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UPTON SINCLAIR JR. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer who wrote nearly one hundred books and other works in several genres. Sinclair's work was well-known and popular in the first half of the twentieth century, and he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1943.

In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic muck-raking novel _ The Jungle _, which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry , causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act
. In 1919, he published _ The Brass Check _, a muck-raking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the “free press” in the United States. Four years after publication of _The Brass Check_, the first code of ethics for journalists was created. _Time_ magazine called him "a man with every gift except humor and silence". He is also well remembered for the line: "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it." He used this line in speeches and the book about his campaign for governor as a way to explain why the editors and publishers of the major newspapers in California
California
would not treat seriously his proposals for old age pensions and other progressive reforms.

Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized America from both the working man's point of view and the industrialist. Novels like _ King Coal _ (1917), _ The Coal War _ (published posthumously), _ Oil! _ (1927) and _ The Flivver King _ (1937) describe the working conditions of the coal, oil and auto industries at the time.

He attacked J. P. Morgan , whom many regarded as a hero for ending the Panic of 1907 , saying that he had engineered the crisis in order to acquire a bank. _The Flivver King_ describes the rise of Henry Ford, his "wage reform", and the company's Sociological Department to his decline into antisemitism as publisher of _The Dearborn Independent _. _King Coal_ confronts John D. Rockefeller
Rockefeller
Jr. and his role in the 1913 Ludlow Massacre
Ludlow Massacre
in the coal fields of Colorado.

Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a nominee from the Socialist
Socialist
Party . He was also the Democratic Party candidate for Governor of California during the Great Depression , running under the banner of the End Poverty in California campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Other interests * 4 Political career * 5 Personal life

* 6 Writing

* 6.1 _The Jungle_ * 6.2 _The Brass Check_ * 6.3 _Sylvia_ novels * 6.4 _I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty_ * 6.5 Lanny Budd series * 6.6 Other works

* 7 Representation in popular culture * 8 Films * 9 Quotes * 10 Works * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

Sinclair was born in Baltimore
Baltimore
, Maryland
Maryland
, to Upton Beall Sinclair and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and coffee. As a child, Sinclair slept either on sofas or cross-ways on his parents' bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep alone in the bed with his mother. Sinclair did not get along with her when he became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him independence. Sinclair later told his son, David, that around Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would start if they met. His mother's family was very affluent: her parents were very prosperous in Baltimore, and her sister married a millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the poor lived during the late nineteenth century. Living in two social settings affected him and greatly influenced his books. Upton Beall Sinclair, Sr. was from a highly respected family in the South, but the family was financially ruined by the Civil War , disruptions of the labor system during the Reconstruction era , and an extended agricultural depression.

As he was growing up, Upton's family moved frequently as his father was not successful in his career. He developed a love for reading when he was five years old. He read every book his mother owned for a deeper understanding of the world. He did not start school until he was ten years old. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up quickly because of his embarrassment. In 1888, the Sinclair family moved to Queens
Queens
, New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered the City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, on September 15, 1892. He wrote jokes, dime novels , and magazine articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition. With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment when he was seventeen years old.

He graduated in June 1897 and studied for a time at Columbia University . His major was Law, but he was more interested in writing, and he learned several languages including Spanish, German and French. He paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a variety of things. He would sign up for a class and then later drop it. He again supported himself through college by writing boys' adventure stories and jokes. He also sold ideas to cartoonists. Using stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per day. His only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to educate him about socialism. After leaving Columbia, he wrote four books in the next four years; they were commercially unsuccessful though critically well-received: _King Midas_ (1901), _Prince Hagen_ (1902), _The Journal of Arthur Stirling_ (1903), and a Civil War novel titled _Manassas_ (1904).

Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir specialized in sexual abstinence and taught his beliefs to Sinclair. He was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic.

CAREER

Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
imagined himself a poet and dedicated his time to writing poetry. Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
early in his career. Upton Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the Rockefeller
Rockefeller
Building in New York City.

In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meat-packing plants to research his novel, _ The Jungle _ (1906), a political exposé that addressed conditions in the plants as well as the lives of poor immigrants. When it was published two years later, it became a bestseller.

With the income from _The Jungle_, Sinclair founded the utopian Helicon Home Colony in Englewood, New Jersey ( Helicon Home Colony was a white-only space ). He ran as a Socialist
Socialist
candidate for Congress. The colony burned down under suspicious circumstances within a year.

In the spring of 1905, Sinclair issued a call for the formation of a new organization, a group to be called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society .

In 1913–1914, Sinclair made three trips to the coal fields of Colorado which led him to write _King Coal_ and caused him to begin work on the larger, more historical _The Coal War._ In 1914, Sinclair helped organize demonstrations in New York City against Rockefeller
Rockefeller
at the Standard Oil offices. The demonstrations touched off more actions by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the _Mother Earth_ group, a loose association of anarchists and IWW members, in Rockefeller's hometown of Tarrytown.

The Sinclairs moved to California
California
in the 1920s and lived there for nearly four decades. During his years with his second wife, Mary Craig, Sinclair wrote or produced several films. Recruited by Charlie Chaplin , Sinclair and Mary Craig produced Eisenstein\'s _¡Qué viva México! _ in 1930–32.

