UPTON SINCLAIR JR. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an
American writer who wrote nearly one hundred books and other works in
several genres. Sinclair's work was well-known and popular in the
first half of the twentieth century, and he won the Pulitzer Prize for
Fiction in 1943.
In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic
The Jungle , which exposed labor and sanitary
conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry , causing a public uproar
that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906
Pure Food and Drug Act and the
Meat Inspection Act . In 1919, he
The Brass Check , a muck-raking exposé of American
journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the
limitations of the “free press” in the United States. Four years
after publication of The Brass Check, the first code of ethics for
journalists was created. Time magazine called him "a man with every
gift except humor and silence". He is also well remembered for the
line: "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his
salary depends upon his not understanding it." He used this line in
speeches and the book about his campaign for governor as a way to
explain why the editors and publishers of the major newspapers in
California would not treat seriously his proposals for old age
pensions and other progressive reforms.
Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during
the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized
America from both the working man's point of view and the
industrialist. Novels like
King Coal (1917),
The Coal War (published
Oil! (1927) and
The Flivver King (1937) describe the
working conditions of the coal, oil and auto industries at the time.
J. P. Morgan
J. P. Morgan , whom many regarded as a hero for ending
Panic of 1907
Panic of 1907 , saying that he had engineered the crisis in order
to acquire a bank.
The Flivver King describes the rise of Henry Ford,
his "wage reform", and the company's Sociological Department to his
decline into antisemitism as publisher of
The Dearborn Independent .
King Coal confronts John D.
Rockefeller Jr. and his role in the 1913
Ludlow Massacre in the coal fields of Colorado.
Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for
Congress as a nominee from the
Socialist Party . He was also the
Democratic Party candidate for
Governor of California during the Great
Depression , running under the banner of the End Poverty in California
campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections .
* 1 Early life and education
* 2 Career
* 3 Other interests
* 4 Political career
* 5 Personal life
* 6 Writing
The Brass Check
* 6.3 Sylvia novels
* 6.4 I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty
* 6.5 Lanny Budd series
* 6.6 Other works
* 7 Representation in popular culture
* 8 Films
* 9 Quotes
* 10 Works
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Sinclair was born in
Maryland , to Upton Beall Sinclair
and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose
alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was
a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and coffee. As a
child, Sinclair slept either on sofas or cross-ways on his parents'
bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep alone in
the bed with his mother. Sinclair did not get along with her when he
became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him
independence. Sinclair later told his son, David, that around
Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his
mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would
start if they met. His mother's family was very affluent: her parents
were very prosperous in Baltimore, and her sister married a
millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he
often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the
poor lived during the late nineteenth century. Living in two social
settings affected him and greatly influenced his books. Upton Beall
Sinclair, Sr. was from a highly respected family in the South, but the
family was financially ruined by the Civil War , disruptions of the
labor system during the
Reconstruction era , and an extended
As he was growing up, Upton's family moved frequently as his father
was not successful in his career. He developed a love for reading when
he was five years old. He read every book his mother owned for a
deeper understanding of the world. He did not start school until he
was ten years old. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch
up quickly because of his embarrassment. In 1888, the Sinclair family
Queens , New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered
City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, on
September 15, 1892. He wrote jokes, dime novels , and magazine
articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition.
With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment when
he was seventeen years old.
He graduated in June 1897 and studied for a time at Columbia
University . His major was Law, but he was more interested in
writing, and he learned several languages including Spanish, German
and French. He paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a
variety of things. He would sign up for a class and then later drop
it. He again supported himself through college by writing boys'
adventure stories and jokes. He also sold ideas to cartoonists. Using
stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per day. His
only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to
educate him about socialism. After leaving Columbia, he wrote four
books in the next four years; they were commercially unsuccessful
though critically well-received: King Midas (1901), Prince Hagen
The Journal of Arthur Stirling (1903), and a Civil War novel
titled Manassas (1904).
Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir
specialized in sexual abstinence and taught his beliefs to Sinclair.
He was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to
Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close
relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic.
Upton Sinclair imagined himself a poet and dedicated his time to
Upton Sinclair early in his career. Upton
Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the
Rockefeller Building in New York City.
In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover
in Chicago's meat-packing plants to research his novel, The Jungle
(1906), a political exposé that addressed conditions in the plants as
well as the lives of poor immigrants. When it was published two years
later, it became a bestseller.
With the income from The Jungle, Sinclair founded the utopian Helicon
Home Colony in
Englewood, New Jersey
Englewood, New Jersey (
Helicon Home Colony was a
white-only space ). He ran as a
Socialist candidate for Congress.
The colony burned down under suspicious circumstances within a year.
In the spring of 1905, Sinclair issued a call for the formation of a
new organization, a group to be called the Intercollegiate Socialist
In 1913–1914, Sinclair made three trips to the coal fields of
Colorado which led him to write
King Coal and caused him to begin work
on the larger, more historical The Coal War. In 1914, Sinclair helped
organize demonstrations in New York City against
Rockefeller at the
Standard Oil offices. The demonstrations touched off more actions by
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Mother Earth group,
a loose association of anarchists and IWW members, in Rockefeller's
hometown of Tarrytown.
