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The Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Anatomically modern humans
Anatomically modern humans
(i.e. Homo sapiens) are believed to have emerged around 200,000 years ago, although these lifestyles changed very little from that of archaic humans of the Middle Paleolithic,[1] until about 50,000 years ago, when there was a marked increase in the diversity of artefacts. This period coincides with the expansion of modern humans throughout Eurasia, which contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, some with storage pits. Artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs, carvings and engravings on bone or ivory. The first evidence of human fishing is also noted, from artefacts in places such as Blombos cave
Blombos cave
in South Africa. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and specialized tool types. This probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity.[2] By 50,000–40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61° north latitude in Europe.[3] By 30,000 BP, Japan
Japan
was reached, and by 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed the Bering land bridge
Bering land bridge
and quickly expanded throughout North and South America.[3]

Contents

1 Lifestyle and technology 2 Changes in climate and geography 3 Timeline

3.1 50,000–40,000 BP 3.2 40,000–30,000 BP 3.3 30,000–20,000 BP 3.4 20,000–10,000 BP

4 Cultures 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Lifestyle and technology[edit] See also: Recent African origin of modern humans
Recent African origin of modern humans
and Behavioral modernity Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals
Neanderthals
used the same crude stone tools. Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals
Neanderthals
made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms. He argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated. Firstly among the artefacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, and drilling and piercing tools. These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other; each tool had a specific purpose. The invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools, carved and engraved pieces on bone, ivory and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines.[4][5][6] The Neanderthals
Neanderthals
continued to use Mousterian
Mousterian
stone tool technology and possibly Chatelperronian
Chatelperronian
technology. These tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 years ago.[7] Settlements were often located in narrow valley bottoms, possibly associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Some of them may have been occupied year round, though more commonly they appear to have been used seasonally; people moved between the sites to exploit different food sources at different times of the year. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."[8] Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes. Burins and racloirs were used to work bone, antler and hides. Advanced darts and harpoons also appear in this period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope, and the eyed needle. The changes in human behavior have been attributed to the changes in climate during the period, which encompasses a number of global temperature drops. This meant a worsening of the already bitter climate of the last glacial period (popularly but incorrectly called the last ice age). Such changes may have reduced the supply of usable timber and forced people to look at other materials. In addition, flint becomes brittle at low temperatures and may not have functioned as a tool. Some scholars have argued that the appearance of complex or abstract language made these behavior changes possible. The complexity of the new human capabilities hints that humans were less capable of planning or foresight before 40,000 years, while the emergence of cooperative and coherent communication marked a new era of cultural development.[9] Changes in climate and geography[edit]

European LGM refuges, 20,000 BP.    Solutrean
Solutrean
and Proto Solutrean
Solutrean
Cultures    Epigravettian
Epigravettian
Culture

The climate of the period in Europe
Europe
saw dramatic changes, and included the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest phase of the last glacial period, which lasted from about 26.5 to 19 kya, being coldest at the end, before a relatively rapid warming (all dates vary somewhat for different areas, and in different studies). During the Maximum, most of Northern Europe
Europe
was covered by an ice-sheet, forcing human populations into the areas known as Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
refugia, including modern Italy and the Balkans, parts of the Iberian Peninsula and areas around the Black Sea. This period saw cultures such as the Solutrean
Solutrean
in France and Spain. Human
Human
life may have continued on top of the ice sheet, but we know next to nothing about it, and very little about the human life that preceded the European glaciers. In the early part of the period, up to about 30 kya, the Mousterian
Mousterian
Pluvial made northern Africa, including the Sahara, well-watered and with lower temperatures than today; after the end of the Pluvial the Sahara
Sahara
became arid. The Last Glacial Maximum
Last Glacial Maximum
was followed by the Allerød oscillation, a warm and moist global interstadial that occurred around 13.5 to 13.8 kya. Then there was a very rapid onset, perhaps within as little as a decade, of the cold and dry Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
climate period, giving sub-arctic conditions to much of northern Europe. The Preboreal rise in temperatures also began sharply around 10.3 kya, and by its end around 9.0 kya had brought temperatures nearly to present day levels, although the climate was wetter.[citation needed] This period saw the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
give way to the start of the following Mesolithic cultural period. As the glaciers receded sea levels rose; the English Channel, Irish Sea and North Sea
North Sea
were land at this time, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
a fresh-water lake. In particular the Atlantic coastline was initially far out to sea in modern terms in most areas, though the Mediterranean coastline has retreated far less, except in the north of the Adriatic and the Aegean. The rise in sea levels continued until at least 7.5 kya (5500 BC), so evidence of human activity along Europe's coasts in the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is mostly lost, though some traces have been recovered by fishing boats and marine archaeology, especially from Doggerland, the lost area beneath the North Sea.[citation needed] Timeline[edit]

Map of findings of Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
art in Europe.

