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UPPSALA UNIVERSITY (Swedish : _ Uppsala
Uppsala
universitet_) is a research university in Uppsala
Uppsala
, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
still in operation, founded in 1477. (However was it not the first university in the Nordic countries, as the Danish Academy of Lund
Academy of Lund
had opened already in 1425 ) It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings. The university uses "Gratiae veritas naturae" as its motto and embraces natural sciences.

The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was then given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala
Uppsala
also has an important historical place in Swedish national culture, identity and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography , literature, politics, and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap , originated in Uppsala. It shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University
Lund University
and the University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
.

Uppsala
Uppsala
belongs to the Coimbra Group
Coimbra Group
of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities. The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has about 44,000 registered students and 2,300 doctoral students. It has a teaching staff of roughly 1,800 (part-time and full-time) out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion (approx. USD 775 million) in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs.

Architecturally, Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
has traditionally had a strong presence in the area around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris
Fyris
. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 15th century: origins * 1.2 16th century: Turbulent times * 1.3 17th century: Expansion * 1.4 18th century: Enlightenment and mercantilism * 1.5 Women at the university

* 2 Administration and organisation

* 2.1 Central administration * 2.2 Faculties * 2.3 Faculty of Law * 2.4 University
University
Library * 2.5 Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital * 2.6 The Svedberg Laboratory

* 3 Campus

* 3.1 Ekonomikum

* 4 Student life

* 4.1 Nations and student union * 4.2 Music * 4.3 Housing
Housing
crisis

* 5 Athletics

* 5.1 The _exercitiae_ * 5.2 Other sports

* 6 International cooperation * 7 Rankings * 8 Notable people * 9 In fiction and popular culture * 10 See also * 11 Notes and references * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

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15TH CENTURY: ORIGINS

As with most medieval universities, Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
initially grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala
Uppsala
had been one of the most important sees in Sweden
Sweden
proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala
Uppsala
had also long been a hub for regional trade, and had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages. As was also the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala
Uppsala
had initially been chartered through a papal bull . Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV
Sixtus IV
in 1477, and established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna
University of Bologna
. This included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology , law (Canon Law and Roman law
Roman law
), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala
Uppsala
was also named as the university's Chancellor , and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members.

16TH CENTURY: TURBULENT TIMES

_ Gustavianum
Gustavianum
_, built 1622–1625 and now a museum.

The turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the already relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, which was seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students generally travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany, especially Wittenberg . There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century; the Faculty of Theology
Theology
is mentioned in a document from 1526, King Eric XIV appointed Laurentius Petri Gothus (later archbishop) rector of the university in 1566, and his successor and brother John III appointed a number of professors in the period 1569–1574. At the end of the century the situation had changed, and Uppsala
Uppsala
became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to eventually become king (as Charles IX ) used to consolidate his power and eventually oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala
Uppsala
in 1593 established Lutheran
Lutheran
orthodoxy in Sweden, and Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year.

Theology
Theology
still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was also emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology; of the other four, three were in Astronomy, Physics (or general natural sciences) and Latin
Latin
eloquence. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus , who was also appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, which had been functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, was established in 1595 but received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was approximately 150. In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureusdesigned and engraved the seal of the university, which is today used as part of the logotype.

17TH CENTURY: EXPANSION

The medieval university had mainly been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden
Sweden
demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden
Sweden
both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure. It required a much larger class of civil servants and educators than before. Preparatory schools, gymnasiums , were also founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås
Västerås
(the first one) in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University
University
of Dorpat (present-day Tartu) in Estonia
Estonia
(1632) and the University
University
of Åbo in Finland
Finland
(1640). After the Scanian provinces were taken from Denmark, Lund University
Lund University
was founded in 1666.

Instrumental in the reforms of the early 17th-century Swedish state was the long-dominant Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna
, who had spent his own student days in German universities and who for the last years before his death was also chancellor of the university. King Gustavus Adolphus showed the university a keen interest and increased the professorial chairs from eight to thirteen in 1620, and again to seventeen in 1621. In 1624 the king donated "for all eternity" all his own inherited personal property in the provinces of Uppland
Uppland
and Västmanland
Västmanland
, some 300 farms, mills and other sources of income. The king's former private tutor, Johan Skytte, who was made chancellor of the university in 1622, donated the Skyttean chair in Eloquence and Government which still exists. The university received a stable structure with its constitution of 1626. The head of the university was to be the chancellor , his deputy was the "pro-chancellor " (always the archbishop _ex officio_). The immediate rule was the responsibility of the consistory, to which belonged all the professors of the university, and the rector magnificus , who was elected for a semester at the time; the latter position circulated among the professors, each of whom sometimes held it several times.

During the late 16th and early 17th centuries (and perhaps even earlier), the university was located to the old chapter house parallel to the south side of the cathedral, later renamed the _Academia Carolina_. In 1622–1625 a new university building was built east of the cathedral, the so-called _ Gustavianum
Gustavianum
_, named after the reigning king. In the 1630s, the total number of students were about one thousand. Anders Celsius
Anders Celsius
, astronomer and physicist.