The Sinclairs moved to
California in the 1920s and lived there for
nearly four decades. During his years with his second wife, Mary
Craig, Sinclair wrote or produced several films. Recruited by Charlie
Chaplin , Sinclair and Mary Craig produced Eisenstein\'s ¡Qué viva
México! in 1930–32.
Aside from his political and social writings, Sinclair took an
interest in occult phenomena and experimented with telepathy . His
Mental Radio (1930) included accounts of his wife Mary's
telepathic experiences and ability. William McDougall read the book
and wrote an introduction to it, which led him to establish the
parapsychology department at
Duke University .
Sinclair broke with the
Socialist party in 1917 and supported the war
effort. By the 1920s, however, he had returned to the fold.
In the 1920s, the Sinclairs moved to
Monrovia, California , near Los
Angeles, where Sinclair founded the state's chapter of the American
Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Wanting to pursue politics, he twice ran
unsuccessfully for United States Congress on the
Socialist ticket: in
1920 for the House of Representatives and in 1922 for the Senate . He
was the party candidate for governor
California in 1930, winning
nearly 50,000 votes.
During this period, Sinclair was also active in radical politics in
Los Angeles. For instance, in 1923, to support the challenged free
speech rights of
Industrial Workers of the World , Sinclair spoke at a
rally during the San Pedro Maritime Strike , in a neighborhood now
known as Liberty Hill. He began to read from the
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights and
was promptly arrested, along with hundreds of others, by the
The arresting officer proclaimed: "We'll have none of that
In 1934, Sinclair ran in the
California gubernatorial election as a
Democrat . Sinclair's platform, known as the End Poverty in California
movement (EPIC), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and
Sinclair gained its nomination. Gaining 879,000 votes made this his
most successful run for office, but incumbent Governor Frank F.
Merriam defeated him by a sizable margin, gaining 1,138,000 votes.
Hollywood studio bosses unanimously opposed Sinclair. They pressured
their employees to assist and vote for Merriam's campaign, and made
false propaganda films attacking Sinclair, giving him no opportunity
Sinclair's plan to end poverty quickly became a controversial issue
under the pressure of numerous migrants to
California fleeing the Dust
bowl . Conservatives considered his proposal an attempted communist
takeover of their state and quickly opposed him, using propaganda to
portray Sinclair as a staunch communist. Sinclair had been a member of
Socialist Party from 1902 to 1934, when he became a Democrat,
though always considering himself a
Socialist in spirit. The
Socialist party in
California and nationwide refused to allow its
members to be active in any other party including the Democratic Party
and expelled him, along with socialists who supported his California
campaign. The expulsions destroyed the
Socialist party in California.
At the same time, American and Soviet communists disassociated
themselves from him, considering him a capitalist. In later writings,
such as his anti-alcohol book The Cup of Fury, Sinclair scathingly
censured communism. Science fiction author
Robert A. Heinlein
Robert A. Heinlein was
deeply involved in Sinclair's campaign, although he attempted to move
away from the stance later in his life.
After his loss to Merriam, Sinclair abandoned EPIC and politics to
return to writing. In 1935, he published I, Candidate for Governor:
And How I Got Licked, in which he described the techniques employed by
Merriam's supporters, including the then popular Aimee Semple
McPherson , who vehemently opposed socialism and what she perceived as
Sinclair's modernism . Sinclair's line from this book "It is difficult
to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his
not understanding it" has become well known and was for example quoted
Al Gore in
An Inconvenient Truth
An Inconvenient Truth .
Of his gubernatorial bid, Sinclair remarked in 1951:
The American People will take Socialism, but they won't take the
label. I certainly proved it in the case of EPIC. Running on the
Socialist ticket I got 60,000 votes, and running on the slogan to 'End
Poverty in California' I got 879,000. I think we simply have to
recognize the fact that our enemies have succeeded in spreading the
Big Lie . There is no use attacking it by a front attack, it is much
better to out-flank them.
Sinclair's grave in
Rock Creek Cemetery ,
In April 1900, Sinclair went to Lake Massawippi in Quebec to work on
a novel. He had a small cabin rented for three months and then he
moved to a farmhouse. It was here he and his future wife, Meta
Fuller, became close. She was three years younger than him and had
aspirations of being more than a housewife. Sinclair gave her
direction as to what to read and learn. Meta had been a childhood
friend whose family was one of the
First Families of Virginia
First Families of Virginia . Each
had warned the other about themselves and would later bring that up in
arguments. They married October 18, 1900. They used abstinence as
their main form of birth control. Meta became pregnant with a child
shortly after they married and attempted to abort it multiple times.
