chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. Wanting to pursue politics, he twice ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress on the Socialist
ticket: in 1920 for the House of Representatives and in 1922 for the Senate. He was the party candidate for governor California
in 1930, winning nearly 50,000 votes. During this period, Sinclair was also active in radical politics in Los Angeles. For instance, in 1923, to support the challenged free speech rights of Industrial Workers of the World, Sinclair spoke at a rally during the San Pedro Maritime Strike, in a neighborhood now known as Liberty Hill. He began to read from the Bill of Rights and was promptly arrested, along with hundreds of others, by the LAPD. The arresting officer proclaimed: "We'll have none of that Constitution stuff".[27] In 1934, Sinclair ran in the California
gubernatorial election as a Democrat. Sinclair's platform, known as the End Poverty in California movement (EPIC), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and Sinclair gained its nomination.[28] Gaining 879,000 votes made this his most successful run for office, but incumbent Governor Frank F. Merriam defeated him by a sizable margin,[29] gaining 1,138,000 votes.[30][31] Hollywood studio bosses unanimously opposed Sinclair. They pressured their employees to assist and vote for Merriam's campaign, and made false propaganda films attacking Sinclair, giving him no opportunity to respond.[32]

Upton Sinclair

Sinclair's plan to end poverty quickly became a controversial issue under the pressure of numerous migrants to California
fleeing the Dust Bowl. Conservatives considered his proposal an attempted communist takeover of their state and quickly opposed him, using propaganda to portray Sinclair as a staunch communist. Sinclair had been a member of the Socialist
Party from 1902 to 1934, when he became a Democrat, though always considering himself a Socialist
in spirit.[33] The Socialist
party in California
and nationwide refused to allow its members to be active in any other party including the Democratic Party and expelled him, along with socialists who supported his California campaign. The expulsions destroyed the Socialist
party in California.[34] At the same time, American and Soviet communists disassociated themselves from him, considering him a capitalist.[35] In later writings, such as his antialcohol book The Cup of Fury, Sinclair scathingly censured communism. Science-fiction author Robert A. Heinlein was deeply involved in Sinclair's campaign, although he attempted to move away from the stance later in his life.[36] After his loss to Merriam, Sinclair abandoned EPIC and politics to return to writing. In 1935, he published I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked, in which he described the techniques employed by Merriam's supporters, including the then popular Aimee Semple McPherson, who vehemently opposed socialism and what she perceived as Sinclair's modernism. Sinclair's line from this book "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it" has become well known and was for example quoted by Al Gore
Al Gore
in An Inconvenient Truth.[37] Of his gubernatorial bid, Sinclair remarked in 1951:

The American People will take Socialism, but they won't take the label. I certainly proved it in the case of EPIC. Running on the Socialist
ticket I got 60,000 votes, and running on the slogan to 'End Poverty in California' I got 879,000. I think we simply have to recognize the fact that our enemies have succeeded in spreading the Big Lie. There is no use attacking it by a front attack, it is much better to out-flank them.[38]

Personal life[edit]

Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC

In April 1900, Sinclair went to Lake Massawippi in Quebec to work on a novel. He had a small cabin rented for three months and then he moved to a farmhouse.[8] Here, his future wife, Meta Fuller, and he became close. She was three years younger than him and had aspirations of being more than a housewife. Sinclair gave her direction as to what to read and learn.[8] Meta had been a childhood friend whose family was one of the First Families of Virginia. Each had warned the other about themselves and would later bring that up in arguments. They married October 18, 1900.[8] They used abstinence as their main form of birth control. Meta became pregnant with a child shortly after they married and attempted to abort it multiple times.[8] The child was born on December 1, 1901, and named David.[39][page needed] Meta and her family tried to get Sinclair to give up writing and get "a job that would support his family."[16] Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the poet Harry Kemp, later known as the "Dunes Poet" of Provincetown, Massachusetts. In 1913, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman from an elite Greenwood, Mississippi, family. She had written articles and a book on Winnie Davis, the daughter of Confederate States
Confederate States
of America President Jefferson Davis. He met her when she attended a lecture by him about The Jungle.[40] In the 1920s, the Sinclair couple moved to California. They were married until her death in 1961. Sinclair married again, to Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967).[41] Sinclair was opposed to sex outside of marriage and he viewed marital relations as necessary only for procreation.[42] He told his first wife Meta that only the birth of a child gave marriage "dignity and meaning".[43] Despite his beliefs, he had an adulterous affair with Anna Noyes during his marriage to Meta. He wrote a novel about the affair called Love's Progress, a sequel to Love's Pilgrimage. It was never published. [44] His wife next had an affair with John Armistead Collier, a theology student from Memphis; they had a son together named Ben.[45] In his novel, Mammonart, he suggested that Christianity
was a religion that favored the rich and promoted a drop of standards. He was against it.[46] Late in life Sinclair, with his third wife Mary Willis, moved to Buckeye, Arizona. They returned east to Bound Brook, New Jersey. Sinclair died there in a nursing home on November 25, 1968, a year after his wife.[47] He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery
Rock Creek Cemetery
in Washington, DC, next to Willis. Writing[edit] Sinclair devoted his writing career to documenting and criticizing the social and economic conditions of the early 20th century in both fiction and nonfiction. He exposed his view of the injustices of capitalism and the overwhelming effects of poverty among the working class. He also edited collections of fiction and nonfiction. The Jungle[edit] His novel based on the meatpacking industry in Chicago, The Jungle, was first published in serial form in the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason, from February 25, 1905, to November 4, 1905. It was published as a book by Doubleday in 1906.[48] Sinclair had spent about six months investigating the Chicago meatpacking industry for Appeal to Reason, the work which inspired his novel. He intended to "set forth the breaking of human hearts by a system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit".[49] The novel featured Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant who works in a meat factory in Chicago, his teenaged wife Ona Lukoszaite, and their extended family. Sinclair portrays their mistreatment by Rudkus' employers and the wealthier elements of society. His descriptions of the unsanitary and inhumane conditions that workers suffered served to shock and galvanize readers. Jack London
Jack London
called Sinclair's book "the Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin
of wage slavery".[50] Domestic and foreign purchases of American meat fell by half.[51] Sinclair wrote in Cosmopolitan in October 1906 about The Jungle: "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach."[3] The novel brought public lobbying for Congressional legislation and government regulation of the industry, including passage of the Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act
and the Pure Food and Drug Act.[52][53] At the time, President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
characterized Sinclair as a "crackpot",[54] writing to William Allen White, "I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth."[55] After reading The Jungle, Roosevelt agreed with some of Sinclair's conclusions, but was opposed to legislation that he considered "socialist". He said, "Radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist."[56] The Brass Check[edit] In The Brass Check (1919), Sinclair made a systematic and incriminating critique of the severe limitations of the “free press” in the United States. Among the topics covered is the use of yellow journalism techniques created by William Randolph Hearst. Sinclair called The Brass Check "the most important and most dangerous book I have ever written."[57] Sylvia novels[edit]

Sylvia (1913) was a novel about a Southern girl. In her autobiography, Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair
said she had written the book based on her own experiences as a girl, and Upton collaborated with her. [note 1][58] She asked him to publish it under his name.[59] When it appeared in 1913, The New York Times
The New York Times
called it "the best novel Mr. Sinclair has yet written–so much the best that it stands in a class by itself."[60] Sylvia's Marriage (1914), Craig and Sinclair collaborated on a sequel, also published by John C. Winston Company under Upton Sinclair's name.[61] In his 1962 autobiography, Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
wrote: "[Mary] Craig had written some tales of her Southern girlhood; and I had stolen them from her for a novel to be called Sylvia."[62]

I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty[edit] This was a novel he published in 1934 as a preface to running for office. He outlined his plans in it.[63] Lanny Budd series[edit] Between 1940 and 1953, Sinclair wrote a series of 11 novels featuring a central character named Lanny Budd. The son of an American arms manufacturer, Budd is portrayed as holding in the confidence of world leaders, and not simply witnessing events, but often propelling them. As a sophisticated socialite, who mingles easily with people from all cultures and socioeconomic classes, Budd has been characterized as the antithesis of the stereotyped "Ugly American".[64] Sinclair placed Budd within the important political events in the United States and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. An actual company named the Budd Company
Budd Company
manufactured arms during World War II, founded by Edward G. Budd
Edward G. Budd
in 1912. The novels were bestsellers upon publication and were published in translation, appearing in 21 countries. The third book in the series, Dragon's Teeth (1942), won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel
Pulitzer Prize for the Novel
in 1943.[65] Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016.[66] The Lanny Budd series includes:

