The Info List - Upper German

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Alemannic:   3: Swabian German   4: Low Alemannic   5: High and Highest Alemannic Bavarian:   6: Northern Bavarian   7: Central Bavarian   8: Southern Bavarian

Upper German
Upper German
(German:  Oberdeutsch (help·info)) is a family of High German languages
High German languages
spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum). Family tree[edit] Upper German
Upper German
proper can be generally classified as Alemannic or Bavarian. However, the High Franconian dialects spoken up to the Speyer line
Speyer line
isogloss in the north, are also considered part of the larger Upper German
Upper German
dialect group. Whether they should be included as part of Upper German
Upper German
or instead classified as Central German
Central German
is an open question, as they have traits of both Upper and Central German and are frequently described as a transitional zone. Hence, either scheme can be encountered. Erzgebirgisch, usually lumped in with Upper Saxon on geographical grounds, is closer to East Franconian linguistically, especially the western dialects of Erzgebirgisch.

Alemannic (German: Alemannisch, spoken in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in the Bavarian region of Swabia, in Switzerland, Liechtenstein, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg
and in Alsace, France)

Swabian (Schwäbisch, spoken mostly in Swabia) Low Alemannic (Niederalemannisch)

Alsatian (Elsässisch, spoken in Alsace, France, numbered 5) Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, Venezuela) Basel German (Baseldytsch), Basel German: Baslerdüütsch, German: Baseldeutsch)

High Alemannic (Hochalemannisch)

Bernese German (Bernese: Bärndütsch, German: Berndeutsch) Zurich German
Zurich German
(Zurich German: Züritüütsch, German: Zürichdeutsch)

Highest Alemannic (Höchstalemannisch)

Walser German
Walser German
(Walserdeutsch) or Walliser German (Walliser German: Wallisertitsch, German: Walliserdeutsch spoken in the Wallis Canton of Switzerland)

Bavarian (Bavarian: Boarische Språch, German: Bairisch, spoken in the German state of Bavaria, in Austria, and in South Tyrol, Italy

Northern Bavarian
Northern Bavarian
(Bavarian: Nordboarisch, German: Nordbairisch, spoken mainly in the Bavarian Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
region, numbered 6) Central Bavarian
Central Bavarian
(Bavarian: Mittelboarisch, German: Mittelbairisch, spoken mainly in Upper and Lower Bavaria, in Salzburg, Upper and Lower Austria)

Viennese German (German: Wienerisch, spoken in Vienna and parts of Lower Austria)

Southern Bavarian
Southern Bavarian
(Bavarian: Südboarisch, German: Südbairisch, spoken mainly in the Austrian states of Tyrol, Carinthia and Styria, as well as in South Tyrol, Italy)

or Granish (Gottscheerish: Göttscheabarisch, German: Gottscheerisch, Slovene: kočevarščina, spoken in Gottschee, Slovenia, nearly extinct)

Cimbrian (Cimbrian: Zimbar, German: Tzimbrisch, Italian: Italian: lingua cimbra, spoken in the Seven Communities
Seven Communities
(formerly also in the Thirteen Communities) in Veneto, and around Luserna
(Lusern), Trentino, Italy) Mòcheno language
Mòcheno language
(Mòcheno: Bersntoler sproch, Italian: lingua mòchena, German: Fersentalerisch, spoken in the Mocheni Valley, Trentino
in Italy) Hutterite German (German: Hutterisch, spoken in Canada
and the United States)

High Franconian (German: Hochfränkisch, spoken in the Bavarian Franconia
region, as well as in the adjacent regions of northern Baden-Württemberg
and southern Thuringia)

East Franconian (German: Ostfränkisch, colloquially just Fränkisch)

Main-Franconian (German: Mainfränkisch, mainly spoken in Bavarian Franconia, in the adjacent Main-Tauber-Kreis
of Baden-Württemberg, as well as in Thuringia
south of the Rennsteig
ridge in the Thuringian Forest)

Itzgründish (German: Itzgründisch, spoken in the Itz

Vogtlandish (German: Vogtländisch, spoken in Vogtland, Saxony

South Franconian (German: Südfränkisch, spoken in the Heilbronn-Franken region of northern Baden-Württemberg
down to the Karlsruhe district.


