Upton Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was
an American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in
several genres. Sinclair's work was well known and popular in the
first half of the 20th century, and he won the Pulitzer Prize for
Fiction in 1943.
In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic muck-raking
novel The Jungle, which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the
U.S. meatpacking industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in
part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug
Act and the Meat Inspection Act. In 1919, he published The Brass
Check, a muck-raking exposé of American journalism that publicized
the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the “free
press” in the United States. Four years after publication of The
Brass Check, the first code of ethics for journalists was created.
Time magazine called him "a man with every gift except humor and
silence". He is also well remembered for the line: "It is difficult
to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his
not understanding it." He used this line in speeches and the book
about his campaign for governor as a way to explain why the editors
and publishers of the major newspapers in
California would not treat
seriously his proposals for old age pensions and other progressive
Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the
Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized
America from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of
view. Novels such as
King Coal (1917),
The Coal War
The Coal War (published
Oil! (1927), and
The Flivver King
The Flivver King (1937) describe the
working conditions of the coal, oil, and auto industries at the time.
The Flivver King
The Flivver King describes the rise of Henry Ford, his "wage reform",
and the company's Sociological Department to his decline into
antisemitism as publisher of The Dearborn Independent. King Coal
confronts John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and his role in the 1913 Ludlow
Massacre in the coal fields of Colorado.
Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for
Congress as a nominee from the
Socialist Party. He was also the
Democratic Party candidate for
Governor of California
Governor of California during the Great
Depression, running under the banner of the End Poverty in California
campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections.
1 Early life and education
3 Other interests
4 Political career
5 Personal life
6.1 The Jungle
6.2 The Brass Check
6.3 Sylvia novels
6.4 I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty
6.5 Lanny Budd series
6.6 Other works
7 Representation in popular culture
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Early life and education
Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Upton Beall Sinclaira and
Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose
alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was
a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and coffee. As a
child, Sinclair slept either on sofas or cross-ways on his parents'
bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep alone in
the bed with his mother. Sinclair did not get along with her when
he became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him
independence. Sinclair later told his son, David, that around
Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his
mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would
start if they met. His mother's family was very affluent: her
parents were very prosperous in Baltimore, and her sister married a
millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he
often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the
poor lived during the late 19th century. Living in two social settings
affected him and greatly influenced his books. Upton Beall Sinclair,
Sr., was from a highly respected family in the South, but the family
was financially ruined by the Civil War, disruptions of the labor
system during the Reconstruction era, and an extended agricultural
As he was growing up, Upton's family moved frequently, as his father
was not successful in his career. He developed a love for reading when
he was five years old. He read every book his mother owned for a
deeper understanding of the world. He did not start school until he
was 10 years old. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up
quickly because of his embarrassment. In 1888, the Sinclair family
moved to Queens, New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered
City College of New York
City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, on
September 15, 1892. He wrote jokes, dime novels, and magazine
articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his
tuition. With that income, he was able to move his parents to an
apartment when he was seventeen years old.
He graduated in June 1897 and studied for a time at Columbia
University. His major was law, but he was more interested in
writing, and he learned several languages, including Spanish, German,
and French. He paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a
variety of things. He would sign up for a class and then later drop
it. He again supported himself through college by writing boys'
adventure stories and jokes. He also sold ideas to cartoonists.
Using stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per
day. His only complaint about his educational experience was that it
failed to educate him about socialism. After leaving Columbia, he
wrote four books in the next four years; they were commercially
unsuccessful though critically well-received: King Midas (1901),
Prince Hagen (1902),
The Journal of Arthur Stirling
The Journal of Arthur Stirling (1903), and a
Civil War novel titled Manassas (1904).
Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir
specialized in sexual abstinence and taught his beliefs to Sinclair.
He was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to
Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close
relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic.
Upton Sinclair imagined himself a poet and dedicated his time to
Upton Sinclair early in his career
Upton Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the
Rockefeller Building in New York City
In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in
Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his novel,
The Jungle (1906),
a political exposé that addressed conditions in the plants, as well
as the lives of poor immigrants. When it was published two years
later, it became a bestseller.
With the income from The Jungle, Sinclair founded the utopian--but
non-Jewish white only--
Helicon Home Colony in Englewood, New Jersey
Helicon Home Colony was a white-only space ). He ran as a
Socialist candidate for Congress. The colony burned down under
suspicious circumstances within a year.
