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Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishads

Upanishads Rig vedic

Aitareya Kaushitaki

Sama vedic

Chandogya Kena

Yajur vedic

Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Atharva vedic

Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agamas

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This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

The upanishads (Sanskrit: Upaniṣad; IPA: [ʊpən̪ɪʂəd̪]), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism, and Jainism.[1][2][note 1][note 2] Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads
Upanishads
played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions.[5] Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads
Upanishads
alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus.[1][6] The Upanishads
Upanishads
are commonly referred to as Vedānta. Vedanta
Vedanta
has been interpreted as the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" and alternatively as "object, the highest purpose of the Veda".[7] The concepts of Brahman
Brahman
(ultimate reality) and Ātman (soul, self) are central ideas in all of the Upanishads,[8][9] and "know that you are the Ātman" is their thematic focus.[9][10] Along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra, the mukhya Upanishads
Upanishads
(known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi)[11] provide a foundation for the several later schools of Vedanta, among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism.[note 3][note 4][note 5] More than 200 Upanishads
Upanishads
are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads.[14][15] The mukhya Upanishads
Upanishads
are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas
Brahmanas
and Aranyakas[16] and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down orally. The early Upanishads
Upanishads
all predate the Common Era, five[note 6] of them in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE),[17] down to the Maurya period.[18] Of the remainder, 95 Upanishads
Upanishads
are part of the Muktika
Muktika
canon, composed from about the last centuries of 1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE.[19][20] New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika
Muktika
canon, continued to be composed through the early modern and modern era,[21] though often dealing with subjects which are unconnected to the Vedas.[22] With the translation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads
Upanishads
and called it "the production of the highest human wisdom".[23] Modern era Indologists have discussed the similarities between the fundamental concepts in the Upanishads
Upanishads
and major western philosophers.[24][25][26]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Development

2.1 Authorship 2.2 Chronology 2.3 Geography

3 Classification

3.1 Muktika
Muktika
canon: major and minor Upanishads 3.2 Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads 3.3 New Upanishads

4 Association with Vedas 5 Philosophy

5.1 Development of thought 5.2 Brahman
Brahman
and Atman 5.3 Reality and Maya

6 Schools of Vedanta

6.1 Advaita Vedanta 6.2 Vishishtadvaita 6.3 Dvaita

7 Similarities with Platonic thought 8 Translations 9 Reception in the West 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Sources 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term Upaniṣad (upa = by, ni = nether, shat =sitting) translates to "sitting down near", referring to the student sitting down near the teacher while receiving spiritual knowledge.[27] Other dictionary meanings include "esoteric doctrine" and "secret doctrine". Monier-Williams' Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary notes – "According to native authorities, Upanishad
Upanishad
means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit."[28] Adi Shankaracharya explains in his commentary on the Kaṭha and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
that the word means Ātmavidyā, that is, "knowledge of the self", or Brahmavidyā "knowledge of Brahma". The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya
Chandogya
Upanishad. Max Muller
Max Muller
as well as Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
translate the word Upanishad
Upanishad
in these verses as "secret doctrine",[29][30] Robert Hume translates it as "mystic meaning",[31] while Patrick Olivelle translates it as "hidden connections".[32] Development[edit] Authorship[edit] The authorship of most Upanishads
Upanishads
is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, "almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads".[33] The ancient Upanishads
Upanishads
are embedded in the Vedas, the oldest of Hinduism's religious scriptures, which some traditionally consider to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[34] and "impersonal, authorless".[35][36][37] The Vedic texts assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot.[38] The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads
Upanishads
have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Shvetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada, and Sanatkumara.[33][39] Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early Upanishads.[40] There are some exceptions to the anonymous tradition of the Upanishads. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, for example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvatara, and he is considered the author of the Upanishad.[41] Many scholars believe that early Upanishads
Upanishads
were interpolated[42] and expanded over time. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad
Upanishad
discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non- Sanskrit
Sanskrit
version of the texts that have survived, and differences within each text in terms of meter,[43] style, grammar and structure.[44][45] The existing texts are believed to be the work of many authors.[46] Chronology[edit] Scholars are uncertain about when the Upanishads
Upanishads
were composed.[47] The chronology of the early Upanishads
Upanishads
is difficult to resolve, states philosopher and Sanskritist
Sanskritist
Stephen Phillips,[14] because all opinions rest on scanty evidence and analysis of archaism, style and repetitions across texts, and are driven by assumptions about likely evolution of ideas, and presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies. Indologist Patrick Olivelle says that "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents [early Upanishads] that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards".[17] Some scholars have tried to analyse similarities between Hindu Upanishads
Upanishads
and Buddhist literature to establish chronology for the Upanishads.[18] Patrick Olivelle gives the following chronology for the early Upanishads, also called the Principal Upanishads:[47][17]

The Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya
Chandogya
are the two earliest Upanishads. They are edited texts, some of whose sources are much older than others. The two texts are pre-Buddhist; they may be placed in the 7th to 6th centuries BCE, give or take a century or so.[48][18] The three other early prose Upanisads—Taittiriya, Aitareya, and Kausitaki come next; all are probably pre-Buddhist and can be assigned to the 6th to 5th centuries BCE. The Kena is the oldest of the verse Upanisads followed by probably the Katha, Isa, Svetasvatara, and Mundaka. All these Upanisads were composed probably in the last few centuries BCE.[49] The two late prose Upanisads, the Prasna and the Mandukya, cannot be much older than the beginning of the common era.[47][17]

Stephen Phillips places the early Upanishads
Upanishads
in the 800 to 300 BCE range. He summarizes the current Indological opinion to be that the Brhadaranyaka, Chandogya, Isha, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kena, Katha, Mundaka, and Prasna Upanishads
Upanishads
are all pre-Buddhist and pre-Jain, while Svetasvatara and Mandukya overlap with the earliest Buddhist and Jain literature.[14] The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE.[19] Gavin Flood dates many of the twenty Yoga Upanishads
Upanishads
to be probably from the 100 BCE to 300 CE period.[20] Patrick Olivelle and other scholars date seven of the twenty Sannyasa Upanishads
Upanishads
to likely have been complete sometime between the last centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE to 300 CE.[19] About half of the Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads
Upanishads
were likely composed in 14th- to 15th-century CE.[19] Geography[edit] The general area of the composition of the early Upanishads
Upanishads
is considered as northern India. The region is bounded on the west by the upper Indus valley, on the east by lower Ganges region, on the north by the Himalayan foothills, and on the south by the Vindhya mountain range.[17] Scholars are reasonably sure that the early Upanishads
Upanishads
were produced at the geographical center of ancient Brahmanism, comprising the regions of Kuru- Panchala
Panchala
and Kosala- Videha
Videha
together with the areas immediately to the south and west of these.[50] This region covers modern Bihar, Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, eastern Rajasthan, and northern Madhya Pradesh.[17] While significant attempts have been made recently to identify the exact locations of the individual Upanishads, the results are tentative. Witzel identifies the center of activity in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
as the area of Videha, whose king, Janaka, features prominently in the Upanishad.[51] The Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
was probably composed in a more western than eastern location in the Indian subcontinent, possibly somewhere in the western region of the Kuru- Panchala
Panchala
country.[52] Compared to the Principal Upanishads, the new Upanishads
Upanishads
recorded in the Muktikā
Muktikā
belong to an entirely different region, probably southern India, and are considerably relatively recent.[53] In the fourth chapter of the Kaushitaki Upanishad, a location named Kashi (modern Varanasi) is mentioned.[17] Classification[edit] Muktika
Muktika
canon: major and minor Upanishads[edit] There are more than 200 known Upanishads, one of which, the Muktikā Upanishad, predates 1656 CE[54] and contains a list of 108 canonical Upanishads,[55] including itself as the last. These are further divided into Upanishads
Upanishads
associated with Shaktism
Shaktism
(goddess Shakti), Sannyasa
Sannyasa
(renunciation, monastic life), Shaivism
Shaivism
(god Shiva), Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
(god Vishnu), Yoga, and Sāmānya (general, sometimes referred to as Samanya-Vedanta).[56][57] Some of the Upanishads
Upanishads
are categorized as "sectarian" since they present their ideas through a particular god or goddess of a specific Hindu
Hindu
tradition such as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or a combination of these such as the Skanda Upanishad. These traditions sought to link their texts as Vedic, by asserting their texts to be an Upanishad, thereby a Śruti.[58] Most of these sectarian Upanishads, for example the Rudrahridaya Upanishad
Rudrahridaya Upanishad
and the Mahanarayana Upanishad, assert that all the Hindu
Hindu
gods and goddesses are the same, all an aspect and manifestation of Brahman, the Vedic concept for metaphysical ultimate reality before and after the creation of the Universe.[59][60] Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads[edit] Main article: Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads The Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads
Upanishads
can be grouped into periods. Of the early periods are the Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya, the oldest.[61][note 7]

