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The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university located in the University
University
City section of Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University
University
of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution.[5] Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology, though his proposed curriculum was never adopted. The university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin family's own coat of arms.[6] Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, concentrating multiple "faculties" (e.g., theology, classics, medicine) into one institution.[7] It was also home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881) and the first "student union" building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896)[8] were founded at Penn. With an endowment of $12.21 billion (2017), Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States.[9] All of Penn's schools exhibit very high research activity.[10] In fiscal year 2015, Penn's academic research budget was $851 million, involving more than 4,300 faculty, 1,100 postdoctoral fellows and 5,500 support staff/graduate assistants.[2] Over its history, the university has also produced many distinguished alumni. These include 14 heads of state (including two U.S. Presidents); 25 billionaires – the most of any university in the world at the undergraduate level; three United States
United States
Supreme Court justices; over 33 United States
United States
Senators, 42 United States
United States
Governors and 158 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; 8 signers of the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence; and 12 signers of the United States
United States
Constitution.[11][12][13] In addition, some 30 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences have been affiliated with Penn.[14] In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
CEOs, in third place worldwide after Harvard
Harvard
and Stanford.[15][16]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early campuses 1.2 Evolution from commuter school to research university 1.3 Educational innovations 1.4 Motto 1.5 Seal

2 Campus

2.1 Libraries 2.2 The University
University
Museum 2.3 Residences 2.4 Campus police

3 Academics

3.1 Coordinated dual-degree and interdisciplinary programs 3.2 Academic medical center and biomedical research complex 3.3 Admissions selectivity

4 Research, innovations and discoveries 5 Rankings 6 Student life

6.1 Demographics 6.2 Selected student organizations

7 Athletics

7.1 Rowing 7.2 Rugby 7.3 Cricket 7.4 Football 7.5 Basketball 7.6 Facilities

8 Notable people 9 Controversies 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Academy and College of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(c. 1780), 4th and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, home of what became the University
University
from 1751 to 1801

"House intended for the President of the United States" from "Birch's Views of Philadelphia" (1800), home of the College of Philadelphia/ University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from 1801 to 1829

Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
was the primary founder, President of the Board of Trustees and a trustee of the Academy and College of Philadelphia, which merged with the University
University
of the State of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to form the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1791 (Charles Willson Peale, 1785)

Ninth Street Campus (above Chestnut Street): Medical Hall (left) and College Hall (right), both built 1829–1830

The University
University
considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,[note 2] as well as the first university in the United States
United States
with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

This statue of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
donated by Justus C. Strawbridge to the City of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1899 now sits in front of College Hall[17]

In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley
Edmund Woolley
and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in.[18]:26 It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.[18]:30 In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia".[19] Unlike the other Colonial colleges
Colonial colleges
that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary, Yale
Yale
and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith (1727-1803), an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.[20][21] Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees
Board of Trustees
(November 13, 1749), the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as "Independence Hall"), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered July 13, 1753[22]:12 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.[22]:13 All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees
Board of Trustees
and were considered to be part of the same institution.[23] The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.[22]:14

1755 Charter creating the College of Philadelphia

"The Quad" in the Fall, from Fisher-Hassenfeld College House, facing Ware College House

The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith's "Loyalist" tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University
University
of the State of Pennsylvania.[23] The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees.[23] Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America[24] made Penn the first institution to offer both "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).[25] After being located in downtown Philadelphia
Philadelphia
for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River
Schuylkill River
to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse
Blockley Almshouse
in West Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University
University
City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849.[26] In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself".[27] The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn's General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university's founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.[28] Early campuses[edit] The Academy of Philadelphia, a secondary school for boys, began operations in 1751 in an unused church building at 4th and Arch Streets which had sat unfinished and dormant for over a decade. Upon receiving a collegiate charter in 1755, the first classes for the College of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
were taught in the same building, in many cases to the same boys who had already graduated from The Academy of Philadelphia. In 1801, the University
University
moved to the unused Presidential Mansion at 9th and Market Streets, a building that both George Washington and John Adams had declined to occupy while Philadelphia was the temporary national capital.[22] Classes were held in the mansion until 1829, when it was demolished. Architect
Architect
William Strickland designed twin buildings on the same site, College Hall and Medical Hall (both 1829–1830), which formed the core of the Ninth Street Campus until Penn's move to West Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in the 1870s. Evolution from commuter school to research university[edit] As recently as the 1950s, the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was considered a "commuter school".[29] The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Urban Redevelopment Act of 1954 enabled the university to expand and build facilities better suited to a residential university. At first, when the Ivy League
Ivy League
was being organized, the athletic directors of the other seven schools protested, fearing Penn's football prowess and arguing that its students' relatively weaker academic credentials would give it an unfair advantage in recruiting athletes.[30] Gradually, over the second half of the 20th century, the school raised its profile, became more selective and dramatically increased its endowment. Between 1995 and 2005, the university spent over a billion dollars on campus improvements to attract top students and faculty.[31] Educational innovations[edit]

College Hall and then Logan Hall viewed from Woodland Ave, c. 1892

Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate business school, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896;[32] the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest continuously functioning psychology department in North America and is where the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
was founded.[33][34] In 1921, Penn was also the first university to award a PhD to an African-American woman, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander
Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander
(in economics).[35]

Statue of the Reverend George Whitefield
George Whitefield
at the University
University
of Pennsylvania

Motto[edit] Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace's III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] morals?"). From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae. When it was pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals", the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised and as part of the redesign it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace
Horace
and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[36] Seal[edit]

1757 Seal of the Trustees of the University
University
of Pennsylvania

The official seal of the Trustees of the University
University
of Pennsylvania serves as the signature and symbol of authenticity on documents issued by the corporation.[37] A request for one was first recorded in a meeting of the trustees in 1753 during which some of the Trustees "desired to get a Common Seal engraved for the Use of [the] Corporation". However, it was not until a meeting in 1756 that "a public Seal for the College with a proper device and Motto" was requested to be engraved in silver.[38] The most recent design, a modified version of the original seal, was approved in 1932, adopted a year later and is still used for much of the same purposes as the original.[37] The outer ring of the current seal is inscribed with "Universitas Pennsylvaniensis", the Latin
Latin
name of the University
University
of Pennsylvania. The inside contains seven stacked books on a desk with the titles of subjects of the trivium and a modified quadrivium, components of a classical education: Theolog[ia], Astronom[ia], Philosoph[ia], Mathemat[ica], Logica, Rhetorica and Grammatica. Between the books and the outer ring is the Latin
Latin
motto of the University, "Leges Sine Moribus Vanae".[37] Campus[edit]

