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v t e

The Province of Upper Canada
Canada
(French: province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada
Canada
established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution. The new province remained, for the next fifty years of growth and settlement, the colonial government of the territory. Upper Canada
Canada
existed from 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 and generally comprised present-day Southern Ontario. The "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes, mostly above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada
Canada
(present-day Quebec) to the northeast. Upper Canada
Canada
included all of modern-day Southern Ontario
Ontario
and all those areas of Northern Ontario
Ontario
in the Pays d'en Haut
Pays d'en Haut
which had formed part of New France, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay.

Contents

1 Establishment 2 Government

2.1 Provincial administration 2.2 Parliament 2.3 Local government

3 Politics

3.1 Family Compact 3.2 Reform Movement 3.3 Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion of 1837 3.4 Sydenham and the Union of the Canadas

4 Settlement

4.1 First Nations dispossession and reserves 4.2 Loyalists and the land grant system

4.2.1 Assisted immigration 4.2.2 Talbot settlement

4.3 Crown and Clergy reserves 4.4 Land sale system 4.5 Canada
Canada
Company

4.5.1 Huron Tract

4.6 Clergy Corporation 4.7 List of major cities and towns of Upper Canada

5 Population

5.1 Ethnic groups

5.1.1 First Nations 5.1.2 Metis 5.1.3 Canadiens/French-Canadians 5.1.4 Loyalists/Later Loyalists 5.1.5 Freed slaves 5.1.6 British

5.1.6.1 Irish 5.1.6.2 Scottish 5.1.6.3 English

5.2 Religion

5.2.1 Church of England 5.2.2 Catholic Church 5.2.3 Ryerson and the Methodists 5.2.4 Presbyterians 5.2.5 Mennonites, Tunkers, Quakers, and Children of Peace

5.3 Poverty

6 Trade, monetary policy, and financial institutions

6.1 Corporations 6.2 Currency and banking

6.2.1 Currency 6.2.2 Bank of Upper Canada 6.2.3 Bank wars: the Scottish joint-stock banks

6.3 Trade

6.3.1 Wheat and grains 6.3.2 Timber

7 Transportation and communications

7.1 Canal system

7.1.1 Rideau Canal 7.1.2 Welland Canal 7.1.3 Desjardins Canal

7.2 Lake traffic: steamships 7.3 Roads

8 United States relations

8.1 War of 1812
War of 1812
(1812–1815) 8.2 1837 Rebellion and Patriot War

9 Education 10 Canada
Canada
West 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Establishment[edit] Main article: Constitutional history of Canada

The Province of Quebec
Quebec
in 1774

The control that the French had over Canada
Canada
was handed over to Great Britain in 1763 when the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
in America. The territories of modern southern Ontario
Ontario
and southern Quebec
Quebec
were initially maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec
Quebec
maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations, practices and laws. This status was renewed and reinforced by the Quebec
Quebec
Act of 1774, which expanded Quebec's territory to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west (i.e., parts of southern Ontario), and other western territories south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and parts of Minnesota. The part of the province west of Montreal
Montreal
and Quebec
Quebec
in the upper river basin soon began receiving many English-speaking Protestant United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists
who arrived in the area as refugees from the American Revolution. This region quickly became culturally distinct. While the act addressed some religious issues, it did not appease those used to English law. "Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec
Quebec
into Upper and Lower Canada. The division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada
Canada
could have English laws and institutions, and the French-speaking population of Lower Canada
Canada
could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion. The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada
Canada
was moved from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York (now Toronto), which was judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans. The Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada
Canada
to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Government[edit] Provincial administration[edit] Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the very image and transcript" of the British constitution, and based on the principal of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy.[2] The Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, and the Officers of the Crown (equivalent to the Officers of the Parliament of Canada): the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents, the Auditor General (only one appointment ever made), Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General .[3] The Executive Council of Upper Canada
Executive Council of Upper Canada
had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, however, and did not serve in administrative offices as cabinet ministers do. Members of the Executive Council were not necessarily members of the Legislative Assembly but were usually members of the Legislative Council.[4] Parliament[edit]

The third Parliament Building in York was built between 1829 and 1832 at Front Street.

The Legislative branch of the government consisted of the parliament comprising legislative council and legislative assembly. When the capital was first moved to Toronto
Toronto
from Newark (present-day Niagara-on-the-Lake) in 1796, the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada were located at the corner of Parliament and Front Streets, in buildings that were burned by US forces in the War of 1812, rebuilt, then burned again by accident. The site was eventually abandoned for another, to the west. The Legislative Council of Upper Canada
Legislative Council of Upper Canada
was the upper house governing the province of Upper Canada. Although modelled after the British House of Lords, Upper Canada
Canada
had no aristocracy. Members of the Legislative council, appointed for life, formed the core of the oligarchic group, the Family Compact, that came to dominate government and economy in the province. The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada
functioned as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada. Its legislative power was subject to veto by the appointed Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, and Legislative Council. Local government[edit] Local government in the Province of Upper Canada
Canada
was based on districts. In 1788, four districts were created:

Lunenburgh District, later "Eastern" Mecklenburg District, later "Midland" Nassau District, later "Home" Hesse District, later "Western"

The name changes all took place in 1792.[5] Justices of the Peace were appointed by the Lt. Governor. Any two justices meeting together could form the lowest level of the justice system, the Courts of Request. A Court of Quarter Sessions was held four times a year in each district composed of all the resident justices. The Quarter Sessions met to oversee the administration of the district and deal with legal cases. They formed, in effect, the municipal government until an area was incorporated as either a Police Board or a City after 1834.[6] Additional districts were created from the existing districts as the population grew until 1849, when local government mainly based on counties came into effect. At that time, there were 20 districts; legislation to create a new Kent District was never completed. Up until 1841, the district officials were appointed by the lieutenant-governor, although usually with local input. Politics[edit] Family Compact[edit] Main article: Family Compact The Family Compact
Family Compact
is the epithet applied to an oligarchic group of men who exercised most of the political and judicial power in Upper Canada
Canada
from the 1810s to the 1840s. It was noted for its conservatism and opposition to democracy.[7] The uniting factors amongst the Compact were its loyalist tradition, hierarchical class structure and adherence to the established Anglican Church. Leaders such as John Beverley Robinson and John Strachan
John Strachan
proclaimed it an ideal government, especially as contrasted with the rowdy democracy in the nearby United States.[8] The Family Compact
Family Compact
emerged from the War of 1812
War of 1812
and collapsed in the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837.

v t e

Members of the Family Compact

William Allan James Baby G. D'Arcy Boulton D'Arcy Boulton II George Boulton Henry John Boulton William Henry Boulton Thomas Clark George Crookshanks W. Allan Crookshanks William Dickson Richard Duncan John Elmsley John Galt James FitzGibbon Christopher Hagerman Charles Heward William B. Jarvis William M. Jarvis Samuel Peters Jarvis Alpheus Jones Charles Jones Jonas Jones Thomas Jones James Macaulay Allan MacNab Robert Nichol William Osgoode William Dummer Powell Sir John Robinson William Robinson Aeneas Shaw Adiel Sherwood Levius Sherwood George Sherwood Sir David W. Smith John Strachan

Sources include: Mackenzie, William Lyon (September 19, 1833). "A Political Union". Colonial Advocate. p. 4. 

Some Members of the Family Compact

Bishop Strachan. Acknowledged Anglican leader in the Family Compact. 

John Robinson. Acknowledged leader of the Family Compact. Member of the Legislative Assembly and later the Legislative Council 

William Henry Boulton 8th Mayor of Toronto
Toronto
and member of the Legislative Assembly 

Sir Allan Napier MacNab, 1st Baronet Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. 

Henry Sherwood
Henry Sherwood
13th Parliament of Upper Canada
Parliament of Upper Canada
representing Brockville. 