In the spring of 1905, Sinclair issued a call for the formation of a
new organization, a group to be called the Intercollegiate Socialist
In 1913–1914, Sinclair made three trips to the coal fields of
Colorado, which led him to write
King Coal and caused him to begin
work on the larger, more historical The Coal War. In 1914, Sinclair
helped organize demonstrations in New York City against
the Standard Oil offices. The demonstrations touched off more actions
Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Mother Earth
group, a loose association of anarchists and IWW members, in
Rockefeller's hometown of Tarrytown.
The Sinclairs moved to
California in the 1920s and lived there for
nearly four decades. During his years with his second wife, Mary
Craig, Sinclair wrote or produced several films. Recruited by Charlie
Chaplin, Sinclair and Mary Craig produced Eisenstein's ¡Qué viva
México! in 1930–32.
Aside from his political and social writings, Sinclair took an
interest in occult phenomena and experimented with telepathy. His book
Mental Radio (1930) included accounts of his wife Mary's telepathic
experiences and ability. William McDougall read the book and
wrote an introduction to it, which led him to establish the
parapsychology department at Duke University.
Sinclair broke with the
Socialist party in 1917 and supported the war
effort. By the 1920s, however, he had returned to the party.
In the 1920s, the Sinclairs moved to Monrovia, California, near Los
Angeles, where Sinclair founded the state's chapter of the American
Civil Liberties Union. Wanting to pursue politics, he twice ran
unsuccessfully for United States Congress on the
Socialist ticket: in
1920 for the House of Representatives and in 1922 for the Senate. He
was the party candidate for governor
California in 1930, winning
nearly 50,000 votes.
During this period, Sinclair was also active in radical politics in
Los Angeles. For instance, in 1923, to support the challenged free
speech rights of Industrial Workers of the World, Sinclair spoke at a
rally during the San Pedro Maritime Strike, in a neighborhood now
known as Liberty Hill. He began to read from the Bill of Rights and
was promptly arrested, along with hundreds of others, by the LAPD. The
arresting officer proclaimed: "We'll have none of that Constitution
In 1934, Sinclair ran in the
California gubernatorial election as a
Democrat. Sinclair's platform, known as the End Poverty in California
movement (EPIC), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and
Sinclair gained its nomination. Gaining 879,000 votes made this
his most successful run for office, but incumbent Governor Frank F.
Merriam defeated him by a sizable margin, gaining 1,138,000
votes. Hollywood studio bosses unanimously opposed Sinclair.
They pressured their employees to assist and vote for Merriam's
campaign, and made false propaganda films attacking Sinclair, giving
him no opportunity to respond.
Sinclair's plan to end poverty quickly became a controversial issue
under the pressure of numerous migrants to
California fleeing the Dust
Bowl. Conservatives considered his proposal an attempted communist
takeover of their state and quickly opposed him, using propaganda to
portray Sinclair as a staunch communist. Sinclair had been a member of
Socialist Party from 1902 to 1934, when he became a Democrat,
though always considering himself a
Socialist in spirit. The
Socialist party in
California and nationwide refused to allow its
members to be active in any other party including the Democratic Party
and expelled him, along with socialists who supported his California
campaign. The expulsions destroyed the
Socialist party in
At the same time, American and Soviet communists disassociated
themselves from him, considering him a capitalist. In later
writings, such as his antialcohol book The Cup of Fury, Sinclair
scathingly censured communism. Science-fiction author Robert A.
Heinlein was deeply involved in Sinclair's campaign, although he
attempted to move away from the stance later in his life.
After his loss to Merriam, Sinclair abandoned EPIC and politics to
return to writing. In 1935, he published I, Candidate for Governor:
And How I Got Licked, in which he described the techniques employed by
Merriam's supporters, including the then popular Aimee Semple
McPherson, who vehemently opposed socialism and what she perceived as
Sinclair's modernism. Sinclair's line from this book "It is difficult
to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his
not understanding it" has become well known and was for example quoted
Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth.
Of his gubernatorial bid, Sinclair remarked in 1951:
The American People will take Socialism, but they won't take the
label. I certainly proved it in the case of EPIC. Running on the
Socialist ticket I got 60,000 votes, and running on the slogan to 'End
Poverty in California' I got 879,000. I think we simply have to
recognize the fact that our enemies have succeeded in spreading the
Big Lie. There is no use attacking it by a front attack, it is much
better to out-flank them.
Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC
In April 1900, Sinclair went to Lake Massawippi in Quebec to work on a
novel. He had a small cabin rented for three months and then he moved
to a farmhouse. Here, his future wife, Meta Fuller, and he became
close. She was three years younger than him and had aspirations of
being more than a housewife. Sinclair gave her direction as to what to
read and learn. Meta had been a childhood friend whose family was
one of the First Families of Virginia. Each had warned the other about
themselves and would later bring that up in arguments. They married
October 18, 1900. They used abstinence as their main form of birth
control. Meta became pregnant with a child shortly after they married
and attempted to abort it multiple times. The child was born on
December 1, 1901, and named David.[page needed] Meta and her
family tried to get Sinclair to give up writing and get "a job that
would support his family." Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the
poet Harry Kemp, later known as the "Dunes Poet" of Provincetown,
In 1913, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman
from an elite Greenwood, Mississippi, family. She had written articles
and a book on Winnie Davis, the daughter of
Confederate States of
America President Jefferson Davis. He met her when she attended a
lecture by him about The Jungle. In the 1920s, the Sinclair couple
moved to California. They were married until her death in 1961.
Sinclair married again, to Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967).
Sinclair was opposed to sex outside of marriage and he viewed marital
relations as necessary only for procreation. He told his first
wife Meta that only the birth of a child gave marriage "dignity and
meaning". Despite his beliefs, he had an adulterous affair with
Anna Noyes during his marriage to Meta. He wrote a novel about the
affair called Love's Progress, a sequel to Love's Pilgrimage. It was
never published.  His wife next had an affair with John Armistead
Collier, a theology student from Memphis; they had a son together
In his novel, Mammonart, he suggested that
Christianity was a religion
that favored the rich and promoted a drop of standards. He was against
Late in life Sinclair, with his third wife Mary Willis, moved to
Buckeye, Arizona. They returned east to Bound Brook, New Jersey.
Sinclair died there in a nursing home on November 25, 1968, a year
after his wife. He is buried in
Rock Creek Cemetery
Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington,
DC, next to Willis.
Sinclair devoted his writing career to documenting and criticizing the
social and economic conditions of the early 20th century in both
fiction and nonfiction. He exposed his view of the injustices of
capitalism and the overwhelming effects of poverty among the working
class. He also edited collections of fiction and nonfiction.
His novel based on the meatpacking industry in Chicago, The Jungle,
was first published in serial form in the socialist newspaper Appeal
to Reason, from February 25, 1905, to November 4, 1905. It was
published as a book by Doubleday in 1906.
Sinclair had spent about six months investigating the Chicago
meatpacking industry for Appeal to Reason, the work which inspired his
novel. He intended to "set forth the breaking of human hearts by a
system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit". The
novel featured Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant who works in a
meat factory in Chicago, his teenaged wife Ona Lukoszaite, and their
extended family. Sinclair portrays their mistreatment by Rudkus'
employers and the wealthier elements of society. His descriptions of
the unsanitary and inhumane conditions that workers suffered served to
shock and galvanize readers.
Jack London called Sinclair's book "the
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery". Domestic and foreign purchases
of American meat fell by half.
Sinclair wrote in Cosmopolitan in October 1906 about The Jungle: "I
aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the
stomach." The novel brought public lobbying for Congressional
legislation and government regulation of the industry, including
passage of the
Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug
Act. At the time, President
Theodore Roosevelt characterized
Sinclair as a "crackpot", writing to William Allen White, "I have
an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and
untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute
falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of
truth." After reading The Jungle, Roosevelt agreed with some of
Sinclair's conclusions, but was opposed to legislation that he
considered "socialist". He said, "Radical action must be taken to do
away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the
The Brass Check
The Brass Check (1919), Sinclair made a systematic and
incriminating critique of the severe limitations of the “free
press” in the United States. Among the topics covered is the use of
yellow journalism techniques created by William Randolph Hearst.
The Brass Check "the most important and most dangerous
book I have ever written."
Sylvia (1913) was a novel about a Southern girl. In her autobiography,
Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair said she had written the book based on her own
experiences as a girl, and Upton collaborated with her. [note 1]
She asked him to publish it under his name. When it appeared in
The New York Times
The New York Times called it "the best novel Mr. Sinclair has
yet written–so much the best that it stands in a class by
Sylvia's Marriage (1914), Craig and Sinclair collaborated on a sequel,
also published by John C. Winston Company under Upton Sinclair's
name. In his 1962 autobiography,
Upton Sinclair wrote: "[Mary]
Craig had written some tales of her Southern girlhood; and I had
stolen them from her for a novel to be called Sylvia."