The child was born on December 1, 1901, and named David. Meta and her
family tried to get Sinclair to give up writing and get "a job that
would support his family." Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the
Harry Kemp , later known as the "Dunes Poet" of Provincetown ,
In 1913, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman
from an elite Greenwood , Mississippi, family. She had written
articles and a book on
Winnie Davis , the daughter of Confederate
States of America President
Jefferson Davis . He met her when she
attended a lecture by him about The Jungle. In the 1920s, the
Sinclair couple moved to California. They were married until her death
Sinclair married again, to Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967).
Sinclair was opposed to sex outside of marriage and he viewed marital
relations as necessary only for procreation. He told his first wife
Meta that only the birth of a child gave marriage "dignity and
meaning". Despite his beliefs, he had an adulterous affair with Anna
Noyes during his marriage to Meta. He wrote a novel about the affair
called Love's Progress, a sequel to Love's Pilgrimage. It was never
published. His wife next had an affair with John Armistead Collier,
a theology student from Memphis; they had a son together named Ben.
In his novel, Mammonart, he suggested that
Christianity was a
religion that favored the rich and promoted a drop of standards. He
was against it.
Late in life Sinclair, with his third wife Mary Willis, moved to
Buckeye, Arizona . They returned East to
Bound Brook, New Jersey
Bound Brook, New Jersey .
Sinclair died there in a nursing home on November 25, 1968, a year
after his wife. He is buried in
Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington,
D.C. , next to Willis.
Sinclair devoted his writing career to documenting and criticizing
the social and economic conditions of the early twentieth century in
both fiction and non-fiction. He exposed his view of the injustices of
capitalism and the overwhelming effects of poverty among the working
class. He also edited collections of fiction and non-fiction.
His novel based on the meatpacking industry in Chicago ,
The Jungle ,
was first published in serial form in the socialist newspaper Appeal
to Reason , from February 25, 1905 to November 4, 1905. It was
published as a book by Doubleday in 1906.
Sinclair had spent about six months investigating the Chicago
meat-packing industry for Appeal to Reason, the work which inspired
his novel. He intended to "set forth the breaking of human hearts by a
system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit". The
novel featured Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant who works in a
meat factory in Chicago, his teenage wife Ona Lukoszaite, and their
extended family. Sinclair portrays their mistreatment by Rudkus'
employers and the wealthier elements of society. His descriptions of
the unsanitary and inhumane conditions that workers suffered served to
shock and galvanize readers.
Jack London called Sinclair's book "the
Uncle Tom\'s Cabin of wage slavery ". Domestic and foreign purchases
of American meat fell by half.
Sinclair wrote in
Cosmopolitan Magazine in October 1906 about The
Jungle: "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in
the stomach." The novel brought public lobbying for Congressional
legislation and government regulation of the industry, including
passage of the
Meat Inspection Act and the
Pure Food and Drug Act .
At the time, President
Theodore Roosevelt characterized Sinclair as a
"crackpot", writing to
William Allen White , "I have an utter
contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful.
Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some
of the remainder there was only a basis of truth." After reading The
Jungle, Roosevelt agreed with some of Sinclair's conclusions but was
opposed to legislation that he considered "socialist ." He said,
"Radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant
and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist."
THE BRASS CHECK
The Brass Check (1919), Sinclair made a systematic and
incriminating critique of the severe limitations of the “free press
” in the United States. Among the topics covered is the use of
yellow journalism techniques created by
William Randolph Hearst .
The Brass Check "the most important and most dangerous
book I have ever written."
* Sylvia (1913) was a novel about a Southern girl. In her
Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair said she had written the book based
on her own experiences as a girl, and Upton collaborated with her.
She asked him to publish it under his name. When it appeared in 1913,
New York Times
New York Times called it "the best novel Mr. Sinclair has yet
written–so much the best that it stands in a class by itself."
* Sylvia\'s Marriage (1914), Craig and Sinclair collaborated on a
sequel, also published by John C. Winston Company under Upton
Sinclair's name. In his 1962 autobiography,
Upton Sinclair wrote: "
Craig had written some tales of her Southern girlhood; and I had
stolen them from her for a novel to be called Sylvia."
I, GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA, AND HOW I ENDED POVERTY
This was a novel he published in 1934 as a preface to running for
office. He outlined his plans in it.
LANNY BUDD SERIES
Between 1940 and 1953, Sinclair wrote a series of 11 novels featuring
a central character named Lanny Budd. The son of an American arms
manufacturer, Budd is portrayed as holding in the confidence of world
leaders, and not simply witnessing events but often propelling them.
As a sophisticated socialite, who mingles easily with people from all
cultures and socioeconomic classes, Budd has been characterized as the
antithesis of the stereotyped "Ugly American ".
Sinclair placed Budd within the important political events in the
United States and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
There was an actual company named the
Budd Company which manufactured
arms during World War II, founded by
Edward G. Budd in 1912.
The novels were bestsellers upon publication and were published in
translation, appearing in twenty-one countries. The third book in the
series, Dragon\'s Teeth (1942), won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel
in 1943. Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions
of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016.
