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UPANAYANA ( IAST : Upanayanam, Sanskrit: उपनयन) is one of the traditional saṃskāras (rites of passage) that marked the acceptance of a student by a guru (teacher) and an individual's entrance to a school in Hinduism
Hinduism
. The tradition is widely discussed in ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts of India and varies regionally. The SACRED THREAD (YAJNOPAVITA) is received by the boy during this ceremony, that he continues wearing across his chest thereafter.

The upanayana was restricted in many medieval Indian texts to the upper three of the four varnas (castes) of society — brahmins , kshatriyas and vaishyas . However, Vedic period
Vedic period
texts such as the Baudhāyana Grihyasutra encouraged all members of society to undergo the upanayana, even shudras . Women were encouraged to undergo upanayana in ancient India before they started Vedic studies or before their wedding.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Description

* 3 Age, gender and varna restrictions

* 3.1 Women and Upanayana
Upanayana

* 4 Doubts about Upanayanam rite of passage in old texts

* 5 Significance of the yajñopavītam, sacred thread

* 5.1 Vedic or medieval tradition?

* 6 Regional variations

* 6.1 Nepal
Nepal
* 6.2 India

* 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography

ETYMOLOGY

Upanayana
Upanayana
(Sanskrit: उपनयन) literally means "the act of leading to or near". It is an important and widely discussed samskara in ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text. The rite of passage symbolizes the leading or drawing towards the self of a child, in a school, by a teacher. It is a ceremony in which a guru (teacher) accepts and draws a child towards knowledge and initiates the second birth that is of the young mind and spirit.

DESCRIPTION

A boy during his upanayana ritual. The thin, yellow Yajnopavita thread runs from left shoulder to waist. Note the munja grass girdle around the waist. The peepal tree twig in his right hand marks his entry into the Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
stage of life.

Upanayana
Upanayana
is the rite of passage for the start of formal education of writing, numbers, reading, Vedangas , arts and other skills. The Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage was also important to the teacher, as the student would therefrom begin to live in the gurukul (school).

Upanayana
Upanayana
was an elaborate ceremony, that included rituals involving the family, the child and the teacher. A boy receives during this ceremony a sacred thread called Yajñopaveetam that he wears. The Yajñopavita ceremony announced that the child had entered into formal education. In the modern era, the Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage is open to anyone at any age.

The education of a student was not limited to ritual and philosophical speculations found in the Vedas
Vedas
and the Upanishads. They extended to many arts and crafts, which had their own, similar rites of passages. Aitareya Brahmana , Agamas and Puranas
Puranas
literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
describe these as Shilpa Sastras. They extend to all practical aspects of culture, such as the sculptor, the potter, the perfumer, the wheelwright, the painter, the weaver, the architect, the dancer, and the musician. Ancient Indian texts assert that the number of the arts is unlimited, but each deploy elements of 64 ‘‘kala’’ (कला, techniques) and 32 ‘‘vidyas’’ (विद्या, fields of knowledge). The training of these began from childhood and included studies about dharma , culture, reading, writing, mathematics, geometry, colors, tools, as well as traditions (trade secrets). The rites of passage during apprentice education varied in the respective guilds.

Rajbali Pandey compares the Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage to Baptism in Christianity where the person is born again unto spiritual knowledge, as the ceremony marked the initiation of the student for spiritual studies such as the Vedas
Vedas
.

AGE, GENDER AND VARNA RESTRICTIONS

The Upanayan in West Bengal
West Bengal
, India. In Bengali Language it is called 'Paite'.

In Hindu traditions, a human being is born at least twice — once at physical birth and second at intellectual birth through teacher's care. The first is marked through the Jatakarman sanskara ritual; the second is marked through Upanayanam or Vidyarambha rites of passage. A sacred thread was given by the teacher during the initiation to school ceremony and was a symbolic reminder to the student of his purpose at school as well as a social marker of the student as someone who was born a second time (dvija , twice born); he went about collecting fire wood in forest and food donations from villages on a daily basis.

Many medieval era texts discuss Upanayana
Upanayana
in the context of three varnas (caste, class) — Brahmins, Kshtreyas and Vaishyas. Several texts such as Sushruta Sutrasthana, however, also include Sudras entering schools and the formal education process, stating that the Upanayana
Upanayana
samskara was open to everyone. The Baudhayana Grihya sutra in verses 2.5.8 and 2.5.9 states the teacher to "et him initiate a Brahmin
Brahmin
in spring, a Kshatriya
Kshatriya
in summer, a Vaishya
Vaishya
in autumn, a Sudra in the rainy season; or all of them in the spring."