Overlooking Lower Quad from Upper Quad

Much of Penn's architecture was designed by the Cope & Stewardson firm, whose principal architects combined the Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
of the University
University
of Oxford and the University
University
of Cambridge with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. The present core campus covers over 279 acres (113 ha) in a contiguous area of West Philadelphia's University
University
City section, whereas the older heart of the campus comprises the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Campus Historic District. All of Penn's schools and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. The surrounding neighborhood includes several restaurants and pubs, a large upscale grocery store and a movie theater on the western edge of campus. The campus has several notable art installations. The "Covenant", better known to the student body as "The Tampons",[39] is a large red structure located on Locust Walk between the high rise residences. It was installed in 1975 and is made of rolled sheets of milled steel. A larger-than-life white button, known as "The Button", is another popular sculpture. It sits at the south entrance of Van Pelt Library and has button holes large enough to stand in. Penn also has a replica of the "Love" sculpture, part of a series created by Robert Indiana. It is a painted aluminum sculpture and was installed in 1998. The Module 6 Utility Plant and Garage at Penn was designed by BLT Architects and completed in 1995. Module 6 is located at 38th and Walnut and includes spaces for 627 vehicles, 9,000 sq ft (840 m2) of storefront retail operations, a 9,500-ton chiller module and corresponding extension of the campus chilled water loop and a 4,000-ton ice storage facility.[40] In 2007, Penn acquired about 35 acres (14 ha) between the campus and the Schuylkill River
Schuylkill River
(the former site of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Civic Center and a nearby 24-acre (9.7 ha) site owned by the United States Postal Service). Dubbed the Postal Lands, the site extends from Market Street on the north to Penn's Bower Field on the south, including the former main regional U.S. Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets, now the regional office for the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. Over the next decade, the site will become the home to educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities. The first phase, comprising a park and athletic facilities, opened in the fall of 2011. Penn also plans new connections between the campus and the city, including a pedestrian bridge. In 2010, in its first significant expansion across the Schuylkill River, Penn purchased 23 acres at the northwest corner of 34th Street and Grays Ferry Avenue from DuPont
DuPont
for storage and office space.

Upper Quad Gate

In September 2011, Penn completed the construction of the $46.5 million 24-acre (97,000 m2) Penn Park, which features passive and active recreation and athletic components framed and subdivided by canopy trees, lawns, and meadows. It is located east of the Highline Green and stretches from Walnut Street to South Streets. The University
University
also owns the 92-acre (37 ha) Morris Arboretum
Morris Arboretum
in Chestnut Hill in northwestern Philadelphia, the official arboretum of the state of Pennsylvania. Penn also owns the 687-acre (278 ha) New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary School. Located near Kennett Square, New Bolton Center received nationwide media attention when Kentucky Derby
Kentucky Derby
winner Barbaro underwent surgery at its Widener Hospital for injuries suffered while running in the Preakness Stakes. Penn borders Drexel University
University
and is near the University
University
of the Sciences in Philadelphia. The renowned cancer research center Wistar Institute is also located on campus. In 2014, a new 7-story glass and steel building was completed next to the Institute's historic 117-year-old brick building further expanding collaboration between the university and the Wistar Institute.[41] Libraries[edit]

Fisher Fine Arts Library, also referred to as the Furness Library or simply the Fine Arts Library

Penn's library began in 1750 with a donation of books from cartographer Lewis Evans. Twelve years later, then-provost William Smith sailed to England to raise additional funds to increase the collection size. Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
was one of the Libraries' earliest donors and, as a Trustee, saw to it that funds were allocated for the purchase of texts from London, many of which are still part of the collection, more than 250 years later. It has grown into a system of 15 libraries (13 are on the contiguous campus) with 400 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees and a total operating budget of more than $48 million. The library system has 6.19 million book and serial volumes as well as 4.23 million microform items and 1.11 million e-books.[2] It subscribes to over 68,000 print serials and e-journals.[42] Penn's Libraries, with associated school or subject area: Annenberg (School of Communications), located in the Annenberg School; Biddle (Law), located in the Law School; Biomedical, located adjacent to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School; Chemistry, located in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building; Dental Medicine; Engineering, located on the second floor of the Towne Building in the Engineering School; Fine Arts, located within the Fisher Fine Arts Library, designed by Frank Furness; Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, located on Walnut Street at Washington Square; Lea Library, located within the Van Pelt Library; Lippincott (Wharton School), located on the second floor of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center; Math/Physics/Astronomy, located on the third floor of David Rittenhouse Laboratory; Museum (Archaeology); Rare Books and Manuscripts; Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center (Humanities and Social Sciences) – location of Weigle Information Commons; Veterinary Medicine, located in Penn Campus and New Bolton Center; and High Density Storage. The Penn Libraries are strong in Area Studies,[43] with bibliographers for Africa, East Asia, Judaica, Latin
Latin
America, Middle East, Russia and Slavic and South Asia. As a result, the Penn Libraries have extensive collections in several hundred languages. The University
University
Museum[edit]

University
University
Museum and Warden Garden

Main article: University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Since the University
University
museum was founded in 1887, it has taken part in 400 research projects worldwide.[44] The museum's first project was an excavation of Nippur, a location in current day Iraq.[45] The museum has three gallery floors with artifacts from Egypt, the Middle East, Mesoamerica, Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa and indigenous artifacts of the Americas.[44] Its most famous object is the goat rearing into the branches of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal tombs of Ur. The Museum's excavations and collections foster a strong research base for graduate students in the Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World. Features of the Beaux-Arts building include a rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus. The Institute of Contemporary Art, which is based on Penn's campus, showcases various art exhibitions throughout the year. Residences[edit] Main article: University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
College Houses Every College House at the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has at least four members of faculty in the roles of House Dean, Faculty Master and College House Fellows.[46] Within the College Houses, Penn has nearly 40 themed residential programs for students with shared interests such as world cinema or science and technology. Many of the nearby homes and apartments in the area surrounding the campus are often rented by undergraduate students moving off campus after their first year, as well as by graduate and professional students. The College Houses include W.E.B. Du Bois, Fisher Hassenfeld, Gregory, Harnwell, Harrison, Hill, Kings Court English, New College House, Riepe, Rodin, Stouffer and Ware.[47] Fisher Hassenfeld, Ware and Riepe together make up one building called "The Quad". Campus police[edit] The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Police Department (UPPD) is the largest private police department in Pennsylvania, with 117 members. All officers are sworn municipal police officers and retain general law enforcement authority while on the campus.[48] In 2016, a UPPD explosives detection dog named "Zzisa" took fifth place in a national competition.[49] Academics[edit]

University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
graduate and professional schools[50]

School Year founded

Perelman School of Medicine 1765[51]

School of Engineering and Applied Science 1850[52]

Law School 1850[note 3]

School of Design 1868

School of Dental Medicine 1878[54]

The Wharton School 1881[55]

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 1881[56]

School of Veterinary Medicine 1884[57]