A page of Isha Upanishad
Isha Upanishad
manuscript

The Aitareya, Kauṣītaki and Taittirīya Upanishads
Upanishads
may date to as early as the mid 1st millennium BCE, while the remnant date from between roughly the 4th to 1st centuries BCE, roughly contemporary with the earliest portions of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics. One chronology assumes that the Aitareya, Taittiriya, Kausitaki, Mundaka, Prasna, and Katha Upanishads
Upanishads
has Buddha's influence, and is consequently placed after the 5th century BCE, while another proposal questions this assumption and dates it independent of Buddha's date of birth. After these Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
are typically placed the Kena, Mandukya and Isa Upanishads, but other scholars date these differently.[18] Not much is known about the authors except for those, like Yajnavalkayva and Uddalaka, mentioned in the texts.[16] A few women discussants, such as Gargi and Maitreyi, the wife of Yajnavalkayva,[63] also feature occasionally. Each of the principal Upanishads
Upanishads
can be associated with one of the schools of exegesis of the four Vedas
Vedas
(shakhas).[64] Many Shakhas are said to have existed, of which only a few remain. The new Upanishads often have little relation to the Vedic corpus and have not been cited or commented upon by any great Vedanta
Vedanta
philosopher: their language differs from that of the classic Upanishads, being less subtle and more formalized. As a result, they are not difficult to comprehend for the modern reader.[65]

Veda-Shakha- Upanishad
Upanishad
association

Veda Recension Shakha Principal Upanishad

Rig Veda Only one recension Shakala Aitareya

Sama Veda Only one recension Kauthuma Chāndogya

Jaiminiya Kena

Ranayaniya

Yajur Veda Krishna
Krishna
Yajur Veda Katha Kaṭha

Taittiriya Taittirīya and Śvetāśvatara[66]

Maitrayani Maitrāyaṇi

Hiranyakeshi (Kapishthala)

Kathaka

Shukla Yajur Veda Vajasaneyi Madhyandina Isha and Bṛhadāraṇyaka

Kanva Shakha

Atharva Two recensions Shaunaka Māṇḍūkya and Muṇḍaka

Paippalada Prashna Upanishad

The Kauśītāki
Kauśītāki
and Maitrāyaṇi
Maitrāyaṇi
Upanishads
Upanishads
are sometimes added to the list of the mukhya Upanishads. New Upanishads[edit] There is no fixed list of the Upanishads
Upanishads
as newer ones, beyond the Muktika
Muktika
anthology of 108 Upanishads, have continued to be discovered and composed.[67] In 1908, for example, four previously unknown Upanishads
Upanishads
were discovered in newly found manuscripts, and these were named Bashkala, Chhagaleya, Arsheya, and Saunaka, by Friedrich Schrader,[68] who attributed them to the first prose period of the Upanishads.[69] The text of three of them, namely the Chhagaleya, Arsheya, and Saunaka, were incomplete and inconsistent, likely poorly maintained or corrupted.[69] Ancient Upanishads
Upanishads
have long enjoyed a revered position in Hindu traditions, and authors of numerous sectarian texts have tried to benefit from this reputation by naming their texts as Upanishads.[70] These "new Upanishads" number in the hundreds, cover diverse range of topics from physiology[71] to renunciation[72] to sectarian theories.[70] They were composed between the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE through the early modern era (~1600 CE).[70][72] While over two dozen of the minor Upanishads
Upanishads
are dated to pre-3rd century CE,[19][20] many of these new texts under the title of "Upanishads" originated in the first half of the 2nd millennium CE,[70] they are not Vedic texts, and some do not deal with themes found in the Vedic Upanishads.[22] The main Shakta
Shakta
Upanishads, for example, mostly discuss doctrinal and interpretative differences between the two principal sects of a major Tantric form of Shaktism
Shaktism
called Shri Vidya
Shri Vidya
upasana. The many extant lists of authentic Shakta
Shakta
Upaniṣads vary, reflecting the sect of their compilers, so that they yield no evidence of their "location" in Tantric tradition, impeding correct interpretation. The Tantra
Tantra
content of these texts also weaken its identity as an Upaniṣad for non-Tantrikas. Sectarian texts such as these do not enjoy status as shruti and thus the authority of the new Upanishads
Upanishads
as scripture is not accepted in Hinduism.[73] Association with Vedas[edit] All Upanishads
Upanishads
are associated with one of the four Vedas—Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda
Yajurveda
(there are two primary versions or Samhitas of the Yajurveda: Shukla Yajurveda, Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda), and Atharvaveda.[74] During the modern era, the ancient Upanishads
Upanishads
that were embedded texts in the Vedas, were detached from the Brahmana
Brahmana
and Aranyaka
Aranyaka
layers of Vedic text, compiled into separate texts and these were then gathered into anthologies of Upanishads.[70] These lists associated each Upanishad
Upanishad
with one of the four Vedas, many such lists exist, and these lists are inconsistent across India in terms of which Upanishads
Upanishads
are included and how the newer Upanishads
Upanishads
are assigned to the ancient Vedas. In south India, the collected list based on Muktika Upanishad,[note 8] and published in Telugu language, became the most common by the 19th-century and this is a list of 108 Upanishads.[70][75] In north India, a list of 52 Upanishads
Upanishads
has been most common.[70] The Muktikā
Muktikā
Upanishad's list of 108 Upanishads
Upanishads
groups the first 13 as mukhya,[76][note 9] 21 as Sāmānya Vedānta, 20 as Sannyāsa,[80] 14 as Vaishnava, 12 as Shaiva, 8 as Shakta, and 20 as Yoga.[81] The 108 Upanishads
Upanishads
as recorded in the Muktikā
Muktikā
are shown in the table below.[74] The mukhya Upanishads
Upanishads
are the most important and highlighted.[78]

Veda- Upanishad
Upanishad
association

Veda Number[74] Mukhya[76] Sāmānya Sannyāsa[80] Śākta[82] Vaiṣṇava[83] Śaiva[84] Yoga[81]

Ṛigveda 10 Aitareya, Kauśītāki Ātmabodha, Mudgala Nirvāṇa Tripura, Saubhāgya-lakshmi, Bahvṛca - Akṣamālika Nādabindu