The Lanny Budd series includes:
* World\'s End , 1940
* Between Two Worlds , 1941
* Dragon\'s Teeth , 1942
Wide Is the Gate , 1943
Presidential Agent , 1944
Dragon Harvest , 1945
* A World to Win , 1946
Presidential Mission , 1947
One Clear Call , 1948
O Shepherd, Speak! , 1949
The Return of Lanny Budd , 1953
Sinclair was keenly interested in health and nutrition. He
experimented with various diets, and with fasting. He wrote about this
in his book, The Fasting Cure (1911), another bestseller. He believed
that periodic fasting was important for health, saying, "I had taken
several fasts of ten or twelve days' duration, with the result of a
complete making over of my health".
Sinclair favored a raw food diet of predominantly vegetables and
nuts. For long periods of time, he was a complete vegetarian, but he
also experimented with eating meat. His attitude to these matters was
fully explained in the chapter, “The Use of Meat,” in the
REPRESENTATION IN POPULAR CULTURE
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson greets
Upton Sinclair as others look
* Sinclair is featured as one of the main characters in Chris
Bachelder 's satirical novel, U.S.! (2005). Repeatedly, Sinclair is
resurrected after his death and assassinated again, a "personification
of the contemporary failings of the American left". He is portrayed as
a quixotic reformer attempting to stir an apathetic American public to
implement socialism in America.
Sinclair Lewis refers to Sinclair and his EPIC plan in Lewis'
novel, It Can\'t Happen Here (1935).
Joyce Carol Oates refers to Sinclair and his first wife, Meta, in
her novel The Accursed (2013).
* Sinclair is extensively featured as a figure in Harry Turtledove
's American Empire trilogy (2001–2003) as part of the Southern
Victory Series , an alternate history in which the American Socialist
Party succeeds in becoming a major force in U.S. politics. This
follows two humiliating military defeats to the
Confederate States ,
the United Kingdom , and
France and the post-1882 collapse of the
Republican Party, with former president
Abraham Lincoln leading a
large number of Liberal Republicans into the
Socialist Party. Sinclair
wins the 1920 and 1924 presidential elections and becomes the first
President of the United States
President of the United States . He was also the 29th
president in the timeline. On March 4, 1921, his inauguration attended
by crowds of jubilant militants waving red flags. However, his
policies as portrayed by Turtledove are not particularly radical.
Sinclair served as president until 1929 when his Vice President Hosea
Blackford is elected in 1928 and becomes the 30th president.
The Jungle (1914) is a silent film adaptation of the 1906 novel,
with George Nash playing Jurgis Rudkus and Gail Kane playing Ona
Lukozsaite. The film is considered lost . Sinclair appears at the
beginning and end of the film "as a form of endorsement."
The Wet Parade (1932) is a film adaptation of Sinclair's eponymous
1931 novel, directed by
Victor Fleming and starring Robert Young ,
Myrna Loy ,
Walter Huston , and
Jimmy Durante .
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company adapted
The Gnomobile (1937) as an
eponymous musical motion picture released in 1967.
Oil! (1927) was adapted as the film
There Will Be Blood (2007),
Daniel Day-Lewis and
Paul Dano , and written, produced, and
Paul Thomas Anderson . The film received eight Oscar
nominations and won two.
This page IS A CANDIDATE TO BE COPIED TO WIKIQUOTE USING THE
TRANSWIKI PROCESS. If the page can be expanded into an encyclopedic
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"Our newspapers do not represent public interests, but private
interests; they do not represent humanity, but property; they value a
man, not because he is great, or good, or wise, or useful, but because
he is wealthy, or of service to vested wealth." (Source: The Brass
Check, p. 125)
"I was determined to get something done about the Condemned Meat
Industry. I was determined to get something done about the atrocious
conditions under which men, women and children were working the
Chicago stockyards. In my efforts to get something done, I was like an
animal in a cage. The bars of this cage were newspapers, which stood
between me and the public; and inside the cage I roamed up and down,
testing one bar after another, and finding them impossible to break."
(Source: The Brass Check, p. 39)
"The social body to which we belong is at this moment passing through
one of the greatest crises of its history . . . What if the nerves
upon which we depend for knowledge of this social body should give us
false reports of its condition?" (Source: The Brass Check, p. 9)
Upton Sinclair selling the "
Fig Leaf Edition " of his book Oil!