Reform Movement[edit] Main articles: William Lyon Mackenzie
William Lyon Mackenzie
and The Reform Movement (Upper Canada) There were many outstanding individual reform politicians in Upper Canada, including Robert Randal, Peter Perry, Marshall Spring Bidwell, William Ketchum and Dr. William Warren Baldwin; however, organised collective reform activity began with Robert Fleming Gourlay. Gourlay was a well-connected Scottish emigrant who arrived in 1817, hoping to encourage "assisted emigration" of the poor from Britain. He solicited information on the colony through township questionnaires, and soon became a critic of government mismanagement. When the local legislature ignored his call for an inquiry, he called for a petition to the British Parliament. He organised township meetings, and a provincial convention – which the government considered dangerous and seditious. Gourlay was tried in December 1818 under the 1804 Sedition Act and jailed for 8 months. He was banished from the province in August 1819. His expulsion made him a martyr in the reform community.[9] The next wave of organised Reform activity emerged in the 1830s through the work of William Lyon Mackenzie, James Lesslie, John Rolph, William John O'Grady and Dr Thomas Morrison, all of Toronto. They were critical to introducing the British Political Unions to Upper Canada. Political Unions were not parties. The unions organised petitions to Parliament. The Upper Canada
Canada
Central Political Union was organised in 1832–33 by Dr Thomas David Morrison
Thomas David Morrison
(mayor of Toronto
Toronto
in 1836) while William Lyon Mackenzie was in England. This union collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting Mackenzie's unjust expulsion from the House of Assembly by the Family Compact.[10]

Second market in York (Toronto)

This union was reorganised as the Canadian Alliance Society (1835). It shared a large meeting space in the market buildings with the Mechanics Institute and the Children of Peace. The Canadian Alliance Society adopted much of the platform (such as secret ballot & universal suffrage) of the Owenite
Owenite
National Union of the Working Classes in London, England, that were to be integrated into the Chartist movement in England.[11] The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society (1836), when it was led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin. After the disastrous 1836 elections, it took the final form as the Toronto
Toronto
Political Union in 1837. It was the Toronto Political Union that called for a Constitutional Convention in July 1837, and began organising local "Vigilance Committees" to elect delegates. This became the organizational structure for the Rebellion of 1837.[12]

v t e

Members of the Reform Movement (Upper Canada)

   

William Lyon Mackenzie James Lesslie John Rolph William John O'Grady

David Willson Samuel Hughes John McIntosh Marshall Spring Bidwell

Robert Baldwin William Warren Baldwin Francis Hincks Charles Duncombe

Samuel Lount Peter Matthews Jesse Lloyd Anthony Van Egmond

Thomas D. Morrison David Gibson James Hervey Price Joseph Shepard

Members of the Reform Movement

Robert Fleming Gourlay 

William Lyon Mackenzie 

Dr Thomas D. Morrison 

Robert Baldwin 

Samuel Lount 

Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion of 1837[edit] Main articles: Rebellions of 1837, Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion, and Patriot War The Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the Family Compact
Family Compact
by W.L. Mackenzie in December 1837. Long term grievances included antagonism between Later Loyalists and British Loyalists, political corruption, the collapse of the international financial system and the resultant economic distress, and a growing republican sentiment. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the Rebellion in Lower Canada
Canada
(present day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada
Canada
to openly revolt soon after. The Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838 (and became more violent) – mainly through the support of the Hunters' Lodges, a secret anti-British, American militia that emerged in states around the Great Lakes. They launched the Patriot War
Patriot War
in 1838–39.[13] John Lambton, Lord Durham's support for "responsible government" undercut the Tories and gradually led the public to reject what it viewed as poor administration, unfair land and education policies, and inadequate attention to urgent transportation needs. Durham's report led to the administrative unification of Upper and Lower Canada
Canada
as the Province of Canada
Canada
in 1841. Responsible government
Responsible government
did not occur until the late 1840s under Robert Baldwin
Robert Baldwin
and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine.[14] Sydenham and the Union of the Canadas[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Report on the Affairs of British North America

Main articles: Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham
Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham
and Province of Canada After the Rebellions, the new governor, Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham, proved an exemplary Utilitarian, despite his aristocratic pretensions. This combination of free trade and aristocratic pretensions needs to be underscored; although a liberal capitalist, Sydenham was no radical democrat. Sydenham approached the task of implementing those aspects of Durham's report that the colonial office approved of, municipal reform, and the union of the Canadas, with a "campaign of state violence and coercive institutional innovation... empowered not just by the British state but also by his Benthamite
Benthamite
certainties."[15] Like governors Bond Head before him, and Metcalfe after, he was to turn to the Orange Order
Orange Order
for often violent support. It was Sydenham who played a critical role in transforming Compact Tories into Conservatives. Sydenham introduced a vast expansion of the state apparatus through the introduction of municipal government. Areas not already governed through civic corporations or police boards would be governed through centrally controlled District Councils with authority over roads, schools, and local policing. A strengthened Executive Council would further usurp much of the elected assembly's legislative role, leaving elected politician's to simply review the administration's legislative program and budgets. Settlement[edit] First Nations dispossession and reserves[edit] Main articles: First Nations in Ontario, Anishinaabe, and Iroquois The First Nations occupying the territory that was to become Upper Canada
Canada
were:

Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
or Anishinabe—or more properly (plural) Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek. The plural form of the word is the autonym often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonquin peoples. The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse",[16]

Prior to the creation of Upper Canada
Canada
in 1791 much land had already been ceded by the First Nations to the Crown in accordance with the Royal Proclamation of 1763. During the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
most of the First Nations supported the British. After the Americans launched a campaign that burned the villages of the Iroquois
Iroquois
in New York State in 1779[17] the refugees fled to Fort Niagara and other British posts, and remained permanently in Canada. Land was granted to these allied Six Nations who had served on the British side during the American Revolution
American Revolution
by the Haldimand Proclamation (1784). Haldimand had purchased a tract of land from the Mississaugas. The nature of the grant has been under dispute. Loyalists and the land grant system[edit] Main article: United Empire Loyalist

An 1824 land deed for Upper Canada

Crown land policy to 1825 was multi-fold in the use of a "free" resource that had value to people who themselves may have little or no money for its purchase and for the price of settling upon it to support themselves and a create a new society. First, the cash-strapped Crown government in Canada
Canada
could pay and reward the services and loyalty of the "United Empire Loyalists" who, originated outside of Canada, without encumbrance of debt by being awarded with small portions of land (under 200 acres (80 ha)) with the proviso that it be settled by those to which it was granted; Second, portions would be reserved for the future use of the Crown and the Clergy that did not require settlement by which to gain control. Lt. Governor Simcoe saw this as the mechanism by which an aristocracy might be created,[18] and that compact settlement could be avoided with the grants of large tracts of land to those Loyalists not required to settle on it as the means of gaining control. Assisted immigration[edit] Main articles: Calton weavers
Calton weavers
and Petworth Emigration Scheme The Calton weavers
Calton weavers
were a community of handweavers established in the community of Calton, then in Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire
just outside Glasgow, Scotland in the 18th century.[19] In the early 19th century, many of the weavers emigrated to Canada, settling in Carleton Place and other communities in eastern Ontario, where they continued their trade.[20] In 1825, 1,878 Irish Immigrants
Irish Immigrants
from the city of Cork arrived in the community of Scott's Plains. The British Parliament had approved an experimental emigration plan to transport poor Irish families to Upper Canada
Canada
in 1822. The scheme was managed by Peter Robinson, a member of the Family Compact
Family Compact
and brother of the Attorney General. Scott's Plains was renamed Peterborough in his honour. Talbot settlement[edit] Main article: Talbot settlement Thomas Talbot emigrated in 1791, where he became personal secretary to John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. Talbot convinced the government to allow him to implement a land settlement scheme of 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) in Elgin County
County
in the townships of Dunwich and Aldborough in 1803.[21] According to his government agreement, he was entitled to 200 acres (80 ha) for every settler who received 50 acres (20 ha); in this way he gained an estate of 20,000 acres (8,000 ha). Talbot's administration was regarded as despotic. He was infamous for registering settlers' names on the local settlement map in pencil and if displeased, erasing their entry. Talbot's abuse of power was a contributing factor in the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837.[22] Crown and Clergy reserves[edit] Main article: Clergy reserve The Crown reserves, one seventh of all lands granted, were to provide the provincial executive with an independent source of revenue not under the control of the elected Assembly. The Clergy Reserves, also one seventh of all lands granted in the province, were created "for the support and maintenance of a Protestant clergy" in lieu of tithes. The revenue from the lease of these lands was claimed by the Rev. John Strachan on behalf of the Church of England. These reserves were directly administered by the Crown; which, in turn, came under increasing political pressure from other Protestant bodies. The Reserve lands were to be a focal point of dissent within the Legislative Assembly.[23] Land sale system[edit] The land grant policy changed after 1825 as the Upper Canadian administration faced a financial crisis that would otherwise require raising local taxes, thereby making it more dependent on a local elected legislature. The Upper Canadian state ended its policy of granting land to "unofficial" settlers and implemented a broad plan of revenue-generating sales. The Crown replaced its old policy of land grants to ordinary settlers in newly opened districts with land sales by auction. It also passed legislation that allowed the auctioning of previously granted land for payment of back-taxes.[24] Canada
Canada
Company[edit] Main article: Canada
Canada
Company