I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty
This was a novel he published in 1934 as a preface to running for
office. He outlined his plans in it.
Lanny Budd series
Between 1940 and 1953, Sinclair wrote a series of 11 novels featuring
a central character named Lanny Budd. The son of an American arms
manufacturer, Budd is portrayed as holding in the confidence of world
leaders, and not simply witnessing events, but often propelling them.
As a sophisticated socialite, who mingles easily with people from all
cultures and socioeconomic classes, Budd has been characterized as the
antithesis of the stereotyped "Ugly American".
Sinclair placed Budd within the important political events in the
United States and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. An
actual company named the
Budd Company manufactured arms during World
War II, founded by
Edward G. Budd
Edward G. Budd in 1912.
The novels were bestsellers upon publication and were published in
translation, appearing in 21 countries. The third book in the series,
Dragon's Teeth (1942), won the
Pulitzer Prize for the Novel
Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in
1943. Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions
of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016.
The Lanny Budd series includes:
World's End, 1940
Between Two Worlds, 1941
Dragon's Teeth, 1942
Wide Is the Gate, 1943
Presidential Agent, 1944
Dragon Harvest, 1945
A World to Win, 1946
Presidential Mission, 1947
One Clear Call, 1948
O Shepherd, Speak!, 1949
The Return of Lanny Budd, 1953
Sinclair was keenly interested in health and nutrition. He
experimented with various diets, and with fasting. He wrote about this
in his book, The Fasting Cure (1911), another bestseller. He
believed that periodic fasting was important for health, saying, "I
had taken several fasts of ten or twelve days' duration, with the
result of a complete making over of my health".
Sinclair favored a raw food diet of predominantly vegetables and nuts.
For long periods of time, he was a complete vegetarian, but he also
experimented with eating meat. His attitude to these matters was fully
explained in the chapter, “The Use of Meat”, in the
Representation in popular culture
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson greets
Upton Sinclair as others look on.
Sinclair is featured as one of the main characters in Chris
Bachelder's satirical novel, U.S.! (2005). Repeatedly, Sinclair is
resurrected after his death and assassinated again, a "personification
of the contemporary failings of the American left". He is portrayed as
a quixotic reformer attempting to stir an apathetic American public to
implement socialism in America.
Sinclair Lewis refers to Sinclair and his EPIC plan in Lewis' novel,
It Can't Happen Here
It Can't Happen Here (1935).
Joyce Carol Oates
Joyce Carol Oates refers to Sinclair and his first wife, Meta, in her
novel The Accursed (2013).
Sinclair is extensively featured as a figure in Harry Turtledove's
American Empire trilogy (2001–2003) as part of the Southern Victory
Series, an alternate history in which the American
succeeds in becoming a major force in U.S. politics. This follows two
humiliating military defeats to the Confederate States, the United
France and the post-1882 collapse of the Republican
Party, with former president
Abraham Lincoln leading a large number of
Liberal Republicans into the
Socialist Party. Sinclair wins the 1920
and 1924 presidential elections and becomes the first Socialist
President of the United States. He was also the 28th president in the
timeline. On March 4, 1921, his inauguration attended by crowds of
jubilant militants waving red flags. However, his policies as
portrayed by Turtledove are not particularly radical. Sinclair served
as president until 1929, when his Vice President
Hosea Blackford is
elected in 1928 and becomes the 30th president.
The Jungle (1914) is a silent film adaptation of the 1906 novel, with
George Nash playing Jurgis Rudkus and Gail Kane playing Ona
Lukozsaite. The film is considered lost. Sinclair appears at the
beginning and end of the film as a form of endorsement.
The Wet Parade
The Wet Parade (1932) is a film adaptation of Sinclair's eponymous
1931 novel, directed by
Victor Fleming and starring Robert Young,
Myrna Loy, Walter Huston, and Jimmy Durante.
Walt Disney Productions
Walt Disney Productions adapted
The Gnomobile (1937) into the 1967
musical motion picture The Gnome-Mobile.
Oil! (1927) was adapted as the film
There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood (2007),
Daniel Day-Lewis and Paul Dano, and written, produced, and
directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. The film received eight Oscar
nominations and won two.
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"Our newspapers do not represent public interests, but private
interests; they do not represent humanity, but property; they value a
man, not because he is great, or good, or wise, or useful, but because
he is wealthy, or of service to vested wealth." (Source: The Brass
Check, p. 125)
"I was determined to get something done about the Condemned Meat
Industry. I was determined to get something done about the atrocious
conditions under which men, women and children were working the
Chicago stockyards. In my efforts to get something done, I was like an
animal in a cage. The bars of this cage were newspapers, which stood
between me and the public; and inside the cage I roamed up and down,
testing one bar after another, and finding them impossible to break."