World's End, 1940 Between Two Worlds, 1941 Dragon's Teeth, 1942 Wide Is the Gate, 1943 Presidential Agent, 1944 Dragon Harvest, 1945 A World to Win, 1946 Presidential Mission, 1947 One Clear Call, 1948 O Shepherd, Speak!, 1949 The Return of Lanny Budd, 1953

Other works[edit] Sinclair was keenly interested in health and nutrition. He experimented with various diets, and with fasting. He wrote about this in his book, The Fasting Cure (1911), another bestseller.[67] He believed that periodic fasting was important for health, saying, "I had taken several fasts of ten or twelve days' duration, with the result of a complete making over of my health".[68] Sinclair favored a raw food diet of predominantly vegetables and nuts. For long periods of time, he was a complete vegetarian, but he also experimented with eating meat. His attitude to these matters was fully explained in the chapter, “The Use of Meat”, in the above-mentioned book.[69] Representation in popular culture[edit]

President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
greets Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
as others look on.

Sinclair is featured as one of the main characters in Chris Bachelder's satirical novel, U.S.! (2005). Repeatedly, Sinclair is resurrected after his death and assassinated again, a "personification of the contemporary failings of the American left". He is portrayed as a quixotic reformer attempting to stir an apathetic American public to implement socialism in America.[70] Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
refers to Sinclair and his EPIC plan in Lewis' novel, It Can't Happen Here
It Can't Happen Here
(1935). Joyce Carol Oates
Joyce Carol Oates
refers to Sinclair and his first wife, Meta, in her novel The Accursed (2013). Sinclair is extensively featured as a figure in Harry Turtledove's American Empire trilogy (2001–2003) as part of the Southern Victory Series, an alternate history in which the American Socialist
Party succeeds in becoming a major force in U.S. politics. This follows two humiliating military defeats to the Confederate States, the United Kingdom, and France
and the post-1882 collapse of the Republican Party, with former president Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
leading a large number of Liberal Republicans into the Socialist
Party. Sinclair wins the 1920 and 1924 presidential elections and becomes the first Socialist President of the United States. He was also the 28th president in the timeline. On March 4, 1921, his inauguration attended by crowds of jubilant militants waving red flags. However, his policies as portrayed by Turtledove are not particularly radical. Sinclair served as president until 1929, when his Vice President Hosea Blackford is elected in 1928 and becomes the 30th president.


The Jungle
The Jungle
(1914) is a silent film adaptation of the 1906 novel, with George Nash playing Jurgis Rudkus and Gail Kane playing Ona Lukozsaite. The film is considered lost.[71] Sinclair appears at the beginning and end of the film as a form of endorsement.[72] The Wet Parade
The Wet Parade
(1932) is a film adaptation of Sinclair's eponymous 1931 novel, directed by Victor Fleming
Victor Fleming
and starring Robert Young, Myrna Loy, Walter Huston, and Jimmy Durante.[73] Walt Disney Productions
Walt Disney Productions
adapted The Gnomobile
The Gnomobile
(1937) into the 1967 musical motion picture The Gnome-Mobile.[74] Oil!
(1927) was adapted as the film There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood
(2007), starring Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
and Paul Dano, and written, produced, and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. The film received eight Oscar nominations and won two.[75]


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"Our newspapers do not represent public interests, but private interests; they do not represent humanity, but property; they value a man, not because he is great, or good, or wise, or useful, but because he is wealthy, or of service to vested wealth." (Source: The Brass Check, p. 125) "I was determined to get something done about the Condemned Meat Industry. I was determined to get something done about the atrocious conditions under which men, women and children were working the Chicago stockyards. In my efforts to get something done, I was like an animal in a cage. The bars of this cage were newspapers, which stood between me and the public; and inside the cage I roamed up and down, testing one bar after another, and finding them impossible to break." (Source: The Brass Check, p. 39) "The social body to which we belong is at this moment passing through one of the greatest crises of its history ... What if the nerves upon which we depend for knowledge of this social body should give us false reports of its condition?" (Source: The Brass Check, p. 9) Works[edit]

