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The Upper Midwest
Midwest
is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States. It is largely a sub-region of the Midwest. Although there are no uniformly agreed-upon boundaries, the region is most commonly used to refer to the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan's Upper Peninsula. By most definitions, it extends into North and South Dakota, Illinois, and Iowa.

Contents

1 Definitions 2 Climate 3 Language 4 Politics 5 Industry and tourism 6 See also 7 External links 8 References

Definitions[edit]

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The National Weather Service
National Weather Service
defines its Upper Midwest
Midwest
as the states of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
uses two different Upper Midwest
Midwest
regions:

The USGS Upper Midwest
Midwest
Environmental Sciences Center considers it to be the six states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, which comprise the watersheds of the Upper Mississippi River and upper Great Lakes. The USGS Mineral Resources Program considers the area to contain Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

The Association for Institutional Research in the Upper Midwest includes the states of Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and the upper peninsula of Michigan in the region. Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of the Upper Midwest

The region has dramatic variations between summer and winter temperatures; summers are very hot and winters very cold. For example, Sioux Falls averages 25 days each year with temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C) and 45 days each year with temperatures below 5 °F (−15 °C).[1] Mitchell, South Dakota
South Dakota
has a record high of 116 °F (47 °C) and a record low of −39 °F (−39 °C).[2] The growing season is shorter, cooler, and drier than areas farther south and east. The region's western boundary is sometimes considered to be determined by where the climate becomes too dry to support growing non-irrigated crops other than small grains or hay grass.[citation needed] Language[edit] Main article: Inland Northern American English Main article: North Central American English The Inland North dialect, most prominently characterized by the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, is centered in the eastern part of the Upper Midwest, including Wisconsin, Michigan, and the northern parts of Illinois
Illinois
and Ohio; it extends beyond the Midwest
Midwest
into Upstate New York. North Central American English
North Central American English
(also known as "Upper Midwestern"[3]), a residual[clarification needed] accent of American English, is spoken in Minnesota, parts of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Iowa, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, portions of Montana, and the Dakotas.[4] Politics[edit] The Upper Midwest
Midwest
was the heartland of early 20th-century Progressive Party politics, and the region continues to be favorable to the Democratic Party of the United States
Democratic Party of the United States
and moderate Republicans, with Minnesota
Minnesota
favoring each Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
from 1988 to 2012. Minnesota
Minnesota
narrowly supported native Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
in 1984 in an election where Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
won every other state. Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin
Wisconsin
also often favor Democratic candidates. Industry and tourism[edit] The economy of the region was largely based upon the mining of iron and copper, as well as a very large timber industry. Mechanization has sharply reduced employment in those areas, and the economy is increasingly based on tourism. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience who live within driving range.[5] See also[edit]

Culture of Minnesota Louisiana (New France) Northern Tier (United States) 100th meridian west Siouxland

External links[edit]

The History of the Upper Midwest: An Overview USGS Upper Midwest
Midwest
Environmental Sciences Center U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Upper Midwest
Midwest
Mineral Resources Program

References[edit]

^ Weatherbase ^ Mitchell, SD temperature extremes ^ Allen, Harold B. (1973). The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. ISBN 0-8166-0686-2.  ^ Labov, William; Sharon Ash; Charles Boberg (2006). The Atlas of North American English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016746-8.  ^ Aaron Shapiro, The Lure of the North Woods: Cultivating Tourism in the Upper Midwest
Midwest
(University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press, 2015).

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