Samaveda 16 Chāndogya, Kena Vajrasūchi, Maha, Sāvitrī Āruṇi, Maitreya, Brhat-Sannyāsa, Kuṇḍika (Laghu-Sannyāsa) - Vāsudeva, Avyakta Rudrākṣa, Jābāli Yogachūḍāmaṇi, Darśana

Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda 32 Taittiriya, Katha, Śvetāśvatara, Maitrāyaṇi[note 10] Sarvasāra, Śukarahasya, Skanda, Garbha, Śārīraka, Ekākṣara, Akṣi Brahma, (Laghu, Brhad) Avadhūta, Kaṭhasruti Sarasvatī-rahasya Nārāyaṇa, Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa Kaivalya, Kālāgnirudra, Dakṣiṇāmūrti, Rudrahṛdaya, Pañcabrahma Amṛtabindu, Tejobindu, Amṛtanāda, Kṣurika, Dhyānabindu, Brahmavidyā, Yogatattva, Yogaśikhā, Yogakuṇḍalini, Varāha

Shukla Yajurveda 19 Bṛhadāraṇyaka, Īśa Subala, Mantrika, Niralamba, Paingala, Adhyatma, Muktika Jābāla, Paramahaṃsa, Bhikṣuka, Turīyātītavadhuta, Yājñavalkya, Śāṭyāyaniya - Tārasāra - Advayatāraka, Haṃsa, Triśikhi, Maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa

Atharvaveda 31 Muṇḍaka, Māṇḍūkya, Praśna Ātmā, Sūrya, Prāṇāgnihotra[86] Āśrama, Nārada-parivrājaka, Paramahaṃsa parivrājaka, Parabrahma Sītā, Devī, Tripurātapini, Bhāvana Nṛsiṃhatāpanī, Mahānārāyaṇa (Tripād vibhuti), Rāmarahasya, Rāmatāpaṇi, Gopālatāpani, Kṛṣṇa, Hayagrīva, Dattātreya, Gāruḍa Atharvasiras,[87] Atharvaśikha, Bṛhajjābāla, Śarabha, Bhasma, Gaṇapati Śāṇḍilya, Pāśupata, Mahāvākya

Total Upanishads 108 13[note 9] 21 19 8 14 13 20

Philosophy[edit] Main article: Vedanta

Impact of a drop of water, a common analogy for Brahman
Brahman
and the Ātman

The Upanishadic age was characterized by a pluralism of worldviews. While some Upanishads
Upanishads
have been deemed 'monistic', others, including the Katha Upanishad, are dualistic.[88] The Maitri is one of the Upanishads
Upanishads
that inclines more toward dualism, thus grounding classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
schools of Hinduism, in contrast to the non-dualistic Upanishads
Upanishads
at the foundation of its Vedanta
Vedanta
school.[89] They contain a plurality of ideas.[90][note 11] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
states that the Upanishads
Upanishads
have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life ever since their appearance.[91] The Upanishads
Upanishads
are respected not because they are considered revealed (Shruti), but because they present spiritual ideas that are inspiring.[92] The Upanishads
Upanishads
are treatises on Brahman-knowledge, that is knowledge of Ultimate Hidden Reality, and their presentation of philosophy presumes, "it is by a strictly personal effort that one can reach the truth".[93] In the Upanishads, states Radhakrishnan, knowledge is a means to freedom, and philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom by a way of life.[94] The Upanishads
Upanishads
include sections on philosophical theories that have been at the foundation of Indian traditions. For example, the Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
includes one of the earliest known declaration of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(non-violence) as an ethical precept.[95][96] Discussion of other ethical premises such as Damah (temperance, self-restraint), Satya
Satya
(truthfulness), Dāna
Dāna
(charity), Ārjava (non-hypocrisy), Daya (compassion) and others are found in the oldest Upanishads
Upanishads
and many later Upanishads.[97][98] Similarly, the Karma
Karma
doctrine is presented in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, which is the oldest Upanishad.[99] Development of thought[edit]

Part of a series on

Hindu
Hindu
philosophy

Orthodox

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa

Vedanta

Advaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda Shuddhadvaita

Heterodox

Charvaka Ājīvika Buddhism Jainism

Other schools

Vaishnava Smarta Shakta Īśvara

Shaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata Siddhanta

Tantra

Teachers (Acharyas)

Nyaya

Akṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha Siromani

Mīmāṃsā

Jaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa Prabhākara

Advaita Vedanta

Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vācaspati Miśra Vidyaranya Sadananda Madhusūdana Sarasvatī Vijnanabhiksu Ramakrishna Vivekananda Ramana Maharshi Siddharudha Chinmayananda Nisargadatta

Vishishtadvaita

Nammalvar Alvars Yamunacharya Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Pillai Lokacharya Manavala Mamunigal

Dvaita

Madhvacharya Jayatirtha Vyasatirtha Sripadaraja Vadirajatirtha Vijayendra Tirtha Raghavendra Swami Padmanabha Tirtha Naraharitirtha

Achintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jiva Goswami Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada

Tantra Shakta

Abhinavagupta Nigamananda Paramahansa Ramprasad Sen Bamakhepa Kamalakanta Bhattacharya Anandamayi Ma

Others

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Vaisheshika

Kanada, Prashastapada

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Nimbarka

Shuddhadvaita

Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya

Major texts

Sruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Upanishads

Principal Upanishads Minor Upanishads

Other scriptures

Bhagavat Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Shastras and Sutras

Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

Puranas Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Tirumurai Shiva
Shiva
Samhita

Hinduism Other Indian philosophies

v t e

While the hymns of the Vedas
Vedas
emphasize rituals and the Brahmanas
Brahmanas
serve as a liturgical manual for those Vedic rituals, the spirit of the Upanishads
Upanishads
is inherently opposed to ritual.[100] The older Upanishads launch attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Chāndogya Upanishad parodies those who indulge in the acts of sacrifice by comparing them with a procession of dogs chanting Om! Let's eat. Om! Let's drink.[100] The Kaushitaki Upanishad
Kaushitaki Upanishad
asserts that "external rituals such as Agnihotram offered in the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection", and that "not rituals, but knowledge should be one's pursuit".[101] The Mundaka Upanishad
Upanishad
declares how man has been called upon, promised benefits for, scared unto and misled into performing sacrifices, oblations and pious works.[102] Mundaka thereafter asserts this is foolish and frail, by those who encourage it and those who follow it, because it makes no difference to man's current life and after-life, it is like blind men leading the blind, it is a mark of conceit and vain knowledge, ignorant inertia like that of children, a futile useless practice.[102][103] The Maitri Upanishad
Upanishad
states,[104]

The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the Maitrayana-Brahmana, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, to prepare a man for meditation. Therefore, let such man, after he has laid those fires,[105] meditate on the Self, to become complete and perfect. — Maitri Upanishad[106][107]