Canada
Canada
Company Office 1834

“ The greater portion of British emigrants, arriving in Canada
Canada
without funds and the most exalted ideas of the value and productiveness of land, purchase extensively on credit... Everything goes on well for a short time. A log-house is erected with the assistance of old settlers, and the clearing of forest is commenced. Credit is obtained at a neighbouring store... During this period he has led a life of toil and privation... On the arrival of the fourth harvest, he is reminded by the storekeeper to pay his account with cash, or discharge part of it with his disposable produce, for which he gets a very small price. He is also informed that the purchase money of the land has been accumulating with interest... he finds himself poorer than when he commenced operation. Disappointment preys on his spirit... the land ultimately reverts to the former proprietor, or a new purchaser is found. ”

— Patrick Shirreff, 1835

Few chose to lease the Crown reserves as long as free grants of land were still available. The Lieutenant Governor increasingly found himself depending upon the customs duties shared with, but collected in Lower Canada
Canada
for revenue; after a dispute with the lower province on the relative proportions to be allocated to each, these duties were withheld, forcing the Lt. Governor of Upper Canada
Canada
to search for new sources of revenue. It is important to note, then, that the Canada Company was created as a means of generating government revenue that was not under the control of the elected Assembly, thereby granting the Lt. Governor greater independence from local voters. The plan for the Canada
Canada
Company was promoted by the province's Attorney General, John Beverly Robinson, then studying law at Lincoln's Inn in London. The Lt. Governor's financial crisis led to a quick adoption of Robinson's scheme to sell the Crown reserves to a new land company which would provide the provincial government with annual payments of between £15,000 to £20,000. The Canada
Canada
Company was chartered in London in 1826; after three years of mismanagement by John Galt, the company hired William Allan and Thomas Mercer Jones to manage the company's Upper Canadian business. Jones was to manage the "Huron Tract," and Allan to sell the Crown reserves already surveyed in other districts.[25] According to the Canada
Canada
Company, "the poorest individual can here procure for himself and family a valuable tract; which, with a little labour, he can soon convert into a comfortable home, such as he could probably never attain in any other country – all his own!" However, recent studies have suggested that a minimum of £100 to £200 plus the cost of land was required to start a new farm in the bush. As a result, few of these poor settlers had any hope of starting their own farm, although many tried.[26] Huron Tract[edit]

Huron Tract
Huron Tract
Purchase area, located in Southern Ontario, highlighted in yellow

Main article: Huron Tract The Huron Tract
Huron Tract
lies in the counties of Huron, Perth, Middlesex and present day Lambton County, Ontario
Ontario
bordering on Lake Huron
Lake Huron
to the west and Lake Erie
Lake Erie
to the east. The tract was purchased by the Canada Company for resale to settlers. Influenced by William "Tiger" Dunlop, John Galt and other businessmen formed the Canada
Canada
Company.[27] The Canada
Canada
Company was the administrative agent for the Huron Tract. Clergy Corporation[edit] Main article: Clergy Corporation The Clergy Corporation was incorporated in 1819 to manage the Clergy Reserves. After the Rev. John Strachan
John Strachan
was appointed to the Executive Council, the advisory body to the Lieutenant Governor, in 1815, he began to push for the Church of England's autonomous control of the clergy reserves on the model of the Clergy Corporation created in Lower Canada
Canada
in 1817. Although all clergymen in the Church of England were members of the body corporate, the act prepared in 1819 by Strachan's former student, Attorney General John Beverly Robinson, also appointed the Inspector General and the Surveyor General to the board, and made a quorum of three for meetings; these two public officers also sat on the Legislative Council with Strachan. These three were usually members of the Family Compact.[28] List of major cities and towns of Upper Canada[edit]

Map of Upper Canada

York (now Toronto), capital of Upper Canada Bytown
Bytown
(now Ottawa) Sandwich (now Windsor) Goderich, seat of the Canada
Canada
Company's Huron Tract Newark, now Niagara-on-the-Lake Port Colborne Dundas Cobourg Peterborough Kingston Cornwall

In Upper Canada, major cities with key forts were an essential for survival, defending the area from armed attacks and composing the local militia. Population[edit]

Upper Canada

Year Pop. ±%

1806 70,718 —    

1811 76,000 +7.5%

1814 95,000 +25.0%

1824 150,066 +58.0%

1825 157,923 +5.2%

1826 166,379 +5.4%

1827 177,174 +6.5%

1828 186,488 +5.3%

1829 197,815 +6.1%

1830 213,156 +7.8%

1831 236,702 +11.0%

1832 263,554 +11.3%

1833 295,863 +12.3%

1834 321,145 +8.5%

1835 347,359 +8.2%

1836 374,099 +7.7%

1837 397,489 +6.3%

1838 399,422 +0.5%

1839 409,048 +2.4%

1840 432,159 +5.6%

Source: Statistics Canada
Canada
website Censuses of Canada
Canada
1665 to 1871. See United Province of Canada for population after 1840.

Ethnic groups[edit] Since the province is frequently referred to as "English Canada" after the Union of the Canadas,[by whom?] and its ethnic homogeneity said to be a factor in the Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion of 1837,[by whom?] it is interesting to note the range of ethnic groups in Upper Canada. However, due to the lack of a detailed breakdown, it is difficult to count each group, and this may be considered abuse of statistics. An idea of the ethnic breakdown can be had if one considers the religious census of 1842, which is helpfully provided below: Roman Catholics were 15% of the population, and adherents to this religion were, at the time, mainly drawn from the Irish and the French settlers. The Roman Catholic faith also numbered some votaries from amongst the Scottish settlers. The category of "other" religious adherents, somewhat under 5% of the population, included the Aboriginal and Metis culture. First Nations[edit] Main article: First Nations in Ontario See above: Land Settlement

Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
or Anishinabe—or more properly (plural) Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek. The plural form of the word is the autonym often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonquin peoples. The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse",[16]

