Upper Burma
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Political geography of Burma as understood by the British c. 1885. Upper Burma in orange; British Burma ( Lower Burma) and other British possessions in pink Upper Myanmar ( my, အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Upper Burma) refers to a geographic region of
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
, traditionally encompassing
Mandalay Mandalay ( or ; ) is the second-largest city in Myanmar, after Yangon. Located on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, north of Yangon, the city has a population of 1,225,553 (2014 census). Mandalay was founded in 1857 by King Mindon Min, M ...

Mandalay
and its periphery (modern
Mandalay Mandalay ( or ; ) is the second-largest city in Myanmar, after Yangon. Located on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, north of Yangon, the city has a population of 1,225,553 (2014 census). Mandalay was founded in 1857 by King Mindon Min, M ...
,
Sagaing Sagaing (, ) is the former capital of the Sagaing Region of Myanmar. It is located in the Irrawaddy River, to the south-west of Mandalay on the opposite bank of the river. Sagaing with numerous Buddhist Monastery, monasteries is an important relig ...
,
Magway Region Magway Region ( my, မကွေးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး, , formerly Magway Division) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subna ...
s), or more broadly speaking,
KachinKachin or Kakhyen may refer to: *Kachin State, in northern Myanmar/Burma * Kachin Hills, northeastern Myanmar *Kachin peoples, a generalised term for six non-Burman ethno-linguistic groups in Kachin State. **Jingpo people, Kachin people, including th ...
and
Shan State Shan State, commonly known by its native name Muang Tai, as well as Shanland (Shan Shan may refer to: People *Shan (surname), or 单 in Chinese, a Chinese surname *Shan, a variant of the Welsh given name usually spelled Siân *Occasionally use ...
s. In the
Burmese language Burmese ( my, မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLC Transcription System, MLCTS: ''mranmabhasa'', IPA: ) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal et ...
, people originating from Upper Myanmar are typically called ''a-nya tha'' (), whereas those from Lower Myanmar are called ''auk tha'' (). The term "upper Burma" was first used by the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependenc ...

British
to refer to the central and northern area of what is now
modern day Myanmar
modern day Myanmar
. After the
Second Anglo-Burmese War The Second Anglo-Burmese War or the Second Burma War ( my, ဒုတိယ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ် ; 5 April 185220 January 1853) was the second of the Anglo-Burmese Wars, three wars fought between the Konbaung dyna ...
of 1852, Lower Myanmar was annexed by the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, while Upper Myanmar remained independent under the Burmese Empire until the
Third Anglo-Burmese War The Third Anglo-Burmese War ( my, တတိယ အင်္ဂလိပ် – မြန်မာစစ်, ), also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency ...
of 1885. Upper Myanmar was also known as encompassing "Burma proper" and the Kingdom of
Ava
Ava
. Historically, Upper Myanmar was predominantly
Bamar The Bamar (, ; also historically the Burmese and Burmans) are a Southeast Asian Sino-Tibetan Sino-Tibetan, also known as Trans-Himalayan in a few sources, is a family of more than 400 languages, second only to Indo-European in number of nat ...
(whereas Lower Myanmar was historically Mon-speaking until the early 19th century), while the Frontier Areas, as designated by the colonial administration, included ethnic minority areas, such as the
Shan States The Shan States (1885–1948) were a collection of minor Shan Shan may refer to: People *Shan (surname), or 单 in Chinese, a Chinese surname *Shan, a variant of the Welsh given name usually spelled Siân *Occasionally used as a short for ...
and modern
Kachin State Kachin State (Jingpho language, Kachin: ''Jinghpaw Mungdaw''; my, ကချင်ပြည်နယ်) is the northernmost administrative divisions of Myanmar, state of Myanmar. It is bordered by China to the north and east (Tibet Autonomous Re ...
. This distinction between Upper and Lower Myanmar is also found in some government departments (for instance, the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Publ ...
has departments assigned to Upper or Lower Myanmar), while some newspapers make a distinction between the two bodies. The Burmese language edition of ''
The Myanmar Times ''The Myanmar Times'' ( ), founded in 2000, is the oldest privately owned and operated English-language newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category ...
'' is an example; the newspaper devotes a section to news from Upper Myanmar. In terms of linguistic differences, there are minute differences between the variants of Burmese spoken by Upper Burmese, especially in vocabulary choice (such as kinship terms that differentiate the maternal and paternal sides of a family, which is not made in Lower Burmese speech). However, there is remarkable uniformity in the Burmese spoken throughout the Irrawaddy River valley, which also includes the delta-lying and coastal region of Lower Myanmar.


See also

* Lower Myanmar


References

History of Myanmar + {{Burma-geo-stub