The opposition to the ritual is not explicit in the oldest Upanishads. On occasions, the Upanishads
Upanishads
extend the task of the Aranyakas
Aranyakas
by making the ritual allegorical and giving it a philosophical meaning. For example, the Brihadaranyaka interprets the practice of horse-sacrifice or ashvamedha allegorically. It states that the over-lordship of the earth may be acquired by sacrificing a horse. It then goes on to say that spiritual autonomy can only be achieved by renouncing the universe which is conceived in the image of a horse.[100] In similar fashion, Vedic gods such as the Agni, Aditya, Indra, Rudra, Visnu, Brahma, and others become equated in the Upanishads
Upanishads
to the supreme, immortal, and incorporeal Brahman-Atman of the Upanishads, god becomes synonymous with self, and is declared to be everywhere, inmost being of each human being and within every living creature.[108][109][110] The one reality or ekam sat of the Vedas becomes the ekam eva advitiyam or "the one and only and sans a second" in the Upanishads.[100] Brahman-Atman and self-realization develops, in the Upanishad, as the means to moksha (liberation; freedom in this life or after-life).[110][111][112] According to Jayatilleke, the thinkers of Upanishadic texts can be grouped into two categories.[113] One group, which includes early Upanishads
Upanishads
along with some middle and late Upanishads, were composed by metaphysicians who used rational arguments and empirical experience to formulate their speculations and philosophical premises. The second group includes many middle and later Upanishads, where their authors professed theories based on yoga and personal experiences.[113] Yoga philosophy and practice, adds Jayatilleke, is "not entirely absent in the Early Upanishads".[113] The development of thought in these Upanishadic theories contrasted with Buddhism, since the Upanishadic inquiry assumed there is a soul (Atman), while Buddhism
Buddhism
assumed there is no soul (Anatta), states Jayatilleke.[114] Brahman
Brahman
and Atman[edit] Main articles: Ātman (Hinduism)
Ātman (Hinduism)
and Brahman Two concepts that are of paramount importance in the Upanishads
Upanishads
are Brahman
Brahman
and Atman.[8] The Brahman
Brahman
is the ultimate reality and the Atman is individual self (soul).[115][116] Brahman
Brahman
is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.[117][118][119] It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[115][120] Brahman
Brahman
is "the infinite source, fabric, core and destiny of all existence, both manifested and unmanifested, the formless infinite substratum and from which the universe has grown". Brahman
Brahman
in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".[121] The word Atman means the inner self, the soul, the immortal spirit in an individual, and all living beings including animals and trees.[122][116] Ātman is a central idea in all the Upanishads, and "Know your Ātman" their thematic focus.[9] These texts state that the inmost core of every person is not the body, nor the mind, nor the ego, but Atman – "soul" or "self".[123] Atman is the spiritual essence in all creatures, their real innermost essential being.[124][125] It is eternal, it is ageless. Atman is that which one is at the deepest level of one's existence. Atman is the predominantly discussed topic in the Upanishads, but they express two distinct, somewhat divergent themes. Some state that Brahman
Brahman
(Highest Reality, Universal Principle, Being-Consciousness-Bliss) is identical with Atman, while others state Atman is part of Brahman
Brahman
but not identical.[126][127] This ancient debate flowered into various dual, non-dual theories in Hinduism. The Brahmasutra
Brahmasutra
by Badarayana (~ 100 BCE) synthesized and unified these somewhat conflicting theories, stating that Atman and Brahman
Brahman
are different in some respects particularly during the state of ignorance, but at the deepest level and in the state of self-realization, Atman and Brahman
Brahman
are identical, non-different.[126] The idea put forth by the Upanishadic seers that Atman and Brahman
Brahman
are one and the same is one of the greatest contributions made to the thought of the world.[128][129][130][131] Reality and Maya[edit] Main article: Maya (illusion) Two different types of the non-dual Brahman-Atman are presented in the Upanishads, according to Mahadevan. The one in which the non-dual Brahman-Atman is the all inclusive ground of the universe and another in which empirical, changing reality is an appearance (Maya).[132] The Upanishads
Upanishads
describe the universe, and the human experience, as an interplay of Purusha (the eternal, unchanging principles, consciousness) and Prakṛti
Prakṛti
(the temporary, changing material world, nature).[133] The former manifests itself as Ātman (soul, self), and the latter as Māyā. The Upanishads
Upanishads
refer to the knowledge of Atman as "true knowledge" (Vidya), and the knowledge of Maya as "not true knowledge" (Avidya, Nescience, lack of awareness, lack of true knowledge).[134] Hendrick Vroom explains, "the term Maya [in the Upanishads] has been translated as 'illusion,' but then it does not concern normal illusion. Here 'illusion' does not mean that the world is not real and simply a figment of the human imagination. Maya means that the world is not as it seems; the world that one experiences is misleading as far as its true nature is concerned."[135] According to Wendy Doniger, "to say that the universe is an illusion (māyā) is not to say that it is unreal; it is to say, instead, that it is not what it seems to be, that it is something constantly being made. Māyā not only deceives people about the things they think they know; more basically, it limits their knowledge."[136] In the Upanishads, Māyā is the perceived changing reality and it co-exists with Brahman
Brahman
which is the hidden true reality.[137][138] Maya, or "illusion", is an important idea in the Upanishads, because the texts assert that in the human pursuit of blissful and liberating self-knowledge, it is Maya which obscures, confuses and distracts an individual.[139][140] Schools of Vedanta[edit] Main article: Vedanta

Adi Shankara, expounder of Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
and commentator (bhashya) on the Upanishads

The Upanishads
Upanishads
form one of the three main sources for all schools of Vedanta, together with the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Brahmasutras.[141] Due to the wide variety of philosophical teachings contained in the Upanishads, various interpretations could be grounded on the Upanishads. The schools of Vedānta
Vedānta
seek to answer questions about the relation between atman and Brahman, and the relation between Brahman and the world.[142] The schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
are named after the relation they see between atman and Brahman:[143]

According to Advaita Vedanta, there is no difference.[143] According to Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
the jīvātman is a part of Brahman, and hence is similar, but not identical. According to Dvaita, all individual souls (jīvātmans) and matter as eternal and mutually separate entities.

Other schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
include Nimbarka's Dvaitadvaita, Vallabha's Suddhadvaita and Chaitanya's Acintya Bhedabheda.[144] The philosopher Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
has provided commentaries on 11 mukhya Upanishads.[145] Advaita Vedanta[edit] Advaita literally means non-duality, and it is a monistic system of thought.[146] It deals with the non-dual nature of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman. Advaita is considered the most influential sub-school of the Vedanta school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[146] Gaudapada
Gaudapada
was the first person to expound the basic principles of the Advaita philosophy in a commentary on the conflicting statements of the Upanishads.[147] Gaudapada's Advaita ideas were further developed by Shankara (8th century CE).[148][149] King states that Gaudapada's main work, Māṇḍukya Kārikā, is infused with philosophical terminology of Buddhism, and uses Buddhist arguments and analogies.[150] King also suggests that there are clear differences between Shankara's writings and the Brahmasutra,[148][149] and many ideas of Shankara are at odds with those in the Upanishads.[151] Radhakrishnan, on the other hand, suggests that Shankara's views of Advaita were straightforward developments of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Brahmasutra,[152] and many ideas of Shankara derive from the Upanishads.[153] Shankara in his discussions of the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
philosophy referred to the early Upanishads
Upanishads
to explain the key difference between Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism
Hinduism
asserts that Atman (soul, self) exists, whereas Buddhism
Buddhism
asserts that there is no soul, no self.[154][155][156] The Upanishads
Upanishads
contain four sentences, the Mahāvākyas (Great Sayings), which were used by Shankara to establish the identity of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
as scriptural truth:

"Prajñānam brahma" - "Consciousness is Brahman" (Aitareya Upanishad)[157] "Aham brahmāsmi" - "I am Brahman" (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad)[158] "Tat tvam asi" - "That Thou art" ( Chandogya
Chandogya
Upanishad)[159] "Ayamātmā brahma" - "This Atman is Brahman" (Mandukya Upanishad)[160]