Queen Christina was generous to the university, gave scholarships to Swedish students to study abroad and recruited foreign scholars to Uppsala
Uppsala
chairs, among them several from the University
University
of Strassburg , notably the philologist Johannes Schefferus
Johannes Schefferus
(professor skytteanus), whose little library and museum building at _S:t Eriks torg_ now belongs to the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
Uppsala
. The Queen, who would eventually declare her abdication in the great hall of Uppsala Castle , visited the university on many occasions; in 1652 she was present at an anatomical demonstration arranged at the castle for the young physician Olaus Rudbeck. Rudbeck, one of several sons of Johannes Rudbeckius, a former Uppsala
Uppsala
professor who became Bishop of Västerås
Västerås
, was sent for a year to the progressive University
University
of Leiden in the Netherlands. Returning in 1654, he received an assistantship in Medicine in 1655, and had already gone to work on a program of improving aspects of the university. He planted the first botanical garden , the one which would eventually be tended by Carl Linnaeus and is kept today as a museum of 18th century botany under the name Linnaeus\' Garden . With the patronage of the university chancellor Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie
, Rudbeck was made full professor in 1660, was elected rector for two terms, despite his youth, and started a revision of the work of the other professors and a building spree with himself as architect. His most significant remaining architectural work is the anatomical theatre, which was added to Gustavianum
Gustavianum
in the 1660s and crowned with the characteristic cupola for which the building is today known.

A gifted scientist, architect and engineer, Rudbeck was the dominant personality of the university in the late 17th century who laid some of the groundwork for Linnaeus and others, but he is perhaps more known today for the pseudohistorical speculations of his _Atlantica_, which consumed much of his later life. When large parts of Uppsala burned down in 1702, Gustavianum, which contained the university library and its many valuable manuscripts, escaped the fire; local lore has it that the aging Rudbeck stood on the roof directing the work of fighting the fire.

18TH CENTURY: ENLIGHTENMENT AND MERCANTILISM

The early part of the 18th century was still characterized by the combination of Lutheran
Lutheran
orthodoxy and classical philology of the previous century, but eventually a larger emphasis on sciences and practically useful knowledge developed. The innovative mathematician and physicist Samuel Klingenstierna(1698–1765) was made a professor in 1728, the physicist and astronomer Anders Celsius
Anders Celsius
in 1729, and Carl Linnaeus was made professor of Medicine with Botany in 1741. The university was not immune to the parliamentary struggle between the parties known as the "Hats" and the "Caps", with the former having a preference for hard sciences and practical knowledge. The Hat government then in power established a chair in economics (_Œconomia publica_) in 1741 and called Anders Berch as its first incumbent. This was the first professorship in economics outside Germany, and possibly the third in Europe (the first chairs having been established in Halle and Frankfurt (Oder) in 1727). In 1759, following a donation, another chair in economy was established, the Borgströmian professorship in "practical economy", by which was meant the practical application of the natural sciences for economic purposes (it eventually developed into a chair for physiological botany).

There were very radical attempts at reforms which were never implemented, but important changes took place. University
University
studies had until this time been very informal in their overall organization, with the all-purpose _philosophiæ magister_-degree being the only one frequently conferred and many never graduating, as there were no degree applicable to their intended area of work (and well-connected aristocratic students often not graduating as they did not need to). A few professional degrees for various purposes were introduced in 1749–1750, but the radical suggestion of binding students to a single program of study adapted to a particular profession was never implemented. The reforms of this era have been compared to those of the 1960s and 1970s (Sten Lindroth).

Although it took some time after the fire of 1702, Uppsala
Uppsala
Cathedral and Uppsala
Uppsala
Castle were both eventually restored, both by Carl Hårleman , perhaps the most important Swedish architect of the era. He also modified Gustavianum
Gustavianum
, designed a new conservatory for Linnaeus' botanical garden and built the new Consistory house, which was to be the administrative core of the university.

Another magnificent royal donation was that of the large baroque garden of the castle, given by Gustavus III to the university when it was obvious that the old botanical garden was insufficient. A large new conservatory was built by the architect Louis Jean Desprez. Additional grounds adjacent to the baroque garden has since been added. The old garden of Rudbeck and Linnaeus was largely left to decay, but was reconstructed in the years between 1918 and 1923 according to the specifications of Linnaeus in his work _Hortus Upsaliensis_ from 1745. King Gustav III of Sweden
Sweden
visits the university in 1786

WOMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY

The issue of women's right to study at universities was raised during the very last session of the estate parliament in 1865 in a motion from Carl Johan Svensén, a member of the farmers' estate. The reception was mixed, with the most negative views coming from the clergy. In the following years the issue continued to be debated at the universities. In 1870, it was decided to let women take the secondary school examination ("studentexamen ") that gave the right to entry at universities and the right to study and complete degrees at the faculties of Medicine in Uppsala
Uppsala
and Lund and at the Caroline Institute of Medicine and Surgery in Stockholm. A common view was that the female sensitivity and compassion would make women capable of working as physicians, but their right to work was still restricted to private practice. Women's rights to higher education was extended in 1873, when all degrees except those in the faculties of theology and the licentiate degree in Law were made accessible for women.