Graduate School of Education 1915

School of Nursing 1935

Annenberg School for Communication 1958

The College of Arts and Sciences is the undergraduate division of the School of Arts and Sciences. The School of Arts and Sciences also contains the Graduate Division and the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, which is home to the Fels Institute of Government, the master's programs in Organizational Dynamics, and the Environmental Studies (MES) program. Wharton is the business school of the University
University
of Pennsylvania. Other schools with undergraduate programs include the School of Nursing and the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS). Penn has a strong focus on interdisciplinary learning and research. It offers double degree programs, unique majors, and academic flexibility. Penn's "One University" policy allows undergraduates access to courses at all of Penn's undergraduate and graduate schools, except the medical, veterinary and dental schools. Undergraduates at Penn may also take courses at Bryn Mawr, Haverford and Swarthmore, under a reciprocal agreement known as the Quaker Consortium. Coordinated dual-degree and interdisciplinary programs[edit] Penn offers specialized coordinated dual-degree (CDD) programs, which award candidates degrees from multiple schools at the University
University
upon completion of graduation criteria of both schools. Undergraduate programs include:

The Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology Artificial Intelligence: Computer and Cognitive Science The Huntsman Program in International Studies and Business Nursing and Health Care Management The Roy and Diana Vagelos Program in Life Sciences and Management Vagelos Scholars Program in Molecular Life Sciences Vagelos Integrated Program in Energy Research (VIPER) Accelerated 7 year Bio-Dental Program Singh Program in Networked & Social Systems Engineering (NETS)[58] Accelerated 6-year Law and Medicine Program[59]

Dual-degree programs which lead to the same multiple degrees without participation in the specific above programs are also available. Unlike CDD programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both programs independently without involvement of another program. Specialized dual-degree programs include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as an Artificial Intelligence: Computer and Cognitive Science Program. Both programs award a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences and a degree from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In addition, the Vagelos Scholars Program in Molecular Life Sciences allows its students to either double major in the sciences or submatriculate and earn both a B.A. and a M.S. in four years. The most recent Vagelos Integrated Program in Energy Research (VIPER) will be first offered for the class of 2016. A joint program of Penn's School of Arts and Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science, VIPER leads to dual Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in Engineering degrees by combining majors from each school. For graduate programs, Penn offers many formalized double degree graduate degrees such as a joint J.D./MBA, and maintains a list of interdisciplinary institutions, such as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute
Lauder Institute
for Management and International Studies, and the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science. Academic medical center and biomedical research complex[edit]

Perelman School of Medicine

University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
School of Dental Medicine

Penn's health-related programs—including the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Nursing, and Veterinary Medicine, and programs in bioengineering (School of Engineering), biology (School of Arts and Sciences), and health management (the Wharton School)—are among the university's strongest academic components. However, the size of Penn's biomedical research organization adds a very capital intensive component to the university's operations and introduces revenue instability due to changing government regulations, reduced federal funding for research and Medicaid/Medicare program changes. This is a primary reason highlighted in bond rating agencies' views on Penn's overall financial rating, which ranks one notch below its academic peers. Penn has worked to address these issues by pooling its schools (as well as several hospitals and clinical practices) into the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Health System, thereby pooling resources for greater efficiencies and research impact. Admissions selectivity[edit] The Princeton Review
Princeton Review
ranks Penn as the 6th most selective school in the United States.[60] For the Class of 2022, entering in the fall of 2018, the University
University
received a record-high 44,482 applications and admitted 8.39 percent of the applicants (6.46% in the regular decision cycle), marking Penn's most selective admissions cycle in the history of the University.[61] The Atlantic
The Atlantic
also ranked Penn among the 10 most selective schools in the country. At the graduate level, based on admission statistics from U.S. News & World Report, Penn's most selective programs include its law school, the health care schools (medicine, dental medicine, nursing, Social Work and veterinary) and its business school. Research, innovations and discoveries[edit]

Claudia Cohen Hall, formerly Logan Hall, home of the College of Arts and Sciences and former home of the Wharton School and originally, the medical school

Penn is considered a "very high research activity" university.[62] Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion.[63] In fiscal year 2015, Penn's research budget was $851 million. In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn's research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing,[64] the Center for Global Women's Health at the Nursing School,[65] the $13 million Morris Arboretum's Horticulture Center,[66] the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton[67] and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine.[68] With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees.[2] To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the "Penn Integrates Knowledge" title awarded to selected Penn professors "whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge".[69] These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn's schools. The most recent of the 22 PIK professors is George Demiris, who started at Penn in January 2018 with a joint appointment at the School of Nursing and the Perelman School of Medicine.[69] As a powerful research-oriented institution Penn is also among the most prolific and high-quality producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia and Cornell
Cornell
( Harvard
Harvard
did not report data).[70] It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League
Ivy League
(behind Harvard
Harvard
and Yale) and tenth nationally.[71] In most disciplines Penn professors' productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of Epidemiology, Business, Communication Studies, Comparative Literature, Languages, Information Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology, Social Sciences and Sociology.[72] According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn's 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top 5 rankings in these fields.[73]

ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic computer, was born at Penn in 1946

Penn's research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school, the first university teaching hospital, the first business school and the first student union, Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world).[74] Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today.[75] The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973[76] and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek
BusinessWeek
wrote, "Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education".[77][78] Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.[79] It was here also where the world's first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL
COBOL
programming language.[79] Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med;[80] the Rubella
Rubella
and Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B
vaccines were developed at Penn;[80][81] the discovery of cancer's link with genes, cognitive therapy, Retin-A
Retin-A
(the cream used to treat acne), Resistin, the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers.[80] More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.[80] Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster
Ralph L. Brinster
developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then faculty member John Robert Schrieffer
John Robert Schrieffer
(along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research, Simon Kuznets's method of measuring Gross National Product,[82] the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the "Wharton Model"[83] developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein
Lawrence Klein
to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then President Nixon's health reform in the 1970s.[82] Rankings[edit]

University
University
rankings

National

ARWU[84] 15

Forbes[85] 7

U.S. News & World Report[86] 8

Washington Monthly[87] 5

Global

ARWU[88] 18

QS[89] 19

Times[90] 10

U.S. News & World Report[91] 14

National Program Rankings[92]

Program Ranking

Biological Sciences 19

Business 1

Chemistry 19

Clinical Psychology 11

Computer Science 19

Earth Sciences 77

Economics 10

Education 3

Engineering 19

English 3

Fine Arts 33

History 11

Law 7

Mathematics 17

Medicine: Primary Care 8

Medicine: Research 5

Nursing: Master's 3

Nursing–Anesthesia 29

Nursing–Midwifery 7

Physics 16

Political Science 19

Psychology 8

Public Affairs 45

Social Work 12

Sociology 11

Statistics 8

Veterinary Science 7

Global Program Rankings[93]