(1927) in Boston
* Courtmartialed – 1898
* Saved By the Enemy – 1898
* The Fighting Squadron – 1898
* A Prisoner of Morro – 1898
* A Soldier Monk – 1898
* A Gauntlet of Fire – 1899
* Holding the Fort – 1899
* A Soldier\'s Pledge – 1899
* Wolves of the Navy – 1899
Springtime and Harvest – 1901, reissued the same year as King
The Journal of Arthur Stirling – 1903
* Off For West Point – 1903
* From Port to Port – 1903
* On Guard – 1903
* A Strange Cruise – 1903
* The West Point Rivals – 1903
* A West Point Treasure – 1903
* A Cadet\'s Honor – 1903
* Cliff, the Naval Cadet – 1903
* The Cruise of the Training Ship – 1903
* Prince Hagen – 1903
* Manassas: A Novel of the War – 1904, reissued in 1959 as Theirs
be the Guilt
* A Captain of Industry – 1906
The Jungle – 1906
* The Overman – 1907
* The Industrial Republic – 1907
* The Metropolis – 1908
* The Money Changers – 1908
* Samuel The Seeker – 1910
* Love\'s Pilgrimage – 1911
* Damaged Goods – 1913
* Sylvia – 1913
* Sylvia\'s Marriage – 1914
King Coal – 1917
* Jimmie Higgins – 1919
* Debs and the Poets – 1920
* 100% - The Story of a Patriot – 1920
* The Spy – 1920
* The Book of Life – 1921
* They Call Me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming – 1922
* The Millennium – 1924
* The Goslings A Study Of The American Schools – 1924
Mammonart – 1925
* The Spokesman\'s Secretary – 1926
* Money Writes! – 1927
Oil! – 1927
* Boston , 2 vols. – 1928
* Mountain City – 1930
* Roman Holiday – 1931
The Wet Parade – 1931
* American Outpost – 1932
* The Way Out (novel) – 1933
* Immediate Epic – 1933
* The Lie Factory Starts – 1934
* The Book of Love – 1934
* Depression Island – 1935
* Co-op: a Novel of Living Together – 1936
The Gnomobile – 1936, 1962
* Wally for Queen – 1936
* No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid – 1937
* The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America – 1937
Little Steel – 1938
* Our Lady – 1938
* Expect No Peace – 1939
* Marie Antoinette (novel) – 1939
* Telling The World – 1939
* Your Million Dollars – 1939
* World\'s End – 1940
* World\'s End Impending – 1940
* Between Two Worlds – 1941
* Dragon\'s Teeth – 1942
Wide Is the Gate – 1943
Presidential Agent , 1944
Dragon Harvest – 1945
* A World to Win – 1946
Presidential Mission – 1947
* A Giant\'s Strength – 1948
* Limbo on the Loose – 1948
One Clear Call – 1948
O Shepherd, Speak! – 1949
* Another Pamela – 1950
* Schenk Stefan! – 1951
* A Personal Jesus – 1952
The Return of Lanny Budd – 1953
The Cup of Fury – 1956
* What Didymus Did – UK 1954 / It Happened to Didymus – US 1958
* Theirs be the Guilt – 1959
* Affectionately Eve – 1961
The Coal War – 1976
* The Autobiography of
Upton Sinclair . With Maeve Elizabeth Flynn
III. New York: Harcourt, Brace -webkit-column-width: 22em;
* Good Health and How We Won It: With an Account of New Hygiene
(1909) – 1909
* The Fasting Cure – 1911
The Profits of Religion – 1917
The Brass Check – 1919
* The McNeal-Sinclair Debate on Socialism – 1921
* The Goose-Step – 1923
* Letters to Judd, an American Workingman – 1925
* Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? – 1930, 1962
Upton Sinclair Presents William Fox – 1933
* We, People of America, and how we ended poverty : a true story of
the future – 1933
Governor of California - and How I Ended Poverty – 1933
* The Epic Plan for
California – 1934
* I, Candidate for Governor - and How I Got Licked – 1935
* Epic Answers: How to End Poverty in
California (1935) – 1934
* What God Means to Me – 1936
Upton Sinclair on the
Soviet Union – 1938
* Letters to a Millionaire – 1939
* Plays of Protest: The Naturewoman, The Machine, The Second-Story
Man, Prince Hagen – 1912
* The Pot Boiler – 1913
* Hell: A Verse Drama and Photoplay – 1924
* Singing Jailbirds: A Drama in Four Acts – 1924
* Bill Porter: A Drama of O. Henry in Prison – 1925
* The Enemy Had It Too: A Play in Three Acts – 1950
* The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social
Protest – 1915
Upton Sinclair House — in Monrovia, California.
Will H. Kindig , a supporter on the Los Angeles City Council
* ^ According to Craig, at her insistence Sinclair published Sylvia
(1913) under his name. In her 1957 memoir, she described how she and
her husband had collaborated on the work:
"Upton and I struggled through several chapters of Sylvia together,
disagreeing about something on every page. But now and then each of us
admitted that the other had improved something. I was learning fast
now that this novelist was not much of a psychologist. He thought of
characters in a book merely as vehicles for carrying his ideas."
* ^ The Jungle: Upton Sinclair\'s Roar Is Even Louder to Animal
Advocates Today, Humane Society of the United States, March 10, 2006,
archived from the original on January 6, 2010, retrieved June 10, 2010
* ^ "Upton Sinclair", Press in America, PB works .
* ^ A B "Uppie's Goddess", Books, Time, November 18, 1957,
retrieved November 6, 2010 .
* ^ Sinclair, Upton (1994). I, Candidate for Governor: And How I
Got Licked. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press. p. 109. ISBN
* ^ I, Candidate for Governor .
* ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) “Upton Sinclair: American Rebel.”
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.