Although there are a wide variety of philosophical positions propounded in the Upanishads, commentators since Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
have usually followed him in seeing idealist monism as the dominant force.[161][note 12] Vishishtadvaita[edit] The second school of Vedanta
Vedanta
is the Vishishtadvaita, which was founded by Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
(1017–1137 CE). Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
disagreed with Adi Shankara and the Advaita school.[162] Visistadvaita is a synthetic philosophy bridging the monistic Advaita and theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
systems of Vedanta.[163] Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
frequently cited the Upanishads, and stated that Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
is grounded in the Upanishads.[164][165] Sri Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
interpretation of the Upanishad
Upanishad
is a qualified monism.[166][167] Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
interprets the Upanishadic literature to be teaching a body-soul theory, states Jeaneane Fowler – a professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies, where the Brahman is the dweller in all things, yet also distinct and beyond all things, as the soul, the inner controller, the immortal.[165] The Upanishads, according to the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school, teach individual souls to be of the same quality as the Brahman, but quantitatively they are distinct.[168][169][170] In the Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school, the Upanishads
Upanishads
are interpreted to be teaching an Ishwar (Vishnu), which is the seat of all auspicious qualities, with all of the empirically perceived world as the body of God who dwells in everything.[165] The school recommends a devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of personal god. This ultimately leads one to the oneness with abstract Brahman.[171][172][173] The Brahman
Brahman
in the Upanishads
Upanishads
is a living reality, states Fowler, and "the Atman of all things and all beings" in Sri Ramanuja's interpretation.[165] Dvaita[edit] The third school of Vedanta
Vedanta
called the Dvaita
Dvaita
school was founded by Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
(1199–1278 CE).[174] It is regarded as a strongly theistic philosophic exposition of Upanishads.[163] Madhvacharya, much like Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
claims for Advaita, and Sri Ramanuja
Ramanuja
claims for Vishishtadvaita, states that his theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is grounded in the Upanishads.[164] According to the Dvaita
Dvaita
school, states Fowler, the " Upanishads
Upanishads
that speak of the soul as Brahman, speak of resemblance and not identity".[175] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
interprets the Upanishadic teachings of the self becoming one with Brahman, as "entering into Brahman", just like a drop enters an ocean. This to the Dvaita
Dvaita
school implies duality and dependence, where Brahman
Brahman
and Atman are different realities. Brahman
Brahman
is a separate, independent and supreme reality in the Upanishads, Atman only resembles the Brahman
Brahman
in limited, inferior, dependent manner according to Madhvacharya.[175][176][177] Sri Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Vedanta
Vedanta
schools,[171] both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[178][179] Similarities with Platonic thought[edit] See also: Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
and Ṛta Several scholars have recognised parallels between the philosophy of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and Plato
Plato
and that of the Upanishads, including their ideas on sources of knowledge, concept of justice and path to salvation, and Plato's allegory of the cave. Platonic psychology with its divisions of reason, spirit and appetite, also bears resemblance to the three gunas in the Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
of Samkhya.[180][181][note 13] Various mechanisms for such a transmission of knowledge have been conjectured including Pythagoras
Pythagoras
traveling as far as India; Indian philosophers visiting Athens and meeting Socrates; Plato
Plato
encountering the ideas when in exile in Syracuse; or, intermediated through Persia.[180][183] However, other scholars, such as Arthur Berriedale Keith, J. Burnet and A.R. Wadia, believe that the two systems developed independently. They note that there is no historical evidence of the philosophers of the two schools meeting, and point out significant differences in the stage of development, orientation and goals of the two philosophical systems. Wadia writes that Plato's metaphysics were rooted in this life and his primary aim was to develop an ideal state.[181] In contrast, Upanishadic focus was the individual, the self (atman, soul), self-knowledge, and the means of an individual's moksha (freedom, liberation in this life or after-life).[184][10][185] Translations[edit] The Upanishads
Upanishads
have been translated into various languages including Persian, Italian, Urdu, French, Latin, German, English, Dutch, Polish, Japanese, Spanish and Russian.[186] The Moghul
Moghul
Emperor Akbar's reign (1556–1586) saw the first translations of the Upanishads
Upanishads
into Persian.[187][188] His great-grandson, Sultan Mohammed Dara Shikoh, produced a collection called Oupanekhat in 1656, wherein 50 Upanishads were translated from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
into Persian.[189] Anquetil Duperron, a French Orientalist received a manuscript of the Oupanekhat and translated the Persian version into French and Latin, publishing the Latin
Latin
translation in two volumes in 1801–1802 as Oupneck'hat.[189][187] The French translation was never published.[190] The Latin
Latin
version was the initial introduction of Upanishadic thought to Western scholars.[191] However, according to Deussen, the Persian translators took great liberties in translating the text and at times changed the meaning.[192] The first Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English translation of the Aitareya Upanishad was made by Colebrooke,[193] in 1805 and the first English translation of the Kena Upanishad
Kena Upanishad
was made by Rammohun Roy
Rammohun Roy
in 1816.[194][195] The first German translation appeared in 1832 and Roer's English version appeared in 1853. However, Max Mueller's 1879 and 1884 editions were the first systematic English treatment to include the 12 Principal Upanishads.[186] Other major translations of the Upanishads have been by Robert Ernest Hume (13 Principal Upanishads),[196] Paul Deussen (60 Upanishads),[197] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(18 Upanishads),[198] and Patrick Olivelle (32 Upanishads
Upanishads
in two books).[199][161] Reception in the West[edit]

German 19th century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, impressed by the Upanishads, called the texts "the production of the highest human wisdom".

The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
read the Latin
Latin
translation and praised the Upanishads
Upanishads
in his main work, The World as Will and Representation (1819), as well as in his Parerga and Paralipomena (1851).[200] He found his own philosophy was in accord with the Upanishads, which taught that the individual is a manifestation of the one basis of reality. For Schopenhauer, that fundamentally real underlying unity is what we know in ourselves as "will". Schopenhauer used to keep a copy of the Latin
Latin
Oupnekhet by his side and commented,

It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death.[201]

Another German philosopher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, praised the ideas in the Upanishads,[202] as did others.[203] In the United States, the group known as the Transcendentalists were influenced by the German idealists. Americans, such as Emerson and Thoreau embraced Schelling's interpretation of Kant's Transcendental idealism, as well as his celebration of the romantic, exotic, mystical aspect of the Upanishads. As a result of the influence of these writers, the Upanishads
Upanishads
gained renown in Western countries.[204] The poet T. S. Eliot, inspired by his reading of the Upanishads, based the final portion of his famous poem The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) upon one of its verses.[205] According to Eknath Easwaran, the Upanishads
Upanishads
are snapshots of towering peaks of consciousness.[206] Juan Mascaró, a professor at the University of Barcelona and a translator of the Upanishads, states that the Upanishads
Upanishads
represents for the Hindu
Hindu
approximately what the New Testament
New Testament
represents for the Christian, and that the message of the Upanishads
Upanishads
can be summarized in the words, "the kingdom of God is within you".[207] Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
in his review of the Upanishads, states that the texts emphasize Brahman-Atman as something that can experienced, but not defined.[208] This view of the soul and self are similar, states Deussen, to those found in the dialogues of Plato
Plato
and elsewhere. The Upanishads
Upanishads
insisted on oneness of soul, excluded all plurality, and therefore, all proximity in space, all succession in time, all interdependence as cause and effect, and all opposition as subject and object.[208] Max Muller, in his review of the Upanishads, summarizes the lack of systematic philosophy and the central theme in the Upanishads
Upanishads
as follows,

There is not what could be called a philosophical system in these Upanishads. They are, in the true sense of the word, guesses at truth, frequently contradicting each other, yet all tending in one direction. The key-note of the old Upanishads
Upanishads
is "know thyself," but with a much deeper meaning than that of the γνῶθι σεαυτόν of the Delphic Oracle. The "know thyself" of the Upanishads
Upanishads
means, know thy true self, that which underlines thine Ego, and find it and know it in the highest, the eternal Self, the One without a second, which underlies the whole world. — Max Muller[10]