Program Ranking

Arts and Humanities 13

Biology and Biochemistry 17

Chemistry 43

Clinical Medicine 8

Computer Science 89

Economics and Business 3

Engineering 146

Immunology 10

Materials Science 41

Mathematics 65

Microbiology 10

Molecular Biology and Genetics 12

Neuroscience and Behavior 10

Pharmacology and Toxicology 43

Physics 42

Plant and Animal Science 105

Psychiatry/Psychology 9

Social Sciences and Public Health 19

Space Science 90

General rankings

According to U.S. News & World Report 's 2018 rankings, Penn is ranked 8th among national universities in the United States.[94] U.S. News also includes Penn in its Most Popular National Universities list[95] and so does The Princeton Review
Princeton Review
in its Dream Colleges list.[96] As reported by USA Today, Penn was ranked 1st in the United States by College Factual for 2015.[97] In their 2016/2017 editions, Penn was ranked 18th in the world by the QS World University
University
Rankings, 18th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and 13th by the Times Higher Education World University
University
Rankings. According to the 2015 ARWU ranking, Penn is also the 8th and 9th best university in the world for economics/business and social sciences studies, respectively.[98] University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
ranked 12th among 300 Best World Universities in 2012 compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review (HRLR) on Measurements of World's Top 300 Universities Graduates' Performance.[99]

Research rankings

The Center for Measuring University
University
Performance places Penn in the first tier of the United States' top research universities (tied with Columbia, MIT
MIT
and Stanford), based on research expenditures, faculty awards, PhD granted and other academic criteria.[100] Penn was also ranked 18th of all U.S. colleges and universities in terms of R&D expenditures in fiscal year 2013 by the National Science Foundation.[101] The High Impact Universities research performance index ranks Penn 8th in the world, whereas the 2010 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities (published by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan) ranks Penn 11th in the world for 2007 [102], 2008 [103] and 2010 [104] and 9th for 2009.[105] The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers measures universities' research productivity, research impact, and research excellence based on the scientific papers published by their academic staff. The SCImago Institutions Rankings World Report 2012, which ranks world universities, national institutions and academies in terms of research output, ranks Penn 7th nationally among U.S. universities (2nd in the Ivy League
Ivy League
behind Harvard) and 28th in the world overall (the first being France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique).[106]

Other rankings

The Mines ParisTech International Professional Ranking, which ranks universities on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies, ranks Penn 11th worldwide and 2nd nationally behind Harvard.[107] According to a US News article in 2010, Penn is tied for second (tied with Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
and Tufts University) for the number of undergraduate alumni who are current Fortune 100 CEOs.[108] Forbes
Forbes
ranked Penn 17th, based on a variety of criteria.[109]

Undergraduate programs

Penn's arts and science programs are all well regarded, with many departments ranked among the nation's top 10. At the undergraduate level, Wharton (Penn's business school) and Penn's nursing school have maintained their No. 1, 2 or 3 rankings since U.S. News began reviewing such programs.[citation needed] The College of Arts and Sciences' English Department is also consistently ranked in the top five humanities programs in the country, ranking 3rd in the most current U.S. News report. In the School of Engineering, top departments are bioengineering (typically ranked in the top 5 by U.S. News), mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and nanotechnology.[citation needed] The school is also strong in some areas of computer science and artificial intelligence.[citation needed]

Graduate and professional programs

Among its professional schools, the schools of business, communication, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and veterinary medicine rank in the top 5 nationally (see U.S. News and National Research Council).[citation needed] Penn's Law School is ranked 7th, its Design school is 8th, and its School of Education and School of Social Policy and Practice are ranked in the top 10 (see U.S. News).[citation needed] In the 2010 QS Global 200 Business Schools Report, Penn was ranked 2nd in North America.[110]

Executive salary

Amy Gutmann's total compensation in 2016 was $3,333,378, placing her as the second highest paid college president in the Ivy League, behind Columbia University's Lee C. Bollinger.[111] Student life[edit]

Ethnic enrollment, Fall 2014[112] Under- graduates

African American 693 (7.1%)

Native American 9 (0.1%)

Asian American
Asian American
and Pacific Islander 1,917 (19.7%)

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino American 1,008 (10.3%)

White 4,355 (44.7%)

International 1,103 (11.3%)

Two or more races 373 (3.8%)

Unknown 288 (3.0%)

Total 9,746 (99.9%)

Library of the Philomathean Society

Psi Upsilon Fraternity a.k.a. The Castle

Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta
and Kappa Sigma

Demographics[edit] Of those accepted for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2018, 52 percent are Asian, Hispanic, African-American or Native American.[2] In addition, 53% of current students are women.[2] Twelve percent of the undergraduate Class of 2018 were international students.[2] The composition of international students accepted in the Class of 2018 is: 43% from Asia; 15% from Africa and the Middle East; 20% from Europe; 15% from Canada and Mexico; 5% from the Caribbean, Central America and South America; 3% from Australia and the Pacific Islands.[2] The acceptance rate for international students applying for the class of 2018 was 429 out of 6,428 (6.7%).[2] Selected student organizations[edit] The Philomathean Society, founded in 1813, is the United States' oldest continuously existing collegiate literary society and continues to host lectures and intellectual events.[113] The Mask and Wig
Mask and Wig
Club is the oldest all-male musical comedy troupe in the country. The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Glee Club, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest continually operating collegiate choruses in the United States. Bruce Montgomery, its best-known and longest-serving director, led the club from 1956 until 2000.[114] The International Affairs Association (IAA) was founded in 1963 as an organization to promote international affairs and diplomacy at Penn and beyond.[115] With over 400 members, it is the largest student-funded organization on campus. The IAA serves as an umbrella organization for various conferences (UPMUNC, ILMUNC and PIRC), as well as a host of other academic and social activities. The Penn Debate Society (PDS), founded in 1984 as the Penn Parliamentary Debate Society, is Penn's debate team, which competes regularly on the American Parliamentary Debate Association and the international British Parliamentary circuit.[116] The PDS has a history of success, consistently fielding debaters ranked in the top 10 nationally and advancing teams to elimination rounds at the World University
University
Debating Championships. The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Band has been a part of student life since 1897.[117] The Penn Band performs at football and basketball games as well as university functions (e.g. commencement and convocation) throughout the year and was the first college band to perform at Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[117] Membership fluctuates between 80 and 100 students.[117]

Performing arts organizations

Penn is home to numerous organizations that promote the arts, from dance to spoken word, jazz to stand-up comedy, theatre, a cappella and more. The Performing Arts Council (PAC) oversees 45 student organizations in these areas.[118] The PAC has four subcommittees: A Cappella Council; Dance Arts Council; Singer, Musicians, and Comedians (SMAC); and Theatre Arts Council (TAC-e). The Dance Arts Council (DAC) comprises 13 organizations, including the African Rhythms, Pan-Asian Dance Troupe and the West Philly Swingers.[119] The Arts House Dance Company is one of the council's most prominent groups. Founded in 1985, the Company is known for its strong technique, innovative student choreography and vivid stage presence.[120]