* ^ Derrick, Scott (2002), "What a Beating Feels Like: Authorship
Dissolution, and Masculinity in Sinclair's The Jungle", in Bloom,
Harold, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Infobase, pp. 131–32 .
* ^ A B C D E F Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair: American
Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.
* ^ Sinclair, Upton, "Joslyn T Pine Note", in Negri, Paul, The
Jungle, Dover Thrift, pp. vii–viii .
* ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas
Y. Crowell Company, New York.
* ^ Sinclair, Upton (1906). "What Life Means to Me". The
Cosmopolitan. Schlicht & Field. pp. 591ff. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
* ^ A B Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinlclair: American Rebel."
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.
* ^ "Upton Sinclair", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved June 16,
* ^ Yoder, Jon A. (1975) "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar
Publishing Co., New York.
* ^ Yoder, Jon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar
Publishing Co., New York.
* ^ A B Harris, Leon. (1975.) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel."
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.
* ^ "How
Upton Sinclair Turned
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* ^ "Upton Sinclair\'s Colony To Live At Helicon Hall. Luxury In
Co-Operation And There May Be Some Compromises Just At First" (PDF).
New York Times
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* ^ Paulin, LRE (March 1907). "Simplified Housekeeping: The Present
Quarters of Upton Sinclair\'s Colony At Englewood, New Jersey".
Indoors and Out: the Homebuilder's Magazine. III (6): 288–92.
* ^ "Fire Wipes Out Helicon Hall, And
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Steel Trust\'s Hand May Be In It" (PDF). The
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1907. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
* ^ Harry W. Laidler, "Ten Years of ISS Progress," The
Intercollegiate Socialist, vol. 4, no. 1 (Oct.-Nov. 1915), pg. 16.
* ^ Graham, John (1976). The Coal War. Boulder, CO: Colorado
Associated University Press. pp. lvi–lxxv. ISBN 0-87081-067-7 .
* ^ Dashiell, Chris (1998), "Eisenstein's Mexican Dream",
Cinescene, retrieved June 16, 2010 .
* ^ Gardner, Martin (1957), Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science
, Courier Dover, pp. 309–10 access-date= requires url= (help ),
Mental Radio (Books), Google, retrieved July 25, 2010 .
* ^ Robert Gottlieb, Mark Vallianatos, Regina M. Freer, and Peter
Dreier (2005). The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City
(second ed.). Berkeley, California: University of
ISBN 978-0-520-25009-3 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
Katrina Vanden Heuvel ,
The Nation 1865–1990, p. 80,
Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990 ISBN 1-56025-001-1
* ^ Sinclair, Upton. "End Poverty in
California The EPIC Movement",
The Literary Digest, 13 Oct 1934
* ^ Bread Upon The Waters, ch. 31, by Rose Pesotta, 1945
* ^ Rob Leicester Wagner, Hollywood Bohemia: The Roots of
Progressive Politics in Rob Wagner's Script (Janaway Publishing, 2016)
(ISBN 978-1-59641-369-6 )
* ^ Cohen, Harvey G. (2015). "The Struggle to Fashion the NRA Code:
The Triumph of Studio Power in 1933 Hollywood". Journal of American
Studies. 50 (04): 1039–1066. ISSN 0021-8758 . doi
Alden Whitman , Rebel With a Cause,
New York Times
New York Times , November
* ^ James N. Gregory, "Upton Sinclair's 1934 EPIC Campaign: Anatomy
of a Political Movement." Labor 12#4 (2015): 51–81.
Greg Mitchell , The Campaign of the Century:
Upton Sinclair and
the EPIC Campaign in
Atlantic Monthly Press
Atlantic Monthly Press , 1991)
* ^ Patterson, William H. Robert A. Heinlein: In Dialogue with His
Century: Volume 1 (1907–1948): Learning Curve New York: Tor Books,
2010; pp. 187–205, 527–530, and passim
* ^ Rossiter, Caleb S. The Turkey and the Eagle: The Struggle for
America's Global Role. p. 207.
* ^ Spartacus Educational: "
Socialist Party of America," Upton
Sinclair, letter to
Norman Thomas (25th September, 1951), accessed
June 10, 2010
* ^ Arthur 2006 .
* ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 132–33.
* ^ "Mrs. Upton Sinclair, Author\'s Wife, Dies". The Bridgeport
Post. Bridgeport, Connecticut. 20 Dec 1967. p. 72. Retrieved 17 May
2016 – via Newspapers.com.
* ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 96–97.
* ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 46–47.
* ^ Arthur 2006 , p. 109.
* ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 111–12.
* ^ Upton Sinclair, Mammonart, p. 270
* ^ "Upton Sinclair, Author, Dead", The New York Times, November
26, 1968, retrieved July 22, 2010 .
* ^ "The Jungle", History News Network
* ^ Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle, Dover Thrift Editions, General
Editor Paul Negri; Editor of The Jungle, Joslyn T Pine. Note: pp.