The ceremony was typically performed at age eight among the Brahmins , at age 11 among the Kshatriyas , and age 12 among Vaishyas. Apastamba Gryha Sutra, in verse 1.1.1.27, places a maximum age limit of 24 for the Upanayana
Upanayana
ceremony and start of formal education. However, Gautama Gryha Sutra and other ancient texts state that there is no age restriction and anyone of any age can undertake Upanayanam when they feel they initiate their formal studies of the Vedas.

WOMEN AND UPANAYANA

In some regions, in modern times, boys and girls undergo the tradition of Upanayana
Upanayana
initiation when they start their formal schooling. In ancient and medieval eras, texts such as Harita Dharmasutras, Asvalayana Grhya Sutra and Yama smriti suggest women could begin Vedic studies after the Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage.

Girls who decided to become a student underwent the Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage, at the age of 8, and thereafter were called Brahmavadini. They wore a thread or upper garment over their left shoulder. Those girls who chose not to go to a gurukul were called Sadyovadhu (literally, one who marries straight). However, the Sadyovadhu, too, underwent a step during the wedding rituals, where she would complete Upanayana, and thereafter wear her upper garment (saree) over her left shoulder. This interim symbolic Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage for a girl, before her wedding, is described in multiple texts such as the Gobhila Gryha Sutra verse 2.1.19 and some Dharmasutras.

DOUBTS ABOUT UPANAYANAM RITE OF PASSAGE IN OLD TEXTS

Scholars state that the details and restrictions in the Upanayana ceremony is likely to have been inserted into ancient texts in a more modern era. Hermann Oldenberg , for example, states that Upanayana
Upanayana
— the solemn reception of the pupil by the teacher to teach him the Veda — is joined into texts of Vedic texts at places that simply do not make any contextual sense, do not match the style, and are likely to be a corruption of the ancient texts. For example, in Satapatha Brahmana, the Upanayana
Upanayana
rite of passage text appears in the middle of a dialogue about Agnihotra; after the Upanayana
Upanayana
verse end, sage Saukeya abruptly returns to the Agnihotra and Uddalaka. Oldenberg states that the Upanayana
Upanayana
discussion is likely an insertion into the older text.

Scholars state that there is high likelihood of interpolation, insertion and corruption in dharma sutras and dharma sastra texts, and there are contradictory verses in it on Upanayana-related rites of passage. Kane similarly states, in his History of Dharmasastra reviews, that there is high likelihood of interpolation, insertion and corruption in dharma sutras and dharma sastra texts on Upanayana-related rite of passage. Patrick Olivelle notes the doubts in postmodern scholarship about the presumed reliability of Manusmriti manuscripts. He writes, "Manusmriti was the first Indian legal text introduced to the western world through the translation of Sir William Jones in 1794". This was based on the Calcutta manuscript with the commentary of Kulluka, which has been assumed to be the reliable vulgate version, and translated repeatedly from Jones in 1794 to Doniger in 1991. The reliability of the Manusmriti manuscript used since colonial times, states Olivelle, is "far from the truth. Indeed, one of the great surprises of my editorial work has been to discover how few of the over fifty manuscripts that I collated actually follow the vulgate in key readings."

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE YAJñOPAVīTAM, SACRED THREAD

The "sacred thread" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: यज्ञोपवीतम् yajñopavītam or upavīta) is a thin cord, composed of three cotton strands. The strands symbolize different things in their regions. For example, among Tamil Hindus, each strand is for each of the three trinity of goddesses (Parvati, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Saraswati).

The ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts offer a diverse view while describing yajñopavītam or upavita. The term upavita was originally meant to be any upper garment, as stated in verse 2.2.4.22–2.2.4.23 of Apastamba Dharmasutra or, if the wearer doesn't want to wear a top, a thread would suffice. The thread identified a person who is studying at a school or has graduated. The ancient Indian scholar Haradatta states, "yajñopavītam means a particular mode of wearing the upper garment, and it is not necessary to have the yajñopavīta at all times". The Gobhila Gryha Sutra similarly states, at verse 1.2.1 in its discussion on Upanayana, that "the student understands the yajnopavita as a cord of threads, or a garment, or a rope of kusa grass", and it is its methods of wearing and the significance that matters. The proper manner of wearing the upper garment or thread, state the ancient texts, is from over the left shoulder and under the right arm.