(Source: The Brass Check, p. 39)
"The social body to which we belong is at this moment passing through
one of the greatest crises of its history ... What if the nerves upon
which we depend for knowledge of this social body should give us false
reports of its condition?" (Source: The Brass Check, p. 9)
Upton Sinclair selling the "Fig Leaf Edition" of his book
Courtmartialed – 1898
Saved By the Enemy – 1898
The Fighting Squadron – 1898
A Prisoner of Morro – 1898
A Soldier Monk – 1898
A Gauntlet of Fire – 1899
Holding the Fort – 1899
A Soldier's Pledge – 1899
Wolves of the Navy – 1899
Springtime and Harvest – 1901, reissued the same year as King
The Journal of Arthur Stirling – 1903
Off For West Point – 1903
From Port to Port – 1903
On Guard – 1903
A Strange Cruise – 1903
The West Point Rivals – 1903
A West Point Treasure – 1903
A Cadet's Honor – 1903
Cliff, the Naval Cadet – 1903
The Cruise of the Training Ship – 1903
Prince Hagen – 1903
Manassas: A Novel of the War – 1904, reissued in 1959 as Theirs
be the Guilt
A Captain of Industry – 1906
The Jungle – 1906
The Overman – 1907
The Industrial Republic – 1907
The Metropolis – 1908
The Moneychangers – 1908, reprinted as The Money Changers
Samuel The Seeker – 1910
Love's Pilgrimage – 1911
Damaged Goods – 1913
Sylvia – 1913
Sylvia's Marriage – 1914
King Coal – 1917
Jimmie Higgins – 1919
Debs and the Poets – 1920
100% - The Story of a Patriot – 1920
The Spy – 1920
The Book of Life – 1921
They Call Me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming – 1922
The Millennium – 1924
The Goslings A Study Of The American Schools – 1924
Mammonart – 1925
The Spokesman's Secretary – 1926
Money Writes! – 1927
Oil! – 1927
Boston, 2 vols. – 1928
Mountain City – 1930
Roman Holiday – 1931
The Wet Parade – 1931
American Outpost – 1932
The Way Out (novel) – 1933
Immediate Epic – 1933
The Lie Factory Starts – 1934
The Book of Love – 1934
Depression Island – 1935
Co-op: a Novel of Living Together – 1936
The Gnomobile – 1936, 1962
Wally for Queen – 1936
No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid – 1937
The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America – 1937
Little Steel – 1938
Our Lady – 1938
Expect No Peace – 1939
Marie Antoinette (novel) – 1939
Telling The World – 1939
Your Million Dollars – 1939
World's End – 1940
World's End Impending – 1940
Between Two Worlds – 1941
Dragon's Teeth – 1942
Wide Is the Gate – 1943
Presidential Agent, 1944
Dragon Harvest – 1945
A World to Win – 1946
A Presidential Mission – 1947
A Giant's Strength – 1948
Limbo on the Loose – 1948
One Clear Call – 1948
O Shepherd, Speak! – 1949
Another Pamela – 1950
Schenk Stefan! – 1951
A Personal Jesus – 1952
The Return of Lanny Budd – 1953
What Didymus Did – UK 1954 / It Happened to Didymus – US
Theirs be the Guilt – 1959
Affectionately Eve – 1961
The Coal War – 1976
The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair. With Maeve Elizabeth Flynn III.
New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962.
My Lifetime in Letters. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press,
The Cup of Fury – 1956
Good Health and How We Won It: With an Account of New Hygiene
(1909) – 1909
The Fasting Cure – 1911
The Profits of Religion – 1917
The Brass Check – 1919
The McNeal-Sinclair Debate on Socialism – 1921
The Goose-Step – 1923
Letters to Judd, an American Workingman – 1925
Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? – 1930, 1962
Upton Sinclair Presents William Fox – 1933
We, People of America, and how we ended poverty : a true story of the
future – 1933
Governor of California
Governor of California - and How I Ended Poverty – 1933
The Epic Plan for California – 1934
I, Candidate for Governor - and How I Got Licked – 1935
Epic Answers: How to End Poverty in
California (1935) – 1934
What God Means to Me – 1936
Upton Sinclair on the Soviet Union – 1938
Letters to a Millionaire – 1939
Plays of Protest: The Naturewoman, The Machine, The Second-Story Man,
Prince Hagen – 1912
The Pot Boiler – 1913
Hell: A Verse Drama and Photoplay – 1924
Singing Jailbirds: A Drama in Four Acts – 1924
Bill Porter: A Drama of O. Henry in Prison – 1925
The Enemy Had It Too: A Play in Three Acts – 1950
The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social
Protest – 1915
Upton Sinclair House — in Monrovia, California.