* ^ Socalhistory.org
* ^ "Sinclair\'s \'The Jungle\' Turns 100",
PBS Newshour , 10 May
2006, accessed 10 June 2010
* ^ Marcus, p. 131
Bloom, Harold . Ed., 'Upton Sinclair's The Jungle,' Infobase
Publishing , 2002, p. 11
Fulton Oursler , Behold This Dreamer! (Boston: Little, Brown,
1964), p. 417
* ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1951–54), "July 31, 1906", in Morison,
Elting E, The Letters, 5, Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press , p.
* ^ "Upton Sinclair, The Jungle", Spartacus, UK: School net .
* ^ "
Upton Sinclair & The Jungle",
Socialist standard, World
socialism (1227), Nov 2006 .
* ^ Sinclair, Mary Craig, Southern Belle, pp. 106–8, 111–2,
129–32, 142; quote 111–2 .
* ^ Prenshaw, Peggy W, "Sinclair, Mary Craig Kimbrough", in Lloyd,
James B, Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817–1967 (Google Books), pp.
409–10, retrieved November 9, 2010 .
* ^ "\'Sylvia\': Mr. Upton Sinclair\'s Novel upon a Much-Discussed
Theme", The New York Times, 25 May 1913, retrieved November 6, 2010
* ^ Southern Belle, p. 146 .
* ^ Upton Sinclair, The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair, NY:
Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962, pp. 180, 195
* ^ Lepore, Jill. "The Lie Factory." The New Yorker.
* ^ Salamon, Julie (22 July 2005). "Upton Sinclair: Revisit to Old
Hero Finds He\'s Still Lively". New York Times. Books. Retrieved 21
* ^ Brennan, Elizabeth A.; Clarage, Elizabeth C. (1999). Who\'s Who
of Pulitzer Prize Winners. Phoenix: Oryx Press. p. 493. ISBN
978-1-57356-111-2 . Retrieved 29 November 2011.
* ^ Openroadmedia.com
* ^ "\'The Fasting Cure\', by Upton Sinclair", Soil and Health
* ^ "Perfect Health!" (chapter), The Fasting Cure, at Soil and
* ^ "The Use of Meat" (chapter). The Fasting Cure, at Soil and
* ^ L'Official, Peter. "Left Behind". The Village Voice.
Villagevoice.com (14 February 2006). Retrieved 17 November 2011.
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* ^ "There Will Be Blood", Internet Movie Database, 2007 .
* ^ New York : Weekly Masses Co.
* Arthur, Anthony (2006), Radical Innocent Upton Sinclair, New York:
Random House .
* William A. Bloodworth, Jr., Upton Sinclair. Boston: Twayne
* Lauren Coodley, editor, The Land of Orange Groves and Jails: Upton
Sinclair's California. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, 2004.
* Lauren Coodley, Upton Sinclair:
California Socialist, Celebrity
Intellectual. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2013.
* Engs, Ruth Clifford, Unseen Upton Sinclair: Nine Unpublished
Stories, Essays and Other Works. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. 2009.
* Graham, John, The Coal War, Colorado Associated University Press,
* Ronald Gottesman, Upton Sinclair: An Annotated Checklist. Kent
State University Press, 1973.
* Harris, Leon. Upton Sinclair, American Rebel. New York: Thomas Y.
Crowell Co, 1975.
* Leader, Leonard. "Upton Sinclair's EPIC Switch: A Dilemma for
American Socialists." Southern
California Quarterly 62.4 (1980):
* Mattson, Kevin.
Upton Sinclair and the Other American Century.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
The Jungle Department of American Studies, University of Virginia
* The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social
* Guide to the
Upton Sinclair Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana
* Phelps, Christopher (26 June 2006), The Fictitious Suppression of
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, History News network .