50,000–40,000 BP[edit] 50,000 BP

Numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in gravel sediments in Castlereagh, Sydney, Australia. At first when these results were new they were controversial, more recently dating of the same strata has revised and corroborated these dates.[10][11] Start of the Mousterian
Mousterian
Pluvial in North Africa.

45,000–43,000 BP

Earliest evidence of modern humans found in Europe, in Southern Italy.[12]

43,000–41,000 BP

Ornaments and skeletal remains of modern humans, at Ksar Akil
Ksar Akil
in Lebanon,. Denisova hominins live in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
(Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan)

40,000–30,000 BP[edit] 40,000–35,000 BP

The Venus of Hohlefels is the oldest undisputed example of a depiction of a human being yet discovered

First human inhabitants in Perth, Australia, as evidenced by archaeological findings on the Upper Swan River.[13] During this time period, Melbourne, Australia
Australia
was occupied by hunter-gatherers.[14][15] Early cultural centre in the Swabian Alps, earliest figurative art (Venus of Hohle Fels), beginning of the Aurignacian. The first flutes appear in Germany. Lion- Human
Human
created from Hohlenstein-Stadel. It is now in Ulmer Museum, Ulm, Germany. Most of the giant vertebrates and megafauna in Australia
Australia
became extinct, around the time of the arrival of humans[16]

Venus of Laussel, an Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(Gravettian) carving.

Examples of cave art in Spain are dated from around 40,000 BP, making them the oldest examples of art yet discovered in the world (see: Caves of Nerja). Scientists theorise that the paintings may have been made by Neanderthals, rather than by homo sapiens. (BBC) (Science) Wall painting with horses, rhinoceroses and aurochs is made at Chauvet Cave, Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardéche gorge, France. Discovered in December 1994. Archaeological studies support human presence in the Chek Lap Kok
Chek Lap Kok
area (now Hong Kong International Airport) from 35,000 to 39,000 years ago.[17] Zar, Yataghyeri, Damjili and Taghlar caves in Azerbaijan. First evidence of people inhabiting Japan.[18]

35,000 BP

Kostenki XVII, a layer of the Kostenki (Kostyonki) site, on the middle Don River, was occupied by the early upper paleolithic Spitsyn culture.

30,000 BP

First ground stone tools appear in Japan.[19] End of the Mousterian
Mousterian
Pluvial in North Africa. The area of Sydney
Sydney
was occupied by Aboriginal Australians
Aboriginal Australians
during this time period, as evidenced by radiocarbon dating.[20] In an archaeological dig in Parramatta, Western Sydney, it was found that the Aboriginals used charcoal, stone tools and possible ancient campfires.[21] First human settlement in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia.[22]

The Venus of Brassempouy
Venus of Brassempouy
is preserved in the Musée d'Archéologie Nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris.

30,000–20,000 BP[edit] 29,000–25,000 BP

Last eruption of the Ciomadul
Ciomadul
volcano in Romania. Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Venus of Dolní Věstonice
(Czech Republic). It is the oldest known ceramic in the world. The Red Lady of Paviland
Red Lady of Paviland
lived around 29,000–26,000 years ago. Recent evidence has come to light that he was a tribal chief.[citation needed] Human settlement
Human settlement
in Beijing, China dates from about 27,000 to 10,000 years ago.[23]

24,000 BP

Start of the second Mousterian
Mousterian
Pluvial in North Africa.

23,000 BP

Venus of Petřkovice
Venus of Petřkovice
is created at Petřkovice in Ostrava, Czech Republic. It is now in Archeological Institute, Brno.

22,000 BP

Last Glacial Maximum: Venus of Brassempouy, Grotte du Pape, Brassempouy, Landes, France, created. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Venus of Willendorf, Austria, created. It is now at the Natural History Museum, Vienna.

21,000 BP

Artifacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in Canberra, Australia.[24] Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock art, burial places, camps and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements.[25] End of the second Mousterian
Mousterian
Pluvial in North Africa.

20,000–10,000 BP[edit] Main article: Epipaleolithic

Lascaux, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Bradshaw rock paintings
Bradshaw rock paintings
found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia.