The first female student in Sweden
Sweden
was Betty Pettersson (1838–1885), who had already worked as a private tutor for several years when she took "studentexamen" in 1871. With a royal dispensation, she was allowed to enter university in Uppsala
Uppsala
in 1872, the year before studies at the Philosophical faculty would actually be made generally available to women. She studied modern European languages and was the first woman in Sweden
Sweden
to complete an academic degree when she finished a fil. kand. in 1875. She became the first woman to be employed as a teacher in a public school for boys. The first woman in Sweden
Sweden
to complete a doctoral degree was Ellen Fries (1855–1900), who entered Uppsala
Uppsala
university in 1877 and became a PhD in history in 1883. Other female students of this period includes Lydia Wahlström(1869–1954) who later became a noted educator, activist and writer on women's emancipation and suffrage. Defending a dissertation in history in 1900, she became the second woman to finish a doctorate at a Swedish university. In 1892, she founded the Uppsala Women's Student Association, who set up spex performances and other things enjoyed by male students but from which the women were excluded at the time. The members of the Association were the first woman to wear the student caps in public, an important sign of their status. Elsa Eschelsson(1861–1911) was the first Swedish woman to finish a law degree, and the first to become a "docent", but was not permitted to even hold the position of acting professor despite being formally qualified for this in everything but her sex. After years of conflicts with the professor of civil law A. O. Winroth and with the university board, she died in 1911 from an overdose of sleeping-powder.

According to the constitution of 1809, only "native Swedish men" could be appointed to higher civil servant positions, including professorships. This was changed in 1925, and the first woman to hold a professorial chair at Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
was Gerd Enequist , appointed professor of human geography in 1949.

Hildegard Björckwho studied in the university became the first Swedish woman to receive an academic degree.

ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANISATION

CENTRAL ADMINISTRATION

The governing board of the university is the consistory, with representatives of the faculties as well as members representing the students and non-academic employees (three professors and three students), and ten university outsiders appointed by the Swedish government . All these members in the consistory have the right to vote.

The unions active at the university also have three representatives in the consistory; these members have the right to speak but not any right to vote.

Since the last reorganization in 1999 the university has a separate body called the _academic senate_, which is a wider, but mostly advisory group representing teaching staff / researchers and students. The executive head of the university is the _rector magnificus_ (that also have the title "vice-chancellor"), whose deputy is the _prorector_. There are (also since 1999) three vice rectors, each heading one of the three "disciplinary domains" (Arts and Social Sciences, Medicine and Pharmacy, and Science and Technology) into which the nine faculties are divided. Each faculty has a faculty board and is headed by a dean (_dekanus_). The position of dean is held part-time by a professor of the faculty.

FACULTIES

Through division of faculties and the addition of a previously independent school of Pharmacy as a new faculty, the traditional four-faculty organization of European universities has evolved into the present nine faculties:

* The _disciplinary domain of Arts and Social Sciences_ includes the FACULTY OF ARTS*, the FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES*, the FACULTY OF LANGUAGES*, the FACULTY OF THEOLOGY, the FACULTY OF LAW and the FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES (formerly the Department of Education, that was raised to the status of a faculty in its own right in 2002). * The _disciplinary domain of Medicine and Pharmacy_ includes the FACULTY OF MEDICINE and the FACULTY OF PHARMACY. The Faculty of Pharmacy was originally an independent "royal institute" in Stockholm, which was moved to Uppsala
Uppsala
and incorporated with the university between 1968 and 1972. * The _disciplinary domain of Science and Technology_ includes only the FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.* The engineering programs have from 1982 been marketed as the _ Uppsala
Uppsala
School of Engineering_ (_ Uppsala
Uppsala
Tekniska Högskola_). This has however never been a separate institution, but only a unit within the Faculty of Science and Technology and use of the term has been phased out after the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was renamed the Faculty of Sciences and Technology in the 1990s.

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
also hosts the Forum for South Asia Studies, a collaborative academic effort by its six faculties: Theology, Law, History and Philosophy, Social Sciences, Languages, and Educational Sciences. The Forum aims facilitate and promote research and education related to the South Asian countries: India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Nepal
Nepal
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, the Maldives and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, on the national and international level, with Ferdinando Sardella
Ferdinando Sardella
, Faculty of Theology, serving as the Forum's director.

FACULTY OF LAW

The Faculty of Law (_Juridiska fakulteten_) is the oldest one in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
and existed before 1477 (when the University
University
of Uppsala
Uppsala
was founded).

The activities of the faculty include a wide range of research areas and specializations. This Faculty has one department: the Department of Law.

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

Main article: Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Library

The university library holds about 5.25 million volumes of books and periodicals (131,293 shelf meters), 61,959 manuscripts, 7,133 music prints, and 345,734 maps and other graphic documents. The holdings of the collection of manuscripts and music includes, among other things, the Gothic Bible manuscript Codex Argenteus
Codex Argenteus
. The Carolina Rediviva , the main building of the university library, designed by Carl Fredrik Sundvall and completed in 1841.

The most widely recognized building of the university library is Carolina Rediviva
Carolina Rediviva
, the "revived Carolina", thus named in reference to _Academia Carolina_ (see illustration), which held the university library from the earliest times until 1691, when it was moved to the upper floor of Gustavianum, where it miraculously survived the great city fire of 1702. In the mid-18th century, there were plans to move it back to the Academia Carolina or a new building on the same spot. The building was demolished in 1778 to make place for a new library, but this was never built and the area next to the cathedral where it stood is today a lawn. The present Carolina Rediviva
Carolina Rediviva
was built in a different place and completed in 1841.