Will H. Kindig, a supporter on the Los Angeles City Council
^ According to Craig, at her insistence Sinclair published Sylvia
(1913) under his name. In her 1957 memoir, she described how her
husband and she had collaborated on the work:
"Upton and I struggled through several chapters of Sylvia together,
disagreeing about something on every page. But now and then each of us
admitted that the other had improved something. I was learning fast
now that this novelist was not much of a psychologist. He thought of
characters in a book merely as vehicles for carrying his ideas."
^ The Jungle: Upton Sinclair's Roar Is Even Louder to Animal Advocates
Today, Humane Society of the United States, March 10, 2006, archived
from the original on January 6, 2010, retrieved June 10, 2010
^ "Upton Sinclair", Press in America, PB works .
^ a b "Uppie's Goddess", Books, Time, November 18, 1957, retrieved
November 6, 2010 .
^ Sinclair, Upton (1994). I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got
Licked. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press. p. 109.
^ I, Candidate for Governor.
^ Harris, Leon. (1975) “Upton Sinclair: American Rebel.” Thomas Y.
Crowell Company, New York.
^ Derrick, Scott (2002), "What a Beating Feels Like: Authorship
Dissolution, and Masculinity in Sinclair's The Jungle", in Bloom,
Harold, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Infobase,
pp. 131–32 .
^ a b c d e f Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel."
Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York.
^ Sinclair, Upton, "Joslyn T Pine Note", in Negri, Paul, The Jungle,
Dover Thrift, pp. vii–viii .
^ Harris, Leon. (1975) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y.
Crowell Company, New York.
^ Sinclair, Upton (1906). "What Life Means to Me". The Cosmopolitan.
Schlicht & Field. pp. 591ff. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
^ a b Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinlclair: American Rebel." Thomas
Y. Crowell Company, New York.
^ "Upton Sinclair", Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved June 16,
^ Yoder, Jon A. (1975) "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing
Co., New York.
^ Yoder, Jon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing
Co., New York.
^ a b Harris, Leon. (1975.) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas
Y. Crowell Company, New York.
Upton Sinclair Turned
The Jungle Into a Failed New Jersey
^ "Upton Sinclair's Colony To Live At Helicon Hall. Luxury In
Co-Operation And There May Be Some Compromises Just At First" (PDF).
The New York Times. 7 October 1906. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
^ Paulin, LRE (March 1907). "Simplified Housekeeping: The Present
Quarters of Upton Sinclair's Colony At Englewood, New Jersey". Indoors
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1907. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
^ Harry W. Laidler, "Ten Years of ISS Progress," The Intercollegiate
Socialist, vol. 4, no. 1 (Oct.-Nov. 1915), pg. 16.
^ Graham, John (1976). The Coal War. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated
University Press. pp. lvi–lxxv. ISBN 0-87081-067-7.
^ Dashiell, Chris (1998), "Eisenstein's Mexican Dream", Cinescene,
retrieved June 16, 2010 .
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Courier Dover, pp. 309–10 access-date= requires url=
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September/October 2014. Atlantis Rising LLC.
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(2005). The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City (second
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^ Katrina Vanden Heuvel,
The Nation 1865–1990, p. 80, Thunder's
Mouth Press, 1990 ISBN 1-56025-001-1
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California The EPIC Movement", The
Literary Digest, 13 Oct 1934
^ Bread Upon The Waters, ch. 31, by Rose Pesotta, 1945
^ Rob Leicester Wagner, Hollywood Bohemia: The Roots of Progressive
Politics in Rob Wagner's Script (Janaway Publishing, 2016)
^ Cohen, Harvey G. (2015). "The Struggle to Fashion the NRA Code: The
Triumph of Studio Power in 1933 Hollywood". Journal of American
Studies. 50 (04): 1039–1066. doi:10.1017/S002187581500122X.
^ Alden Whitman, Rebel With a Cause, The New York Times, November
^ James N. Gregory, "Upton Sinclair's 1934 EPIC Campaign: Anatomy of a
Political Movement." Labor 12#4 (2015): 51–81.