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
selling the "Fig Leaf Edition" of his book Oil!
(1927) in Boston


Courtmartialed – 1898 Saved By the Enemy – 1898 The Fighting Squadron – 1898 A Prisoner of Morro – 1898 A Soldier Monk – 1898 A Gauntlet of Fire – 1899 Holding the Fort  – 1899 A Soldier's Pledge – 1899 Wolves of the Navy – 1899 Springtime and Harvest – 1901, reissued the same year as King Midas The Journal of Arthur Stirling – 1903 Off For West Point – 1903 From Port to Port – 1903 On Guard – 1903 A Strange Cruise – 1903 The West Point Rivals – 1903 A West Point Treasure – 1903 A Cadet's Honor – 1903 Cliff, the Naval Cadet – 1903 The Cruise of the Training Ship – 1903 Prince Hagen – 1903 Manassas: A Novel of the War – 1904, reissued in 1959 as Theirs be the Guilt A Captain of Industry – 1906 The Jungle – 1906 The Overman – 1907 The Industrial Republic – 1907 The Metropolis – 1908 The Moneychangers – 1908, reprinted as The Money Changers Samuel The Seeker – 1910 Love's Pilgrimage – 1911 Damaged Goods – 1913 Sylvia – 1913 Sylvia's Marriage – 1914 King Coal – 1917 Jimmie Higgins – 1919 Debs and the Poets – 1920 100% - The Story of a Patriot – 1920 The Spy – 1920 The Book of Life – 1921 They Call Me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming – 1922 The Millennium – 1924 The Goslings A Study Of The American Schools – 1924 Mammonart – 1925 The Spokesman's Secretary – 1926 Money Writes! – 1927 Oil! – 1927 Boston, 2 vols. – 1928 Mountain City – 1930 Roman Holiday – 1931 The Wet Parade – 1931 American Outpost – 1932 The Way Out (novel) – 1933 Immediate Epic – 1933 The Lie Factory Starts – 1934 The Book of Love – 1934 Depression Island – 1935 Co-op: a Novel of Living Together – 1936 The Gnomobile – 1936, 1962 Wally for Queen – 1936 No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid – 1937 The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America  – 1937 Little Steel – 1938 Our Lady – 1938 Expect No Peace – 1939 Marie Antoinette (novel) – 1939 Telling The World – 1939 Your Million Dollars – 1939 World's End – 1940 World's End Impending – 1940 Between Two Worlds – 1941 Dragon's Teeth – 1942 Wide Is the Gate – 1943 Presidential Agent, 1944 Dragon Harvest – 1945 A World to Win – 1946 A Presidential Mission – 1947 A Giant's Strength – 1948 Limbo on the Loose – 1948 One Clear Call – 1948 O Shepherd, Speak! – 1949 Another Pamela – 1950 Schenk Stefan! – 1951 A Personal Jesus – 1952 The Return of Lanny Budd – 1953 What Didymus Did – UK 1954 / It Happened to Didymus – US 1958 Theirs be the Guilt – 1959 Affectionately Eve – 1961 The Coal War – 1976


The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair. With Maeve Elizabeth Flynn III. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962. My Lifetime in Letters. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1960. The Cup of Fury – 1956


Good Health and How We Won It: With an Account of New Hygiene (1909) – 1909 The Fasting Cure – 1911 The Profits of Religion – 1917 The Brass Check – 1919 The McNeal-Sinclair Debate on Socialism – 1921 The Goose-Step – 1923 Letters to Judd, an American Workingman – 1925 Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? – 1930, 1962 Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Presents William Fox – 1933 We, People of America, and how we ended poverty : a true story of the future – 1933 I, Governor of California
Governor of California
- and How I Ended Poverty – 1933 The Epic Plan for California – 1934 I, Candidate for Governor - and How I Got Licked – 1935 Epic Answers: How to End Poverty in California
(1935) – 1934 What God Means to Me – 1936 Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
on the Soviet Union – 1938[76] Letters to a Millionaire – 1939


Plays of Protest: The Naturewoman, The Machine, The Second-Story Man, Prince Hagen – 1912 The Pot Boiler – 1913 Hell: A Verse Drama and Photoplay – 1924 Singing Jailbirds: A Drama in Four Acts – 1924 Bill Porter: A Drama of O. Henry in Prison – 1925 The Enemy Had It Too: A Play in Three Acts – 1950