Metis[edit] Main article: Metis people (Canada) Many British and French-Canadian fur traders married First Nations and Inuit women from the Cree, Ojibwa, or Saulteaux
Saulteaux
First Nations. The majority of these fur traders were Scottish and French and were Catholic.[29] Canadiens/French-Canadians[edit] Main articles: French Canadian
French Canadian
and franco Ontarian Early settlements in the region include the Mission of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons at Midland in 1649, Sault Ste. Marie in 1668, and Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701. Southern Ontario
Ontario
was part of the Pays d'en-haut (Upper Country) of New France, and later part of the province of Quebec
Quebec
until Quebec
Quebec
was split into Upper and Lower Canada
Canada
in 1791. The first wave of settlement in the Detroit/Windsor area came in the 18th century during the French regime. A second wave came in the 19th and early 20th centuries to the areas of Eastern Ontario
Ontario
and Northeastern Ontario. In the Ottawa
Ottawa
Valley, in particular, some families have moved back and forth across the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
for generations (the river is the border between Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec). In the city of Ottawa
Ottawa
some areas such as Vanier and Orleans have a rich Franco-heritage where families often have members on both sides of the Ottawa
Ottawa
River. Loyalists/Later Loyalists[edit] Main articles: United Empire Loyalist
United Empire Loyalist
and Expulsion of the Loyalists After an initial group of about 7,000 United Empire Loyalists
United Empire Loyalists
were thinly settled across the province in the mid-1780s, a far larger number of "late-Loyalists" arrived in the late 1790s and were required to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown to obtain land if they came from the US. Their fundamental political allegiances were always considered dubious. By 1812, this had become acutely problematic since the American settlers outnumbered the original Loyalists by more than ten to one. Following the War of 1812, the colonial government under Lt. Governor Gore took active steps to prevent Americans from swearing allegiance, thereby making them ineligible to obtain land grants. The tensions between the Loyalists and late Loyalists erupted in the "Alien Question" crisis in 1820–21 when the Bidwells (Barnabas and his son Marshall) sought election to the provincial assembly. They faced opponents who claimed they could not hold elective office because of their American citizenship. If the Bidwells were aliens so were the majority of the province. The issue was not resolved until 1828 when the Colonial government retroactively granted them citizenship. Freed slaves[edit] The Act Against Slavery
Act Against Slavery
passed in Upper Canada
Canada
on 9 July 1793. The 1793 "Act against Slavery" forbade the importation of any additional slaves and freed children. It did not grant freedom to adult slaves—they were finally freed by the British Parliament in 1833. As a consequence, many Canadian slaves fled south to New England and New York, where slavery was no longer legal. Many American slaves who had escaped from the South via the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
or fleeing from the Black Codes in the Ohio
Ohio
Valley came north to Ontario, a good portion settling on land lots and began farming.[30] It is estimated that thousands of escaped slaves entered Upper Canada
Canada
from the United States.[citation needed] British[edit] See also: Great Migration of Canada The Great Migration from Britain from 1815 to 1850 has been numbered at 800,000. The population of Upper Canada
Canada
in 1837 is documented at 409,000. Given the lack of detailed census data it is difficult to assess the relative size of the American and Canadian born "British" and the foreign born "British." By the time of the first census in 1841, only half of the population of Upper Canada
Canada
were foreign born British.[31] References to "English Canada" can thus be confusing, and indicate little about individual ethnic identity. Irish[edit] Main article: Irish Canadian § Irish in Ontario Scottish[edit] Main article: Scottish Canadian § Ontario English[edit] Main article: English Canadian § Ontario Religion[edit]

1842 Religion in Upper Canada

Year Pop.

Baptists 16,411

Catholics 65,203

Anglican 107,791

Congregational 4,253

Jews 1,105

Lutherans 4,524

Methodists 82,923

Moravians 1,778

Presbyterians 97,095

Quakers 5,200

Others 19,422

Source: Statistics Canada
Canada
website Censuses of Canada
Canada
1665 to 1871. See United Province of Canada for population after 1840.

Church of England[edit] Main articles: Anglican Church of Canada
Canada
and John Strachan The first Lt. Governor, Sir John Graves Simcoe, sought to make the Church of England
Church of England
the Established Church
Established Church
of the province. To that end, he created the Clergy Reserves, the revenues of which were to support the church. The Clergy Reserves proved to be a long-term political issue, as other denominations, particularly the Church of Scotland (Presbyterians) sought a proportional share of the revenues. The Church of England
Church of England
was never numerically dominant in the province, as it was in England, especially in the early years when most of the American born Later Loyalists arrived. The growth of the Church of England depended largely on later British emigration for growth. The Church was led by the Rev. John Strachan
John Strachan
(1778–1867), a pillar of the Family Compact. Strachan was part of the oligarchic ruling class of the province, and besides leading the Church of England, also sat on the Executive Council, the Legislative Council, helped found the Bank of Upper Canada, Upper Canada
Canada
College, and the University of Toronto. Catholic Church[edit] Main articles: Roman Catholicism in Canada
Canada
and Alexander Macdonell (bishop) Father Alexander Macdonell was a Scottish Catholic priest who formed his evicted clan into The Glengarry Fencibles regiment, of which he served as chaplain. He was the first Catholic chaplain in the British Army since the Reformation. When the regiment was disbanded, Rev. Macdonell appealed to the government to grant its members a tract of land in Canada, and, in 1804, 160,000 acres (650 km²) were provided in what is now Glengarry County, Canada. In 1815, he began his service as the first Roman Catholic Bishop at St. Raphael's Church in the Highlands of Ontario.[32] In 1819 he was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Upper Canada, which in 1826 was erected into a suffrigan bishopric of the Archdiocese of Quebec. In 1826, he was appointed to the legislative council.[33] Macdonell's role on the Legislative Council was one of the tensions with the Toronto
Toronto
congregation, led by Father William O'Grady. O'Grady, like Macdonell, had served as an army chaplain (to Connell James Baldwin's soldiers in Brazil). O'Grady followed Baldwin to Toronto Gore Township in 1828. From January 1829 he was pastor of St. Paul's church in York. Tensions between the Scottish and Irish came to a head when O'Grady was defrocked, in part for his activities in the Reform movement. He went on to edit a Reform newspaper in Toronto, the Canadian Correspondent. Ryerson and the Methodists[edit] Main articles: Egerton Ryerson
Egerton Ryerson
and Methodist Episcopal Church The undisputed leader of the highly fractious Methodists in Upper Canada
Canada
was Egerton Ryerson, editor of their newspaper, The Christian Guardian. Ryerson (1803–1882) was an itinerant minister – or circuit rider – in the Niagara area for the Methodist Episcopal Church – an American branch of Methodism. As British immigration increased, Methodism in Upper Canada
Canada
was torn between those with ties to the Methodist Episcopal Church
Methodist Episcopal Church
and the British Wesleyan Methodists. Ryerson used the Christian Guardian to argue for the rights of Methodists in the province and, later, to help convince rank-and-file Methodists that a merger with British Wesleyans (effected in 1833) was in their best interest. Presbyterians[edit] Main article: Presbyterian Church in Canada The earliest Presbyterian ministers in Upper Canada
Canada
came from various denominations based in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States. The 'Presbytery of the Canadas' was formed in 1818 primarily by Scottish Secessionist missionaries, yet independently of their mother denomination in the hope of including Presbyterian ministers of all stripes in Upper and Lower Canada. Although successfully including members from Irish Secessionist, and American Presbyterian and Reformed denominations, the growing group of missionaries belonging to the Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
remained separate. Instead, in 1831, they formed their own 'Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada
Canada
in Connection with the Established Church
Established Church
of Scotland'. That same year the 'Presbytery of the Canadas', having grown and been re-organized, became the 'United Synod of Upper Canada'. In its continued pursuit for Presbyterian unity (and a share of government funding from the Clergy Reserves for established churches) the United Synod sought a union with the Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
synod which it finally joined in 1840. However, some ministers had left the United Synod prior to this merger (including, notably, Rev. James Harris, Rev. William Jenkins, and Rev. Daniel Eastman). In the 1832 new Secessionist missionaries began to arrive, belonging to 'The United Associate Synod in Scotland' (after 1847, the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland). Committed to the voluntarist principle of rejecting government funding they decided against joining the 'United Synod of Upper Canada' and on Christmas Day 1834 formed the 'Missionary Presbytery of the Canadas'. Although this new presbytery was formed at Rev. James Harris' church in Toronto, he and his congregation remained independent from it. However, the voluntarist, Rev. Jenkins and his congregation in Richmond Hill joined the Missionary Presbytery a few years later. Rev. Eastman had left the United Synod in 1833 to form the 'Niagara Presbytery' of the Presbyterian Church in the USA. After this presbytery dissolved following the Rebellion of 1837, he rejoined the United Synod which then joined the Church of Scotland. Outside of these four Presbyterian denominations, only two others gained a foothold in the province. The small 'Stamford Presbytery' of the American Secessionist tradition was formed in 1835 in the Niagara region, and the Scottish Reformed Presbyterian or 'Covenanter' tradition was represented in the province to an even lesser extent. Despite the numerous denominations, by the late 1830s the Church of Scotland was the main expression of Presbyterianism in Upper Canada. Mennonites, Tunkers, Quakers, and Children of Peace[edit]