The present university library system comprises 19 branches, including the one in the Carolina building.

UPPSALA UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

Main article: Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital

The Uppsala
Uppsala
Academic Hospital or _Akademiska sjukhuset_, which functions as a teaching hospital for the Faculty of Medicine and the Nursing School, is run by the Uppsala
Uppsala
County Council in cooperation with the university. As of 2003 , the hospital had 7,719 employees and as of 2004 1,079 places for patients.

The university hospital is actually older than the university, as it goes back to the earliest hospital, founded in Uppsala
Uppsala
in 1302, much later merged with the university clinic. This was used for 400 years until the great fire of 1702 which destroyed large parts of central Uppsala. A new hospital, which later became the Uppsala
Uppsala
county hospital, was built in its place, but was moved out of the town in 1811. _ The old main building of the Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital, photograph from c._ 1920

The first clinic with the specific intention to facilitate the practical education of medical students was the _Nosocomium Academicum_, founded in 1708 and located to the Oxenstierna Palace at Riddartorget beside the cathedral (see illustration above). The building (the former residence of the President of the Royal Chancellery Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna) today houses the Faculty of Law.

The present _Akademiska sjukhuset_ was founded in 1850 as an organizational merger of the county hospital and the university clinic, and a new building was inaugurated in 1867 on the hill below Uppsala
Uppsala
Castle to the southeast. From this building, which is still in use, the present hospital complex has grown.

THE SVEDBERG LABORATORY

The The Svedberg Laboratory(named after Theodore _The_ Svedberg) is a university facility that contains the _Gustaf Werner cyclotron_, which is used for research as well as for proton therapy for the treatment of cancer with close cooperation with the oncology clinic at Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital . Such an accelerator and its gantries costs between $60 million and $100 million, and makes Uppsala University
University
Hospital one of the approximately 40 centers in the world to provide such cancer treatment.

CAMPUS

The buildings and locations where the university has activities or which are significantly connected to its history are listed below. Some of the historic buildings in central Uppsala
Uppsala
have had to be retired, as their protected status has made it impossible to make modifications necessary to meet requirements to adjust to the needs for students with disabilities. University
University
of Uppsala
Uppsala
Botanical Garden

UNIVERSITY PARK AND CATHEDRAL AREA

* Gustavianum
Gustavianum
* The Old Consistory building * The University
University
Hall * The Ekerman House * The Dean's House (or Julinsköld Palace) * Skytteanum * The Oxenstierna House (Juridicum – Faculty of Law) * Regnellianum * Carolina Rediviva
Carolina Rediviva

WEST OF CENTRAL UPPSALA

* English Park Campus – Centre for the Humanities (including the Centre for Language Studies) * Centre for Evolutionary Biology (EBC) including the Museum of Evolution * University
University
of Uppsala
Uppsala
Botanical Garden

OTHER LOCATIONS IN WIDER CENTRAL UPPSALA

* Theatrum Oeconomicum and Gamla Torget ("The Old Forum") * The Observatory Park with the old observatory * Centre for Economic Sciences (Ekonomikum) * The Linnaeus Garden * Anders Celsius
Anders Celsius
's former house and observatory

Building
Building
at Campus Polacksbacken

SOUTH OF CENTRAL UPPSALA

* Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital * The Rudbeck Laboratory * Uppsala
Uppsala
Biomedical Centre (BMC) * Geo Centre * Information Technology Centre (ITC) Pollax * The Ångström Laboratory

NORTH OF CENTRAL UPPSALA

* Teacher Training

OUTSIDE OF UPPSALA

* Campus Gotland

EKONOMIKUM

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EKONOMIKUM is a building that is part of Uppsala
Uppsala
University. The building, designed by Swedish modernist architect Peter Celsing
Peter Celsing
, was completed in 1976, and housed departments for languages, humanities, and social sciences.

Since the early 2000s, Ekonomikum is a multidisciplinary centre specialized in economics and financial studies, information science , and human geography . It has approximately 2,500 students and 500 faculty and staff members, a library, KPH print shop, a restaurant, and several students\' associations .

STUDENT LIFE

NATIONS AND STUDENT UNION

Gästrike-Hälsinge nation
Gästrike-Hälsinge nation

Up until June 2010 students at Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
were obliged to become members of one of the nations , corporations of students traditionally according to province of origin (not strictly upheld now, for practical reasons). The system of dividing students into nations according to origin can ultimately be traced back to the nations at the medieval University of Paris
University of Paris
and other early medieval universities, but the Uppsala
Uppsala
nations appear only about 1630–1640, most likely under influence of the _Landsmannschaften _ which existed at some of the German universities visited by Swedish students. In Sweden, nations exist only in Uppsala
Uppsala
and Lund . The nations were originally seen as subversive organisations promoting less virtuous aspects of student life, but in 1663 the consistory made membership in a nation legal, each nation being placed under the inspectorship of a professor.

The current thirteen nations all have a history stretching back to the early-to-mid 17th century, but some of them are the result of mergers of older, smaller nations that took place in the early 19th century to facilitate the financing of building projects.