As editor

The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest – 1915

See also[edit]

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
House — in Monrovia, California. Will H. Kindig, a supporter on the Los Angeles City Council


^ According to Craig, at her insistence Sinclair published Sylvia (1913) under his name. In her 1957 memoir, she described how her husband and she had collaborated on the work:

"Upton and I struggled through several chapters of Sylvia together, disagreeing about something on every page. But now and then each of us admitted that the other had improved something. I was learning fast now that this novelist was not much of a psychologist. He thought of characters in a book merely as vehicles for carrying his ideas."


^ The Jungle: Upton Sinclair's Roar Is Even Louder to Animal Advocates Today, Humane Society of the United States, March 10, 2006, archived from the original on January 6, 2010, retrieved June 10, 2010  ^ "Upton Sinclair", Press in America, PB works . ^ a b "Uppie's Goddess", Books, Time, November 18, 1957, retrieved November 6, 2010 . ^ Sinclair, Upton (1994). I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked. Berkeley, CA: University of California
Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-520-08197-0.  ^ I, Candidate for Governor. ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) “Upton Sinclair: American Rebel.” Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. ^ Derrick, Scott (2002), "What a Beating Feels Like: Authorship Dissolution, and Masculinity in Sinclair's The Jungle", in Bloom, Harold, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Infobase, pp. 131–32 . ^ a b c d e f Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. ^ Sinclair, Upton, "Joslyn T Pine Note", in Negri, Paul, The Jungle, Dover Thrift, pp. vii–viii . ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. ^ Sinclair, Upton (1906). "What Life Means to Me". The Cosmopolitan. Schlicht & Field. pp. 591ff. Retrieved 6 October 2011.  ^ a b Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinlclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. ^ "Upton Sinclair", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved June 16, 2010 . ^ Yoder, Jon A. (1975) "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York. ^ Yoder, Jon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York. ^ a b Harris, Leon. (1975.) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. ^ "How Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Turned The Jungle
The Jungle
Into a Failed New Jersey Utopia".  ^ "Upton Sinclair's Colony To Live At Helicon Hall. Luxury In Co-Operation And There May Be Some Compromises Just At First" (PDF). The New York Times. 7 October 1906. Retrieved 22 August 2009.  ^ Paulin, LRE (March 1907). "Simplified Housekeeping: The Present Quarters of Upton Sinclair's Colony At Englewood, New Jersey". Indoors and Out: the Homebuilder's Magazine. III (6): 288–92. Retrieved 2009-08-16.  ^ "Fire Wipes Out Helicon Hall, And Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Hints That the Steel Trust's Hand May Be In It" (PDF). The New York Times. 17 March 1907. Retrieved 22 August 2009.  ^ Harry W. Laidler, "Ten Years of ISS Progress," The Intercollegiate Socialist, vol. 4, no. 1 (Oct.-Nov. 1915), pg. 16. ^ Graham, John (1976). The Coal War. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. pp. lvi–lxxv. ISBN 0-87081-067-7.  ^ Dashiell, Chris (1998), "Eisenstein's Mexican Dream", Cinescene, retrieved June 16, 2010 . ^ Gardner, Martin (1957), Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science, Courier Dover, pp. 309–10  access-date= requires url= (help), Google Books. ^ Mental Radio
Mental Radio
(Books), Google, retrieved July 25, 2010 . ^ Kenyon, J. Douglas (2014-09-01). Atlantis Rising 107 - September/October 2014. Atlantis Rising LLC. ISBN 9781634439206.  ^ Robert Gottlieb, Mark Vallianatos, Regina M. Freer, and Peter Dreier (2005). The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City (second ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25009-3. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Katrina Vanden Heuvel, The Nation
The Nation
1865–1990, p. 80, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990 ISBN 1-56025-001-1 ^ Sinclair, Upton. "End Poverty in California