OTHER INTERESTS

Aside from his political and social writings, Sinclair took an interest in occult phenomena and experimented with telepathy . His book _ Mental Radio _ (1930) included accounts of his wife Mary's telepathic experiences and ability. William McDougall read the book and wrote an introduction to it, which led him to establish the parapsychology department at Duke University .

POLITICAL CAREER

Sinclair broke with the Socialist
Socialist
party in 1917 and supported the war effort. By the 1920s, however, he had returned to the fold.

In the 1920s, the Sinclairs moved to Monrovia, California , near Los Angeles, where Sinclair founded the state's chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Wanting to pursue politics, he twice ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress on the Socialist
Socialist
ticket: in 1920 for the House of Representatives and in 1922 for the Senate . He was the party candidate for governor California
California
in 1930, winning nearly 50,000 votes.

During this period, Sinclair was also active in radical politics in Los Angeles. For instance, in 1923, to support the challenged free speech rights of Industrial Workers of the World , Sinclair spoke at a rally during the San Pedro Maritime Strike , in a neighborhood now known as Liberty Hill. He began to read from the Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
and was promptly arrested, along with hundreds of others, by the LAPD . The arresting officer proclaimed: "We'll have none of that Constitution stuff".

In 1934, Sinclair ran in the California
California
gubernatorial election as a Democrat . Sinclair's platform, known as the End Poverty in California movement (EPIC), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and Sinclair gained its nomination. Gaining 879,000 votes made this his most successful run for office, but incumbent Governor Frank F. Merriam defeated him by a sizable margin, gaining 1,138,000 votes. Hollywood studio bosses unanimously opposed Sinclair. They pressured their employees to assist and vote for Merriam's campaign, and made false propaganda films attacking Sinclair, giving him no opportunity to respond.

Sinclair's plan to end poverty quickly became a controversial issue under the pressure of numerous migrants to California
California
fleeing the Dust bowl . Conservatives considered his proposal an attempted communist takeover of their state and quickly opposed him, using propaganda to portray Sinclair as a staunch communist. Sinclair had been a member of the Socialist
Socialist
Party from 1902 to 1934, when he became a Democrat, though always considering himself a Socialist
Socialist
in spirit. The Socialist
Socialist
party in California
California
and nationwide refused to allow its members to be active in any other party including the Democratic Party and expelled him, along with socialists who supported his California campaign. The expulsions destroyed the Socialist
Socialist
party in California.

At the same time, American and Soviet communists disassociated themselves from him, considering him a capitalist. In later writings, such as his anti-alcohol book _The Cup of Fury_, Sinclair scathingly censured communism. Science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein was deeply involved in Sinclair's campaign, although he attempted to move away from the stance later in his life.

After his loss to Merriam, Sinclair abandoned EPIC and politics to return to writing. In 1935, he published _I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked_, in which he described the techniques employed by Merriam's supporters, including the then popular Aimee Semple McPherson , who vehemently opposed socialism and what she perceived as Sinclair's modernism . Sinclair's line from this book "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it" has become well known and was for example quoted by Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth .

Of his gubernatorial bid, Sinclair remarked in 1951:

The American People will take Socialism, but they won't take the label. I certainly proved it in the case of EPIC. Running on the Socialist
Socialist
ticket I got 60,000 votes, and running on the slogan to 'End Poverty in California' I got 879,000. I think we simply have to recognize the fact that our enemies have succeeded in spreading the Big Lie . There is no use attacking it by a front attack, it is much better to out-flank them.

PERSONAL LIFE

Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery , Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

In April 1900, Sinclair went to Lake Massawippi in Quebec to work on a novel. He had a small cabin rented for three months and then he moved to a farmhouse. It was here he and his future wife, Meta Fuller, became close. She was three years younger than him and had aspirations of being more than a housewife. Sinclair gave her direction as to what to read and learn. Meta had been a childhood friend whose family was one of the First Families of Virginia . Each had warned the other about themselves and would later bring that up in arguments. They married October 18, 1900. They used abstinence as their main form of birth control. Meta became pregnant with a child shortly after they married and attempted to abort it multiple times. The child was born on December 1, 1901, and named David. Meta and her family tried to get Sinclair to give up writing and get "a job that would support his family." Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the poet Harry Kemp , later known as the "Dunes Poet" of Provincetown , Massachusetts.

In 1913, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman from an elite Greenwood , Mississippi, family. She had written articles and a book on Winnie Davis , the daughter of Confederate States of America President Jefferson Davis . He met her when she attended a lecture by him about _The Jungle_. In the 1920s, the Sinclair couple moved to California. They were married until her death in 1961.

Sinclair married again, to Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967).

Sinclair was opposed to sex outside of marriage and he viewed marital relations as necessary only for procreation. He told his first wife Meta that only the birth of a child gave marriage "dignity and meaning". Despite his beliefs, he had an adulterous affair with Anna Noyes during his marriage to Meta. He wrote a novel about the affair called _Love's Progress_, a sequel to _Love's Pilgrimage_. It was never published. His wife next had an affair with John Armistead Collier, a theology student from Memphis; they had a son together named Ben.

In his novel, _Mammonart_, he suggested that Christianity
Christianity
was a religion that favored the rich and promoted a drop of standards. He was against it.

Late in life Sinclair, with his third wife Mary Willis, moved to Buckeye, Arizona . They returned East to Bound Brook, New Jersey . Sinclair died there in a nursing home on November 25, 1968, a year after his wife. He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D.C. , next to Willis.