Last Glacial Maximum. Mean sea levels are believed to be 110 to 120 metres (360 to 390 ft) lower than present,[26] with the direct implication that many coastal and lower riverine valley archaeological sites of interest are today under water.

18,000 BP

Spotted Horses, Pech Merle
Pech Merle
cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December, 1994. Ibex-headed spear-thrower, from Le Mas-d'Azil, Ariège, France, is made. It is now at Musée de la Préhistoire, Le Mas d'Azil. Mammoth-bone village in Mezhyrich, Ukraine
Ukraine
is inhabited.

17,000 BP

Spotted human hands are painted at Pech Merle
Pech Merle
cave, Dordogne, France. Discovered in December 1994. Oldest Dryas
Oldest Dryas
stadial. Hall of Bulls at Lascaux
Lascaux
in France is painted. Discovered in 1940. Closed to the public in 1963. Bird-Headed man with bison and Rhinoceros, Lascaux, is painted. Lamp with ibex design, from La Mouthe cave, Dordogne, France, is made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Paintings in Cosquer Cave
Cosquer Cave
are made, where the cave mouth is now under water at Cap Margiou, France.

15,000 BP

Bølling interstadial. Bison, Le Tuc d'Audoubert, Ariège, France. Paleo-Indians
Paleo-Indians
move across North America, then southward through Central America. Pregnant woman and deer (?), from Laugerie-Basse, France was made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye.

14,000 BP

Older Dryas stadial, Allerød interstadial. Paleo-Indians
Paleo-Indians
searched for big game near what is now the Hovenweep National Monument. Bison, on the ceiling of a cave at Altamira, Spain, is painted. Discovered in 1879. Accepted as authentic in 1902.[clarification needed] Domestication
Domestication
of Reindeer.[27]

The Swimming Reindeer, created 13,000 years ago.

13,000 BP

Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
stadial. Beginning of the Holocene
Holocene
extinction.

12,000 BP

Wooden buildings in South America (Chile). First pottery vessels (Japan).

11,000 BP

First evidence of human settlement in Argentina. The Arlington Springs Man
Arlington Springs Man
dies on the island of Santa Rosa, off the coast of California, United States. Human
Human
remains deposited in caves which are now located off the coast of Yucatán, Mexico.[28] Creswellian culture
Creswellian culture
settlement on Hengistbury Head, England, dates from around this year.

10,000 BP

Evidence of a massacre near Lake Turkana, Kenya
Kenya
indicates upper paleolithic warfare.[29]

Cultures[edit]

Reindeer
Reindeer
Age articles

The Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
in the Franco-Cantabrian region:

The Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
culture was located around central and south western France, and northern Spain. It appears to be derived from the Mousterian
Mousterian
culture, and represents the period of overlap between Neanderthals
Neanderthals
and Homo sapiens. This culture lasted from approximately 45,000 BP to 40,000 BP.[7] The Aurignacian
Aurignacian
culture was located in Europe
Europe
and south west Asia, and flourished between 43,000 and 36,000 BP. It may have been contemporary with the Périgordian (a contested grouping of the earlier Châtelperronian
Châtelperronian
and later Gravettian
Gravettian
cultures). The Gravettian
Gravettian
culture was located across Europe. Gravettian
Gravettian
sites generally date between 33,000 and 20,000 BP. The Solutrean
Solutrean
culture was located in eastern France, Spain, and England. Solutrean
Solutrean
artifacts have been dated c. 22,000 to 17,000 BP. The Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture left evidence from Portugal to Poland during the period from 17,000 to 12,000 BP.

Further information: Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures

Central and east Europe:

33,000 BP, Gravettian
Gravettian
culture in southern Ukraine.[30] 30,000 BP, Szeletian culture 22,000 BP, Pavlovian, Aurignacian
Aurignacian
cultures 13,000 BP, Ahrensburg culture
Ahrensburg culture
(Western Germany, Netherlands, England) 12,000 BP, Epigravettian
Epigravettian
culture

North and west Africa, and Sahara:

32,000 BP, Aterian
Aterian
culture (Algeria, Libya) 12,000 BP, Ibero-Maurusian
Ibero-Maurusian
(a.k.a. Oranian, Ouchtatian), and Sebilian cultures 10,000 BP, Capsian
Capsian
culture (Tunisia, Algeria)

Central, south, and east Africa:

50,000 BP, Fauresmithian culture 30,000 BP, Stillbayan culture 12,000 BP, Lupembian culture 11,000 BP, Magosian culture (Zambia, Tanzania) 9,000 BP, Wiltonian culture