The nations at Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
are:

* Stockholms nation * Uplands nation
Uplands nation
* Gästrike-Hälsinge nation
Gästrike-Hälsinge nation
* Östgöta nation * Västgöta nation

* Södermanlands-Nerikes nation
Södermanlands-Nerikes nation
* Västmanlands-Dala nation * Smålands nation * Göteborgs nation * Kalmar nation

* Värmlands nation * Norrlands nation * Gotlands nation

Since the 1960s there is a fourteenth nation, the _Skånelandens nation_ (referring to the Scanian lands
Scanian lands
) which has no membership fee and exists as a legal device to get around the compulsory membership for students who prefer not to become affiliated with the traditional nations.

The Uppsala
Uppsala
Student Union was founded in 1849 as a corporation representing all students except those attending the faculty of Pharmacy, irrespective of nation. The students at the faculty of Pharmacy were also exempt from the compulsory membership in the nations, but most pharmacy-students belonged to one. However they were obliged to take up membership in the Pharmaceutical Association of Uppsala
Uppsala
Students, an organisation having the same role as the nations and the student union at the rest of the university.

The compulsory membership in a student union was abolished 1 July 2010; however, the unions will still be the representing organisations in the university boards and committees. The status as a student union will be decided upon by the university board for periods of three years at a time. In a decision by the university board February 20, 2013, there will be four student unions at the university during July 2013 – June 2016: the Uppsala
Uppsala
Student Union (for students at the faculties of Art, Social Sciences, Languages, Theology, Law, Educational Sciences and Medicine), the Pharmaceutical Association of Uppsala
Uppsala
Students (for students at the Faculty of Pharmacy), the Uppsala
Uppsala
Union of Engineering and Science Students (at the Faculty of Science and Technology), and Rindi (the union for students at Campus Gotland).

MUSIC

_ Student singers marching down the staircase in Carolina Rediviva, on the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the university in 1877. The "staircase march" (trappmarschen_) when the singers led the audience in a march out of the hall where the concert was held, is an annual tradition that was later moved to the new main university building completed in 1887. (The monumental staircase of Carolina was later sacrificed to create more storage space for books.)

The University's Royal Academic Orchestrawas founded in 1627. Its main purpose is to play at academic ceremonies, but holds concerts on other occasions as well. Its leader has the title of _director musices_. The position has been held by composers such as Wilhelm Stenhammar , Hugo Alfvénand Lars-Erik Larsson
Lars-Erik Larsson
. Affiliated with the University
University
are three choirs, the mixed Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Choir (_Allmänna Sången_), founded in 1830, the male choir Orphei Drängar , founded in 1853, and the Academy Chamber Choir
Choir
of Uppsala
Uppsala
, founded in 1957. A number of other choirs and orchestras are affiliated with the nations.

An important name in the recent history of the choirs is Eric Ericson , who was conductor of both Orphei Drängarand the Chamber Choir. In honour of Ericson, the FöreningsSparbanken endowed the Eric Ericson Chair in Choral Directing, and the Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Choral Centre was inaugurated in 2000. The centre arranges courses in choral directing.

HOUSING CRISIS

Like many cities there is a shortage of housing in Uppsala, a problem which has existed for many years. Both native Swedes and foreign students are finding it difficult to find accommodation when first enrolling into the university. This problem is however not as bad as it was with several major housing construction projects having been completed after 2010.

There has never been a custom in Sweden
Sweden
for the universities to arrange housing for students, in fact universities are not allowed by law to own housing. Students are expected to arrange their own living accommodations on the private market. To make it easier for students to find moderately priced housing, special student rooms and student apartments have been built by the student nations and student unions. However, the student housing is insufficient to accommodate all students. About 40,000 students are eligible to live in the 11,000 available rooms and apartments. Because of the low rent in these apartments and the general lack of housing in Uppsala
Uppsala
the student apartments are highly attractive and many try to hold on to the contracts as long as possible even after graduating.

ATHLETICS

Sports play a very small role in the life of the university, compared to British and especially U.S. universities, but have existed in various forms since the early 17th century. Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
is more noted for its musical and choral traditions. Both have partial roots in the 17th century institution of extracurricular exercises for students from the nobility.

THE _EXERCITIAE_

The Exercise Yard in c. 1770; contemporary engraving

To ease the recruitment of students from the nobility, the university started in the 1630s to offer training in a number of _exercitiae_ or "exercises" (Swedish: _exercitier_) deemed necessary for the well-rounded education of a young nobleman: riding , fencing, dance, drawing and modern languages such as French and Italian . The initiative came from Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna
, who saw the value in a well-educated class of civil servants and the danger to his own class if its members would fall behind in academic education compared to those students who came from the lower estates. An "exercise yard", built for the riding and fencing exercises, was demolished in the late 19th century to give place to the new University
University
Hall. The modern languages were made part of the regular academic curriculum in the 19th century. The surviving "exercises" include:

* _Fencing_ – Arranged in collaboration with _Upsala Fäktning_, a private fencing club. Fencing
Fencing
master as of 2005 is Igor Tsikinjov, captain of the Swedish Fencing
Fencing
Federation * _Gymnastics and sports_ – Located to the Art Nouveau University Gymastics Hall, colloquially known as _Svettis_ (from the Swedish word for sweat ) * _Riding_ – Arranged by the equestrian department of the University, which has its own stables. Leaders of the activities are the Academy Stable Master and the _Inspector Equitandi_ * _Music_ – Leader of the musical activities is the _director musices_, who is the conductor of the Royal Academic Orchestra; the current Director Musices is Professor Stefan Karpe * _Drawing_ – The university appoints an established artist as Drawing Master; free weekly croquis and other lessons are offered in the southern tower of Uppsala
Uppsala
Castle