The idea of wearing the upper garment or sacred thread, and its significance, extended to women. This is reflected in the traditional wearing of sari over the left shoulder, during formal occasions and the celebration of rites of passage such as Hindu weddings. It was also the norm if a girl undertakes the Upanayana
Upanayana
ceremony and begins her Vedic studies as a Brahmavadini.

The sacred Yajñopavītam is known by many names (varying by region and community), such as Bratabandha, Janivaara, Jandhyam, Poita, Pūṇūl, Janeu, Lagun, Yajnopavita, Yagyopavit, Yonya and Zunnar. The other Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for it is Avyanga.

VEDIC OR MEDIEVAL TRADITION?

There is no mention of any rule or custom, states Patrick Olivelle , that "required Brahmins to wear a sacred string at all times", in the Brahmanical literature (Vedic and ancient post-Vedic). Yajñopavītam, textual evidence suggests, is a medieval and modern tradition. However, the term Yajñopavīta appears in ancient Hindu literature, and therein it means a way of wearing the upper garment during a ritual or rites of passage. The custom of wearing a string is a late development in Hinduism, was optional in the medieval era, and the ancient Indian texts do not mention this ritual for any class or for Upanayana.

Yajñopavīta contrasts with Pracinavita method of wearing the upper garment, the latter a reverse and mirror image of former, and suggested to signify rituals of sorrow (for example, funeral).

REGIONAL VARIATIONS

NEPAL

At Upanayana
Upanayana
ceremony of Nepalis

In Nepal
Nepal
a slightly different ceremony is held which combines 'चूड़ाकर्म' (choodakarma) (tonsure, shave the head) and Upanayana
Upanayana
saṃskāra locally known as Bratabandha ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
brata = promise, bandhan = to be bound) It is held among the Bhramin and Kshytreya hill communities in Nepal
Nepal
. This Sanskara (rite of passage) involves elaborate Karma Kanda which involves the participation of entire family and a guru (teacher) who then accepts the boy as a disciple in the Guru–shishya tradition of Hinduism. This marks as an individual's entrance to a school of Hinduism
Hinduism
.This ceremony ends after the boy goes for his first alms round to relatives and leave for gurus Ashram. Traditionally these boys were sent to ashrams with the gurus to learn in a gurukul system of education but in modern times this act of the boy doing for first alms round in town and leaving his family for gurus hermitage is done symbolically within the family and is later stopped by his maternal uncle (Mama) from leaving.

INDIA

The ceremony is called Munja or Mounji-Bandhana (lit. 'tying of munja') in the state of Maharashtra . This name finds its origin in the name of a grass called Saccharum
Saccharum
munja (Bengal cane ). This grass is used to make a girdle that is tied around the waist of the child. In Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and in several areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the sacred thread is known as the "Janoi", "Janeva" or "Janeu".

LANGUAGE NAME OF THE CEREMONY WORD FOR "SACRED THREAD"

Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Upanayanam उपनयनम् Yajñopavītam यज्ञोपवीतम्

(also Braḥma sūtram ब्रह्मसूत्रम्)

Malayalam
Malayalam
Upanayanam ഉപനയനം Poonool ( IAST : pūṇūl) പൂണൂല്‍

Tamil pūṇūl/Upanayanam பூணூல்/உபநயனம் Formal: Pūṇūl (பூணூல்) Colloquial: Pūṇal (பூணல்)

