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Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
(Arabic: صعيد مصر‎ Ṣaʿīd Miṣr, shortened to الصعيد aṣ-Ṣeʿīd; pronounced [esˤːe.ˈʕiːd], Coptic: ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile
Nile
that extends between Nubia
Nubia
and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Predynastic Egypt 2.2 Dynastic Egypt 2.3 Medieval Egypt 2.4 20th-century Egypt

3 List of rulers of prehistoric Upper Egypt 4 List of nomes 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

9 External links

Geography[edit] Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
is between the Cataracts of the Nile
Nile
above modern-day Aswan, downriver (northwards) to the area between Dahshur
Dahshur
and El-Ayait,[citation needed] which is south of modern-day Cairo. The northern (downriver) part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag
Sohag
and El-Ayait, is also known as Middle Egypt. In Arabic, inhabitants of Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
are known as Sa'idis and they generally speak Sai'idi Egyptian Arabic. In ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
was known as tꜣ šmꜣw,[1] literally "the Land of Reeds" or "the Sedgeland"[2] It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes.[3] The first nome was roughly where modern-day Aswan
Aswan
is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih
Atfih
just to the south of Cairo. History[edit]

Hedjet, the White Crown of Upper Egypt

Predynastic Egypt[edit] The main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
was Nekhen,[4] whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet.[5] By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile
Nile
had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.[6] Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity.[7] A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.[7] The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.[7] Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile
Nile
River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile
Nile
Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process.[7] Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
occurred often.[7] During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer
Narmer
defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
under his single rule.[8]

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

All years are BC

Early

First Dynasty I c. 3150–2890

Second Dynasty II 2890–2686

Old Kingdom

Third Dynasty III 2686–2613

Fourth Dynasty IV 2613–2498

Fifth Dynasty V 2498–2345

Sixth Dynasty VI 2345–2181

First Intermediate

Seventh Dynasty VII spurious

Eighth Dynasty VIII 2181–2160

Ninth Dynasty IX 2160–2130

Tenth Dynasty X 2130–2040

Early Eleventh Dynasty XI 2134–2061

Middle Kingdom

Late Eleventh Dynasty XI 2061–1991

Twelfth Dynasty XII 1991–1803

Thirteenth Dynasty XIII 1803–1649

Fourteenth Dynasty XIV 1705–1690

Second Intermediate

Fifteenth Dynasty XV 1674–1535

Sixteenth Dynasty XVI 1660–1600

Abydos Dynasty

1650–1600

Seventeenth Dynasty XVII 1580–1549

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty XVIII 1549–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty XIX 1292–1189

Twentieth Dynasty XX 1189–1077

Third Intermediate

Twenty-first Dynasty XXI 1069–945

Twenty-second Dynasty XXII 945–720

Twenty-third Dynasty XXIII 837–728

Twenty-fourth Dynasty XXIV 732–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty XXV 732–653

Late Period

Twenty-sixth Dynasty XXVI 672–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (1st Persian Period)

XXVII 525–404

Twenty-eighth Dynasty XXVIII 404–398

Twenty-ninth Dynasty XXIX 398–380

Thirtieth Dynasty XXX 380–343

Thirty-first Dynasty (2nd Persian Period)

XXXI 343–332

Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)

Argead Dynasty 332–305

Ptolemaic Kingdom 305–30

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Dynastic Egypt[edit] For most of pharaonic Egypt's history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined. Under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
took over the role of Upper Egypt's capital city.[9] Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge. Medieval Egypt[edit] In the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
and moved westward into Libya
Libya
and as far as Tunis.[10] It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the root cause of the migration.[11] 20th-century Egypt[edit] In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Sa'id
Prince of the Sa'id
(meaning Prince of Upper Egypt) was used by the heir apparent to the Egyptian throne.[Note 1] Although the Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt
was abolished after the Egyptian revolution of 1952, the title continues to be used by Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa'id. List of rulers of prehistoric Upper Egypt[edit] The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Image Comments Dates

Elephant

End of 4th millennium BC

Bull

4th millennium BC

Scorpion I

Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab
Umm el-Qa'ab
had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?

Iry-Hor

Possibly the immediate predecessor of Ka. c. 3150 BC?

Ka[13][14]

May be read Sekhen rather than Ka. Possibly the immediate predecessor of Narmer. c. 3100 BC

Scorpion II

Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3150 BC

Narmer

The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[15] c. 3150 BC

List of nomes[edit]

Map of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
with its historical nomes. "Upper Egypt" is in the lower portion of the map.

Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern Capital Translation

1 Ta-Seti Abu / Yebu (Elephantine) Aswan Land of the Bow

2 Wetjes-Hor Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna) Edfu Throne of Horus

3 Nekhen Nekhen
Nekhen
(Hierakon polis) al-Kab Shrine

4 Waset Niwt-rst / Waset (Thebes) Karnak Sceptre

5 Harawî Gebtu (Coptos) Qift Two Falcons

6 Aa-ta Iunet / Tantere (Tentyra) Dendera Crocodile

7 Seshesh Seshesh (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum

8 Abdju Abdju (Abydos) al-Birba Great Land

9 Min Apu / Khen-min (Panopolis) Akhmim Min

10 Wadjet Djew-qa / Tjebu (Aphroditopolis) Edfu Cobra

11 Set Shashotep
Shashotep
(Hypselis) Shutb Set animal

12 Tu-ph Hut-Sekhem-Senusret (Antaeopolis) Qaw al-Kebir Viper Mountain

13 Atef-Khent z3wj-tj (Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper

14 Atef-Pehu Qesy (Cusae) al-Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper

15 Wenet Khemenu (Hermopolis) Hermopolis Hare[16]

16 Ma-hedj Herwer? Hur? Oryx[16]

17 Anpu Saka (Cynopolis) al-Kais Anubis

18 Sep Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) el-Hiba Set

19 Uab Per-Medjed (Oxyrhynchus) el-Bahnasa Two Sceptres

20 Atef-Khent Henen-nesut (Heracleopolis Magna) Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah Southern Sycamore

21 Atef-Pehu Shenakhen / Semenuhor (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoë) Faiyum Northern Sycamore

22 Maten Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife

Part of a series on the

History of Egypt

Prehistoric Egypt pre–3150 BC

Ancient Egypt

Early Dynastic Period 3150–2686 BC

Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period 1069–744 BC

Kushite Egypt 744–656 BC

Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt 664–525 BC

Classical antiquity

Achaemenid Egypt 525–404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt 404–398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt 398–380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt 380–343 BC

Achaemenid Egypt 343–332 BC

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC

Roman and Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD

Sasanian Egypt 619–629

Middle Ages

Rashidun Egypt 641–661

Umayyad Egypt 661–750

Abbasid Egypt 750–935

Tulunid Egypt 868–905

Ikhshidid Egypt 935–969

Fatimid Egypt 969–1171

Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250

Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517

Early modern

Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867

French occupation 1798–1801

Egypt under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882

Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914

Modern Egypt

British occupation 1882–1922

Sultanate of Egypt 1914–1922

Kingdom of Egypt 1922–1953

Republic 1953–present

Egypt portal

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See also[edit]

Sa'idi people Upper and Lower Egypt Geography of Egypt

Further reading[edit]

Edel, Elmar (1961) Zu den Inschriften auf den Jahreszeitenreliefs der "Weltkammer" aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Niuserre Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, OCLC 309958651, in German.

Notes[edit]

^ The title was first used by Prince Farouk, the son and heir of King Fouad I. Prince Farouk was officially named Prince of the Sa'id
Prince of the Sa'id
on 12 December 1933.[12]

References[edit]

^ Ermann & Grapow 1982, Wb 5, 227.4-14. ^ Ermann & Grapow (1982), Wb 4, 477.9-11 ^ The Encyclopedia Americana Grolier Incorporated, 1988, p.34 ^ Bard & Shubert (1999), p. 371 ^ David (1975), p. 149 ^ Roebuck (1966), p. 51 ^ a b c d e Roebuck (1966), pp. 52–53 ^ Roebuck (1966), p. 53 ^ Chauveau (2000), p. 68 ^ Ballais (2000), p. 133 ^ Ballais (2000), p. 134 ^ Brice (1981), p. 299 ^ Rice 1999, p. 86. ^ Wilkinson 1999, p. 57f. ^ Shaw 2000, p. 196. ^ a b Grajetzki (2006), pp. 109–111

Bibliography[edit]

Ballais, Jean-Louis (2000). "Conquests and land degradation in the eastern Maghreb". In Graeme Barker & David Gilbertson. Sahara
Sahara
and Sahel. The Archaeology of Drylands: Living at the Margin. Vol. 1, Part III. London: Routledge. pp. 125–136. ISBN 978-0-415-23001-8. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Bard, Katheryn A.; Shubert, Steven Blake (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18589-0.  Brice, William Charles (1981). An Historical Atlas of Islam. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-06116-9. OCLC 9194288.  Chauveau, Michel (2000). Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra: History and Society Under the Ptolemies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3597-8.  David, Ann Rosalie (1975). The Egyptian Kingdoms. London: Elsevier Phaidon. OCLC 2122106.  Ermann, Johann Peter Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1982). Wörterbuch der Ägyptischen Sprache [Dictionary of the Egyptian Language] (in German). Berlin: Akademie. ISBN 3-05-002263-9.  Grajetzki, Wolfram (2006). The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: History, Archaeology and Society. London: Duckworth Egyptology. ISBN 978-0-7156-3435-6.  Rice, Michael (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15449-9.  Roebuck, Carl (1966). The World of Ancient Times. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing.  Shaw, Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280458-7.  Wilkinson, Toby A. H. (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18633-1. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
at Wikimedia Commons

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Upper Egyptian cities

Akhmim Aswan Asyut Beni Suef Faiyum Hurghada Luxor Mallawi Minya Safaga Qena Sohag

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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
topics

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Ancient Egypt
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Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
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