West Asia
Asia
(including Middle East):

50,000 BP, Jabroudian culture (Levant) 40,000 BP, Amoudian culture 30,000 BP, Emireh culture 20,000 BP, Aurignacian
Aurignacian
culture 12,000 BP, Kebarian, Athlitian cultures

South, central and northern Asia:

30,000 BP, Angara
Angara
culture 11,000 BP, Khandivili culture

East and southeast Asia:

50,000 BP, Ngandong
Ngandong
culture 30,000 BP, Sen-Doki culture 16,000 BP, Jōmon period
Jōmon period
starts in Ancient Japan 12,000 BP, pre- Jōmon
Jōmon
ceramic culture (Japan) 10,000 BP, Hoabinhian culture (Northern Vietnam) 9,000 BP, Jōmon
Jōmon
culture (Japan)

Oceania

40,000 BP, Whadjuk
Whadjuk
and Noongar
Noongar
culture (Perth, Australia)[31] 35,000 BP, Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong
Wathaurong
culture (Melbourne, Australia)[32] 30,000 BP, Eora and Darug[33] culture (Sydney, Australia)[34] 30,000 BP, Arrernte culture (Alice Springs, Central Australia)[35]

See also[edit]

Late Glacial Maximum Neolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Europe Behavioral modernity Cro-Magnon
Cro-Magnon
1 Sungir Cultural universal

References[edit]

Gilman, Antonio (1996). "Explaining the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution". Pp. 220–239 (Chap. 8) in Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: A Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