* Upton Sinclair, "EPIC", Virtual Museum of the City of San
* "A Tribute To Two Sinclairs",
Sinclair Lewis "
Milton M. Young Democratic nominee for
Governor of California
1934 Succeeded by
VACANT Title last held by NOBLE A. RICHARDSON, 1914
Socialist nominee for
Governor of California
1926 , 1930 PARTY DEFUNCT
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
His Family by
Ernest Poole (1918)
The Magnificent Ambersons by
Booth Tarkington (1919)
The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence by
Edith Wharton (1921)
* Alice Adams by
Booth Tarkington (1922)
One of Ours by
Willa Cather (1923)
The Able McLaughlins by Margaret Wilson (1924)
* So Big by
Edna Ferber (1925)
* Arrowsmith by
Sinclair Lewis (declined) (1926)
Early Autumn by
Louis Bromfield (1927)
The Bridge of San Luis Rey by
Thornton Wilder (1928)
Scarlet Sister Mary by
Julia Peterkin (1929)
* Laughing Boy by
Oliver La Farge (1930)
Years of Grace by
Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931)
The Good Earth by
Pearl S. Buck (1932)
The Store by
Thomas Sigismund Stribling (1933)
Lamb in His Bosom by
Caroline Pafford Miller (1934)
Now in November by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935)
Honey in the Horn by Harold L. Davis (1936)
* Gone with the Wind by
Margaret Mitchell (1937)
The Late George Apley by John Phillips Marquand (1938)
The Yearling by
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1939)
The Grapes of Wrath by
John Steinbeck (1940)
* In This Our Life by
Ellen Glasgow (1942)
* Dragon\'s Teeth by
Upton Sinclair (1943)
Journey in the Dark by
Martin Flavin (1944)
* A Bell for Adano by
John Hersey (1945)
* All the King\'s Men by
Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren (1947)
Tales of the South Pacific by
James A. Michener
James A. Michener (1948)
Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor by
James Gould Cozzens (1949)
The Way West by
A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)
* The Town by
Conrad Richter (1951)
The Caine Mutiny by
Herman Wouk (1952)
The Old Man and the Sea by
Ernest Hemingway (1953)
A Fable by
William Faulkner (1955)
* Andersonville by
MacKinlay Kantor (1956)
A Death in the Family by
James Agee (1958)
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters by
Robert Lewis Taylor (1959)
Advise and Consent by
Allen Drury (1960)
To Kill a Mockingbird by
Harper Lee (1961)
The Edge of Sadness by Edwin O\'Connor (1962)
The Reivers by
William Faulkner (1963)
The Keepers of the House by
Shirley Ann Grau (1965)
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter by Katherine Anne
* The Fixer by
Bernard Malamud (1967)
The Confessions of Nat Turner by
William Styron (1968)
House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn by
N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday (1969)
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford by
Jean Stafford (1970)
Angle of Repose by
Wallace Stegner (1972)
* The Optimist\'s Daughter by
Eudora Welty (1973)
The Killer Angels by
Michael Shaara (1975)
* Humboldt\'s Gift by
Saul Bellow (1976)
* Elbow Room by
James Alan McPherson (1978)
The Stories of John Cheever by
John Cheever (1979)
* The Executioner\'s Song by
Norman Mailer (1980)
A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces by
John Kennedy Toole (1981)
Rabbit Is Rich by
John Updike (1982)
The Color Purple by
Alice Walker (1983)
* Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984)
* Foreign Affairs by
Alison Lurie (1985)
Lonesome Dove by
Larry McMurtry (1986)
A Summons to Memphis by Peter Taylor (1987)
* Beloved by
Toni Morrison (1988)
Breathing Lessons by
Anne Tyler (1989)
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love by
Oscar Hijuelos (1990)
Rabbit at Rest by
John Updike (1991)
A Thousand Acres by
Jane Smiley (1992)
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain by
Robert Olen Butler (1993)
The Shipping News
The Shipping News by E.
Annie Proulx (1994)
The Stone Diaries by
Carol Shields (1995)
* Independence Day by
Richard Ford (1996)
* Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven
American Pastoral by
Philip Roth (1998)
* The Hours by
Michael Cunningham (1999)
Interpreter of Maladies by
Jhumpa Lahiri (2000)
* The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier ;background:none
California Democratic Party
* John McEnery
Gub ./Lt. Gub.
* Maguire /Hutchinson (1898)
* Lane /Dockweiler (1902)
* Bell /Toland (1906)
* Bell /Spellacy (1910)
* Curtin /Snyder (1914)
* None/Snyder (1918)
* Woolwine /Shearer (1922)
* Wardell /Dunbar (1926)
* Young /Welsh (1930)
* Sinclair/Downey (1934)
* Olson /Patterson (1938, 1942)
* Roosevelt /Shelley (1946)
* Roosevelt /None (1950)
* Graves /Roybal (1954)
* P. Brown /Anderson (1958, 1962, 1966)
* Unruh /Alquist (1970)
* J. Brown /Dymally (1974, 1978)
* Bradley /McCarthy (1982, 1986)
* Feinstein /McCarthy (1990)
* K. Brown /Davis (1994)
* Davis /Bustamante (1998, 2002, 2003)
* Angelides /Garamendi (2006)
* J. Brown /Newsom (2010, 2014)
LANNY BUDD SERIES
* World\'s End (1940)
* Between Two Worlds (1941)
* Dragon\'s Teeth (1942)
Wide is the Gate (1943)
Presidential Agent (1944)
Dragon Harvest (1945)
* A World to Win (1946)
Presidential Mission (1947)
One Clear Call (1948)
O Shepherd, Speak! (1949)
The Return of Lanny Budd (1953)
The Journal of Arthur Stirling (1903)
The Jungle (1906)
King Coal (1917)
They Call Me Carpenter (1922)
* Boston (1928)
* Roman Holiday (1931)
* The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America (1937)
Little Steel (1938)
The Cup of Fury (1956)
The Coal War (1976)
The Profits of Religion (1917)
The Brass Check (1919)
* The Goose-step: A Study of American Education (1923)
* Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? (1930)
The Jungle (1914)
The Wet Parade (1932)
The Gnome-Mobile (1967)
There Will Be Blood (2007)
Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair (2nd wife)
Upton Sinclair House
¡Que viva México!
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* NLA : 35501455
* NDL : 00526223
* NKC : jn19990007989
* ICCU : ITICCUCFIV764
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* IATH : w6t152xf
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