Telugu Odugu,Upanayanamu ఒడుగు,ఉపనయనము Jandhyamu జంధ్యము

Kannada
Kannada
Upanayana, Munji ಉಪನಯನ,ಮುಂಜಿ Janivaara ಜನಿವಾರ

Hindi
Hindi
Janeu जनेऊ Janeu जनेऊ

Marathi Munja मुंज Zānave जानवे

Konkani Munji मुंज,मुंजि,ಮುಂಜಿ Jannuvey जानवें,जानुवें

Assamese Lagundeoni লগুণদিয়নি Lagun লগুন

Bengali Uponayon উপনয়ন Upabeet, Poité উপবীত, পৈতে

Oriya Bratopanayan,Brata Ghara ବ୍ରତୋପନୟନ, ବ୍ରତଘର Poitaa ପଇତା

Nepali Bratabandha ब्रतबंध Janai जनई, जनै

Kashmiri Mekhal معخل,मेखल Yonya يoنيآ,योनया

Tulu Brahmopadesha, Upanayana, Noola Madimme ಮುಂಜಿ,ನೂಲ ಮದಿಮ್ಮೆ Yagnopaveeta ನಿವಾ

Gujarati Janoi જનોઈ Yagnopavit યજ્ઞોપવીત

Pahari Janeyu जनेयु Janeyu जनेयु

Sindhi Janya जानया Janya जानया

Punjabi Janju ਜੰਞੂ Janju ਜੰਞੂ

Sourashtra Oduvam Jenjam

Maithili Upanayana Janeu

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UPANAYANA .

* Samavartanam * Sikha * Upakarma * Rishi
Rishi
* Navjote , Zoroastrian initiation ceremony * Kushti , the Zoroastrian sacred thread * Izze-kloth , the Apache Native American sacred cord * Bar and Bat Mitzvah —Initiation ceremonies for men/women in Judaism
Judaism

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Harold Coward et al (1997), Religious Dimensions of Child and Family Life, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-1550581041 , page 67 * ^ A B C D E F PV Kane, Samskara, Chapter VII, History of Dharmasastras, Vol II, Part I, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pages 268-287 * ^ A B C Mookerji 1998 , p. 174. * ^ A B Heather Elgood (2000), Hinduism
Hinduism
and the religious arts, ISBN 978-0304707393 , Bloomsbury Academic, pages 32-134 * ^ A B Hartmut Scharfe (2007), Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568 , pages 102-103, 197-198, 263-276 * ^ A B C D E F PV Kane, History of Dharmasastra Volume 2.1, 1st Edition, pages 293-295 * ^ A B upanyana Monier Williams Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, Cologne Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Digital Lexicon, Germany * ^ A B C Rajbali Pandey (2013), Hindu Saṁskāras: Socio-religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments, 2nd Edition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803961 , pages 111-117 * ^ A B PV Kane, Samskara, Chapter VII, History of Dharmasastras, Vol II, Part I, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pages 288-300 * ^ Ram Chandra Prasad (1997), The Upanayana: The Hindu Ceremonies of the Sacred Thread, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812406 , pages 119-131 * ^ A B Stella Kramrisch (1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 71, No. 281, pages 224-230 * ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120802223 * ^ Mary McGee (2007), Samskara, in The Hindu World (Editors: Mittal and Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772273 , pages 332-356 * ^ Kathy Jackson (2005), Rituals and Patterns in Children's Lives, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 978-0299208301 , page 46 * ^ A B Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Religious thought and life in India: as based on the Veda and other sacred books of the Hindūs, J. Murray, 1891 * ^ Raman Varadara, Glimpses of Indian Heritage, ISBN 978-8171547586 , page 51 * ^ RK Mookerji (2011), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804234 , pages 270-271 * ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Religious thought and life in India: as based on the Veda and other sacred books of the Hindūs, J. Murray, 1891, p. 360 * ^ RK Mookerji (2011), Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804234 , pages 174-177 * ^ "A Village in Bihar, where Girl wear the Sacred Thread \'Janeu\'". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014. * ^ Starting Vedic Studies - Backed by scripture, girls get their sacred thread, Hinduism
Hinduism
Today (December 2002) * ^ C Tripathi (2005), The Evolution of Ideals of Womenhood in Indian Society, ISBN 978-8178354255 , page 94 * ^ Grihya sutra of Gobhila Verse 2.1.19, Herman Oldenberg & Max Muller (Translator), The Sacred Books of the East , Vol. 30, Part 2, Oxford University Press, page 44 * ^ A B C Herman Oldenberg, The Gryha Sutra - Rules of Vedic Domestic Ceremonies, Oxford University Press, page 7-8, OCLC
OCLC
866776938