OTHER SPORTS

Besides the _exercitiae_, other sports have had a presence in Uppsala student life. The Upsala Simsällskap, " Uppsala
Uppsala
Swimming Society", which is the oldest swimming club in the world, was founded in 1796 by the mathematician Jöns Svanberg
Jöns Svanberg
. It had no formal connection to the university, but all its earliest members came from academic life. Svanberg even arranged a mock graduation ceremony, a _simpromotion_, in parody of the university ceremonies, where those who had graduated from its swimming training were awarded "degrees" of master (_magister_) and bachelor (_kandidat_). These degrees stuck, and Swedish swimming schools still use these degrees for different levels of swimming skills.

An attempt was made in the 1870s to introduce academic rowing after the Oxbridge
Oxbridge
model. The Stockholm Nationacquired a rowing boat in 1877, soon followed by the Gothenburg Nation, and for a number of years rowing competitions were held between teams from the two nations. Although rowing never got the strong position it has at the English universities, an annual Uppsala-Lund regatta has been arranged since 1992, between rowing teams from Uppsala
Uppsala
and Lund University
Lund University
. The race is held on the Fyris
Fyris
River in Uppsala
Uppsala
on even years, and on a river in the vicinity of Lund on odd years. Each year there is at least one full eight crew with cox competing, with both men's and women's teams present. With the recent victory for Uppsala
Uppsala
in 2005, the score stands 24–23 in Uppsala's favor.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
has signed student exchange agreements with about 500 universities across all parts of the world. It takes part in the Erasmus programme
Erasmus programme
and the Nordplus programme. Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
has signed university-wide student exchange programmes with the following universities (selection):

* Deakin University
Deakin University
, Australia * University of Sydney
University of Sydney
, Australia * University of Melbourne
University of Melbourne
, Australia * University of British Columbia
University of British Columbia
, Canada * Simon Fraser University
Simon Fraser University
, Canada * McGill University
McGill University
, Canada * Queen\'s University
University
, Canada * University of Toronto
University of Toronto
, Canada * University of Victoria
University of Victoria
, Canada * York University
York University
, Canada * University of Alberta
University of Alberta
, Canada * Fudan University
Fudan University
, China * Peking University
Peking University
, China * University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
, Denmark * University of Tartu, Estonia * University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
, Finland * University of Poitiers
University of Poitiers
, France * Paris-Sorbonne University
Paris-Sorbonne University
, France * Grenoble Ecole de Management, France * University of Freiburg
University of Freiburg
, Germany * University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
, Germany * University of Mannheim
University of Mannheim
, Germany * Technical University Munich, Germany * National University of Ireland, Galway
National University of Ireland, Galway
, Ireland * National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland * University of Siena
University of Siena
, Italy * Kyoto University
Kyoto University
, Japan * Waseda University
Waseda University
, Japan * University of Groningen
University of Groningen
, Netherlands * Leiden University
Leiden University
, Netherlands * University of Auckland
University of Auckland
, New Zealand * University of Oslo
University of Oslo
, Norway * Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
, Poland * National University
University
of Singapore
Singapore
, Singapore * Singapore
Singapore
Management University
University
, Singapore * Complutense University of Madrid
Complutense University of Madrid
, Spain * University of Granada
University of Granada
, Spain * Keele University
Keele University
, England, United Kingdom * University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
, Scotland, United Kingdom * University College London
University College London
, England, United Kingdom * University of East Anglia
University of East Anglia
, England, United Kingdom * Cornell University
Cornell University
, United States * University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
, United States * University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
, United States * University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
, United States * University of Washington
University of Washington
, United States * University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town
, South Africa * University of Lausanne
University of Lausanne
, Switzerland * Bilkent University, Turkey * Sabanci University, Turkey

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
is a member of the Coimbra Group
Coimbra Group
of universities.

In May 2010 Uppsala
Uppsala
joined the Matariki Network of Universities
Matariki Network of Universities
(MNU) together with Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
(USA), Durham University
Durham University
(UK), Queen\'s University
University
(Canada), University of Otago
University of Otago
(New Zealand), University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen
(Germany), and University
University
of Western Australia (Australia).

RANKINGS

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
places well in many rankings.

RANKING (YEAR) WORLD RANK EUROPEAN RANK NATIONAL RANK

Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
(2014) # 60 # 18 # 2

QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
(2012) # 81 # 29 # 2

Times Higher Education (2014/2015) # 98 # 32 # 3

Times Higher Education (2015/2016) # 81

# 2

QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
(2015/2016) # 102

# 3

Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
(ARWU) (2015) # 61

# 2

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
People Botanist, physician and zoologist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Niklas Zennström, co-founder of KaZaA
KaZaA
and Skype
Skype

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
is associated with 8 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates, and numerous royalty, academics and public figures.