The Sharon Temple, built by the Children of Peace

Main articles: Mennonite, Society of Friends (Upper Canada), and The Children of Peace These groups of later Loyalists were proportionately larger in the early decades of the province's settlement. The Mennonites, Tunkers, Quakers and Children of Peace are the traditional Peace churches. The Mennonites and Tunkers
Tunkers
were generally German speaking, and immigrated as Later Loyalists from Pennsylvania. Many of their descendants continue to speak a form of German called Pennsylvania German. The Quakers (Society of Friends) immigrated from New York, the New England States and Pennsylvania. The Children of Peace
The Children of Peace
were founded during the War of 1812
War of 1812
after a schism in the Society of Friends in York County.[34] A further schism occurred in 1828, leaving two branches, "Orthodox" Quakers and "Hicksite" Quakers. Poverty[edit] See also: Imprisonment for debt (Upper Canada) In the decade ending in 1837, the population of Upper Canada
Canada
doubled, to 397,489, fed in large part by erratic spurts of displaced paupers, the "surplus population" of the British Isles. Historian Rainer Baehre estimated that between 1831 and 1835 a bare minimum of one fifth of all emigrants to the province arrived totally destitute, forwarded by their parishes in the United Kingdom.[35] The pauper immigrants arriving in Toronto
Toronto
were the excess agricultural workers and artisans whose growing ranks sent the cost of parish-based poor relief in England spiraling; a financial crisis that generated frenetic public debate and the overhaul of the Poor Laws
Poor Laws
in 1834. "Assisted emigration," a second solution to the problem touted by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary in the Colonial Office, Robert Wilmot Horton, would remove them permanently from the parish poor rolls. The roots of Wilmot-Horton's "assisted emigration" policies began in April 1820, in the middle of an insurrection in Glasgow, where a young, already twice bankrupted William Lyon Mackenzie
William Lyon Mackenzie
was setting sail for Canada
Canada
on a ship called Psyche. After the week-long violence, the rebellion was easily crushed; the participants were driven less by treason than distress. In a city of 147,000 people without a regular parish system of poor relief, between ten and fifteen thousand were destitute. The Prime Minister agreed to provide free transportation from Quebec
Quebec
to Upper Canada, a 100-acre land grant, and a year's supply of provisions to any of the rebellious weavers who could pay their own way to Quebec. In all, in 1820 and 1821, a private charity helped 2,716 Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire
and Glasgow
Glasgow
emigrants to Upper Canada
Canada
to take up their free grants, primarily in the Peterborough area.[36] A second project was the Petworth Emigration Committee organised by the Reverend Thomas Sockett, who chartered ships and sent emigrants from England to Canada
Canada
in each of the six years between 1832 and 1837.[37] This area in the south of England was terrorised by the Captain Swing Riots, a series of clandestine attacks on large farmers who refused relief to unemployed agricultural workers. The area hardest hit – Kent – was the area where Sir Francis Bond Head, later Lt. Governor of Upper Canada
Canada
in 1836, was the Assistant Poor Law Commissioner. One of his jobs was to force the unemployed into "Houses of Industry." Trade, monetary policy, and financial institutions[edit] Corporations[edit] Main article: Corporations (Upper Canada) There were two types of corporate actors at work in the Upper Canadian economy: the legislatively chartered companies and the unregulated joint-stock companies. The joint stock company was popular in building public works, since it should be for general public benefit, as the benefit would otherwise be sacrificed to legislated monopolies with exclusive privileges. or lie dormant. An example of the legislated monopoly is found in the Bank of Upper Canada. However, it should be noted that the benefit of the joint-stock shareholders, as the risk takers, was whole and entire; and the general public benefitted only indirectly. As late as 1849, even the moderate reform politician Robert Baldwin
Robert Baldwin
was to complain that "unless a stop were made to it, there would be nothing but corporations from one end of the country to the other." Radical reformers, like William Lyon Mackenzie, who opposed all "legislated monopolies," saw joint stock associations as the only protection against "the whole property of the country... being tied up as an irredeemable appendage to incorporated institutions, and put beyond the reach of individual possession."[38] As a result, most of the joint-stock companies formed in this period were created by political reformers who objected to the legislated monopolies granted to members of the Family Compact. Currency and banking[edit] Currency[edit] See Coins of Upper Canada. The government of Upper Canada
Canada
never issued a provincial currency. A variety of coins, mainly of French, Spanish, English and American origin circulated. The government used the Halifax standard, where one pound Halifax equalled four Spanish dollars. One pound sterling equalled £1 2s 2¾d (until 1820), and £1 2s 6½d Halifax pounds after 1820. Paper currency was issued primarily by the Bank of Upper Canada, although with the diversification of the banking system, each bank would issue its own distinctive notes.[39] Bank of Upper Canada[edit] Main article: Bank of Upper Canada