^ Rightmire, GP (2009). "Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia" (PDF). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106 (38): 16046–50. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616046R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0903930106. PMC 2752549 . PMID 19581595.  ^ Gilman, Antonio. 1996. Explaining the Upper Palaeolithic Revolution. pp. 220–39 (Chap. 8) in Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: A Reader. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell ^ a b John Weinstock. "Sami Prehistory
Prehistory
Revisited: transactions, admixture and assimilation in the phylogeographic picture of Scandinavia".  ^ "Klein: Behavioral and Biological Origins of Modern Humans 3 of 3". www.accessexcellence.org.  ^ "Klein: Behavioral and Biological Origins of Modern Humans 1 of 3". www.accessexcellence.org.  ^ "'Modern' Behavior Began 40,000 Years Ago In Africa", Science Daily, July 1998 ^ a b Higham, Tom; Douka, Katerina; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Basell, Laura; Camps, Marta; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecillio; Bergman, Christopher; Boitard, Coralie; Boscato, Paolo; Caparrós, Miguel; Conard, Nicholas J.; Draily, Christelle; Froment, Alain; Galván, Bertila; Gambassini, Paolo; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Grimaldi, Stefano; Haesaerts, Paul; Holt, Brigitte; Iriarte-Chiapusso, Maria-Jose; Jelinek, Arthur; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.; Maíllo-Fernández, José-Manuel; Marom, Anat; Maroto, Julià; Menéndez, Mario; Metz, Laure; Morin, Eugène; Moroni, Adriana; Negrino, Fabio; Panagopoulou, Eleni; Peresani, Marco; Pirson, Stéphane; de la Rasilla, Marco; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Santamaria, David; Semal, Patrick; Slimak, Ludovic; Soler, Joaquim; Soler, Narcís; Villaluenga, Aritza; Pinhasi, Ron; Jacobi, Roger (21 August 2014). "The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal
Neanderthal
disappearance". Nature. 512 (7514): 306–309. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..306H. doi:10.1038/nature13621 – via www.nature.com.  ^ "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas the most important resource—for peoples' inhabiting the northern boreal forest and tundra regions. Known human dependence on caribou/wild reindeer has a long history, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene (Banfield 1961:170; Kurtén 1968:170) and continuing to the present....The caribou/wild reindeer is thus an animal that has been a major resource for humans throughout a tremendous geographic area and across a time span of tens of thousands of years." Ernest S. Burch, Jr. "The Caribou/Wild Reindeer
Reindeer
as a Human Resource", American Antiquity, Vol. 37, No. 3 (July 1972), pp. 339–368. ^ "No Last Word on Language
Language
Origins" Archived April 4, 2005, at the Wayback Machine., Bellarmine University ^ Attenbrow, Val (2010). Sydney's Aboriginal Past: Investigating the Archaeological and Historical Records. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-1-74223-116-7. Retrieved 11 Nov 2013.  ^ Stockton, Eugene D.; Nanson, Gerald C. (April 2004). "Cranebrook Terrace Revisited". Archaeology in Oceania. 39 (1): 59–60. JSTOR 40387277.  ^ Wilford, John Noble (2 November 2011). "Fossil Teeth Put Humans in Europe
Europe
Earlier Than Thought" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ Sandra Bowdler. "The Pleistocene Pacific". Published in 'Human settlement', in D. Denoon (ed) The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders. pp. 41–50. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.  ^ Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri
Wurundjeri
in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7 ^ Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. ISBN 0-646-33150-7. Presland says on page 1: "There is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River
Maribyrnong River
valley, near present day Keilor, about 40,000 years ago." ^ "Humans killed off Australia's giant beasts". BBC News. 24 March 2012.  ^ "The Trial Excavation at the Archaeological Site of Wong Tei Tung, Sham Chung, Hong Kong SAR". Hong Kong Archaeological Society. January 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ Prehistoric Archaeological Periods in Japan, Charles T. Keally ^ "Prehistoric Japan, New perspectives on insular East Asia", Keiji Imamura, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, ISBN 0-8248-1853-9 ^ Macey, Richard (2007). "Settlers' history rewritten: go back 30,000 years". The Sydney
Sydney
Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 July 2014. . Geoffrey Blainey; A Very Short History of the World; Penguin Books; 2004; ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9 ^ Blainey, Geoffrey (2004). A Very Short History of the World. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-300559-9.  ^ Aboriginal Australia
Australia
Art & Culture Centre. "Arrernte Aboriginal Art and Culture Centre Alice Springs". Aboriginalart.com.au. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ "The Peking Man World Heritage Site at Zhoukoudian".  ^ Flood, J. M.; David, B.; Magee, J.; English, B. (1987), "Birrigai: a Pleistocene site in the south eastern highlands", Archaeology in Oceania, 22: 9–22  ^ Gillespie, Lyall (1984). Aborigines of the Canberra
Canberra
Region. Canberra: Wizard (Lyall Gillespie). pp. 1–25. ISBN 0-9590255-0-2.  ^ Sea level
Sea level
data from main article: Cosquer cave ^ Lloyd, J. & Mitchinson, J.: The Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber, 2006. ^ "Divers find traces of ancient Americans". 9 September 2004.  ^ M. Mirazón Lahr et al., "Inter-group violence among early Holocene hunter-gatherers of West Turkana, Kenya", Nature 529, 394–398 (21 January 2016), doi:10.1038/nature16477. "Here we report on a case of inter-group violence towards a group of hunter-gatherers from Nataruk, west of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
[...] Ten of the twelve articulated skeletons found at Nataruk show evidence of having died violently at the edge of a lagoon, into which some of the bodies fell. The remains [...] offer a rare glimpse into the life and death of past foraging people, and evidence that warfare was part of the repertoire of inter-group relations among prehistoric hunter-gatherers." "Evidence of a prehistoric massacre extends the history of warfare". University of Cambridge. 20 Jan 2016. Retrieved 20 Mar 2017. . For early depiction of interpersonal violence in rock art see: Taçon, Paul; Chippindale, Christopher (October 1994). "Australia's Ancient Warriors: Changing Depictions of Fighting in the Rock Art of Arnhem Land, N.T.". Cambridge Archaeological Journal. 4 (2): 211–48. doi:10.1017/S0959774300001086. . ^ Carpenter, Jennifer (20 June 2011). "Early human fossils unearthed in Ukraine". BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2011.  ^ Mulvaney, D J and White, Peter, 1987, Australians to 1788, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, Sydney ^ Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, ISBN 0-9577004-2-3. This book describes in some detail the archaeological evidence regarding aboriginal life, culture, food gathering and land management, particularly the period from the flooding of Bass Strait and Port Phillip from about 7–10,000 years ago, up to the European colonisation in the nineteenth century. ^ Dousset, Laurent (2005). "Daruk". AusAnthrop Australian Aboriginal tribal database. Archived from the original on April 9, 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2012.  ^ "Aboriginal people and place". Sydney
Sydney
Barani. 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.  ^ Thorley, Peter (2004). "Rock-art and the archaeological record of Indigenous settlement in Central Australia". Australian Aboriginal Studies (1). Retrieved 18 June 2011. 

External links[edit]

The Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Revolution Picture Gallery of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
(reconstructional palaeoethnology), Libor Balák at the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archaeology in Brno, The Center for Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Paleoethnological Research

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trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

Authority control

.