Religious organizations

Dating back to 1857, The Christian Association (a.k.a. The CA) is the oldest religious organization at the University
University
and is composed primarily of students from Mainline Protestant
Mainline Protestant
backgrounds.[121] When the University
University
moved to its current campus in the 1880s the CA was based out of Houston Hall. After moving around several times it relocated to its new building at 36th and Locust Streets (now the ARCH Building), which it occupied from 1928 until 2000. During its most active period it ran several foreign missions as well as a camp for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Philadelphia.[122] At present the CA occupies part of the parsonage at Tabernacle United Church of Christ.[123] The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute's Sinai Scholars Society Academic Symposium is a prestigious event that brings together Jewish college students with noted Jewish academics for a day of in-depth discussion and debate at the university.[124][125] The Penn Newman Catholic Center (the 'Newman Center') was founded in 1893 with the mission of supporting students, faculty and staff in their religious endeavors. The organization brings prominent Christian figures to campus, including James Martin in September 2015.[126] During the 2015 World Meetings of Families, which included a visit from Pope Francis
Pope Francis
to Philadelphia, the Newman Center hosted over 900 Penn students and alumni.[126]

The Daily Pennsylvanian

See also: The Daily Pennsylvanian The Daily Pennsylvanian
The Daily Pennsylvanian
is an independent, student-run newspaper, which has been published daily since it was founded in 1885.[127] The newspaper went unpublished from May 1943 to November 1945 due to World War II.[127] In 1984, the university lost all editorial and financial control of The Daily Pennsylvanian
The Daily Pennsylvanian
when the newspaper became its own corporation.[127] In 2007, The Daily Pennsylvanian
The Daily Pennsylvanian
won the Pacemaker Award administered by the Associated Collegiate Press.[128] Athletics[edit] Main article: Penn Quakers Penn's sports teams are nicknamed the Quakers, but the teams are often also referred to as The Red & Blue. The athletes participate in the Ivy League
Ivy League
and Division I (Division I FCS for football) in the NCAA. In recent decades, they often have been league champions in football (14 times from 1982 to 2010) and basketball (22 times from 1970 to 2006). The first athletic team at Penn was its cricket team.[129]

Varsity rowers approach Poughkeepsie Bridge
Poughkeepsie Bridge
on the Hudson River, 1915

Rowing[edit] Rowing at Penn dates back to at least 1854 with the founding of the University
University
Barge Club. The university currently hosts both heavyweight and lightweight men's teams and an openweight women's team, all of which compete as part of the Eastern Sprints League. Penn Rowing has produced a long list of famous coaches and Olympians, including Susan Francia, John B. Kelly Jr., Joe Burk, Rusty Callow, Harry Parker and Ted Nash. In addition, the 1955 men's heavyweight crew is one of only four American university crews to win the Grand Challenge Cup
Grand Challenge Cup
at the Henley Royal Regatta. The teams row out of College Boat Club, No.11 Boathouse Row. Rugby[edit] The Penn Men's Rugby Football Club is recognized as one of the oldest collegiate rugby teams in America. The earliest documentation of its existence comes from a 1910 issue of the Daily Pennsylvanian. The team existed on and off during the World Wars. The current club has its roots in the 1960s and from the influence of star winger Andrew Margolis. The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
rugby teams play in the Ivy Rugby Conference
Ivy Rugby Conference
and have finished as runners-up in both 15s and 7s.[130] As of 2011[update], the club now utilize the state-of-the-art facilities at Penn Park. Quakers Rugby played on national TV at the 2013 Collegiate Rugby Championship, a college rugby tournament played every June at PPL Park
PPL Park
in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and broadcast live on NBC. In their inaugural year of participation, the Penn men's rugby team won the Shield Competition, beating local rivals Temple University
University
17–12 in the final. In doing so, they became the first Philadelphia
Philadelphia
team to beat a non- Philadelphia
Philadelphia
team in CRC history, with a 14–12 win over the University
University
of Texas in the Shield semi-final.[131] Cricket[edit] In the latter half of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was the center of cricket in the United States. Cricket
Cricket
had gained in popularity among the upper class from their travels abroad and cricket clubs sprung up all across the Eastern Seaboard (even today Philadelphia
Philadelphia
still has three cricket clubs—the Philadelphia, the Merion and the Germantown). Many East Coast universities and colleges fielded cricket teams with the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Haverford College
Haverford College
being two of the best in the country. ( Cricket
Cricket
was the first organized sport at Pennsylvania.) The Penn Cricket
Cricket
Team frequently toured Canada and the British Isles, and even defeated a combined Oxford-Cambridge team in 1895.[132] Perhaps the University's most famous cricket player was George Patterson who went on to play for the professional Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Cricket
Cricket
Team. Following the First World War, cricket began to experience a serious decline as baseball became the preferred sport of the warmer months, but to this day the University
University
still fields a cricket team. Football[edit] Main article: Penn Quakers
Penn Quakers
football

Franklin Field, home to football, field hockey, lacrosse and track and field

Penn first fielded a football team against Princeton at the Germantown Cricket
Cricket
Club in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on November 11, 1876.[133] Penn football made many contributions to the sport in its early days. During the 1890s, Penn's famed coach and alumnus George Washington Woodruff introduced the quarterback kick, a forerunner of the forward pass, as well as the place-kick from scrimmage and the delayed pass. In 1894, 1895, 1897 and 1904, Penn was generally regarded as the national champion of collegiate football.[133] The achievements of two of Penn's outstanding players from that era— John Heisman
John Heisman
and John Outland—are remembered each year with the presentation of the Heisman Trophy to the most outstanding college football player of the year, and the Outland Trophy
Outland Trophy
to the most outstanding college football interior lineman of the year. In addition, each year the Bednarik Award is given to college football's best defensive player. Chuck Bednarik
Chuck Bednarik
(Class of 1949) was a three-time All-American center/linebacker who starred on the 1947 team and is generally regarded as Penn's all-time finest. In addition to Bednarik, the 1947 squad boasted four-time All-American tackle George Savitsky and three-time All-American halfback Skip Minisi. All three standouts were subsequently elected to the College Football Hall of Fame, as was their coach, George Munger (a star running back at Penn in the early 1930s). Bednarik went on to play for 12 years with the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Eagles, becoming the NFL's last 60-minute man. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame
Pro Football Hall of Fame
in 1969. During his presidency of the institution from 1948 to 1953, Harold Stassen attempted to recultivate Penn's heyday of big-time college football, but the effort lacked support and was short-lived. ESPN's College GameDay traveled to Penn to highlight the Harvard-Penn game on November 17, 2002, the first time the popular college football show had visited an Ivy League
Ivy League
campus. Basketball[edit]

The Palestra, "Cathedral of Basketball"

