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UPPER EGYPT (Egyptian Arabic : صعيد مصر‎‎ _Saʿīīd Maṣr_, shortened to الصعيد _El Ṣeʿīd_; pronounced , Coptic : ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Predynastic Egypt * 2.2 Dynastic Egypt * 2.3 Medieval Egypt * 2.4 20th-century Egypt

* 3 List of rulers of prehistoric Upper Egypt * 4 List of nomes * 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography

* 9 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan , downriver (northwards) to the area between Dahshur and El-Ayait, which is south of modern-day Cairo . The northern (downriver) part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is also known as Middle Egypt .

In Arabic , inhabitants of Upper Egypt are known as Sa\'idis and they generally speak Sai\'idi Egyptian Arabic .

In ancient Egypt , Upper Egypt was known as _tꜣ šmꜣw_, literally "the Land of Reeds" or "the Sedgeland " It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes . The first nome was roughly where modern-day Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih just to the south of Cairo .

HISTORY

Hedjet , the White Crown of Upper Egypt

PREDYNASTIC EGYPT

The main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt was Nekhen , whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet .

By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics , appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.

Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta , or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule.

DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT

All years are BC

Early

First Dynasty I c. 3150–2890

Second Dynasty II 2890–2686

Old Kingdom

Third Dynasty III 2686–2613

Fourth Dynasty IV 2613–2498

Fifth Dynasty V 2498–2345

Sixth Dynasty VI 2345–2181

First Intermediate

Seventh Dynasty VII spurious

Eighth Dynasty VIII 2181–2160

Ninth Dynasty IX 2160–2130

Tenth Dynasty X 2130–2040

Early Eleventh Dynasty XI 2134–2061

Middle Kingdom

Late Eleventh Dynasty XI 2061–1991

Twelfth Dynasty XII 1991–1803

Thirteenth Dynasty XIII 1803–1649

Fourteenth Dynasty XIV 1705–1690

Second Intermediate

Fifteenth Dynasty XV 1674–1535

Sixteenth Dynasty XVI 1660–1600

Abydos Dynasty

1650–1600

Seventeenth Dynasty XVII 1580–1549

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty XVIII 1549–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty XIX 1292–1189

Twentieth Dynasty XX 1189–1077

Third Intermediate

Twenty-first Dynasty XXI 1069–945

Twenty-second Dynasty XXII 945–720

Twenty-third Dynasty XXIII 837–728

Twenty-fourth Dynasty XXIV 732–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty XXV 732–653

Late Period

Twenty-sixth Dynasty XXVI 672–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (1st Persian Period) XXVII 525–404

Twenty-eighth Dynasty XXVIII 404–398

Twenty-ninth Dynasty XXIX 398–380

Thirtieth Dynasty XXX 380–343

Thirty-first Dynasty (2nd Persian Period) XXXI 343–332

Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)

Argead Dynasty 332–305

Ptolemaic Kingdom 305–30

* v * t * e

DYNASTIC EGYPT

For most of pharaonic Egypt's history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined. Under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou took over the role of Upper Egypt's capital city. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown _ Hedjet _, and its symbols were the flowering lotus and the sedge.

MEDIEVAL EGYPT

In the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists , known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis . It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period , were the root cause of the migration.

20TH-CENTURY EGYPT

In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Sa\'id (meaning _Prince of Upper Egypt_) was used by the heir apparent to the Egyptian throne.

Although the Kingdom of Egypt was abolished after the Egyptian revolution of 1952 , the title continues to be used by Muhammad Ali, Prince of the Sa\'id .

LIST OF RULERS OF PREHISTORIC UPPER EGYPT

The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

NAME IMAGE COMMENTS DATES

Elephant

End of 4th millennium BC

Bull

4th millennium BC

Scorpion I

Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa\'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?

Iry-Hor

Possibly the immediate predecessor of Ka. c. 3150 BC?

Ka

May be read Sekhen rather than Ka. Possibly the immediate predecessor of Narmer. c. 3100 BC

Scorpion II

Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer . c. 3150 BC

Narmer

The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt. c. 3150 BC

LIST OF NOMES

_ Map of Upper Egypt with its historical nomes

NUMBER EGYPTIAN NAME CAPITAL MODERN CAPITAL TRANSLATION

1 Ta-Seti Abu / Yebu ( Elephantine ) Aswan Land of the Bow

2 Wetjes-Hor Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna) Edfu Throne of Horus

3 Nekhen Nekhen (Hierakon polis) al-Kab Shrine

4 Waset Niwt-rst / Waset (Thebes ) Karnak Sceptre

5 Harawî Gebtu (Coptos) Qift Two Falcons

6 Aa-ta Iunet / Tantere (Tentyra) Dendera Crocodile

7 Seshesh Seshesh (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum

8 Abdju Abdju (Abydos ) al-Birba Great Land

9 Min Apu / Khen-min (Panopolis) Akhmim Min

10 Wadjet Djew-qa / Tjebu (Aphroditopolis) Edfu Cobra

11 Set Shashotep (Hypselis) Shutb Set animal

12 Tu-ph Hut-Sekhem-Senusret (Antaeopolis) Qaw al-Kebir Viper Mountain

13 Atef-Khent z3wj-tj_ (Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper

14 Atef-Pehu Qesy ( Cusae ) al-Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper

15 Wenet Khemenu (Hermopolis) Hermopolis Hare

16 Ma-hedj Herwer ? Hur? Oryx

17 Anpu Saka ( Cynopolis ) al-Kais Anubis

18 Sep Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) el-Hiba Set

19 Uab Per-Medjed ( Oxyrhynchus ) el-Bahnasa Two Sceptres

20 Atef-Khent Henen-nesut ( Heracleopolis Magna ) Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah Southern Sycamore

21 Atef-Pehu Shenakhen / Semenuhor (Crocodilopolis , Arsinoë) Faiyum Northern Sycamore

22 Maten Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF EGYPT

Prehistoric Egypt pre–3100 BC

ANCIENT EGYPT

Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC

Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC

Late Period 664–332 BC

CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC

Roman and Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD

Sasanian Egypt 619–629

MIDDLE AGES

Islamic Egypt 641–969

Fatimid Egypt 969–1171

Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250

Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517

EARLY MODERN

Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867

French occupation 1798–1801

Egypt under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882