Upādāna is a Vedic
1.1 Types of clinging 1.2 Interdependence of clinging types 1.3 Manifestations of clinging 1.4 As part of the causal chain of suffering 1.5 Upādāna as fuel
2 Hinduism 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Bibliography 6 External links
The views of six samaṇa in the
Śramaṇa view (diṭṭhi)1
Pūraṇa Kassapa Amoralism: denies any reward or punishment for either good or bad deeds.
Makkhali Gośāla (Ājīvika) Niyativāda (Fatalism): we are powerless; suffering is pre-destined.
Ajita Kesakambalī (Lokāyata) Materialism: live happily; with death, all is annihilated.
Pakudha Kaccāyana Sassatavada (Eternalism): Matter, pleasure, pain and the soul are eternal and do not interact.
Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta (Jainism) Restraint: be endowed with, cleansed by and suffused with the avoidance of all evil.2
Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta (Ajñana) Agnosticism: "I don't think so. I don't think in that way or otherwise. I don't think not or not not." Suspension of judgement.
Notes: 1. DN 2 (Thanissaro, 1997; Walshe, 1995, pp. 91-109). 2. DN-a (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 1995, pp. 1258-59, n. 585).
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Upādāna is the
sense-pleasure clinging (kamupadana) wrong-view clinging (ditthupadana) rites-and-rituals clinging (silabbatupadana) self-doctrine clinging (attavadupadana).
The Buddha once stated that, while other sects might provide an appropriate analysis of the first three types of clinging, he alone fully elucidated clinging to the "self" and its resultant suffering. The Abhidhamma and its commentaries provide the following definitions for these four clinging types:
sense-pleasure clinging: repeated craving of worldly things. wrong-view clinging: such as eternalism (e.g., "The world and self are eternal") or nihilism. rites-and-rituals clinging: believing that rites alone could directly lead to liberation, typified in the texts by the rites and rituals of "ox practice" and "dog practice." self-doctrine clinging: self-identification with self-less entities (e.g., illustrated by MN 44, and further discussed in the skandha and anatta articles).
According to Buddhaghosa, the above ordering of the four types of clinging is in terms of decreasing grossness, that is, from the most obvious (grossest) type of clinging (sense-pleasure clinging) to the subtlest (self-doctrine clinging). Interdependence of clinging types
rites-and-rituals clinging sense-pleasure clinging
self-doctrine clinging: first, one assumes that one has a permanent "self." wrong-view clinging: then, one assumes that one is either somehow eternal or to be annihilated after this life. resultant behavioral manifestations:
rites-and-rituals clinging: if one assumes that one is eternal, then one clings to rituals to achieve self-purification. sense-pleasure clinging: if one assumes that one will completely disappear after this life, then one disregards the next world and clings to sense desires.
This hierarchy of clinging types is represented diagrammatically to the right. Thus, based on Buddhaghosa's analysis, clinging is more fundamentally an erroneous core belief (self-doctrine clinging) than a habitualized affective experience (sense-pleasure clinging). Manifestations of clinging In terms of consciously knowable mental experiences, the Abhidhamma identifies sense-pleasure clinging with the mental factor of "greed" (lobha) and the other three types of clinging (self-doctrine, wrong-view and rites-and-rituals clinging) with the mental factor of "wrong view" (ditthi). Thus, experientially, clinging can be known through the Abhidhamma's fourfold definitions of these mental factors as indicated in the following table:
characteristic function manifestation proximate cause
greed (lobha) grasping an object sticks, like hot-pan meat not giving up enjoying things of bondage
wrong view (ditthi) unwise interpreting presumes wrong belief not hearing the Dhamma
To distinguish craving from clinging,
"Craving is the aspiring to an object that one has not yet reached, like a thief's stretching out his hand in the dark; clinging is the grasping of an object that one has reached, like the thief's grasping his objective.... [T]hey are the roots of the suffering due to seeking and guarding."
Thus, for instance, when the Buddha talks about the "aggregates of clinging," he is referring to our grasping and guarding physical, mental and conscious experiences that we falsely believe we are or possess.
The 12 Nidānas:
Name & Form
Six Sense Bases
Old Age & Death
As part of the causal chain of suffering In the Four Noble Truths, the First Noble Truth identifies clinging (upādāna, in terms of "the aggregates of clinging") as one of the core experiences of suffering. The Second Noble Truth identifies craving (tanha) as the basis for suffering. In this manner a causal relationship between craving and clinging is found in the Buddha's most fundamental teaching. In the twelve-linked chain of Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpāda, also see Twelve Nidanas), clinging (upādāna) is the ninth causal link:
"With Craving as condition, Clinging arises".
Upādāna (Clinging) is also the prevailing condition for the next condition in the chain, Becoming (Bhava).
"With Clinging as condition, Becoming arises."
According to Buddhaghosa, it is sense-pleasure clinging that
arises from craving and that conditions becoming.
Upādāna as fuel
Professor Richard F. Gombrich has pointed out in several publications,
and in his recent[when?] Numata Visiting Professor Lectures at the
University of London,
School of Oriental and African Studies
Anatta Five Skandhas Detachment (philosophy)
Pratitya-samutpada Twelve Nidanas
^ Thomas William Rhys Davids; William Stede (1921). Pali-English
Dictionary. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 149.
^ Monier Monier-Williams (1872). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford
University Press. p. 171.
^ Paul Williams; Anthony Tribe; Alexander Wynne (2002). Buddhist
Thought. Routledge. pp. 45, 67.
^ See, for example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 149; and,
^ Below are some excerpts from the
"For the sake of what, then, my friend, is the holy life lived under the Blessed One?" "The holy life is lived under the Blessed One, my friend, for the sake of total Unbinding [nibbana] through lack of clinging." — from "Relay Chariots" (Ratha-vinita Sutta MN 24) (Thanissaro, 1999).
"Bhikkhus, when ignorance is abandoned and true knowledge has arisen in a bhikkhu, then with the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge he no longer clings to sensual pleasures, no longer clings to views, no longer clings to rules and observances, no longer clings to a doctrine of self. When he does not cling, he is not agitated. When he is not agitated, he personally attains Nibbana. He understands: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.'" — from "The Shorter Discourse on the Lion's Roar" (Cula-sihanada Sutta MN 11) (Ñanamoli & Bodhi, 1993).
"Now during this utterance, the hearts of the bhikkhus of the group of
five were liberated from taints through clinging no more."
— from "The Discourse on the Not-self Characteristic"
"...From the cessation of craving comes the cessation of clinging/sustenance. From the cessation of clinging/sustenance comes the cessation of becoming. From the cessation of becoming comes the cessation of birth. From the cessation of birth, then aging, illness & death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair all cease. Such is the cessation of this entire mass of suffering & stress." — from "Clinging" (Upadana Sutta SN 12.52) (Thanissaro, 1998b).
"And having drunk "The medicine of the Dhamma, "You'll be untouched by age and death. "Having meditated and seen — "(You'll be) healed by ceasing to cling." — from "The Healing Medicine of the Dhamma" (Miln 5 [verse 335]) (Olendzki, 2005).
^ Examples of references to upādanā in the
Bodhi, Bhikku (2000a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The
Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha. Seattle, WA: BPS
Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-02-9.
Economics in Buddhism
Preceded by Taṇhā Twelve Nidānas Upādāna Succeeded by Bhava
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