WRITING

Sinclair devoted his writing career to documenting and criticizing the social and economic conditions of the early twentieth century in both fiction and non-fiction. He exposed his view of the injustices of capitalism and the overwhelming effects of poverty among the working class. He also edited collections of fiction and non-fiction.

_THE JUNGLE_

His novel based on the meatpacking industry in Chicago , _The Jungle ,_ was first published in serial form in the socialist newspaper _Appeal to Reason ,_ from February 25, 1905 to November 4, 1905. It was published as a book by Doubleday in 1906.

Sinclair had spent about six months investigating the Chicago meat-packing industry for _Appeal to Reason_, the work which inspired his novel. He intended to "set forth the breaking of human hearts by a system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit". The novel featured Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant who works in a meat factory in Chicago, his teenage wife Ona Lukoszaite, and their extended family. Sinclair portrays their mistreatment by Rudkus' employers and the wealthier elements of society. His descriptions of the unsanitary and inhumane conditions that workers suffered served to shock and galvanize readers. Jack London
Jack London
called Sinclair's book "the _Uncle Tom\'s Cabin _ of wage slavery ". Domestic and foreign purchases of American meat fell by half.

Sinclair wrote in _ Cosmopolitan Magazine _ in October 1906 about _The Jungle_: "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach." The novel brought public lobbying for Congressional legislation and government regulation of the industry, including passage of the Meat Inspection Act
Meat Inspection Act
and the Pure Food and Drug Act . At the time, President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
characterized Sinclair as a "crackpot", writing to William Allen White
William Allen White
, "I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth." After reading _The Jungle,_ Roosevelt agreed with some of Sinclair's conclusions but was opposed to legislation that he considered "socialist ." He said, "Radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist."

_THE BRASS CHECK_

In _ The Brass Check _ (1919), Sinclair made a systematic and incriminating critique of the severe limitations of the “free press ” in the United States. Among the topics covered is the use of yellow journalism techniques created by William Randolph Hearst . Sinclair called _The Brass Check_ "the most important and most dangerous book I have ever written."

_SYLVIA_ NOVELS

* _Sylvia _ (1913) was a novel about a Southern girl. In her autobiography, Mary Craig Sinclair said she had written the book based on her own experiences as a girl, and Upton collaborated with her. She asked him to publish it under his name. When it appeared in 1913, the _New York Times_ called it "the best novel Mr. Sinclair has yet written–so much the best that it stands in a class by itself." * _Sylvia\'s Marriage _ (1914), Craig and Sinclair collaborated on a sequel, also published by John C. Winston Company under Upton Sinclair's name. In his 1962 autobiography, Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
wrote: " Craig had written some tales of her Southern girlhood; and I had stolen them from her for a novel to be called _Sylvia_."

_I, GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA, AND HOW I ENDED POVERTY_

This was a novel he published in 1934 as a preface to running for office. He outlined his plans in it.

LANNY BUDD SERIES

Between 1940 and 1953, Sinclair wrote a series of 11 novels featuring a central character named Lanny Budd. The son of an American arms manufacturer, Budd is portrayed as holding in the confidence of world leaders, and not simply witnessing events but often propelling them. As a sophisticated socialite, who mingles easily with people from all cultures and socioeconomic classes, Budd has been characterized as the antithesis of the stereotyped "Ugly American ".

Sinclair placed Budd within the important political events in the United States and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. There was an actual company named the Budd Company which manufactured arms during World War II, founded by Edward G. Budd in 1912.

The novels were bestsellers upon publication and were published in translation, appearing in twenty-one countries. The third book in the series, _Dragon\'s Teeth _ (1942), won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1943. Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016.

The Lanny Budd series includes:

* _World\'s End _, 1940 * _Between Two Worlds _, 1941 * _Dragon\'s Teeth _, 1942 * _ Wide Is the Gate _, 1943 * _ Presidential Agent _, 1944 * _ Dragon Harvest _, 1945 * _A World to Win _, 1946 * _ Presidential Mission _, 1947 * _ One Clear Call _, 1948 * _ O Shepherd, Speak! _, 1949 * _ The Return of Lanny Budd _, 1953

OTHER WORKS

Sinclair was keenly interested in health and nutrition. He experimented with various diets, and with fasting. He wrote about this in his book, _The Fasting Cure_ (1911), another bestseller. He believed that periodic fasting was important for health, saying, "I had taken several fasts of ten or twelve days' duration, with the result of a complete making over of my health".

Sinclair favored a raw food diet of predominantly vegetables and nuts. For long periods of time, he was a complete vegetarian, but he also experimented with eating meat. His attitude to these matters was fully explained in the chapter, “The Use of Meat,” in the above-mentioned book.

REPRESENTATION IN POPULAR CULTURE

_ President Lyndon B. Johnson greets Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
as others look on.