The EPIC Movement", The Literary Digest, 13 Oct 1934 ^ Bread Upon The Waters, ch. 31, by Rose Pesotta, 1945 ^ Rob Leicester Wagner, Hollywood Bohemia: The Roots of Progressive Politics in Rob Wagner's Script (Janaway Publishing, 2016) (ISBN 978-1-59641-369-6) ^ Cohen, Harvey G. (2015). "The Struggle to Fashion the NRA Code: The Triumph of Studio Power in 1933 Hollywood". Journal of American Studies. 50 (04): 1039–1066. doi:10.1017/S002187581500122X. ISSN 0021-8758.  ^ [1]Alden Whitman, Rebel With a Cause, The New York Times, November 26, 1968 ^ James N. Gregory, "Upton Sinclair's 1934 EPIC Campaign: Anatomy of a Political Movement." Labor 12#4 (2015): 51–81. ^ Greg Mitchell, The Campaign of the Century: Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
and the EPIC Campaign in California
(Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991) ^ Patterson, William H. Robert A. Heinlein: In Dialogue with His Century: Volume 1 (1907–1948): Learning Curve New York: Tor Books, 2010; pp. 187–205, 527–530, and passim ^ Rossiter, Caleb S. The Turkey and the Eagle: The Struggle for America's Global Role. p. 207.  ^ Spartacus Educational: " Socialist
Party of America," Upton Sinclair, letter to Norman Thomas
Norman Thomas
(25th September, 1951), accessed June 10, 2010 ^ Arthur 2006. ^ Arthur 2006, pp. 132–33. ^ "Mrs. Upton Sinclair, Author's Wife, Dies". The Bridgeport Post. Bridgeport, Connecticut. 20 Dec 1967. p. 72. Retrieved 17 May 2016 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Arthur 2006, pp. 96–97. ^ Arthur 2006, pp. 46–47. ^ Arthur 2006, p. 109. ^ Arthur 2006, pp. 111–12. ^ Upton Sinclair, Mammonart, p. 270 ^ "Upton Sinclair, Author, Dead", The New York Times, November 26, 1968, retrieved July 22, 2010 . ^ "The Jungle", History News Network ^ Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle, Dover Thrift Editions, General Editor Paul Negri; Editor of The Jungle, Joslyn T Pine. Note: pp. vii–viii ^ Socalhistory.org ^ "Sinclair's 'The Jungle' Turns 100", PBS Newshour, 10 May 2006, accessed 10 June 2010 ^ Marcus, p. 131 ^ Bloom, Harold. Ed., 'Upton Sinclair's The Jungle,' Infobase Publishing, 2002, p. 11 ^ Fulton Oursler, Behold This Dreamer! (Boston: Little, Brown, 1964), p. 417 ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1951–54), "July 31, 1906", in Morison, Elting E, The Letters, 5, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 340 . ^ "Upton Sinclair, The Jungle", Spartacus, UK: School net, archived from the original on 2006-09-23 . ^ " Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
& The Jungle", Socialist
standard, World socialism (1227), Nov 2006 . ^ Sinclair, Mary Craig, Southern Belle, pp. 106–8, 111–2, 129–32, 142; quote 111–2 . ^ Prenshaw, Peggy W, "Sinclair, Mary Craig Kimbrough", in Lloyd, James B, Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817–1967 (Google Books), pp. 409–10, retrieved November 9, 2010 . ^ "'Sylvia': Mr. Upton Sinclair's Novel upon a Much-Discussed Theme", The New York Times, 25 May 1913, retrieved November 6, 2010  ^ Southern Belle, p. 146 . ^ Upton Sinclair, The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair, NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962, pp. 180, 195 ^ Lepore, Jill. "The Lie Factory." The New Yorker. ^ Salamon, Julie (22 July 2005). "Upton Sinclair: Revisit to Old Hero Finds He's Still Lively". The New York Times. Books. Retrieved 21 January 2010.  ^ Brennan, Elizabeth A.; Clarage, Elizabeth C. (1999). Who's Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Phoenix: Oryx Press. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-57356-111-2. Retrieved 29 November 2011.  ^ Openroadmedia.com ^ "'The Fasting Cure', by Upton Sinclair", Soil and Health ^ "Perfect Health!" (chapter), The Fasting Cure, at Soil and Health ^ "The Use of Meat" (chapter). The Fasting Cure, at Soil and Health ^ L'Official, Peter. "Left Behind". The Village Voice (14 February 2006). Retrieved 17 November 2011.  ^ "The Jungle". silentera.com.  ^ " The Jungle
The Jungle
(1914)", The New York Times, retrieved July 1, 2010 . ^ "Movie Review - Walter Huston
Walter Huston
and Lewis Stone in a Very "Wet Parade" Before and After Prohibition. - NYTimes.com". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-10-21.  ^ "The Gnome-Mobile", Internet Movie Database, retrieved June 10, 2010 . ^ "There Will Be Blood", Internet Movie Database, 2007 . ^ New York : Weekly Masses Co.