* ^ Arun Kumbhare (2009), Women of India: Their Status Since the Vedic Times, ISBN 978-1440156007 , page 56 * ^ J Sinha (2014), Psycho-Social Analysis of the Indian Mindset, Springer Academic, ISBN 978-8132218036 , page 5 * ^ A B C Patrick Olivelle (2004), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195171464 , pages 353-354, 356-382 * ^ M. Arunachalam, Festivals of Tamil Nadu: Volume 3 of Peeps into Tamil culture, Gandhi Vidyalayam, 1980, ... boy is invested for the first time with the sacred thread ... the three devis Sarasvati, Savitri and Gayatri ... * ^ A B C D E PV Kane, History of Dharmasastra Volume 2.1, 1st Edition, pages 290-293 * ^ Sultān Bāhū, Jamal J. Elias, Death before dying: the Sufi poems of Sultan Bahu, University of California Press, 1998, ISBN 978-0-520-21242-8 , ... in Punjabi, zunnar, the sacred Yajñopavītam worn by Brahmin
Brahmin
Hindus ... * ^ Shashi Ahluwalia, Meenakshi Ahluwalia, Living faiths in modern India, Indian Publishers' Distributors, 1992 * ^ A B C D E Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453 , pages 9-10 * ^ Shore, Amanda. "Miss". Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ Bengal Cane * ^ Upanayana

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Coward, Harold ; Cook, Philip Hilton (1996). Religious Dimensions of Child and Family Life: Reflections on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-1-55058-104-1 . * Mookerji, Radha
Radha
Kumud (1998). Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0423-4 .

* v * t * e

16 Hindu Saṃskāras (rites of passage)

PRE-NATAL

* Garbhādhāna * Puṁsavana * Sīmantonnayana

CHILDHOOD

* Jātakarman * Nāmakaraṇa * Niṣkramaṇa * Annaprāśana * Cūḍākaraṇa * Karṇavedha

EDUCATIONAL

* Vidyārambha * Upanayana * Vedārāmbha * Keśānta * Samāvartana

MARRIAGE

* Vivāha

LAST

* Antyeṣṭi

RELATED TOPICS

* Nishekam * Pumsavana Simantonayana * Seemantham

* v * t * e

Hindu deities and texts

GODS

* Trimurti
Trimurti

* Brahma
Brahma

* Vishnu

* Rama
Rama
* Krishna
Krishna

* Shiva
Shiva

* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Kartikeya
Kartikeya
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Indra
Indra
* Surya
Surya
* more

GODDESSES

* Tridevi

* Saraswati
Saraswati

* Lakshmi
Lakshmi

* Sita
Sita
* Radha
Radha

* Parvati
Parvati

* Sati * Kali
Kali
* Adi Parashakti * Mahavidya

* Durga
Durga
* Shakti
Shakti
* Navadurga
Navadurga
* Matrikas * more

TEXTS

* Vedas
Vedas

* Rig * Sama * Yajur * Atharva

* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Puranas
Puranas
* Ramayana
Ramayana

* Mahabharata
Mahabharata

* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita

* Yoga Sutras of Patanjali * more

* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Hindu mythology

* v * t * e

South Asian wedding

BY RELIGION

* Bahá\'í * Buddhist * Christian * Hindu * Islamic * Jewish * Sikh * Zoroastrian

BY REGION OR CULTURE

* Arunachal Pradesh (Panchai baja) * Bengal * Bengal (Hindu) * Kerala (Kettu Kalyanam) * Orissa * Punjabi * Rajasthan (Rajput) * Sikkim (Limbu) * Tamil (Iyer) * Telugu

BY COUNTRY

* Bangladesh * India (Hindu) * Nepal
Nepal
(Ihi) * Pakistan * Sri Lanka (Buddhist)

TYPES

* Arranged marriage in India * Inter caste marriage * Love marriage

TRADITIONS

* Baraat * Dahej (dowry) * Mahr (dower) * Nikah * Sarbala * Stealing shoes

RITUALS

* Balle Mallarada Puje * Bodhu Boron * Bou Bhaat * Gauna * Gaye holud (Bengali) * Kankana Dharane * Mangal Ashtaka * Pade Puje * Parikrama * Saptapadi * Saat Phere * Shakunamanojaya * Upanayana

ITEMS

* Alta * Bangles * Henna * Mangalsutra * Nose ring * Palki * Pheta * Sehra * Sindoor * Thali necklace * Tiara
Tiara
* Topor * Upanayana * Varmala
Varmala
* Wedding mandap * Wedding sari
Wedding sari

OTHER

* Card * Photography * Songs * Websites

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