The Bank of Upper Canada, Toronto

The Bank of Upper Canada
Canada
was "captured" from Kingston merchants by the York elite at the instigation of John Strachan
John Strachan
in 1821, with the assistance of William Allan, a Toronto
Toronto
merchant and Executive Councillor. York was too small to warrant such an institution as indicated by the inability of its promoters to raise even the minimal 10% of the £200,000 authorised capital required for start-up. It succeeded where the Bank of Kingston had failed only because it had the political influence to have this minimum reduced by half, and because the provincial government subscribed for two thousand of its eight thousand shares. The administration appointed four of the bank's fifteen directors that, as with the Clergy Corporation, made for a tight bond between the nominally private company and the state. Forty-four men served as bank directors during the 1830s; eleven of them were executive councillors, fifteen of them were legislative councillors, and thirteen were magistrates in Toronto. More importantly, all 11 men who had ever sat on the Executive Council also sat on the board of the Bank at one time or another. 10 of these men also sat on the Legislative Council. The overlapping membership on the boards of the Bank of Upper Canada
Canada
and on the Executive and Legislative Councils served to integrate the economic and political activities of church, state, and the "financial sector." These overlapping memberships reinforced the oligarchic nature of power in the colony and allowed the administration to operate without any effective elective check. The Bank of Upper Canada
Canada
was a political sore point for the Reformers throughout the 1830s.[40] Bank wars: the Scottish joint-stock banks[edit] Main article: Bank of the People The difference between the chartered banks and the joint-stock banks lay almost entirely on the issue of liability and its implications for the issuance of bank notes. The joint-stock banks lacked limited liability, hence every partner in the bank was responsible for the bank's debts to the full extent of their personal property. The formation of new joint-stock banks blossomed in 1835 in the aftermath of a parliamentary report by Dr Charles Duncombe, which established their legality here. Duncombe's report drew in large part on an increasingly dominant banking orthodoxy in the United Kingdom which challenged the English system of chartered banks. Duncombe's Select Committee on Currency offered a template for the creation of joint-stock banks based on several successful British banks. Within weeks two Devonshire businessmen, Capt. George Truscott and John Cleveland Green, established the "Farmer's Bank" in Toronto. The only other successful bank established under this law was "The Bank of the People" which was set up by Toronto's Reformers. The Bank of the People provided the loan that allowed William Lyon Mackenzie
William Lyon Mackenzie
to establish the newspaper The Constitution in 1836 in the lead up to the Rebellion of 1837. Mackenzie wrote at the time: “Archdeacon Strachan’s bank (the old one)... serve the double purpose of keeping the merchants in chains of debt and bonds to the bank manager, and the Farmer’s acres under the harrow of the storekeeper. You will be shewn how to break this degraded yoke of mortgages, ejectments, judgments and bonds. Money bound you – money shall loose you”.[41] During the financial panic of 1836, the Family Compact
Family Compact
sought to protect its interests in the nearly bankrupt Bank of Upper Canada
Canada
by making joint-stock banks illegal.[42] Trade[edit] Main article: Metropolitan thesis After the Napoleonic Wars, as industrial production in Britain took off, English manufacturers began dumping cheap goods in Montreal; this allowed an increasing number of shopkeepers in York to obtain their goods competitively from Montreal
Montreal
wholesalers. It was during this period that the three largest pre-war merchants who imported directly from Britain retired from business as a result; Quetton St. George in 1815, Alexander Wood in 1821, and William Allan in 1822. Toronto
Toronto
and Kingston then underwent a boom in the number of increasingly specialised shops and wholesalers.[43] The Toronto
Toronto
wholesale firm of Isaac Buchanan
Isaac Buchanan
and Company were one of the largest of the new wholesalers. Isaac Buchanan
Isaac Buchanan
was a Scots merchant in Toronto, in partnership with his brother Peter, who remained in Glasgow
Glasgow
to manage the British end of the firm. They established their business in Toronto
Toronto
in 1835, having bought out Isaac's previous partners, William Guild and Co., who had established themselves in Toronto
Toronto
in 1832. As a wholesale firm, the Buchanan's had invested more than £10,000 in their business.[44] Another of those new wholesale businesses was the Farmers' Storehouse Company. The Farmers Storehouse Company was formed in the Home District and is probably Canada's first Farmers' Cooperative. The Storehouse expedited the sale of farmer's wheat to Montreal, and provided them with cheaper consumer goods.[45] Wheat and grains[edit] Main articles: Agriculture in Upper Canada
Canada
and Corn Laws Upper Canada
Canada
was in the unenviable position of having few exports with which to pay for all its imported manufactured needs. For the vast majority of those who settled in rural areas, debt could be paid off only through the sale of wheat and flour; yet, throughout much of the 1820s, the price of wheat went through periodic cycles of boom and bust depending upon the British markets that ultimately provided the credit upon which the farmer lived. In the decade 1830–39, exports of wheat averaged less than £1 per person a year (less than £6 per household), and in the 1820s just half that.[46] Given the small amounts of saleable wheat and flour, and the rarity of cash, some have questioned how market oriented these early farmers were. Instead of depending on the market to meet their needs, many of these farmers depended on networks of shared resources and cooperative marketing. For example, rather than hire labour, they met their labour needs through "work bees." such farmers are said to be 'subsistence oriented' and not to respond to market cues; rather, they engage in a moral economy seeking 'subsistence insurance' and a 'just price'. The Children of Peace in the village of Hope (now Sharon) are a well documented example. They were the most prosperous agricultural community in Canada
Canada
West by 1851.[47] Timber[edit] Main article: Ottawa River
Ottawa River
timber trade The Ottawa River
Ottawa River
timber trade resulted from Napoleon's 1806 Continental Blockade
Continental Blockade
in Europe. The United Kingdom required a new source of timber for its navy and shipbuilding. Later the UK's application of gradually increasing preferential tariffs increased Canadian imports. The trade in squared timber lasted until the 1850s. The transportation of raw timber by means of floating down the Ottawa River was proved possible in 1806 by Philemon Wright.[48] Squared timber would be assembled into large rafts which held living quarters for men on their six-week journey to Quebec
Quebec
City, which had large exporting facilities and easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The timber trade was Upper and Lower Canada's major industry in terms of employment and value of the product.[49] The largest supplier of square red and white pine to the British market was the Ottawa River[50] and the Ottawa
Ottawa
Valley. They had "rich red and white pine forests."[51] Bytown
Bytown
(later called Ottawa), was a major lumber and sawmill centre of Canada.[52] Transportation and communications[edit]

The complete First Welland Canal
First Welland Canal
including the Feeder Canal and the extension to Port Colborne. The present-day canal is marked in pale grey

Canal system[edit]

The Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill
and the old "Union Station" visible in the background.

Main articles: First Welland Canal, Rideau Canal, and Desjardins Canal The early nineteenth century was the age of canals. The Erie Canal, stretching from Buffalo to Albany, New York, threatened to divert all of the grain and other trade on the upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
through the Hudson River
Hudson River
to New York city after its completion in 1825. Upper Canadians sought to build a similar system that would tie this trade to the St Lawrence River
St Lawrence River
and Montreal. Rideau Canal[edit] The Rideau Canal's purpose was military and hence was paid for by the British and not the local treasury. It was intended to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal
Montreal
and the British naval base in Kingston. The objective was to bypass the St. Lawrence River bordering New York; a route which would have left British supply ships vulnerable to an attack. Westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River
Ottawa River
to Bytown
Bytown
(now Ottawa), then southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario. Because the Rideau Canal
Rideau Canal
was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River due to the series of rapids between Montreal
Montreal
and Kingston, it became a busy commercial artery from Montreal
Montreal
to the Great Lakes. The construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers. The work started in 1826, and was completed 6 years later in 1832 at a cost of £822,000. Welland Canal[edit] The Welland Canal was created to directly link Lake Erie
Lake Erie
with Lake Ontario, bypassing Niagara Falls and the Erie Canal. It was the idea of William Hamilton Merritt
William Hamilton Merritt
who owned a sawmill, grist mill and store on the Twelve Mile Creek. The Legislature authorised the joint-stock Welland Canal Company on 19 January 1824, with a capitalisation of $150,000, and Merritt as the agent. The canal was officially opened exactly five years later on 30 November 1829. However, the original route to Lake Erie
Lake Erie
followed the Welland and Niagara Rivers and was difficult and slow to navigate. The Welland Canal Company obtained a loan of 50,000 pounds from the Province of Upper Canada
Canada
in March 1831 to cut a canal directly to Gravelly Bay (now Port Colborne) as the new Lake Erie
Lake Erie
terminus for the canal.[53] By the time the canal was finished in 1837, it had cost the province £425,000 in loans and stock subscriptions. The Company was supposed to have been a private one using private capital; but the province had little private capital available, hence most of the original funds came from New York. To keep the canal in Upper Canadian hands, the province had passed a law barring Americans from the company's directorate. The company was thus controlled by the Family Compact, even though they had few shares. By 1834, it was clear the canal would never make money and that the province would be on the hook for the large loans; the canal and the canal company thus became a political issue, as local farmers argued the huge expense would ultimately only benefit American farmers in the west and the merchants who transported their grain.[54] Desjardins Canal[edit] The Desjardins Canal, named after its promoter Pierre Desjardins, was built to give Dundas, Ontario, easier access to Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay
and Lake Ontario. Access to Lake Ontario
Ontario
from Dundas was made difficult by the topography of the area, which included a natural sand and gravel barrier, across Burlington Bay
Burlington Bay
which allowed only boats with a shallow draft through. In 1823 a canal was dug through the sandbar. In 1826 the passage was completed, allowing schooners to sail to neighbouring Hamilton. Hamilton then became a major port and quickly expanded as a centre of trade and commerce. In 1826 a group of Dundas businessmen incorporated to compete with Hamilton and increase the value of their real estate holdings. The project to build Desjardins Canal
Desjardins Canal
continued for ten years, from 1827 to 1837, and required constant infusions of money from the province. In 1837, the year it opened, the company's income was £6,000, of which £5,000 was from a government loan and £166 was received from canal tolls. Lake traffic: steamships[edit] Main article: Great Lakes
Great Lakes
passenger steamers There is disagreement as to whether the Canadian built Frontenac (170 feet), launched on 7 September 1816, at Ernestown, Ontario
Ontario
or the US built Ontario
Ontario
(110 feet), launched in the spring of 1817 at Sacketts Harbor, New York, was the first steamboat on the Great Lakes. While the Frontenac was launched first, the Ontario
Ontario
began active service first.[55] The first steamboat on the upper Great Lakes
Great Lakes
was the passenger carrying Walk-In-The-Water, built in 1818 to navigate Lake Erie. In the years between 1809 and 1837 just over 100 steamboats were launched by Upper and Lower Canadians for the St. Lawrence River
St. Lawrence River
and Great Lakes
Great Lakes
trade, of which ten operated on Lake Ontario.[56] The single largest engine foundry in British North America
British North America
before 1838 was the Eagle Foundry of Montreal, founded by John Dod Ward in the fall of 1819 which manufactured 33 of the steam engines. The largest Upper Canadian engine manufacturer was Sheldon & Dutcher of Toronto, who made three engines in the 1830s before being driven to Bankruptcy by the Bank of Upper Canada
Canada
in 1837.[57] The major owner-operators of steamships on Lake Ontario
Ontario
were Donald Bethune, John Hamilton, Hugh Richardson, and Henry Gildersleeve, each of whom would have invested a substantial fortune.[58] Roads[edit] Besides marine travel, Upper Canada
Canada
had a few Post roads or footpaths used for transportation by horse or stagecoaches along the key settlements between London to Kingston. The Governor's Road was built beginning in 1793 from Dundas to Paris and then to the proposed capital of London by 1794. The road was further extended eastward with new capital of York in 1795. his road was eventually known as Dundas Road. A second route was known as Lakeshore Road or York Road which was built from York to Trent River from 1799 to 1900 and later extended eastwards to Kingston in 1817. This road was later renamed as Kingston Road. United States relations[edit] War of 1812
War of 1812
(1812–1815)[edit] During the War of 1812
War of 1812
with the United States, Upper Canada
Canada
was the chief target of the Americans, since it was weakly defended and populated largely by American immigrants. However, division in the United States over the war, a lackluster American militia, the incompetence of American military commanders, and swift and decisive action by the British commander, Sir Isaac Brock, kept Upper Canada part of British North America. Detroit was captured by the British on 6 August 1812. The Michigan Territory was held under British control until it was abandoned in 1813. The Americans won the decisive Battle of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
(10 September 1813) and forced the British to retreat from the western areas. On the retreat they were intercepted at the Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames
(5 October 1813) and destroyed in a major American victory that killed Tecumseh and broke the power of Britain's Indian allies.[59] Major battles fought on territory in Upper Canada
Canada
included;