See also[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

100 Most Influential Books Ever Written Bhagavad Gita Hinduism Prasthanatrayi Mukhya
Mukhya
Upanishads

Notes[edit]

^ The shared concepts include rebirth, samsara, karma, meditation, renunciation and moksha.[3] ^ The Upanishadic, Buddhist and Jain renunciation traditions form parallel traditions, which share some common concepts and interests. While Kuru-Panchala, at the central Ganges Plain, formed the center of the early Upanishadic tradition, Kosala- Magadha
Magadha
at the central Ganges Plain formed the center of the other shramanic traditions.[4] ^ Advaita Vedanta, summarized by Shankara (788–820), advances a non-dualistic (a-dvaita) interpretation of the Upanishads."[12] ^ "These Upanishadic ideas are developed into Advaita monism. Brahman's unity comes to be taken to mean that appearances of individualities.[13] ^ "The doctrine of advaita (non dualism) has its origin in the Upanishads." ^ The pre-Buddhist Upanishads
Upanishads
are: Brihadaranyaka, Chandogya, Kaushitaki, Aitareya, and Taittiriya
Taittiriya
Upanishads.[17] ^ These are believed to pre-date Gautam Buddha
Gautam Buddha
(c. 500 BCE)[62] ^ The Muktika
Muktika
manuscript found in colonial era Calcutta is the usual default, but other recensions exist. ^ a b Some scholars list ten as principal, while most consider twelve or thirteen as principal mukhya Upanishads.[77][78][79] ^ Parmeshwaranand classifies Maitrayani with Samaveda, most scholars with Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda[74][85] ^ Oliville: "In this Introduction I have avoided speaking of 'the philosophy of the upanishads', a common feature of most introductions to their translations. These documents were composed over several centuries and in various regions, and it is futile to try to discover a single doctrine or philosophy in them."[90] ^ According to Collins, the breakdown of the Vedic cults is more obscured by retrospective ideology than any other period in Indian history. It is commonly assumed that the dominant philosophy now became an idealist monism, the identification of atman (self) and Brahman
Brahman
(Spirit), and that this mysticism was believed to provide a way to transcend rebirths on the wheel of karma. This is far from an accurate picture of what we read in the Upanishads. It has become traditional to view the Upanishads
Upanishads
through the lens of Shankara's Advaita interpretation. This imposes the philosophical revolution of about 700 C.E. upon a very different situation 1,000 to 1,500 years earlier. Shankara picked out monist and idealist themes from a much wider philosophical lineup.[151] ^ For instances of Platonic pluralism in the early Upanishads
Upanishads
see Randall.[182]

References[edit]