* Sinclair is featured as one of the main characters in Chris Bachelder 's satirical novel, U.S.!_ (2005). Repeatedly, Sinclair is resurrected after his death and assassinated again, a "personification of the contemporary failings of the American left". He is portrayed as a quixotic reformer attempting to stir an apathetic American public to implement socialism in America. * Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
refers to Sinclair and his EPIC plan in Lewis' novel, _It Can\'t Happen Here _ (1935). * Joyce Carol Oates refers to Sinclair and his first wife, Meta, in her novel _The Accursed _ (2013). * Sinclair is extensively featured as a figure in Harry Turtledove 's American Empire trilogy (2001–2003) as part of the Southern Victory Series , an alternate history in which the American Socialist Party succeeds in becoming a major force in U.S. politics. This follows two humiliating military defeats to the Confederate States
Confederate States
, the United Kingdom , and France
France
and the post-1882 collapse of the Republican Party, with former president Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
leading a large number of Liberal Republicans into the Socialist
Socialist
Party. Sinclair wins the 1920 and 1924 presidential elections and becomes the first Socialist
Socialist
President of the United States
President of the United States
. He was also the 29th president in the timeline. On March 4, 1921, his inauguration attended by crowds of jubilant militants waving red flags. However, his policies as portrayed by Turtledove are not particularly radical. Sinclair served as president until 1929 when his Vice President Hosea Blackford is elected in 1928 and becomes the 30th president.

FILMS

* _ The Jungle _ (1914) is a silent film adaptation of the 1906 novel, with George Nash playing Jurgis Rudkus and Gail Kane playing Ona Lukozsaite. The film is considered lost . Sinclair appears at the beginning and end of the film "as a form of endorsement." * _ The Wet Parade _ (1932) is a film adaptation of Sinclair's eponymous 1931 novel, directed by Victor Fleming and starring Robert Young , Myrna Loy , Walter Huston , and Jimmy Durante . * The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
adapted _ The Gnomobile _ (1937) as an eponymous musical motion picture released in 1967. * _ Oil! _ (1927) was adapted as the film _ There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood
_ (2007), starring Daniel Day-Lewis and Paul Dano
Paul Dano
, and written, produced, and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson . The film received eight Oscar nominations and won two.

QUOTES

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"Our newspapers do not represent public interests, but private interests; they do not represent humanity, but property; they value a man, not because he is great, or good, or wise, or useful, but because he is wealthy, or of service to vested wealth." (Source: _The Brass Check, p. 125_)

"I was determined to get something done about the Condemned Meat Industry. I was determined to get something done about the atrocious conditions under which men, women and children were working the Chicago stockyards. In my efforts to get something done, I was like an animal in a cage. The bars of this cage were newspapers, which stood between me and the public; and inside the cage I roamed up and down, testing one bar after another, and finding them impossible to break." (Source: _The Brass Check, p. 39_)

"The social body to which we belong is at this moment passing through one of the greatest crises of its history . . . What if the nerves upon which we depend for knowledge of this social body should give us false reports of its condition?" (Source: _The Brass Check, p. 9_)

WORKS

_ Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
selling the " Fig Leaf Edition " of his book Oil! _ (1927) in Boston

FICTION

* _Courtmartialed _ – 1898 * _Saved By the Enemy _ – 1898 * _The Fighting Squadron _ – 1898 * _A Prisoner of Morro _ – 1898 * _A Soldier Monk _ – 1898 * _A Gauntlet of Fire _ – 1899 * _Holding the Fort _ – 1899 * _A Soldier\'s Pledge _ – 1899 * _Wolves of the Navy _ – 1899 * _ Springtime and Harvest _ – 1901, reissued the same year as _King Midas_ * _ The Journal of Arthur Stirling _ – 1903 * _Off For West Point _ – 1903 * _From Port to Port _ – 1903 * _On Guard _ – 1903 * _A Strange Cruise _ – 1903 * _The West Point Rivals _ – 1903 * _A West Point Treasure _ – 1903 * _A Cadet\'s Honor _ – 1903 * _Cliff, the Naval Cadet _ – 1903 * _The Cruise of the Training Ship _ – 1903 * _Prince Hagen _ – 1903 * _Manassas: A Novel of the War _ – 1904, reissued in 1959 as _Theirs be the Guilt_ * _A Captain of Industry _ – 1906 * _ The Jungle _ – 1906 * _The Overman _ – 1907 * _The Industrial Republic _ – 1907 * _The Metropolis _ – 1908 * _The Money Changers _ – 1908 * _Samuel The Seeker _ – 1910 * _Love\'s Pilgrimage _ – 1911 * _Damaged Goods _ – 1913 * _Sylvia _ – 1913 * _Sylvia\'s Marriage _ – 1914 * _ King Coal _ – 1917 * _Jimmie Higgins _ – 1919 * _Debs and the Poets _ – 1920 * _100% - The Story of a Patriot _ – 1920 * _The Spy _ – 1920 * _The Book of Life _ – 1921 * _They Call Me Carpenter: A Tale of the Second Coming _ – 1922 * _The Millennium _ – 1924 * _The Goslings A Study Of The American Schools _ – 1924 * _ Mammonart _ – 1925 * _The Spokesman\'s Secretary _ – 1926 * _Money Writes! _ – 1927 * _ Oil! _ – 1927 * _Boston _, 2 vols. – 1928 * _Mountain City _ – 1930 * _Roman Holiday _ – 1931 * _ The Wet Parade _ – 1931 * _American Outpost _ – 1932 * _The Way Out (novel) _ – 1933 * _Immediate Epic _ – 1933 * _The Lie Factory Starts _ – 1934 * _The Book of Love _ – 1934 * _Depression Island _ – 1935 * _Co-op: a Novel of Living Together _ – 1936 * _ The Gnomobile _ – 1936, 1962 * _Wally for Queen _ – 1936 * _No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid _ – 1937 * _The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America _ – 1937 * _ Little Steel _ – 1938 * _Our Lady _ – 1938 * _Expect No Peace _ – 1939 * _Marie Antoinette (novel) _ – 1939 * _Telling The World_ – 1939 * _Your Million Dollars _ – 1939 * _World\'s End _ – 1940 * _World\'s End Impending _ – 1940 * _Between Two Worlds _ – 1941 * _Dragon\'s Teeth _ – 1942 * _ Wide Is the Gate _ – 1943 * _ Presidential Agent _, 1944 * _ Dragon Harvest _ – 1945 * _A World to Win _ – 1946 * _A Presidential Mission _ – 1947 * _A Giant\'s Strength _ – 1948 * _Limbo on the Loose _ – 1948 * _ One Clear Call _ – 1948 * _ O Shepherd, Speak! _ – 1949 * _Another Pamela _ – 1950 * _Schenk Stefan! _ – 1951 * _A Personal Jesus _ – 1952 * _ The Return of Lanny Budd _ – 1953 * _ The Cup of Fury _ – 1956 * _What Didymus Did _ – UK 1954 / _It Happened to Didymus _ – US 1958 * _Theirs be the Guilt _ – 1959 * _Affectionately Eve _ – 1961 * _ The Coal War _ – 1976

AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL

* _The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
._ With Maeve Elizabeth Flynn III. New York: Harcourt, Brace -webkit-column-width: 22em; column-width: 22em;">

* _Good Health and How We Won It: With an Account of New Hygiene (1909) _ – 1909 * _The Fasting Cure _ – 1911 * _ The Profits of Religion _ – 1917 * _ The Brass Check _ – 1919 * _The McNeal-Sinclair Debate on Socialism _ – 1921 * _The Goose-Step _ – 1923 * _Letters to Judd, an American Workingman _ – 1925 * _Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? _ – 1930, 1962 * _ Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Presents William Fox _ – 1933 * _We, People of America, and how we ended poverty : a true story of the future _ – 1933 * _I, Governor of California - and How I Ended Poverty _ – 1933 * _The Epic Plan for California
California
_ – 1934 * _I, Candidate for Governor - and How I Got Licked _ – 1935 * _Epic Answers: How to End Poverty in California
California
(1935) _ – 1934 * _What God Means to Me _ – 1936 * _ Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
on the Soviet Union_ – 1938 * _Letters to a Millionaire _ – 1939

DRAMA

* _Plays of Protest: The Naturewoman, The Machine, The Second-Story Man, Prince Hagen_ – 1912 * _The Pot Boiler _ – 1913 * _Hell: A Verse Drama and Photoplay _ – 1924 * _Singing Jailbirds: A Drama in Four Acts _ – 1924 * _Bill Porter: A Drama of O. Henry in Prison _ – 1925 * _The Enemy Had It Too: A Play in Three Acts _ – 1950

AS EDITOR

* _The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest _ – 1915

SEE ALSO

* Upton Sinclair House — _in Monrovia, California_. * Will H. Kindig , a supporter on the Los Angeles City Council * J.P.Morgan

NOTES

* ^ According to Craig, at her insistence Sinclair published _Sylvia _ (1913) under his name. In her 1957 memoir, she described how she and her husband had collaborated on the work:

"Upton and I struggled through several chapters of _Sylvia_ together, disagreeing about something on every page. But now and then each of us admitted that the other had improved something. I was learning fast now that this novelist was not much of a psychologist. He thought of characters in a book merely as vehicles for carrying his ideas."

REFERENCES

* ^ _The Jungle: Upton Sinclair\'s Roar Is Even Louder to Animal Advocates Today_, Humane Society of the United States, March 10, 2006, archived from the original on January 6, 2010, retrieved June 10, 2010