Main article: Penn Quakers
Penn Quakers
men's basketball Penn basketball is steeped in tradition. Penn made its only (and the Ivy League's second) Final Four appearance in 1979, where the Quakers lost to Magic Johnson-led Michigan State in Salt Lake City. (Dartmouth twice finished second in the tournament in the 1940s, but that was before the beginning of formal League play.) Penn's team is also a member of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Big 5, along with La Salle, Saint Joseph's, Temple and Villanova. In 2007, the men's team won its third consecutive Ivy League
Ivy League
title and then lost in the first round of the NCAA Tournament to Texas A&M. Facilities[edit] Franklin Field
Franklin Field
is where the Quakers play football, field hockey, lacrosse, sprint football and track and field (and formerly soccer). It is the oldest stadium still operating for football games and was the first stadium to sport two tiers. It hosted the first commercially televised football game, was once the home field of the Philadelphia Eagles, and was the site of early Army–Navy games. Today it is also used by Penn students for recreation such as intramural and club sports, including touch football and cricket. Franklin Field
Franklin Field
hosts the annual collegiate track and field event "the Penn Relays." Penn's home court, the Palestra, is an arena used for men's and women's basketball teams, volleyball teams, wrestling team and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Big Five basketball, as well as high school sporting events. The Palestra
Palestra
has hosted more NCAA Tournament basketball games than any other facility. Penn baseball plays its home games at Meiklejohn Stadium. The Olympic Boycott Games of 1980 were held at the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in response to Moscow's hosting of the 1980 Summer Olympics following the Soviet incursion in Afghanistan. Twenty-nine of the boycotting nations participated in the Boycott Games. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
people See also: List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University
University
of Pennsylvania

Francis Hopkinson, signed the Declaration of Independence and designed the first official American Flag

George Clymer, Founding father; early advocate for complete independence from Britain

James Wilson, Founding father; one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington
George Washington
to the Supreme Court of the United States

Benjamin Rush, Founding Father of the United States; Surgeon General of the Continental Army

9th President of the United States
United States
William Henry Harrison

Doc Holliday, famed gunslinger, attended the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
College of Dental Surgery

Martha Hughes Cannon, first female State Senator elected in the United States

William Wrigley, Jr., founder and eponym of the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company

American poet and critic Ezra Pound, a major figure in the early modernist movement, studied at the College[134]

Physician and poet William Carlos Williams
William Carlos Williams
graduated from Penn's School of Medicine

Kwame Nkrumah, first President of Ghana, and previously first Prime Minister of Ghana

45th President of the United States
United States
Donald Trump

Warren Buffett, considered by some to be one of the most successful investors in the world[135][136]

Arlen Specter, former U.S. Senator majored in international relations and graduated Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa
in 1951

Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
studied philosophy and linguistics at Penn, graduating with a BA in 1949, an MA in 1951 and a PhD in 1955

Steve Wynn, known for his involvement in the American luxury casino and hotel industry

Ed Rendell, 45th Governor of Pennsylvania; 96th Mayor of Philadelphia

Jon Huntsman Jr., politician, businessman and diplomat

Elon Musk, founder and CEO of PayPal,[137] Tesla Motors[138] and SpaceX[139]

Penn has produced many alumni that have distinguished themselves in the sciences, academia, politics, the military, arts and media. The size, quality and diversity of Penn's alumni body have established the institution as one of the most powerful alumni networks in the United States, as well as internationally.[140] Fourteen heads of state or government have attended or graduated from Penn, including current president Donald J. Trump, former president William Henry Harrison, who attended the medical school for less than a semester;[141] former Prime Minister of the Philippines
Philippines
Cesar Virata; the first president of Nigeria, Nnamdi Azikiwe; the first president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah; and the current president of Ivory Coast, Alassane Ouattara. Other notable politicians who hold a degree from Penn include India's Minister of State for Finance Jayant Sinha,[142] former ambassador to China and former 2012 presidential candidate and Utah governor Jon Huntsman, Jr., Mexico's current minister of finance, Ernesto J. Cordero, long-serving Pennsylvania senator Arlen Specter
Arlen Specter
and former Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
governor Ed Rendell. The university's presence in the judiciary in and outside of the United States
United States
is also notable. It has produced three United States Supreme Court justices, William J. Brennan, Owen J. Roberts
Owen J. Roberts
and James Wilson, Supreme Court justices of foreign states (e.g., Ronald Wilson of the High Court of Australia
High Court of Australia
and Ayala Procaccia
Ayala Procaccia
of the Israel Supreme Court), European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
judge Nona Tsotsoria, Irish Court of Appeal justice Gerard Hogan and founders of international law firms, e.g. James Harry Covington
James Harry Covington
(co-founder of Covington & Burling), Martin Lipton (co-founder of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen, & Katz) and George Wharton Pepper
George Wharton Pepper
(U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and founder of Pepper Hamilton). Penn alumni also have a strong presence in financial and economic life. Penn has educated several governors of central banks including Yasin Anwar (State Bank of Pakistan), Ignazio Visco
Ignazio Visco
(Bank of Italy), Kim Choongsoo
Kim Choongsoo
(Bank of Korea), Zeti Akhtar Aziz
Zeti Akhtar Aziz
(Central Bank of Malaysia), Pridiyathorn Devakula
Pridiyathorn Devakula
(Governor, Bank of Thailand, and former Minister of Finance), Farouk El Okdah (Central Bank of Egypt) and Alfonso Prat Gay
Alfonso Prat Gay
(Central Bank of Argentina), as well as the director of the United States
United States
National Economic Council, Gene Sperling. Founders of technology companies include Ralph J. Roberts (co-founder of Comcast), Elon Musk
Elon Musk
(founder of PayPal, Tesla Motors and SpaceX), Leonard Bosack (co-founder of Cisco), David Brown (co-founder of Silicon Graphics) and Mark Pincus
Mark Pincus
(founder of Zynga, the company behind Farmville). Other notable businessmen and entrepreneurs who attended or graduated from the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
include William S. Paley
William S. Paley
(former president of CBS), Warren Buffett[note 4] (CEO of Berkshire Hathaway), Donald Trump, Jr., and Ivanka Trump, Safra Catz
Safra Catz
(president and CFO of Oracle Corporation), Leonard Lauder (chairman emeritus of Estée Lauder Companies and son of founder Estée Lauder), Steven A. Cohen (founder of SAC Capital Advisors), Robert Kapito
Robert Kapito
(president of BlackRock, the world's largest asset manager) and P. Roy Vagelos
P. Roy Vagelos
(former president and CEO of multinational pharmaceutical company Merck & Co.). Among other distinguished alumni are the current or past presidents of Harvard
Harvard
University, Drew Gilpin Faust; the University
University
of California, Mark Yudof; and Northwestern University, Morton O. Schapiro; poets William Augustus Muhlenberg, Ezra Pound
Ezra Pound
and William Carlos Williams, linguist and political theorist Noam Chomsky, architect Louis Kahn, cartoonist Charles Addams, actress Candice Bergen, theatrical producer Harold Prince, counter-terrorism expert and author Richard A. Clarke, pollster and strategist Frank Luntz, attorney Gloria Allred, journalist Joe Klein, fashion designer Tory Burch, recording artist John Legend
John Legend
and football athlete and coach John Heisman. Within the ranks of Penn's most historic graduates are also eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and nine signers of the Constitution. These include George Clymer, Francis Hopkinson, Thomas McKean, Robert Morris, William Paca, George Ross, Benjamin Rush, James Wilson, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, Rufus King, Thomas Mifflin, Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris
and Hugh Williamson. In total, 30 Penn affiliates have won Nobel Prizes, of whom four are current faculty members and nine are alumni.[citation needed] Penn also counts 115 members of the United States
United States
National Academies, 79 members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, eight National Medal of Science laureates, 108 Sloan Fellows, 30 members of the American Philosophical Society and 170 Guggenheim Fellowships.[citation needed] Controversies[edit] From 1930 to 1966, there were 54 documented Rowbottom riots, a student tradition of rioting which included everything from car smashing to panty raids.[143] After 1966, there were five more instances of "Rowbottoms", the latest occurring in 1980.[143] In 1965, Penn students learned that the university was sponsoring research projects for the United States' chemical and biological weapons program.[144] According to Herman and Rutman, the revelation that "CB Projects Spicerack and Summit were directly connected with U.S. military activities in Southeast Asia", caused students to petition Penn president Gaylord Harnwell to halt the program, citing the project as being "immoral, inhuman, illegal, and unbefitting of an academic institution".[144] Members of the faculty believed that an academic university should not be performing classified research and voted to re-examine the University
University
agency which was responsible for the project on November 4, 1965.[144] In 1984, the Head Lab at the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
was raided by members of the Animal Liberation Front.[145] Sixty hours' worth of video footage depicting animal cruelty was stolen from the lab.[146] The video footage was released to PETA
PETA
who edited the tapes and created the documentary Unnecessary Fuss.[146] As a result of an investigation called by the Office for Protection from Research Risks, the chief veterinarian was fired and the Head Lab was closed.[146] The school gained notoriety in 1993 for the water buffalo incident in which a student who told a noisy group of black students to "shut up, you water buffalo" was charged with violating the university's racial harassment policy.[147] In recent years, mental health has become an issue on campus with ten student suicides between the years of 2013 to 2016.[148] The school responded by launching a task force.[149] See also[edit]