^ a b Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618470, pages 2-3; Quote: "The Upanishads
Upanishads
supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus." ^ Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791410806, page 39; Quote: "The Upanishads
Upanishads
form the foundations of Hindu
Hindu
philosophical thought and the central theme of the Upanishads
Upanishads
is the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the inner self and the cosmic self."; Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1592578467, pages 208-210 ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. xx-xxiv. ^ Samuel 2010. ^ Patrick Olivelle 1998, pp. 3-4. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195352429, page 3; Quote: "Even though theoretically the whole of vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth [shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads
Upanishads
that have continued to influence the life and thought of the various religious traditions that we have come to call Hindu. Upanishads
Upanishads
are the scriptures par excellence of Hinduism". ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1 ^ a b Mahadevan 1956, p. 59. ^ a b c PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394, pages 35-36 ^ a b c WD Strappini, The Upanishads, p. 258, at Google Books, The Month and Catholic Review, Vol. 23, Issue 42 ^ Ranade 1926, p. 205. ^ Cornille 1992, p. 12. ^ Phillips 1995, p. 10. ^ a b c Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pages 25-29 and Chapter 1 ^ E Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads, ISBN 978-1586380212, pages 298-299 ^ a b Mahadevan 1956, p. 56. ^ a b c d e f g h Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pages 12-14 ^ a b c d King 1995, p. 52. ^ a b c d e Olivelle 1992, pp. 5, 8–9. ^ a b c Flood 1996, p. 96. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 12. ^ a b Varghese 2008, p. 101. ^ Clarke, John James (1997). Oriental enlightenment. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-415-13376-0.  ^ Deussen 2010, p. 42, Quote: "Here we have to do with the Upanishads, and the world-wide historical significance of these documents cannot, in our judgement, be more clearly indicated than by showing how the deep fundamental conception of Plato
Plato
and Kant was precisely that which already formed the basis of Upanishad
Upanishad
teaching".. ^ Lawrence Hatab (1982). R. Baine Harris, ed. Neoplatonism and Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 31–38. ISBN 978-0-87395-546-1. ; Paulos Gregorios (2002). Neoplatonism and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 71–79, 190–192, 210–214. ISBN 978-0-7914-5274-5.  ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998). A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads
Upanishads
to Kant. State University of New York Press. pp. 62–74. ISBN 978-0-7914-3683-7.  ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 472. ISBN 0816073368.  ^ Monier-Williams, p. 201. ^ Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
1.13.4, The Upanishads, Part I, Oxford University Press, page 22 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 85 ^ Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
1.13.4, Oxford University Press, page 190 ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, page 185 ^ a b S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
George Allen & Co., 1951, pages 22, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248 ^ Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, see apauruSeya ^ D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader, Columbia University Press, ISBN , pages 196-197 ^ Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195384963, page 290 ^ Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1409466819, page 128 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), Handbook of Oriental Studies, BRILL Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 13-14 ^ Mahadevan 1956, pp. 59-60. ^ Ellison Findly (1999), Women and the Arahant Issue in Early Pali Literature, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, Vol. 15, No. 1, pages 57-76 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
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of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 301-304 ^ For example, see: Kaushitaki Upanishad
Kaushitaki Upanishad
Robert Hume (Translator), Oxford University Press, page 306 footnote 2 ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, p. PR72, at Google Books, Oxford University Press, page LXXII ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998), Unfaithful Transmitters, Journal of Indian Philosophy, April 1998, Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 173-187; Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pages 583-640 ^ WD Whitney, The Upanishads
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and Their Latest Translation, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pages 1-26; F Rusza (2010), The authorlessness of the philosophical sūtras, Acta Orientalia, Volume 63, Number 4, pages 427-442 ^ Mark Juergensmeyer et al. (2011), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0761927297, page 1122 ^ a b c Olivelle 1998, p. 12-13. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvi. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Upanishads, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvii. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxviii. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxix. ^ Deussen 1908, pp. 35–36. ^ Tripathy 2010, p. 84. ^ Sen 1937, p. 19. ^ Ayyangar, T. R. Srinivasa (1941). The Samanya- Vedanta
Vedanta
Upanisads. Jain Publishing (Reprint 2007). ISBN 978-0895819833. OCLC 27193914.  ^ Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 556-568. ^ Holdrege 1995, pp. 426. ^ Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes. BRILL Academic. pp. 112–120. ISBN 978-9004107588.  ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanisads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0895819819.  ^ M. Fujii, On the formation and transmission of the JUB, Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 2, 1997 ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. 3–4. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 61. ^ Joshi 1994, pp. 90–92. ^ Heehs 2002, p. 85. ^ Lal 1992, p. 4090. ^ Rinehart 2004, p. 17. ^ Singh 2002, pp. 3–4. ^ a b Schrader & Adyar Library 1908, p. v. ^ a b c d e f g Olivelle 1998, pp. xxxii-xxxiii. ^ Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
(1966), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Dover, ISBN 978-0486216164, pages 283-296; for an example, see Garbha Upanishad ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages 1-12, 98-100; for an example, see Bhikshuka Upanishad ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 13–14. ^ a b c d Parmeshwaranand 2000, pp. 404–406. ^ Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
(2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, pages 566-568 ^ a b Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 60-88 ^ Robert C Neville (2000), Ultimate Realities, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791447765, page 319 ^ a b Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pages 28-29 ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxiii. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages x-xi, 5 ^ a b The Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads
Upanishads
TR Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), SS Sastri (Editor), Adyar Library ^ AM Sastri, The Śākta Upaniṣads, with the commentary of Śrī Upaniṣad-Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 7475481 ^ AM Sastri, The Vaishnava-upanishads: with the commentary of Sri Upanishad-brahma-yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 83901261 ^ AM Sastri, The Śaiva- Upanishads
Upanishads
with the commentary of Sri Upanishad-Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 863321204 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 217-219 ^ Prāṇāgnihotra is missing in some anthologies, included by Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, page 567 ^ Atharvasiras is missing in some anthologies, included by Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, page 568 ^ Glucklich 2008, p. 70. ^ Fields 2001, p. 26. ^ a b Olivelle 1998, p. 4. ^ S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
George Allen & Co., 1951, pages 17-19, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248 ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, The Principal Upanishads, Indus / Harper Collins India; 5th edition (1994), ISBN 978-8172231248  ^ S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
George Allen & Co., 1951, pages 19-20, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248 ^ S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads
Principal Upanishads
George Allen & Co., 1951, page 24, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 114-115 with preface and footnotes; Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
3.17, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 212-213 ^ Henk Bodewitz (1999), Hindu
Hindu
Ahimsa, in Violence Denied (Editors: Jan E. M. Houben, et al), Brill, ISBN 978-9004113442, page 40 ^ PV Kane, Samanya Dharma, History of Dharmasastra, Vol. 2, Part 1, page 5 ^ Chatterjea, Tara. Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy. Oxford: Lexington Books. p. 148.  ^ Tull, Herman W. The Vedic Origins of Karma: Cosmos as Man in Ancient Indian Myth and Ritual. SUNY Series in Hindu
Hindu
Studies. P. 28 ^ a b c d Mahadevan 1956, p. 57. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
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of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 30-42; ^ a b Max Muller
Max Muller
(1962), Manduka Upanishad, in The Upanishads
Upanishads
- Part II, Oxford University Press, Reprinted as ISBN 978-0486209937, pages 30-33 ^ Eduard Roer, Mundaka Upanishad[permanent dead link] Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. XV, No. 41 and 50, Asiatic Society of Bengal, pages 153-154 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 331-333 ^ "laid those fires" is a phrase in Vedic literature that implies yajna and related ancient religious rituals; see Maitri Upanishad
Upanishad
- Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Text with English Translation[permanent dead link] EB Cowell (Translator), Cambridge University, Bibliotheca Indica, First Prapathaka ^ Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Maitrayana- Brahmana
Brahmana
Upanishad, Oxford University Press, pages 287-288 ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pp. 412–414  ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pp. 428–429  ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 350-351 ^ a b Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of Upanishads
Upanishads
at Google Books, University of Kiel, T&T Clark, pages 342-355, 396-412 ^ RC Mishra (2013), Moksha
Moksha
and the Hindu
Hindu
Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pages 21-42 ^ Mark B. Woodhouse (1978), Consciousness and Brahman-Atman, The Monist, Vol. 61, No. 1, Conceptions of the Self: East & West (JANUARY, 1978), pages 109-124 ^ a b c Jayatilleke 1963, p. 32. ^ Jayatilleke 1963, pp. 36-39. ^ a b James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 122 ^ a b [a] Richard King (1995), Early Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791425138, page 64, Quote: "Atman as the innermost essence or soul of man, and Brahman
Brahman
as the innermost essence and support of the universe. (...) Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of Atman with Brahman". [b] Chad Meister (2010), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195340136, page 63; Quote: "Even though Buddhism
Buddhism
explicitly rejected the Hindu
Hindu
ideas of Atman (“soul”) and Brahman, Hinduism
Hinduism
treats Sakyamuni Buddha as one of the ten avatars of Vishnu." [c] David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu
Hindu
World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415215277, pages 208-209, Quote: "Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself". ^ PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press, ISBN 978-9042015104, pages 43-44 ^ For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu
Hindu
God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199738724, pages 51-58, 111-115; For monist school of Hinduism, see: B Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis - Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18-35 ^ Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pages 43-47 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 91 ^ [a] Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012), Quote: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul"; [b] John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947, See entry for Atman; [c] WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250, See entry for Atman (self). ^ Soul is synonymous with self in translations of ancient texts of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy ^ Alice Bailey (1973), The Soul and Its Mechanism, ISBN 978-0853301158, pages 82-83 ^ Eknath Easwaran
Eknath Easwaran
(2007), The Upanishads, Nilgiri Press, ISBN 978-1586380212, pages 38-39, 318-320 ^ a b John Koller (2012), Shankara, in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415782944, pages 99-102 ^ Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads
Upanishads
at Google Books, Dover Publications, pages 86-111, 182-212 ^ Lanman 1897, p. 790. ^ Brown 1922, p. 266. ^ Slater 1897, p. 32. ^ Varghese 2008, p. 132. ^ Mahadevan 1956, pp. 62-63. ^ Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 161, at Google Books, pages 161, 240-254 ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads
Upanishads
to Kant, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791436844, page 376 ^ H.M. Vroom (1996), No Other Gods, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802840974, page 57 ^ Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555, page 119 ^ Archibald Edward Gough (2001), The Philosophy of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Ancient Indian Metaphysics, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415245227, pages 47-48 ^ Teun Goudriaan (2008), Maya: Divine And Human, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120823891, pages 1-17 ^ KN Aiyar (Translator, 1914), Sarvasara Upanishad, in Thirty Minor Upanishads, page 17, OCLC 6347863 ^ Adi Shankara, Commentary on Taittiriya Upanishad
Taittiriya Upanishad
at Google Books, SS Sastri (Translator), Harvard University Archives, pages 191-198 ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 272. ^ Raju 1992, p. 176-177. ^ a b Raju 1992, p. 177. ^ Ranade 1926, pp. 179–182. ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 63. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 273. ^ a b King 1999, p. 221. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p. 31. ^ King 1999, p. 219. ^ a b Collins 2000, p. 195. ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 284. ^ John Koller (2012), Shankara in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415782944, pages 99-108 ^ Edward Roer (translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka
Aranyaka
Upanishad
Upanishad
at pages 3-4; Quote - "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3. Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect." ^ Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka
Aranyaka
Upanishad
Upanishad
at page 3, OCLC 19373677 ^ KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards; Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books, pages 2-4 Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now; John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism". ^ Panikkar 2001, p. 669. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 725–727. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 747–750. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 697–701. ^ a b Olivelle 1998. ^ Klostermaier 2007, pp. 361–363. ^ a b Chari 1956, p. 305. ^ a b Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pages 215-224, doi:10.1080/09552367.2010.484955 ^ a b c d Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 298–299, 320–321, 331 with notes. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6.  ^ William M. Indich (1995). Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–2, 97–102. ISBN 978-81-208-1251-2.  ^ Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6.  ^ Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224 ^ Edward Craig (2000), Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415223645, pages 517-518 ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 373–374. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.  ^ a b J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), Ramanuja
Ramanuja
- Hindu
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theologian and Philosopher, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). Ramanuja
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and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 20–22 with footnote 32. ISBN 978-0227680247.  ^ Joseph P. Schultz (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-0-8386-1707-6.  ^ Raghavendrachar 1956, p. 322. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 356–357. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6.  ^ Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 November 2016.  ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. pp. 358–359. ISBN 978-0195148923.  ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 374–375. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.  ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. pp. 361–362. ISBN 978-0195148923.  ^ a b Chousalkar 1986, pp. 130-134. ^ a b Wadia 1956, p. 64-65. ^ Collins 2000, pp. 197–198. ^ Urwick 1920. ^ Keith 2007, pp. 602-603. ^ RC Mishra (2013), Moksha
Moksha
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Hindu
Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pages 21-42; Chousalkar, Ashok (1986), Social and Political Implications of Concepts Of Justice And Dharma, pages 130-134 ^ a b Sharma 1985, p. 20. ^ a b Müller 1900, p. lvii. ^ Muller 1899, p. 204. ^ a b Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 558-59. ^ Müller 1900, p. lviii. ^ Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 558-559. ^ Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 915-916. ^ See Henry Thomas Colebrooke
Henry Thomas Colebrooke
(1858), Essays on the religion and philosophy of the Hindus. London: Williams and Norgate. In this volume, see chapter 1 (pp. 1–69), On the Vedas, or Sacred Writings of the Hindus, reprinted from Colebrooke's Asiatic Researches, Calcutta: 1805, Vol 8, pp. 369–476. A translation of the Aitareya Upanishad
Upanishad
appears in pages 26–30 of this chapter. ^ Zastoupil, L (2010). Rammohun Roy
Rammohun Roy
and the Making of Victorian Britain,By Lynn Zastoupil. ISBN 9780230111493. Retrieved 1 June 2014.  ^ "The Upanishads, Part 1, by Max Müller".  ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press  ^ Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli (1953), The Principal Upanishads, New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers (1994 Reprint), ISBN 81-7223-124-5  ^ Olivelle 1992. ^ Schopenhauer & Payne 2000, p. 395. ^ Schopenhauer & Payne 2000, p. 397. ^ Herman Wayne Tull (1989). The Vedic Origins of Karma: Cosmos as Man in Ancient Indian Myth and Ritual. State University of New York Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-7914-0094-4.  ^ Klaus G. Witz (1998). The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 35–44. ISBN 978-81-208-1573-5.  ^ Versluis 1993, pp. 69, 76, 95. 106–110. ^ Eliot 1963. ^ Easwaran 2007, p. 9. ^ Juan Mascaró, The Upanishads, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140441635, page 7, 146, cover ^ a b Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads
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and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press  Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (1956), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, ed., History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, George Allen & Unwin Ltd  Raghavendrachar, Vidvan H. N (1956), Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, ed., History of Philosophy Eastern and Western  Ranade, R. D. (1926), A constructive survey of Upanishadic philosophy, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan  Rinehart, Robin (2004), Robin Rinehart, ed., Contemporary Hinduism: ritual, culture, and practice, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-905-8  Schopenhauer, Arthur; Payne, E. F.J (2000), E. F. J. Payne, ed., Parerga and paralipomena: short philosophical essays, Volume 2 of Parerga and Paralipomena, E. F. J. Payne, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-924221-4  Schrödinger, Erwin (1992). What is life?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42708-1.  Schrader, Friedrich Otto; Adyar Library (1908), A descriptive catalogue of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuscripts in the Adyar Library, Oriental Pub. Co  Sen, Sris Chandra (1937), "Vedic literature and Upanishads", The Mystic Philosophy of the Upanishads, General Printers & Publishers  Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A history of the Dvaita
Dvaita
school of Vedānta
Vedānta
and its literature: from the earliest beginnings to our own times. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-1575-9.  Sharma, Shubhra (1985), Life in the Upanishads, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-81-7017-202-4  Singh, N.K (2002), Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, ISBN 978-81-7488-168-7  Slater, Thomas Ebenezer (1897), Studies in the Upanishads
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ATLA monograph preservation program, Christian Literature Society for India  Smith, Huston (1995). The Illustrated World’s Religions: A Guide to Our Wisdom Traditions. New York: Labyrinth Publishing. ISBN 0-06-067453-9.  Tripathy, Preeti (2010), Indian religions: tradition, history and culture, Axis Publications, ISBN 978-93-80376-17-2  Urwick, Edward Johns (1920), The message of Plato: a re-interpretation of the "Republic", Methuen & co. ltd, ISBN 9781136231162  Varghese, Alexander P (2008), India : History, Religion, Vision And Contribution To The World, Volume 1, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, ISBN 978-81-269-0903-2  Versluis, Arthur (1993), American transcendentalism and Asian religions, Oxford University Press US, ISBN 978-0-19-507658-5  Wadia, A.R. (1956), "Socrates, Plato
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and Aristotle", in Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, History of Philosophy Eastern and Western, vol. II, George Allen & Unwin Ltd  Raju, P. T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 