* ^ "Upton Sinclair", _Press in America_, PB works . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Uppie's Goddess", _Books_, Time, November 18, 1957, retrieved November 6, 2010 . * ^ Sinclair, Upton (1994). _I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked_. Berkeley, CA: University of California
California
Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-520-08197-0 . * ^ _I, Candidate for Governor_ . * ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) “Upton Sinclair: American Rebel.” Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. * ^ Derrick, Scott (2002), "What a Beating Feels Like: Authorship Dissolution, and Masculinity in Sinclair's The Jungle", in Bloom, Harold, _Upton Sinclair's The Jungle_, Infobase, pp. 131–32 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. * ^ Sinclair, Upton, "Joslyn T Pine Note", in Negri, Paul, _The Jungle_, Dover Thrift, pp. vii–viii . * ^ Harris, Leon. (1975) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. * ^ Sinclair, Upton (1906). "What Life Means to Me". _The Cosmopolitan_. Schlicht & Field. pp. 591ff. Retrieved 6 October 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harris, Leon. (1975). "Upton Sinlclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. * ^ "Upton Sinclair", _Encyclopædia Britannica_, retrieved June 16, 2010 . * ^ Yoder, Jon A. (1975) "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York. * ^ Yoder, Jon. (1975). "Upton Sinclair." Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York. * ^ _A_ _B_ Harris, Leon. (1975.) "Upton Sinclair: American Rebel." Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York. * ^ "How Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Turned The Jungle Into a Failed New Jersey Utopia". * ^ "Upton Sinclair\'s Colony To Live At Helicon Hall. Luxury In Co-Operation And There May Be Some Compromises Just At First" (PDF). _The New York Times
New York Times
_. 7 October 1906. Retrieved 22 August 2009. * ^ Paulin, LRE (March 1907). "Simplified Housekeeping: The Present Quarters of Upton Sinclair\'s Colony At Englewood, New Jersey". _Indoors and Out: the Homebuilder's Magazine_. III (6): 288–92. Retrieved 2009-08-16. * ^ "Fire Wipes Out Helicon Hall, And Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Hints That the Steel Trust\'s Hand May Be In It" (PDF). _The New York Times
New York Times
_. 17 March 1907. Retrieved 22 August 2009. * ^ Harry W. Laidler, "Ten Years of ISS Progress," _The Intercollegiate Socialist,_ vol. 4, no. 1 (Oct.-Nov. 1915), pg. 16. * ^ Graham, John (1976). _The Coal War_. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. pp. lvi–lxxv. ISBN 0-87081-067-7 . * ^ Dashiell, Chris (1998), "Eisenstein's Mexican Dream", _Cinescene_, retrieved June 16, 2010 . * ^ Gardner, Martin (1957), _Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science _, Courier Dover, pp. 309–10 access-date= requires url= (help ), Google Books. * ^ _Mental Radio_ (Books), Google, retrieved July 25, 2010 . * ^ Robert Gottlieb, Mark Vallianatos, Regina M. Freer, and Peter Dreier (2005). _The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City_ (second ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25009-3 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Katrina Vanden Heuvel , _ The Nation
The Nation
1865–1990_, p. 80, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990 ISBN 1-56025-001-1 * ^ Sinclair, Upton. "End Poverty in California
California
The EPIC Movement", _The Literary Digest_, 13 Oct 1934 * ^ Bread Upon The Waters, ch. 31, by Rose Pesotta, 1945 * ^ Rob Leicester Wagner, Hollywood Bohemia: The Roots of Progressive Politics in Rob Wagner's Script (Janaway Publishing, 2016) (ISBN 978-1-59641-369-6 ) * ^ Cohen, Harvey G. (2015). "The Struggle to Fashion the NRA Code: The Triumph of Studio Power in 1933 Hollywood". _Journal of American Studies_. 50 (04): 1039–1066. ISSN 0021-8758 . doi :10.1017/S002187581500122X . * ^ Alden Whitman , Rebel With a Cause, New York Times
New York Times
, November 26, 1968 * ^ James N. Gregory, "Upton Sinclair's 1934 EPIC Campaign: Anatomy of a Political Movement." _Labor_ 12#4 (2015): 51–81. * ^ Greg Mitchell , _The Campaign of the Century: Upton Sinclair and the EPIC Campaign in California_ ( Atlantic Monthly Press , 1991) * ^ Patterson, William H. _Robert A. Heinlein: In Dialogue with His Century: Volume 1 (1907–1948): Learning Curve_ New York: Tor Books, 2010; pp. 187–205, 527–530, and _passim_ * ^ Rossiter, Caleb S. _The Turkey and the Eagle: The Struggle for America's Global Role_. p. 207. * ^ Spartacus Educational: " Socialist
Socialist
Party of America," Upton Sinclair, letter to Norman Thomas (25th September, 1951), accessed June 10, 2010 * ^ Arthur 2006 . * ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 132–33. * ^ "Mrs. Upton Sinclair, Author\'s Wife, Dies". _The Bridgeport Post_. Bridgeport, Connecticut. 20 Dec 1967. p. 72. Retrieved 17 May 2016 – via Newspapers.com. * ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 96–97. * ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 46–47. * ^ Arthur 2006 , p. 109. * ^ Arthur 2006 , pp. 111–12. * ^ Upton Sinclair, _Mammonart,_ p. 270 * ^ "Upton Sinclair, Author, Dead", _The New York Times_, November 26, 1968, retrieved July 22, 2010 . * ^ "_The Jungle_", History News Network * ^ Sinclair, Upton. _The Jungle_, Dover Thrift Editions, General Editor Paul Negri; Editor of _The Jungle_, Joslyn T Pine. Note: pp. vii–viii * ^ Socalhistory.org * ^ "Sinclair\'s \'The Jungle\' Turns 100", _ PBS Newshour
PBS Newshour
_, 10 May 2006, accessed 10 June 2010 * ^ Marcus, p. 131 * ^ Bloom, Harold . Ed., 'Upton Sinclair's The Jungle,' Infobase Publishing , 2002, p. 11 * ^ Fulton Oursler , _Behold This Dreamer!_ (Boston: Little, Brown, 1964), p. 417 * ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1951–54), "July 31, 1906", in Morison, Elting E, _The Letters_, 5, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press , p. 340 . * ^ "Upton Sinclair, _The Jungle_", _Spartacus_, UK: School net . * ^ " Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
& The Jungle", _ Socialist
Socialist
standard_, World socialism (1227), Nov 2006 . * ^ Sinclair, Mary Craig, _Southern Belle_, pp. 106–8, 111–2, 129–32, 142; quote 111–2 . * ^ Prenshaw, Peggy W, "Sinclair, Mary Craig Kimbrough", in Lloyd, James B, _Lives of Mississippi Authors, 1817–1967_ (Google Books), pp. 409–10, retrieved November 9, 2010 . * ^ "\'Sylvia\': Mr. Upton Sinclair\'s Novel upon a Much-Discussed Theme", _The New York Times_, 25 May 1913, retrieved November 6, 2010 * ^ _Southern Belle_, p. 146 . * ^ Upton Sinclair, _The Autobiography of Upton Sinclair_, NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962, pp. 180, 195 * ^ Lepore, Jill. "The Lie Factory." The New Yorker. * ^ Salamon, Julie (22 July 2005). "Upton Sinclair: Revisit to Old Hero Finds He\'s Still Lively". _New York Times_. Books. Retrieved 21 January 2010. * ^ Brennan, Elizabeth A.; Clarage, Elizabeth C. (1999). _Who\'s Who of Pulitzer Prize Winners_. Phoenix: Oryx Press. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-57356-111-2 . Retrieved 29 November 2011. * ^ Openroadmedia.com * ^ "\'The Fasting Cure\', by Upton Sinclair", _Soil and Health_ * ^ "Perfect Health!" (chapter), _The Fasting Cure,_ at _Soil and Health_ * ^ "The Use of Meat" (chapter). _The Fasting Cure_, at _Soil and Health_ * ^ L'Official, Peter. "Left Behind". _The Village Voice_. Villagevoice.com (14 February 2006). Retrieved 17 November 2011. * ^ "The Jungle". silentera.com. * ^ " The Jungle (1914)", _The New York Times_, retrieved July 1, 2010 . * ^ "The Gnome-Mobile", _Internet Movie Database_, retrieved June 10, 2010 . * ^ "There Will Be Blood", _Internet Movie Database_, 2007 . * ^ New York : Weekly Masses Co.