Battle of Queenston Heights, 13 October 1812 Burning and Battle of York, 27 April 1813 Battle of Fort George, 27 May 1813 Battle of Stoney Creek, 5 June 1813 Battle of Beaver Dams, 24 June 1813 Battle of Lake Erie, 10 September 1813 Battle of the Thames, 5 October 1813 Battle of Crysler's Farm, 11 November 1813 Burning of Newark, 10 December 1813 Battle of Chippewa, 5 July 1814 Battle of Lundy's Lane, 25 July 1814

Many other battles were fought in American territory bordering Upper Canada, including the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
(most in modern-day Michigan), upstate New York and naval battles in the Great Lakes. The Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent
(ratified in 1815) ended the war and restored the status quo ante bellum. 1837 Rebellion and Patriot War[edit] Main articles: Rebellions of 1837, Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion, and Patriot war Mackenzie, Duncombe, John Rolph and 200 supporters fled to Navy Island in the Niagara River, where they declared themselves the Republic of Canada
Canada
on 13 December. They obtained supplies from supporters in the United States, resulting in British reprisals (see Caroline affair). This incident has been used to establish the principle of "anticipatory self-defense" in international politics, which holds that it may be justified only in cases in which the "necessity of that self-defense is instant, overwhelming, and leaving no choice of means, and no moment for deliberation". This formulation is part of the Caroline test. The Caroline affair
Caroline affair
is also now invoked frequently in the course of the dispute around preemptive strike (or preemption doctrine). On 13 January 1838, under attack by British armaments, the rebels fled. Mackenzie went to the United States where he was arrested and charged under the Neutrality Act.[60] The Neutrality Act of 1794 made it illegal for an American to wage war against any country at peace with the United States. Application of the Neutrality Act during the Patriot War
Patriot War
led to the largest use of US government military force against its own citizens since the Whiskey Rebellion.[61] The extended series of incidents comprising the Patriot War
Patriot War
were finally settled by US Secretary of State Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
and Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton, in the course of their negotiations leading to the Webster–Ashburton Treaty
Webster–Ashburton Treaty
of 1842. Education[edit] In 1807 the Grammar School Act allowed the government to take over various grammar schools across the province and incorporating them into a network of eight new, public grammar schools (secondary schools), one for each of the eight districts (Eastern, Johnstown, Midland, Newcastle, Home, Niagara, London, and Western).[62] Of those, these were the better known ones[according to whom?]:

Eastern Grammar School in New Johnstown or current day Cornwall, Ontario
Ontario
– founded as Cornwall Grammar School and later became Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School. Home District
Home District
Grammar School in York, Upper Canada, later becoming Royal Grammar School, Toronto
Toronto
High School and finally to the current name Jarvis Collegiate Institute. Midland Grammar School – created to replace Kingston Grammar School established in 1792 and later became Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Institute Western District Grammar School in Sandwich or current day Windsor, Ontario
Ontario
– grammar school is gone and is now the site of General Brock Public School.[63]

Canada
Canada
West[edit] Main articles: United Province of Canada and Ontario Canada
Canada
West was the western portion of the United Province of Canada from 10 February 1841, to 1 July 1867.[64] Its boundaries were identical to those of the former Province of Upper Canada. Lower Canada
Canada
would also become Canada
Canada
East. The area was named the Province of Ontario
Ontario
under the British North America Act of 1867. See also[edit]

Ontario
Ontario
portal History of Canada
Canada
portal

The Canadas Lower Canada Former colonies and territories in Canada Timeline of Ontario
Ontario
history

References[edit]