As the dominant academic institution in Sweden
Sweden
for several centuries, Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
has ever since its first period of expansion in the early part of the 17th century educated a large proportion of Swedish politicians and civil servants, from 17th century Chancellor of the Realm (_rikskansler_) Johan Oxenstierna
Johan Oxenstierna
(1611–1657) and Lord Chief Justice (_riksdrots_) Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie
Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie
(1622–1686) to the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden
Sweden
, Hjalmar Branting (1860–1925) and many later politicians. Other alumni are Dag Hammarskjöld (1905–1961), United Nations Secretary General who was (posthumously) awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1961, and the Swedish diplomat Hans Blix
Hans Blix
(born 1928), who was Head of the International Atomic Energy Agency 1981–1997, of the UNMOVIC2000–2003, and previously Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs 1978–1979. Hammarskjöld and Blix both graduated from the Uppsala
Uppsala
Faculty of Law, as did the Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs Anna Lindh
Anna Lindh
, who was assassinated in 2003.

Most Swedish clergymen, including most bishops and archbishops, have been educated at the university, including, in more recent times, Nathan Söderblom(1866–1931), Professor of the History of Religions in the Faculty of Theology, later Archbishop of Uppsala
Uppsala
, and awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1930 for his work as leader of the ecumenical movement.

The university became prominent in the sciences in the 18th century with names such as the physician and botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the father of biological and mineralogical taxonomy , and his numerous important pupils, the physicist and astronomer Anders Celsius
Celsius
(1701–1744), inventor of the Celsius
Celsius
scale the predecessor of the Celsius
Celsius
scale, and the chemist Torbern Bergman
Torbern Bergman
(1735–1784). Another scientist from this era is Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg
(1688–1772), better remembered today as a religious mystic. Several of the elements were discovered by Uppsala
Uppsala
scientists during this period or later. Jöns Jakob Berzelius, one of the fathers of modern chemistry, received his doctorate in medicine in Uppsala
Uppsala
in 1804, but later moved to Stockholm. Uppsala
Uppsala
scientists of the 19th century include the physicist Anders Jonas Ångström(1814–1874). During the 20th century several Nobel laureates in the sciences have been Uppsala alumni or professors at the university.

Many well-known Swedish writers have studied in Uppsala: Georg Stiernhielm (1598–1672) is often called the father of Swedish poetry. The poet and song composer Carl Michael Bellman
Carl Michael Bellman
(1740–1795), without doubt the best-loved and best-remembered of Swedish 18th-century poets, matriculated but left the university after less than a year. The writer, historian and composer Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783–1847), professor of history, and the poet Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom (1790–1855), professor of poetry, were principal figures of early 19th-century Swedish romanticism. The less than happy experiences of the Uppsala
Uppsala
student life of novelist and playwright August Strindberg
August Strindberg
(1849–1912), resulted in his _Från Fjärdingen och Svartbäcken_ (1877), a collection of short stories set in Uppsala ("From Fjärdingen and Svartbäcken", the title refers to two districts in Uppsala). Other Uppsala
Uppsala
alumni are the poet Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864–1931), who refused the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1918, but received it posthumously in 1931, the novelist and playwright Pär Lagerkvist(1891–1974), Nobel laureate in 1951, and the poet and novelist Karin Boye
Karin Boye
(1900–1941), for whom one branch of the university library has been named. The Communist leader Ture Nerman (1886–1969) wrote a novel called _Olympen_, based on his experience as a student in Uppsala. Niklas Zennström, co-founder of KaZaA
KaZaA
and Skype
Skype
is also a former student at Uppsala
Uppsala
University. On 15 August 2008 Zennström donated 15 million SEK to Uppsala
Uppsala
University for climate research. The late Jan Stenbeck, a Nordic media mogul who controlled Modern Times Group, was also an alumnus of Uppsala University.

IN FICTION AND POPULAR CULTURE

Along with Lund , Uppsala
Uppsala
is the historic and traditional centre of Swedish academic life, making it a popular object of reference in Swedish literature, art, and film. Specifically, Uppsala
Uppsala
University has appeared notably in _Män som hatar kvinnor_ or _The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo _ by Stieg Larsson.

The Norwegian pop singer Kirsti Sparboe
Kirsti Sparboe
dedicated one of her biggest successes to Uppsala
Uppsala
University, publishing in 1969 the song "Ein Student aus Uppsala". The song, originally written in German , lasted 14 weeks in the German charts.

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
appears as a research centre in the strategy game _Empire: Total War _.

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
appears in the novel _S. _ by Doug Dorstand J. J. Abrams . The fictional author V. M. Straka of _Ship of Theseus_ sends Mr. Grahn a confidential letter on Uppsala
Uppsala
Universitet letterhead and stamps his signature with "Straka Uppsala
Uppsala
Arkiv" (included as an insert to the book).

SEE ALSO

* List of medieval universities
List of medieval universities
* List of universities in Sweden
Sweden
* Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
in Uppsala * Johannelunds Teologiska Högskolain Uppsala * Flogsta– student residential area in Uppsala
Uppsala
* Category: Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
alumni * S* , a collaboration between seven universities and the Karolinska Institutet for training in bioinformatics and genomics

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ " Uppsala
Uppsala
University - Facts and Figures". Uppsala
Uppsala
University. Retrieved 2017-04-20. * ^ University
University
Management, Uppsala
Uppsala
University, retrieved 16 January 2012 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Members - The Guild". The Guild. Retrieved 2017-04-20.