FURTHER READING

* Arthur, Anthony (2006), _Radical Innocent Upton Sinclair_, New York: Random House . * William A. Bloodworth, Jr., _Upton Sinclair._ Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1977. * Lauren Coodley, editor, _The Land of Orange Groves and Jails: Upton Sinclair's California._ Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, 2004. * Lauren Coodley, _Upton Sinclair: California
California
Socialist, Celebrity Intellectual._ Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2013. * Engs, Ruth Clifford, _Unseen Upton Sinclair: Nine Unpublished Stories, Essays and Other Works._ Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. 2009. * Graham, John, _The Coal War,_ Colorado Associated University Press, 1976. * Ronald Gottesman, _Upton Sinclair: An Annotated Checklist._ Kent State University Press, 1973. * Harris, Leon. _Upton Sinclair, American Rebel._ New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co, 1975. * Leader, Leonard. "Upton Sinclair's EPIC Switch: A Dilemma for American Socialists." _Southern California
California
Quarterly_ 62.4 (1980): 361–385. * Mattson, Kevin. _ Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
and the Other American Century._ Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutUPTON SINCLAIRat's sister projects

* _Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Data from Wikidata

* Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at DMOZ * Works by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
* Works by or about Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at Internet Archive
Internet Archive
* Works by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) * The Jungle_ Department of American Studies, University of Virginia * _The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest_, Bartleby.com * Guide to the Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
Collection, Lilly Library, Indiana University * Phelps, Christopher (26 June 2006), _The Fictitious Suppression of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle_, History News network . * Upton Sinclair, "EPIC", Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco * "A Tribute To Two Sinclairs", Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
" rowspan="1">Preceded by Milton M. Young Democratic nominee for Governor of California 1934 Succeeded by Culbert Olson

VACANT Title last held by NOBLE A. RICHARDSON, 1914 Socialist
Socialist
nominee for Governor of California 1926 , 1930 PARTY DEFUNCT

* v * t * e

Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

1918–1925

* _ His Family
His Family
_ by Ernest Poole (1918) * _ The Magnificent Ambersons _ by Booth Tarkington (1919) * _ The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
_ by Edith Wharton (1921) * _Alice Adams _ by Booth Tarkington (1922) * _ One of Ours _ by Willa Cather (1923) * _ The Able McLaughlins _ by Margaret Wilson (1924) * _So Big _ by Edna Ferber (1925)

1926–1950

* _Arrowsmith _ by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) * _ Early Autumn
Early Autumn
_ by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) * _ The Bridge of San Luis Rey _ by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) * _ Scarlet Sister Mary _ by Julia Peterkin (1929) * _Laughing Boy _ by Oliver La Farge (1930) * _ Years of Grace _ by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) * _ The Good Earth _ by Pearl S. Buck (1932) * _ The Store _ by Thomas Sigismund Stribling (1933) * _ Lamb in His Bosom _ by Caroline Pafford Miller (1934) * _ Now in November _ by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) * _ Honey in the Horn _ by Harold L. Davis (1936) * _Gone with the Wind _ by Margaret Mitchell (1937) * _ The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
_ by John Phillips Marquand (1938) * _ The Yearling _ by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) * _ The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
_ by John Steinbeck (1940) * _In This Our Life _ by Ellen Glasgow (1942) * _Dragon\'s Teeth _ by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) * _ Journey in the Dark _ by Martin Flavin (1944) * _A Bell for Adano _ by John Hersey (1945) * _All the King\'s Men _ by Robert Penn Warren (1947) * _ Tales of the South Pacific _ by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) * _ Guard of Honor _ by James Gould Cozzens (1949) * _ The Way West _ by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)