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
portal Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
portal University
University
portal

List of universities by number of billionaire alumni Education in Philadelphia Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press

Notes[edit]

^ The University
University
officially uses 1740 as its founding date and has since 1899. The ideas and intellectual inspiration for the academic institution stem from 1749, with a pamphlet published by Benjamin Franklin, (1705/1706–1790). When Franklin's institution was established, it inhabited a schoolhouse built on November 14, 1740 for another school, which never came to practical fruition [1]. Penn archivist Mark Frazier Lloyd [2] notes: "In 1899, UPenn's Trustees adopted a resolution that established 1740 as the founding date, but good cases may be made for 1749, when Franklin first convened the Trustees, or 1751, when the first classes were taught at the affiliated secondary school for boys, Academy of Philadelphia, or 1755, when Penn obtained its collegiate charter to add a post-secondary institution, the College of Philadelphia." Princeton's library [3] presents another, diplomatically phrased view. ^ Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution. The College of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(later Penn), College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and King's College (later Columbia College, now Columbia University) all originated within a few years of each other. After initially designating 1750 as its founding date, Penn later considered 1749 to be its founding date for more than a century, including alumni observing a centennial celebration in 1849. In 1895, several elite universities in the United States
United States
convened in New York City as the "Intercollegiate Commission" at the invitation of John J. McCook, a Union Army
Union Army
officer during the American Civil War
American Civil War
and member of Princeton's board of trustees who chaired its Committee on Academic Dress. The primary purpose of the conference was to standardize American academic regalia, which was accomplished through the adoption of the Intercollegiate Code on Academic Costume. This formalized protocol included a provision that henceforth academic processions would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. The following year, Penn's The Alumni Register magazine, published by the General Alumni Society, began a campaign to retroactively revise the University's founding date to 1740, in order to become older than Princeton, which had been chartered in 1746. Three years later in 1899, Penn's board of trustees acceded to this alumni initiative and officially changed its founding date from 1749 to 1740, affecting its rank in academic processions as well as the informal bragging rights that come with the age-based hierarchy in academia generally. See Building Penn's Brand for more details on why Penn did this. Princeton implicitly challenges this rationale, [4] also considering itself to be the nation's fourth oldest institution of higher learning. [5] To further complicate the comparison, a University
University
of Edinburgh-educated Presbyterian
Presbyterian
minister from Scotland, named William Tennent
William Tennent
and his son Gilbert Tennent operated a "Log College" in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1726 until 1746; some have suggested a connection between it and Princeton because five members of Princeton's first Board of Trustees
Board of Trustees
were affiliated with the "Log College", including Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, Jr., and Samuel Finley, the latter of whom later became President of Princeton. All twelve members of Princeton's first Board of Trustees were leaders from the "New Side" or "New Light" wing of the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church in the New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania areas.[6] This antecedent relationship, if considered a formal lineage with institutional continuity, would justify pushing Princeton's founding date back to 1726, earlier than Penn's 1740. However, Princeton has not done so, and a Princeton historian says that "the facts do not warrant" such an interpretation. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 17, 2005. Retrieved January 30, 2006.  Columbia also implicitly challenges Penn's use of either 1750, 1749 or 1740, as it claims to be the fifth oldest institution of higher learning in the United States
United States
(after Harvard, William & Mary, Yale
Yale
and Princeton), based upon its charter date of 1754 and Penn's charter date of 1755. [7] Academic histories of American higher education generally list Penn as fifth or sixth, after Princeton and immediately before or after that of Columbia. [8] [9] [10] Even Penn's own account of its early history agrees that the original secondary school (the Academy of Philadelphia) did not add an institution of higher learning (the College of Philadelphia) until 1755, but university officials continue to make it their practice to assert their fourth-oldest place in academic processions. Other American universities which began as a colonial-era, early version of secondary schools such as St. John's College (founded as "King William's School" in 1696) and the University
University
of Delaware (founded as "the Free Academy" in 1743) choose to march based upon the date they became institutions of higher learning. Penn History Professor Edgar Potts Cheyney was a member of the Penn class of 1883 who played a leading role in the 1896-1899 alumni campaign to change the university's formal founding date. According to Cheyney's later history of the event, the university did indeed consider its founding date to be 1749 for almost a century. However, it was changed with good reason, and primarily due to a publication about the university issued by the U.S. Commissioner of Education written by Francis Newton Thorpe, a fellow alumnus and colleague in the Penn history department. The year 1740 is the date of the establishment of the first educational trust that the University had taken upon itself. Cheyney states further that "it might be considered a lawyer's date; it is a familiar legal practice in considering the date of any institution to seek out the oldest trust it administers". He also points out that Harvard's founding date is also the year in which the Massachusetts General Court
Massachusetts General Court
(state legislature) resolved to establish a fund in a year's time for a "School or College". As well, Princeton claims its founding date as 1746, the date of its first charter. However, the exact words of the charter are unknown, the number and names of the trustees in the charter are unknown, and no known original is extant. With the exception of Columbia University, the majority of the American Colonial Colleges do not have clear-cut dates of foundation (Edgar Potts Cheyney, "History of the University
University
of Pennsylvania: 1740-1940", Philadelphia: University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press, 1940: pp. 45-52). ^ In 1790, the first lecture on law was given by James Wilson; however, a full time program was not offered until 1850.[53] ^ Buffett studied at Penn for two years before he transferred to the University
University
of Nebraska.