Further reading[edit]

Edgerton, Franklin (1965). The Beginnings of Indian Philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  Embree, Ainslie T. (1966). The Hindu
Hindu
Tradition. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-71702-3.  Hume, Robert Ernest. The Thirteen Principal Upanishads. Oxford University Press.  Johnston, Charles (1898). From the Upanishads. Kshetra Books (Reprinted in 2014). ISBN 9781495946530.  Müller, Max, translator, The Upaniṣads, Part I, New York: Dover Publications (Reprinted in 1962), ISBN 0-486-20992-X Müller, Max, translator, The Upaniṣads, Part II, New York: Dover Publications (Reprinted in 1962), ISBN 0-486-20993-8 Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli (1953). The Principal Upanishads. New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers India (Reprinted in 1994). ISBN 81-7223-124-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Upanishads

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: उपनिषत्

Complete set of 108 Upanishads, Manuscripts with the commentary of Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library Upanishads, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
documents in various formats The Upaniṣads article in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy The Theory of 'Soul' in the Upanishads, T. W. Rhys Davids (1899) Spinozistic Substance and Upanishadic Self: A Comparative Study, M. S. Modak (1931) W. B. Yeats and the Upanishads, A. Davenport (1952) The Concept of Self in the Upanishads: An Alternative Interpretation, D. C. Mathur (1972)

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The 108 Upanishads

Isha Kena Katha Prashna Mundaka Mandukya Taittiriya Aitareya Chandogya Brihadaranyaka Brahma Kaivalya Jabala Shvetashvatara Hamsa Aruneya Garbha Narayana Paramahamsa Amritabindu Amritanada Atharvashiras Atharvashikha Maitrayaniya Kaushitaki Brihajjabala Nrisimha Tapaniya Kalagni Rudra Maitreya Subala Kshurika Mantrika Sarvasara Niralamba Shukarahasya Vajrasuchi Tejobindu Nadabindu Dhyanabindu Brahmavidya Yogatattva Atmabodha Naradaparivrajaka Trishikhi-brahmana Sita Yogachudamani Nirvana Mandala-brahmana Dakshinamurti Sharabha Skanda Mahanarayana Advayataraka Rama
Rama
Rahasya Ramatapaniya Vasudeva Mudgala Shandilya Paingala Bhikshuka Maha Sariraka Yogashikha Turiyatita Sannyasa Paramahamsaparivrajaka Akshamalika Avyakta Ekakshara Annapurna Surya Akshi Adhyatma Kundika Savitri Atma Pashupatabrahma Parabrahma Avadhuta Tripuratapini Devi Tripura Kathashruti Bhavana Rudrahridaya Yoga-Kundalini Bhasma Rudraksha Ganapati Darshana Tarasara Mahavakya Pancabrahma Pranagnihotra Gopala-Tapani Krishna Yajnavalkya Varaha Shatyayaniya Hayagriva Dattatreya Garuda Kali-Santarana Jabali Saubhagyalakshmi Sarasvati-rahasya Bahvricha Muktikā

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