1951–1975

* _The Town _ by Conrad Richter (1951) * _ The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
_ by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) * _ The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
_ by Ernest Hemingway (1953) * _ A Fable _ by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) * _Andersonville _ by MacKinlay Kantor (1956) * _ A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
_ by James Agee (1958) * _ The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters _ by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) * _ Advise and Consent _ by Allen Drury (1960) * _ To Kill a Mockingbird _ by Harper Lee (1961) * _ The Edge of Sadness _ by Edwin O\'Connor (1962) * _ The Reivers _ by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) * _ The Keepers of the House _ by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) * _ The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
_ by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) * _The Fixer _ by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) * _ The Confessions of Nat Turner _ by William Styron (1968) * _ House Made of Dawn _ by N. Scott Momaday (1969) * _ The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford _ by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) * _ Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
_ by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) * _The Optimist\'s Daughter _ by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) * _ The Killer Angels _ by Michael Shaara (1975)

1976–2000

* _Humboldt\'s Gift _ by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) * _Elbow Room _ by James Alan McPherson (1978) * _ The Stories of John Cheever _ by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) * _The Executioner\'s Song _ by Norman Mailer (1980) * _ A Confederacy of Dunces _ by John Kennedy Toole (1981) * _ Rabbit Is Rich _ by John Updike (1982) * _ The Color Purple
The Color Purple
_ by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) * _Ironweed _ by William Kennedy (1984) * _Foreign Affairs _ by Alison Lurie (1985) * _ Lonesome Dove _ by Larry McMurtry (1986) * _ A Summons to Memphis _ by Peter Taylor (1987) * _Beloved _ by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) * _ Breathing Lessons _ by Anne Tyler (1989) * _ The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love _ by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) * _ Rabbit at Rest _ by John Updike (1991) * _ A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
_ by Jane Smiley (1992) * _ A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain _ by Robert Olen Butler (1993) * _ The Shipping News
The Shipping News
_ by E. Annie Proulx (1994) * _ The Stone Diaries _ by Carol Shields (1995) * _Independence Day _ by Richard Ford (1996) * _Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer _ by Steven Millhauser (1997) * _ American Pastoral _ by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) * _The Hours _ by Michael Cunningham (1999) * _ Interpreter of Maladies _ by Jhumpa Lahiri (2000)

2001–PRESENT

* _The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

California
California
Democratic Party

CHAIRPERSONS

* John McEnery * Roosevelt * Pelosi * Brown * Angelides * Press * Torres * Burton

Gub ./Lt. Gub. Nominees

* Maguire /Hutchinson (1898) * Lane /Dockweiler (1902) * Bell /Toland (1906) * Bell /Spellacy (1910) * Curtin /Snyder (1914) * None/Snyder (1918) * Woolwine /Shearer (1922) * Wardell /Dunbar (1926) * Young /Welsh (1930) * Sinclair/Downey (1934) * Olson /Patterson (1938, 1942) * Roosevelt /Shelley (1946) * Roosevelt /None (1950) * Graves /Roybal (1954) * P. Brown /Anderson (1958, 1962, 1966) * Unruh /Alquist (1970) * J. Brown /Dymally (1974, 1978) * Bradley /McCarthy (1982, 1986) * Feinstein /McCarthy (1990) * K. Brown /Davis (1994) * Davis /Bustamante (1998, 2002, 2003) * Angelides /Garamendi (2006) * J. Brown /Newsom (2010, 2014)

PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES

* 2000 * 2004 * 2008 * 2016

* v * t * e

Works by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair

LANNY BUDD SERIES

* _World\'s End _ (1940) * _Between Two Worlds _ (1941) * _Dragon\'s Teeth _ (1942) * _ Wide is the Gate _ (1943) * _ Presidential Agent _ (1944) * _ Dragon Harvest _ (1945) * _A World to Win _ (1946) * _ Presidential Mission _ (1947) * _ One Clear Call _ (1948) * _ O Shepherd, Speak! _ (1949) * _ The Return of Lanny Budd _ (1953)

OTHER FICTION

* _ The Journal of Arthur Stirling _ (1903) * _ The Jungle _ (1906) * _ King Coal _ (1917) * _ They Call Me Carpenter _ (1922) * _ Mammonart _ (1925) * _ Oil! _ (1927) * _Boston _ (1928) * _Roman Holiday _ (1931) * _The Flivver King: A Story of Ford-America _ (1937) * _ Little Steel _ (1938) * _ The Cup of Fury _ (1956) * _ The Coal War _ (1976)

NON-FICTION

* _ The Profits of Religion _ (1917) * _ The Brass Check _ (1919) * _The Goose-step: A Study of American Education _ (1923) * _Mental Radio: Does it work, and how? _ (1930)

FILM ADAPTATIONS

* _ The Jungle _ (1914) * _ The Wet Parade _ (1932) * _ The Gnome-Mobile _ (1967) * _ There Will Be Blood
There Will Be Blood
_ (2007)

RELATED

* Mary Craig Sinclair (2nd wife) * Upton Sinclair House * _ ¡Que viva México! _

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 32002923 * LCCN : n79127862 * ISNI : 0000 0003 6865 058X * GND : 118797395 * SELIBR : 225270 * SUDOC : 027139913 * BNF : cb11924897n (data) * NLA : 35501455 * NDL : 00526223 * NKC : jn19990007989 * ICCU : ITICCUCFIV764 * BNE : XX1018013 * IATH : w6t152xf

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