References[edit]

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Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790 President of Pennsylvania
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Founding of the United States

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(1751) Birch letters (1755) The Way to Wealth
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Bagatelles and Satires
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University
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Pennsylvania
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University
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Mountain Hawks Rider University
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College athletics (NCAA Div. II)

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
University
University
Rams University
University
of the Sciences Devils West Chester University
University
Golden Rams Wilmington University
University
Wildcats

Currently defunct teams

Further information: Template:Defunct Philadelphia
Philadelphia
sports teams

Main article: Sports in Philadelphia

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Association of American Universities

Public

Arizona California

Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles San Diego Santa Barbara

Colorado Florida Georgia Tech Illinois Indiana Iowa Iowa State Kansas Maryland Michigan Michigan State Minnesota Missouri SUNY

Buffalo Stony Brook

North Carolina Ohio State Oregon Penn State Pittsburgh Purdue Rutgers Texas Texas A&M Virginia Washington Wisconsin

Private

Boston U Brandeis Brown Caltech Carnegie Mellon Case Western Reserve Chicago Columbia Cornell Duke Emory Harvard Johns Hopkins MIT Northwestern NYU Penn Princeton Rice Rochester USC Stanford Tulane Vanderbilt Wash U Yale

Canadian (public)

McGill Toronto

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Universities Research Association

Public

Alabama Arizona Arizona State California

Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara

Colorado Colorado State Florida Florida State Houston Illinois

Chicago Urbana–Champaign

Indiana Iowa Iowa State LSU Maryland Michigan Michigan State Minnesota Mississippi Nebraska New Mexico New Mexico
Mexico
State North Carolina North Texas Northern Illinois Ohio State Oklahoma Oregon Penn State Pittsburgh Purdue Rutgers South Carolina SUNY

Buffalo Stony Brook

Tennessee Texas

Arlington Austin Dallas

Texas A&M Texas Tech Virginia Virginia Tech Washington Wayne State William & Mary Wisconsin

Private

Boston U Brown Caltech Carnegie Mellon Case Western Reserve Chicago Columbia Cornell Duke Harvard Illinois Tech Johns Hopkins MIT Northeastern Northwestern Notre Dame UPenn Princeton Rice Rochester Rockefeller SMU Stanford Syracuse Tufts Tulane Vanderbilt WUSTL Yale

International

McGill Toronto Pisa Waseda Manchester Liverpool UCL

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568 Group

Amherst College Boston College Claremont McKenna College College of the Holy Cross Columbia University Cornell
Cornell
University Dartmouth College Davidson College Duke University Emory University Georgetown University Grinnell College Haverford College Massachusetts Institute of Technology Middlebury College Northwestern University Pomona College St. John's College Swarthmore College University
University
of Notre Dame University
University
of Pennsylvania Vanderbilt University Wellesley College Williams College

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Colonial colleges

Brown Columbia Dartmouth Harvard UPenn Princeton Rutgers William & Mary Yale

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Largest United States
United States
university campuses by enrollment

Arizona State University University
University
of Central Florida The Ohio State University Florida International University Texas A&M University University
University
of Texas at Austin Michigan State University University
University
of Florida University
University
of Minnesota Indiana University

(2013–14 Academic Year)

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Private colleges and universities in Pennsylvania

Liberal arts colleges

Albright Allegheny Bryn Mawr Cedar Crest Chatham Dickinson Elizabethtown Franklin & Marshall Geneva Gettysburg Grove City Haverford Juniata King's Lafayette Lebanon Valley Lycoming Marywood Mercyhurst Messiah Moravian Muhlenberg Saint Vincent Susquehanna Swarthmore Ursinus Washington & Jefferson Waynesburg Westminster Wilson York

Universities and colleges

Alvernia The American College Arcadia Art Institute of Philadelphia Bucknell Bryn Athyn Cabrini Cairn Carlow Carnegie Mellon Central Penn Chestnut Hill Clarks Summit University Curtis Institute of Music Delaware Valley DeSales Drexel Duquesne Eastern Gannon Gratz Gwynedd Mercy Harcum Harrisburg University
University
of Science and Technology Holy Family Hussian School of Art Immaculata Keystone La Roche La Salle Lackawanna Lancaster Bible Lehigh Manor Marywood Misericordia Moore College of Art and Design Mount Aloysius Neumann Peirce Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
College of Art and Design Philadelphia Point Park Robert Morris Rosemont St. Charles Borromeo Seminary Saint Francis Saint Joseph's Salus Seton Hill Thiel Thomas Jefferson University
University
of Pennsylvania University
University
of Scranton University
University
of the Arts University
University
of the Sciences in Philadelphia University
University
of Valley Forge Villanova Widener Wilkes

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Colleges and universities in metropolitan Philadelphia

The American College of Financial Services Arcadia University Art Institute of Philadelphia Bryn Mawr College Cabrini College Cairn University Chestnut Hill College Cheyney University Curtis Institute of Music Delaware Valley University Drexel University Eastern University Gratz College Gwynedd Mercy University Haverford College Holy Family University Immaculata University La Salle University Lincoln University Manor College Moore College of Art and Design Neumann University Peirce College Penn State Abington Penn State Brandywine Penn State Great Valley Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Academy of the Fine Arts Philadelphia
Philadelphia
College of Osteopathic Medicine Philadelphia
Philadelphia
University Reconstructionist Rabbinical College The Restaurant School Rosemont College Rutgers University

Camden Biomedical and Health Sciences

Saint Joseph's University Salus University Swarthmore College Temple University Thomas Jefferson University University
University
of the Arts University
University
of Delaware University
University
of the Sciences in Philadelphia University
University
of Pennsylvania University
University
of Valley Forge Ursinus College Villanova University West Chester University Westminster Theological Seminary Widener University

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Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges

BU Terriers Brown Bears Columbia Lions Cornell
Cornell
Big Red Dartmouth Big Green Georgetown Hoyas Harvard
Harvard
Crimson Holy Cross Crusaders MIT
MIT
Engineers Navy Midshipmen Northeastern Huskies Penn Quakers Princeton Tigers Rutgers Scarlet Knights Syracuse Orange Wisconsin Badgers Yale
Yale
Bulldogs

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Philadelphia
Philadelphia
College Radio Collective

Bryn Mawr College Haverford College La Salle University Princeton University Saint Joseph's University Swarthmore College Temple University University
University
of Pennsylvania Villanova University

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267632219 LCCN: n79065482 ISNI: 0000 0004 1936 8972 GND: 37246-8 SUDOC: 14446389X

Coordinates: 39°57′N 75°11′W / 39.95°N 75.19°W / 3

.