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(i)

Alemannic : 3: Swabian German 4: Low Alemannic 5: High and Highest Alemannic

Bavarian : 6: Northern Bavarian 7: Central Bavarian 8: Southern Bavarian

UPPER GERMAN (German : _ Oberdeutsch (help ·info )_) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (_ Sprachraum _).

FAMILY TREE

Upper German
Upper German
proper can be generally classified as Alemannic or Bavarian . However, the High Franconian dialects of the Franconian language , spoken up to the Speyer line isogloss in the north, are also considered part of the larger Upper German
Upper German
dialect group. Whether they should be included as part of Upper German
Upper German
or instead classified as Central German is an open question, as they have traits of both Upper and Central German and are frequently described as a transitional zone. Hence, either scheme can be encountered. Erzgebirgisch , usually lumped in with Upper Saxon on geographical grounds, is closer to East Franconian linguistically, especially the western dialects of Erzgebirgisch.

* ALEMANNIC (German: _Alemannisch_, spoken in the German state of Baden-Württemberg , in the Bavarian region of Swabia , in Switzerland , Liechtenstein , the Austrian state of Vorarlberg and in Alsace
Alsace
, France
France
)

* Swabian (_Schwäbisch_, spoken mostly in Swabia )

* Low Alemannic (_Niederalemannisch_)

* Alsatian (_Elsässisch_, spoken in Alsace
Alsace
, France
France
, numbered 5) * Alemán Coloniero , spoken in Colonia Tovar
Colonia Tovar
, Venezuela
Venezuela
) * Basel German (Baseldytsch), Basel German: _Baslerdüütsch_, German: _Baseldeutsch_)

* High Alemannic (_Hochalemannisch_)

* Bernese German (Bernese: _Bärndütsch_, German: _Berndeutsch_) * Zurich German (Zurich German: _Züritüütsch_, German: _Zürichdeutsch_)

* Highest Alemannic (_Höchstalemannisch_)

* Walser German (_Walserdeutsch_) or Walliser German (Walliser German: _Wallisertitsch_, German: _Walliserdeutsch_ spoken in the Wallis Canton of Switzerland
Switzerland
)

* BAVARIAN (Bavarian: _Boarische Språch_, German: _Bairisch_, spoken in the German state of Bavaria
Bavaria
, in Austria
Austria
, and in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
, Italy
Italy

* Northern Bavarian (Bavarian: _Nordboarisch_, German: _Nordbairisch_, spoken mainly in the Bavarian Upper Palatinate region, numbered 6)

* Central Bavarian (Bavarian: _Mittelboarisch_, German: _Mittelbairisch_, spoken mainly in Upper and Lower Bavaria
Bavaria
, in Salzburg , Upper and Lower Austria
Austria
)

* Viennese German (German: _Wienerisch_, spoken in Vienna and parts of Lower Austria)

* Southern Bavarian (Bavarian: _Südboarisch_, German: _Südbairisch_, spoken mainly in the Austrian states of Tyrol , Carinthia and Styria , as well as in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
, Italy)

* Gottscheerish or Granish (Gottscheerish: _Göttscheabarisch_, German: _Gottscheerisch_, Slovene : _kočevarščina_, spoken in Gottschee , Slovenia
Slovenia
, nearly extinct)

* Cimbrian (Cimbrian: _Zimbar_, German: _Tzimbrisch_, Italian: Italian : _lingua cimbra_, spoken in the Seven Communities (formerly also in the Thirteen Communities ) in Veneto
Veneto
, and around Luserna (_Lusern_), Trentino
Trentino
, Italy) * Mòcheno language (Mòcheno: _Bersntoler sproch_, Italian: _lingua mòchena_, German: _Fersentalerisch_, spoken in the Mocheni Valley , Trentino
Trentino
in Italy) * Hutterite German (German: _Hutterisch_, spoken in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
)

* HIGH FRANCONIAN (German: _Hochfränkisch_, spoken in the Bavarian Franconia
Franconia
region, as well as in the adjacent regions of northern Baden-Württemberg and southern Thuringia )

* East Franconian (German: _Ostfränkisch_, colloquially just _Fränkisch_)

* Main-Franconian (German: _Mainfränkisch_, mainly spoken in Bavarian Franconia
Franconia
, in the adjacent Main-Tauber-Kreis of Baden-Württemberg , as well as in Thuringia south of the Rennsteig ridge in the Thuringian Forest )

* Itzgründish (German: _Itzgründisch_, spoken in the Itz Valley)

* Vogtlandish (German: _Vogtländisch_, spoken in Vogtland
Vogtland
, Saxony

* South Franconian (German: _Südfränkisch_, spoken in the Heilbronn-Franken region of northern Baden-Württemberg down to the Karlsruhe district.

LOMBARDIC

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Based on the fact that Langobardic , extinct around 1000, has undergone the High German consonant shift completely, it is also often classified as Upper German. However, if the High German consonant shift occurred late (7th/8th century), which now seems to be the prevalent view, it would seem to be anachronistic to do so.

On the other hand, if Langobardic was still essentially identical to Bavarian or Alemannic at the time, the anachronism would disappear, and in fact, what is attested in Langobardic cannot really be shown to be systematically different in any particular point from the earliest attested form of Bavarian in the 8th century, apart from a few rather minor divergent phonological developments, which, however, seem to postdate the sound shift.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Upper German". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

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