^ Greg Mitchell, The Campaign of the Century:
Upton Sinclair and the
EPIC Campaign in
California (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991)
^ Patterson, William H. Robert A. Heinlein: In Dialogue with His
Century: Volume 1 (1907–1948): Learning Curve New York: Tor Books,
2010; pp. 187–205, 527–530, and passim
^ Rossiter, Caleb S. The Turkey and the Eagle: The Struggle for
America's Global Role. p. 207.
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Socialist Party of America," Upton Sinclair,
Norman Thomas (25th September, 1951), accessed June 10, 2010
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^ Arthur 2006, pp. 132–33.
^ "Mrs. Upton Sinclair, Author's Wife, Dies". The Bridgeport Post.
Bridgeport, Connecticut. 20 Dec 1967. p. 72. Retrieved 17 May
2016 – via Newspapers.com.
^ Arthur 2006, pp. 96–97.
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1968, retrieved July 22, 2010 .
^ "The Jungle", History News Network
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Paul Negri; Editor of The Jungle, Joslyn T Pine. Note: pp. vii–viii
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accessed 10 June 2010
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p. 340 .
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from the original on 2006-09-23 .
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socialism (1227), Nov 2006 .
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129–32, 142; quote 111–2 .
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B, Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817–1967 (Google Books),
pp. 409–10, retrieved November 9, 2010 .
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Brace & World, 1962, pp. 180, 195
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Finds He's Still Lively". The New York Times. Books. Retrieved 21
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Pulitzer Prize Winners. Phoenix: Oryx Press. p. 493.
ISBN 978-1-57356-111-2. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
^ "'The Fasting Cure', by Upton Sinclair", Soil and Health
^ "Perfect Health!" (chapter), The Fasting Cure, at Soil and Health
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2006). Retrieved 17 November 2011.
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The Jungle (1914)", The New York Times, retrieved July 1,
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Walter Huston and Lewis Stone in a Very "Wet Parade"
Before and After Prohibition. - NYTimes.com". www.nytimes.com.
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^ "There Will Be Blood", Internet Movie Database, 2007 .
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Sinclair's California. Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, 2004.
Lauren Coodley, Upton Sinclair:
California Socialist, Celebrity
Intellectual. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2013.
Engs, Ruth Clifford, [Ed] Unseen Upton Sinclair: Nine Unpublished
Stories, Essays and Other Works. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
Graham, John, The Coal War, Colorado Associated University Press,
Ronald Gottesman, Upton Sinclair: An Annotated Checklist. Kent State
University Press, 1973.
Harris, Leon. Upton Sinclair, American Rebel. New York: Thomas Y.
Crowell Co, 1975.
Leader, Leonard. "Upton Sinclair's EPIC Switch: A Dilemma for American
California Quarterly 62.4 (1980): 361–385.
Upton Sinclair and the Other American Century.
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Mitchell, Greg. The Campaign of the Century:
Upton Sinclair and the
EPIC Campaign in California. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991.
Swint, Kerwin. Mudslingers: The Twenty-five Dirtiest Political
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Jon A. Yoder, Upton Sinclair. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1975.
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Party political offices
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Governor of California
Title last held by
Noble A. Richardson, 1914
Socialist nominee for
Governor of California
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
His Family by
Ernest Poole (1918)
The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons by
Booth Tarkington (1919)
The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence by
Edith Wharton (1921)
Alice Adams by
Booth Tarkington (1922)
One of Ours
One of Ours by
Willa Cather (1923)
The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins by Margaret Wilson (1924)
So Big by
Edna Ferber (1925)
Sinclair Lewis (declined) (1926)
Early Autumn by
Louis Bromfield (1927)
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey by
Thornton Wilder (1928)
Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary by
Julia Peterkin (1929)
Laughing Boy by
Oliver La Farge (1930)
Years of Grace by
Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931)
The Good Earth
The Good Earth by
Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck (1932)
The Store by
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling (1933)
Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom by
Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller (1934)
Now in November
Now in November by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935)
Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn by Harold L. Davis (1936)
Gone with the Wind by
Margaret Mitchell (1937)
The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley by John Phillips Marquand (1938)
The Yearling by
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1939)
The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath by
John Steinbeck (1940)
In This Our Life by
Ellen Glasgow (1942)
Dragon's Teeth by
Upton Sinclair (1943)
Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark by
Martin Flavin (1944)
A Bell for Adano by
John Hersey (1945)
All the King's Men
All the King's Men by
Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren (1947)
Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific by
James A. Michener
James A. Michener (1948)
Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor by
James Gould Cozzens (1949)
The Way West
The Way West by
A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)
The Town by
Conrad Richter (1951)
The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny by
Herman Wouk (1952)
The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea by
Ernest Hemingway (1953)
A Fable by
William Faulkner (1955)
MacKinlay Kantor (1956)
A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family by
James Agee (1958)
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters by
Robert Lewis Taylor (1959)
Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent by
Allen Drury (1960)
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird by
Harper Lee (1961)
The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness by
Edwin O'Connor (1962)
The Reivers by
William Faulkner (1963)
The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House by
Shirley Ann Grau (1965)
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter by Katherine Anne
The Fixer by
Bernard Malamud (1967)
The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner by
William Styron (1968)
House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn by
N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday (1969)
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford by
Jean Stafford (1970)
Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose by
Wallace Stegner (1972)
The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter by
Eudora Welty (1973)
The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels by
Michael Shaara (1975)
Humboldt's Gift by
Saul Bellow (1976)
Elbow Room by
James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson (1978)
The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever by
John Cheever (1979)
The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song by
Norman Mailer (1980)
A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces by
John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole (1981)
Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich by
John Updike (1982)
The Color Purple
The Color Purple by
Alice Walker (1983)
Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984)
Foreign Affairs by
Alison Lurie (1985)
Lonesome Dove by
Larry McMurtry (1986)
A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis by Peter Taylor (1987)
Toni Morrison (1988)
Breathing Lessons by
Anne Tyler (1989)
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love by
Oscar Hijuelos (1990)
Rabbit at Rest by
John Updike (1991)
A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres by
Jane Smiley (1992)
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain by
Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler (1993)
The Shipping News
The Shipping News by E.
Annie Proulx (1994)
The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries by
Carol Shields (1995)
Independence Day by
Richard Ford (1996)
Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser
American Pastoral by
Philip Roth (1998)
The Hours by
Michael Cunningham (1999)
Interpreter of Maladies by
Jhumpa Lahiri (2000)
The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by
Michael Chabon (2001)
Empire Falls by
Richard Russo (2002)
Jeffrey Eugenides (2003)
The Known World
The Known World by
Edward P. Jones (2004)
Marilynne Robinson (2005)
March by Geraldine Brooks (2006)
The Road by
Cormac McCarthy (2007)
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by
Junot Díaz (2008)
Olive Kitteridge by
Elizabeth Strout (2009)
Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010)
A Visit from the Goon Squad by
Jennifer Egan (2011)
No award given (2012)
The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son by Adam Johnson (2013)
The Goldfinch by
Donna Tartt (2014)
All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See by
Anthony Doerr (2015)
The Sympathizer by
Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen (2016)
The Underground Railroad by
Colson Whitehead (2017)
California Democratic Party
Olson/Patterson (1938, 1942)
P. Brown/Anderson (1958, 1962, 1966)
J. Brown/Dymally (1974, 1978)
Bradley/McCarthy (1982, 1986)
K. Brown/Davis (1994)
Davis/Bustamante (1998, 2002, 2003)
J. Brown/Newsom (2010, 2014)
Works by Upton Sinclair
Lanny Budd series
World's End (1940)
Between Two Worlds (1941)
Dragon's Teeth (1942)
Wide is the Gate (1943)
Presidential Agent (1944)
Dragon Harvest (1945)
A World to Win (1946)
Presidential Mission (1947)
One Clear Call
One Clear Call (1948)
O Shepherd, Speak!
O Shepherd, Speak! (1949)
The Return of Lanny Budd
The Return of Lanny Budd (1953)
The Journal of Arthur Stirling
The Journal of Arthur Stirling (1903)
The Jungle (1906)
King Coal (1917)
They Call Me Carpenter
They Call Me Carpenter (1922)
Roman Holiday (1931)
The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America (1937)
Little Steel (1938)
The Coal War
The Coal War (1976)
The Profits of Religion (1917)
The Brass Check (1919)
The Goose-step: A Study of American Education (1923)
Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? (1930)
Upton Sinclair Presents William Fox (1933)
The Cup of Fury
The Cup of Fury (1956)
The Jungle (1914)
The Wet Parade
The Wet Parade (1932)
The Gnome-Mobile (1967)
There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood (2007)
Mary Craig Sinclair
Mary Craig Sinclair (2nd wife)
Upton Sinclair House
¡Que viva México!
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