* ^ Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de. _A History of the University
University
in Europe ._ Cambridge University
University
Press, 2003. Page 84. * ^ http://www.netleksikon.dk/a/ak/akademiet_i_lund.shtml * ^ " Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
in International Rankings". Uppsala University. Retrieved 2017-04-20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sten Lindroth. A History of Uppsala
Uppsala
University: 1477-1977. Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976) * ^ "Forum for South Asia
South Asia
Studies". _ Uppsala
Uppsala
Universitet_. Retrieved 21 January 2014. * ^ universitet, Juridiska fakulteten Uppsala. "Om fakulteten". _www.jur.uu.se_. Retrieved 2016-11-04. * ^ The Svedberg Laboratorymain page. Retrieved July 2012 * ^ The Svedberg Laboratory, proton therapy page. Retrieved July 2012 * ^ PROTON THERAPY news from May 2011, at The National Association for Proton Therapy * ^ http://www.uu.se/press/pressmeddelanden/pressmeddelande-visning/?id=1910&area=3&typ=pm&na=&lang=sv * ^ "Student housing shortage worse than ever". Retrieved 2010-10-03. * ^ "Homeless in Uppsala: a foreign student’s tale". Retrieved 2010-10-03. * ^ "Tufft att hitta studentboende". Retrieved 2012-02-22. * ^ "Hårdare bostadskontroller". Retrieved 2014-04-03. * ^ http://www.upsalafaktning.se/ * ^ Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
international office (Swedish) * ^ Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
International Office, 2009 * ^ http://www.matarikinetwork.com/members.html * ^ QS Top Universities: Schools * ^ Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
2014 * ^ http://www.topuniversities.com/institution/uppsala-university * ^ http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2014-15/world-ranking * ^ https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/uppsala-university?ranking-dataset=133819 * ^ http://www.topuniversities.com/qs-world-university-rankings * ^ http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2015.html * ^ "Eight Nobel laureates have been connected with the Uppsala University". Retrieved 2010-06-12. * ^ "Zennströmmiljoner till klimatforskning". Uppsala
Uppsala
Nya Tidning. Retrieved 2008-09-23. * ^ Youtube, "Ein Student aus Uppsala", by Kirsti Sparboe
Kirsti Sparboe

FURTHER READING

* Lindroth, Sten. _A History of Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
1477–1977_ (Almqvist color:#FFFFFF;">

* v * t * e

Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University

INSTITUTIONS

* University
University
Hospital * University
University
Library * Linnaean Garden
Linnaean Garden
* Observatory * Gustavianum
Gustavianum

PEOPLE

* Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
People * Chancellors * University
University
Nations * Student Union * Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala
Uppsala
* Royal Academic Orchestra

NATIONS

* Stockholm * Upland * Gästrike-Hälsinge * Östgöta * Västgöta * Södermanlands-Nerike * Västmanlands-Dala * Småland * Göteborg * Kalmar * Värmland * Norrland * Gotland

CATEGORIES

* Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
* UU Alumni * UU Faculty * UU Rectors

* v * t * e

Coimbra Group
Coimbra Group
of European research universities

* Aarhus * Barcelona * Bergen * Bologna * Bristol * Budapest * Coimbra * Dublin * Durham * Edinburgh * Galway * Geneva * Göttingen * Granada * Graz * Groningen * Heidelberg * Iași * Istanbul * Jena * Kraków * Leiden * Leuven * Louvain-la-Neuve * Lyon * Montpellier * Padua * Pavia * Poitiers * Prague * St. Petersburg * Salamanca * Siena * Tartu * Turku I * Turku II * Uppsala * Vilnius * Würzburg

* v * t * e

Matariki Network of Universities
Matariki Network of Universities
(MNU)

* Dartmouth * Durham * Queen\'s * Otago * Tübingen * Western Australia
Australia
* Uppsala

* v * t * e

Higher education in Uppsala
Uppsala
County

UNIVERSITIES AND UNIVERSITY COLLEGES IN UPPSALA COUNTY :

* Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
* Uppsala
Uppsala
University

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS IN UPPSALA COUNTY :

* Johannelunds Teologiska Högskola * Akademi för Ledarskap och Teologi * Livets Ord University
University
* Newmaninstitutet

INSTITUTIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTITUTING OR ASSOCIATED WITH UPPSALA UNIVERSITY:

* Carolina Rediviva
Carolina Rediviva
* Gustavianum
Gustavianum
* Kvistaberg Observatory * Linnaean Garden
Linnaean Garden
* Royal Academic Orchestra * Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences * Uppsala
Uppsala
Astronomical Observatory * Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Hospital * Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
Library

STUDENT UNIONS , NATIONS AND SOCIETIES IN UPPSALA :

* Juvenalorden * Orphei Drängar * Pharmaceutical Students Association * Uplands nation
Uplands nation
* Upsala Simsällskap * Uppsala
Uppsala
Student Union

* v * t * e

Universities in Sweden
Sweden

PUBLIC

* Uppsala * Lund * Gothenburg * Stockholm * Umeå * Linköping * Karolinska Institute * Royal Institute of Technology
Royal Institute of Technology
* Luleå * Karlstad * Linnaeus University
University
* Örebro * Mid Sweden
Sweden
* Swedish Defence University
University
* Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

PRIVATE

* Chalmers * Stockholm School of Economics
Economics
* Jönköping

Coordinates : 59°51′27″N 17°37′44″E / 59.85750°N 17.62889°E / 59.85750; 17.62889

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 134409977 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2288 7739 * GND : 1010726-5 * SUDOC : 026431661 * BNF : cb11868035h (data)

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