Further reading[edit]

Arthur, Anthony (2006), Radical Innocent Upton Sinclair, New York: Random House . William A. Bloodworth, Jr., Upton Sinclair. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1977. Lauren Coodley, editor, The Land of Orange Groves and Jails: Upton Sinclair's California. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, 2004. Lauren Coodley, Upton Sinclair: California
Socialist, Celebrity Intellectual. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2013. Engs, Ruth Clifford, [Ed] Unseen Upton Sinclair: Nine Unpublished Stories, Essays and Other Works. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. 2009. Graham, John, The Coal War, Colorado Associated University Press, 1976. Ronald Gottesman, Upton Sinclair: An Annotated Checklist. Kent State University Press, 1973. Harris, Leon. Upton Sinclair, American Rebel. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co, 1975. Leader, Leonard. "Upton Sinclair's EPIC Switch: A Dilemma for American Socialists." Southern California
Quarterly 62.4 (1980): 361–385. Mattson, Kevin. Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
and the Other American Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Mitchell, Greg. The Campaign of the Century: Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
and the EPIC Campaign in California. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991. Swint, Kerwin. Mudslingers: The Twenty-five Dirtiest Political Campaigns of All Time. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006. Jon A. Yoder, Upton Sinclair. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1975. Rob Leicester Wagner, Hollywood Bohemia: The Roots of Progressive Politics in Rob Wagner's Script (Janaway 2016) (ISBN 978-1-59641-369-6) Martin Zanger, " Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
as California's Socialist
Candidate for Congress, 1920," Southern California
Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 4 (Winter 1974), pp. 359–73.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutUpton Sinclairat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Works by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Internet Archive Works by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) The Jungle
The Jungle
Department of American Studies, University of Virginia The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest, Bartleby.com Guide to the Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University Phelps, Christopher (26 June 2006), The Fictitious Suppression of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, History News network . Upton Sinclair, "EPIC", Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco "A Tribute To Two Sinclairs", Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
& Upton Sinclair Information about Sinclair and Progressive Journalism today "Writings of Upton Sinclair" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Find a Grave "Upton Sinclair's 1929 letter to John Beardsley", Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
to John Beardsley Upton Sinclair – Induction into the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame

Party political offices

Preceded by Milton M. Young Democratic nominee for Governor of California 1934 Succeeded by Culbert Olson

Vacant Title last held by Noble A. Richardson, 1914 Socialist
nominee for Governor of California 1926, 1930 Party defunct

v t e

Pulitzer Prize for Fiction


His Family
His Family
by Ernest Poole
Ernest Poole
(1918) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1919) The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
by Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
(1921) Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1922) One of Ours
One of Ours
by Willa Cather
Willa Cather
(1923) The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins
by Margaret Wilson (1924) So Big by Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber


Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) Early Autumn
Early Autumn
by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary
by Julia Peterkin (1929) Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930) Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) The Good Earth
The Good Earth
by Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck
(1932) The Store
The Store
by Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
(1933) Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom
by Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller
(1934) Now in November
Now in November
by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn
by Harold L. Davis (1936) Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
(1937) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
by John Phillips Marquand (1938) The Yearling
The Yearling
by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1940) In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow
Ellen Glasgow
(1942) Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark
by Martin Flavin (1944) A Bell for Adano by John Hersey
John Hersey
(1945) All the King's Men
All the King's Men
by Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren
(1947) Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific
by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor
by James Gould Cozzens (1949) The Way West
The Way West
by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)


The Town by Conrad Richter (1951) The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(1953) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor
MacKinlay Kantor
(1956) A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
by James Agee
James Agee
(1958) The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Allen Drury
(1960) To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(1961) The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor (1962) The Reivers
The Reivers
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House
by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner
by William Styron
William Styron
(1968) House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
by N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1969) The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter
by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
by Michael Shaara (1975)


Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson
(1978) The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song
by Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
(1980) A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces
by John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole
(1981) Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich
by John Updike
John Updike
(1982) The Color Purple
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984) Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985) Lonesome Dove
Lonesome Dove
by Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
(1986) A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis
by Peter Taylor (1987) Beloved by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) Breathing Lessons
Breathing Lessons
by Anne Tyler (1989) The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) Rabbit at Rest by John Updike
John Updike
(1991) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
by Jane Smiley
Jane Smiley
(1992) A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
by Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler
(1993) The Shipping News
The Shipping News
by E. Annie Proulx
Annie Proulx
(1994) The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries
by Carol Shields (1995) Independence Day by Richard Ford
Richard Ford
(1996) Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997) American Pastoral
American Pastoral
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) The Hours by Michael Cunningham
Michael Cunningham
(1999) Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri


The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2001) Empire Falls
Empire Falls
by Richard Russo
Richard Russo
(2002) Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
Jeffrey Eugenides
(2003) The Known World
The Known World
by Edward P. Jones (2004) Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2005) March by Geraldine Brooks (2006) The Road
The Road
by Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
(2007) The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
by Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(2008) Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2009) Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010) A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan
Jennifer Egan
(2011) No award given (2012) The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son
by Adam Johnson (2013) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014) All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See
by Anthony Doerr
Anthony Doerr
(2015) The Sympathizer
The Sympathizer
by Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen
(2016) The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead
Colson Whitehead

v t e

Democratic Party


John McEnery Roosevelt Pelosi Brown Angelides Press Torres Burton

Gub./Lt. Gub. Nominees

Maguire/Hutchinson (1898) Lane/Dockweiler (1902) Bell/Toland (1906) Bell/Spellacy (1910) Curtin/Snyder (1914) None/Snyder (1918) Woolwine/Shearer (1922) Wardell/Dunbar (1926) Young/Welsh (1930) Sinclair/Downey (1934) Olson/Patterson (1938, 1942) Roosevelt/Shelley (1946) Roosevelt/None (1950) Graves/Roybal (1954) P. Brown/Anderson (1958, 1962, 1966) Unruh/Alquist (1970) J. Brown/Dymally (1974, 1978) Bradley/McCarthy (1982, 1986) Feinstein/McCarthy (1990) K. Brown/Davis (1994) Davis/Bustamante (1998, 2002, 2003) Angelides/Garamendi (2006) J. Brown/Newsom (2010, 2014)

Presidential primaries

2000 2004 2008 2016

v t e

Works by Upton Sinclair

Lanny Budd series

World's End (1940) Between Two Worlds (1941) Dragon's Teeth (1942) Wide is the Gate (1943) Presidential Agent
Presidential Agent
(1944) Dragon Harvest
Dragon Harvest
(1945) A World to Win (1946) Presidential Mission
Presidential Mission
(1947) One Clear Call
One Clear Call
(1948) O Shepherd, Speak!
O Shepherd, Speak!
(1949) The Return of Lanny Budd
The Return of Lanny Budd

Other fiction

The Journal of Arthur Stirling
The Journal of Arthur Stirling
(1903) The Jungle
The Jungle
(1906) King Coal
King Coal
(1917) They Call Me Carpenter
They Call Me Carpenter
(1922) Mammonart
(1925) Oil!
(1927) Boston (1928) Roman Holiday (1931) The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America (1937) Little Steel
Little Steel
(1938) The Coal War
The Coal War


The Profits of Religion (1917) The Brass Check (1919) The Goose-step: A Study of American Education (1923) Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? (1930) Upton Sinclair Presents William Fox (1933) The Cup of Fury
The Cup of Fury

Film adaptations

The Jungle
The Jungle
(1914) The Wet Parade
The Wet Parade
(1932) The Gnome-Mobile
The Gnome-Mobile
(1967) There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood


Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair
(2nd wife) Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
House ¡Que viva México!

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32002923 LCCN: n79127862 ISNI: 0000 0003 6865 058X GND: 118797395 SELIBR: 225270 SUDOC: 027139913 BNF: cb11924897n (data) BIBSYS: 90150278 NLA: 35501455 NDL: 00526223 NKC: jn19990007989 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV06764 BNE: XX1018