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Based on the fact that Langobardic, extinct around 1000, has undergone the High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift
completely, it is also often classified as Upper German. However, if the High German consonant shift occurred late (7th/8th century), which now seems to be the prevalent view, it would seem to be anachronistic to do so. On the other hand, if Langobardic was still essentially identical to Bavarian or Alemannic at the time, the anachronism would disappear, and in fact, what is attested in Langobardic cannot really be shown to be systematically different in any particular point from the earliest attested form of Bavarian in the 8th century, apart from a few rather minor divergent phonological developments, which, however, seem to postdate the sound shift. References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Upper German". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

v t e

Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and dialects

West Germanic

Anglo- Frisian



dialects Yola Fingallian



East Frisian

Saterland Frisian Wangerooge Frisian Wursten Frisian

North Frisian

Söl'ring Fering Öömrang Heligolandic Mooring Halligen Frisian Strand Frisian Eiderstedt Frisian

West Frisian

Clay Frisian Wood Frisian

Low German

East Low German

Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian

Mecklenburgish West Pomeranian

Brandenburgisch East Pomeranian-West Prussian

Western East Pomeranian Eastern East Pomeranian Bublitzisch Pommerellisch

Central Pomeranian

West Central Pomeranian

Low Prussian

Mennonite Low German

West Low German

Dutch Low Saxon

Stellingwarfs Tweants Gronings Drèents Gelders-Overijssels

Achterhooks Sallaans Urkers


Northern Low Saxon

East Frisian Low Saxon Schleswigsch Holsteinisch Hamburgisch Ollnborger North Hanoveranian Dithmarsch Emsländisch

Westphalian Eastphalian

Low Franconian

Standard variants

Dutch Afrikaans

West Low Franconian

Hollandic West Flemish

French Flemish

Zeelandic East Flemish Brabantian Surinamese Dutch Jersey Dutch Mohawk Dutch Stadsfries Bildts Yiddish

East Low Franconian



Southeast Limburgish

South Guelderish


Low Dietsch

High German



Namibian German Namibian Black German Brazilian German Unserdeutsch Barossa German Belgranodeutsch Parana Volga German


Eastern Western Litvish Poylish Ukrainish Galitzish Scots Yiddish Alsatian Yiddish Klezmer-loshn Ganovim Balagole Katsoves Lachoudisch

Yenish Rotwelsch


Central German

West Central German

Central Franconian



Moselle Franconian

Luxembourgish Transylvanian Saxon Hunsrückisch

Rhine Franconian

Lorraine Franconian Palatine

Volga German Pennsylvania German



East Central German

Thuringian Upper Saxon Lusatian-Neumarkish


Silesian High Prussian Wymysorys Pragerisch

High Franconian

South Franconian East Franconian

Main Franconian Vogtlandian

Upper German


Low Alemannic

Alsatian Coloniero

High Alemannic

Swiss German

Highest Alemannic

Walser German



Northern Bavarian Central Bavarian

Viennese German

Southern Bavarian

South Tyrolean Cimbrian Mòcheno Hutterite German


Standard German

German Standard German Austrian Standard German Swiss Standard German

North Germanic

West Scandinavian



Bergensk Kebabnorsk Sognamål Trøndersk Valdris Vestlandsk Vikværsk


Elfdalian Insular Scandinavian

Faroese Icelandic Gronlandsk Norn

East Scandinavian


Åland Estonian Finlandic Gotlandic Jamtlandic Kalix Kiruna Luleå Norrland Ostrobothnian Småländska South Swedish


Stockholm Rinkeby Uppländska Västgötska Westrobothnian


Bornholmsk Gøtudanskt Insular Danish Jutlandic South Jutlandic Perkerdansk


East Germanic


Crimean Gothic

Burgundian Vandalic

Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 3 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the langu