^ a b Butler, Samuel (1843). The Emigrant's Handbook of Facts Concerning Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Cape of Good Hope, &c. Glasgow: W.R. M'Phun. pp. 10, 20.  ^ McNairn, Jeffrey L. (2000). The Capacity To Judge: Public Opinion and Deliberative Democracy in Upper Canada,1791-1854. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. pp. 23–62. ISBN 978-1-4426-3916-4.  ^ Armstrong, Frederick Henry (1985). Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology (revised ed.). Dundurn. pp. 8–12. ISBN 978-0-919670-92-1.  ^ Armstrong (1985), p. 39 ^ Craig, Gerald M. (1963). Upper Canada: The Formative Years, 1784-1841. McClelland and Stewart.  ^ Craig (1963), pp. 30–31 ^ Wallace, W. Stewart (1915). The Family Compact: A Chronicle of the Rebellion in Upper Canada. Glasgow, Brook.  ^ Mills, David; Panneton, Daniel (20 March 2017) [7 February 2006]. "Family Compact". The Canadian Encyclopedia
The Canadian Encyclopedia
(online ed.). Historica Canada.  ^ Craig (1963), pp. 93–99 ^ Wilton, Carol (2001). Popular Politics and Political Culture in Upper Canada, 1800-1850. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0-7735-2054-7.  ^ Schrauwers, Albert (2009). Union is Strength: W.L. Mackenzie, the Children of Peace and the Emergence of Joint Stock Democracy in Upper Canada. University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. pp. 181–184. ISBN 978-0-8020-9927-3.  ^ Schrauwers (2009), pp. 192–199 ^ Greer, Allan (1995). "1837–38: Rebellion Reconsidered". Canadian Historical Review. LXVII (1): 1–30. doi:10.3138/chr-076-01-01.  ^ Careless, J.M.S. (1967). The Union of the Canadas: The Growth of Canadian Institutions 1841–1857. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. pp. 113–30.  ^ McKay, Ian (2000). "The Liberal Order Framework: A prospectus for a reconnaissance of Canadian History". Canadian Historical Review. 81 (4): 623. doi:10.3138/chr.81.4.616.  ^ a b Haudenosaunee is /hɔːdɛnəˈʃɔːniː/ in English, Akunęhsyę̀niˀ in Tuscarora (Rudes, B., Tuscarora English Dictionary, Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press, 1999), and Rotinonsionni in Mohawk. ^ Max M. Mintz, Seeds of Empire: The American Revolutionary Conquest of the Iroquois
Iroquois
(New York University Press, 1999). ^ Gates, Lillian (1968). Land Policies of Upper Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press.  ^ Calton is now within Glasgow
Glasgow
itself. ^ Lucille H. Campey (2005). The Scottish pioneers of Upper Canada, 1784–1855: Glengarry and beyond. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 52ff. ISBN 1-897045-01-8.  ^ Charles J. Humber, Allegiance: the Ontario
Ontario
Story (Mississauga, Ontario: Heirloom Pub.: 1991), 193 ^ Craig (1963), pp. 142–144 ^ Craig (1963), pp. 171–179 ^ Schrauwers, Albert (Spring 2010). "The Gentlemanly Order & the Politics of Production in the Transition to Capitalism in the Home District, Upper Canada". Labour/Le Travail. 65 (1): 26–31. JSTOR 20798984.  ^ Lee, Robert C. (2004). The Canada
Canada
Company and the Huron Tract, 1826–1853: Personalities, Profits and Politics. Toronto: Natural Heritage Books. pp. 98–148.  ^ Ankli, Robert E.; Duncan, Kenneth (1984). "Farm Making Costs in Early Ontario". Canadian Papers in Rural History. 4: 33–49.  ^ "What was the Huron Tract?". Retrieved 17 September 2010.  ^ Wilson, George A. (1959). The Political and Administrative History of the Upper Canada
Canada
Clergy Reserves, 1790–1855. Toronto: PhD Thesis, Dept. of History, University of Toronto. pp. 133ff.  ^ "Complete History of the Canadian Metis Culturework=Metis nation of the North West".  ^ Afua Cooper, "Acts of Resistance: Black Men and Women Engage Slavery in Upper Canada, 1793–1803," Ontario
Ontario
History, Spring 2007, Vol. 99 Issue 1, pp 5–17 ^ Wilton (2001), p. 9 ^ "The Parish of St. Raphael Glengarry Emigration of 1786 Bishop Alexander Macdonell 1762–1840". ontarioplaques.com/. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ "Bishop Alexander MacDonell". catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Reaman, G. Elmore (1957). The Trail of the Black Walnut. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. pp. 40–124.  ^ Baehre, Rainer (1981). "Pauper Emigration to Upper Canada
Canada
in the 1830s". Historie Sociale/Social History. XIV (28): 340.  ^ Johnston, H.J.M. (1972). British Emigration Policy 1815–1830: 'Shovelling Out the Paupers. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 51–4.  ^ Cameron, Wendy, Mary McDougall Maude (2000). Assisting Emigration to Upper Canada: The Petworth Project, 1832–1837. Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.  ^ Schrauwers (2009), p. 21 ^ McCalla, Douglas (1993). Planting the Province: The Economic History of Upper Canada
Canada
1784–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. pp. 245–7.  ^ Schrauwers (2010), pp. 22–26 ^ Schrauwers, Albert (2011). ""Money bound you – money shall loose you": Micro-credit, Social Capital and the Meaning of Money in Upper Canada". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 52 (2): 24. doi:10.1017/s0010417511000077.  ^ Schrauwers (2009), pp. 151–174 ^ Schrauwers (2009), p. 107 ^ McCalla, Douglas (1979). The Upper Canada
Canada
Trade 1834–1872: A Study of the Buchanan's Business. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. p. 28.  ^ Schrauwers (2009), pp. 102–106 ^ McCalla, Douglas (1993). Planting the Province: The Economic History of Upper Canada
Canada
1784–1783. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. p. 75.  ^ Schrauwers (2009), pp. 41–50 ^ Woods, Shirley E. Jr (1980). Ottawa: The Capital of Canada,. Toronto: Doubleday Canada. p. 89.  ^ Greening 1961, pp. 111. ^ Greening, W.E. (1961). The Ottawa. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. p. 111.  ^ Bond, Courtney C.J. (1984). Where Rivers Meet: An Illustrated History of Ottawa. Windsor Publications. p. 43.  ^ Mika, Nick & Helma (1982). Bytown: The Early Days of Ottawa. Belleville, Ont.: Mika Publishing Company. p. 121.  ^ Craig (1963), pp. 153–160 ^ Aitken, Hugh G.T. (1953). "Yates and McIntyre: Lottery Managers". The Journal of Economic History. 13 (1): 36–57.  ^ The debate is addressed by Barlow Cumberland in Chapter 2 of A Century of Sail and Steam on the Niagara River. Retrieved 26 March 2011 ^ McCalla, Douglas (1993). Planting the Province: the Economic History of Upper Canada
Canada
1784–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. p. 119.  ^ Lewis, Walter (1997). "The First Generation of Marine Engines in Central Canadian Steamers, 1809–1837". The Northern Mariner. VII (2): II.  ^ McCalla, Douglas (1993). Planting the Province: the Economic History of Upper Canada
Canada
1784–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. p. 120.  ^ Young, Bennett Henderson, The Battle of the Thames: In Which Kentuckians Defeated the British, French and Indians, 5 October 1813. Louisville, Ky.: Morton, 1903. ^ Armstrong, Frederick H.; Stagg, Ronald J. (1976). "McKenzie, William Lyon". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IX (1861–1870) (online ed.). University of Toronto
Toronto
Press.  ^ Bonthius, Andrew (2003). "The Patriot War
Patriot War
of 1837–1838: Locofocoism with a Gun?". Labour/Le Travail. 52 (2): 11–12. doi:10.2307/25149383.  ^ "Education in Upper Canada
Canada
From 1783 To 1844". canada.yodelout.com.  ^ "Western District Grammar School – Southwestern Ontario
Ontario
Digital Archive". swoda.uwindsor.ca.  ^ Careless, J.M.S.; Foot, Richard (4 March 2015) [7 February 2006]. " Province of Canada, 1841–67". The Canadian Encyclopedia
The Canadian Encyclopedia
(online ed.). Historica Canada. 

Further reading[edit]

Clarke, John. Land Power and Economics on the Frontier of Upper Canada McGill-Queen's University Press (2001) 747pp. (ISBN 0-7735-2062-7) Di Mascio, Anthony. The Idea of Popular Schooling in Upper Canada: Print Culture, Public Discourse, and the Demand for Education (McGill-Queen's University Press; 2012) 248 pages; building a common system of schooling in the late-18th and early 19th centuries. Dieterman, Frank. Government on fire: the history and archaeology of Upper Canada's first Parliament Buildings Eastendbooks, 2001. Dunham, Eileen. Political unrest in Upper Canada
Canada
1815–1836 McClelland and Stewart, 1963. Errington, Jane. The lion, the eagle, and Upper Canada: a developing colonial ideology McGill-Queen's University Press, 1987. Grabb, Edward; Duncan, Jeff; Baer, Douglas (2000). "Defining Moments and Recurring Myths: Comparing Canadians and Americans after the American Revolution". The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology. 37.  Johnston, James Keith. Historical essays on Upper Canada
Canada
McClelland and Stewart, 1975. Kilbourn, William. The Firebrand: William Lyon Mackenzie
William Lyon Mackenzie
and the Rebellion in Upper Canada
Canada
(1956) online edition Lewis, Frank, and M. C. Urquhart. Growth and standard of living in a pioneer economy: Upper Canada
Canada
1826–1851 Kingston, Ont. : Institute for Economic Research, Queen's University, 1997. McCalla, Douglas. Planting the province: the economic history of Upper Canada
Canada
1784–1870 University of Toronto
Toronto
Press, 1993. Rea, J. Edgar. "Rebellion in Upper Canada, 1837" Manitoba Historical Society Transactions Series 3, Number 22, 1965–66 online, historiography Winearls, Joan. Mapping Upper Canada
Canada
1780–1867: an annotated bibliography of manuscript and printed maps. University of Toronto Press, 1991.erdvrv Moving Here, Staying Here: The Canadian Immigrant Experience at Library and Archives Canada

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1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
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and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
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1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
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Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

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1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
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and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

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Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
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14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Coordinates: 44°N 80°W / 44°N 80°W / 44; -80

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140253636 LCCN: n80026

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