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The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a
public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological concept of the ''Öffentlichke ...
research university A research university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They can be public or private, and often have well-known brand names. Undergraduate courses at many research universities are often academic rathe ...
in
Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. In 2019, its population was recorded at 120,735. It is the principal city of the Ann Arbor Metropo ...
. Founded in 1817 in
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town That Put The Worl ...
, as the ''Catholepistemiad'', or the ''University of Michigania'', 20 years before the
territory A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed ...
became a state, the university is
Michigan Michigan () is a state in the Great Lakes and Upper Midwest regions of the United States. Its name comes from the Ojibwe word ''mishigami'', meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of approximately 10 million, Michigan ...

Michigan
's oldest. The school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the flagship university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than spread out over Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in
Flint Flint is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fires. It occurs chiefly as nodul ...
and Dearborn, and a
Center Center or centre may refer to: Mathematics *Center (geometry), the middle of an object * Center (algebra), used in various contexts * Graph center, the set of all vertices of minimum eccentricity * Center (ring theory), related to ring theory Pl ...

Center
in Detroit. The university is a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in the United States (b ...
. Michigan has been called a
Public Ivy "Public Ivy" is a term coined by author Richard Moll in his book ''Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities'' (1985) to refer to universities in the United States that are said to provide an Ivy League ...
, and has ranked among the best public universities in the United States by major college and university rankings. The university is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". Michigan offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and
STEM fields Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), previously science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is typically used to address an education po ...
(science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as well as professional degrees in architecture, business, medicine, law, public policy, pharmacy, nursing, social work, public health, and dentistry. At over $12.4 billion in 2019, Michigan's endowment is among the largest of any university. , 53 MacArthur "genius award" winners ( 29 alumni winners and 24 faculty winners), 26 Nobel Prize winners, six Turing Award winners, one Fields Medalist and one Mitchell Scholar have been affiliated with the university. Its alumni include eight
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...
or
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
, including
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Ar ...
Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American politician and attorney who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977. A member of the Republican Party, Ford prev ...

Gerald Ford
; 38 cabinet-level officials; and 26 living billionaires. It also is a leading producer of
Fulbright Scholars The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs with the goal to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the ...
and
MacArthur Fellows The MacArthur Fellows Program, also known as the MacArthur Fellowship and commonly but unofficially known as the "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 indivi ...
. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the
NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletes from up to 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of colleges and universities ...
and are known as the
Wolverines The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, or quickhatch (from East Cree, ''kwiihkwahaacheew''), is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Must ...
. They are members of the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For over eight decades this conf ...
. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in
Olympic Olympic or Olympics may refer to Sports Events * Olympic Games, international multi-sport event held since 1896 ** Summer Olympic Games ** Winter Olympic Games * Ancient Olympic Games, ancient multi-sport event held in Olympia, Greece between 77 ...
events, and alumni have won 144 Olympic medals.


History

The University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817, as the ''Catholepistemiad'', or the University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of
Michigan Territory The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 30, 1805, until January 26, 1837, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Michigan. Detroit wa ...
. Judge Augustus B. Woodward specifically invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father
Gabriel Richard Father Gabriel Richard (15 October 1767 – 13 September 1832) was a French Roman Catholic priest and co-founder of the Catholepistemiad of Michigania (which would later be renamed the University of Michigan). He was elected as a nonvoting deleg ...
, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, and Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships. Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when
Lansing Lansing () is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is mostly in Ingham County, although portions of the city extend west into Eaton County and north into Clinton County. The 2010 Census placed the city's population at 114,297, making it ...
was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to
Ann ArborANN may refer to: Media * All Night Nippon, Japan * All-Nippon News Network, Japan * Arab News Network, exile Syrian * Asia News Network, Asia * Anime News Network, online * Adventist News Network, online Transportation * Annan railway station, fr ...
in 1837 thanks to Governor . The original was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe (Chippewa), Odawa (Ottawa), and Bodewadimi (Potawatomi) Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was officially renamed the University of Michigan. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students, many of whom were
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or t ...
veterans. Women were first admitted in 1870, although
Alice Robinson Boise Wood Alice Robinson Boise Wood (May 15, 1846 – March 28, 1919) was a classicist and poet, and the first woman both to attend classes at the University of Michigan and to matriculate and graduate from the Old University of Chicago. Early life Alice ...
had become the first woman to attend classes (without matriculating) in 1866–7.
James Burrill Angell James Burrill Angell (January 7, 1829 – April 1, 1916) was an American educator and diplomat. He is best known for being the longest-serving president of the University of Michigan, from 1871 to 1909. He represented the transition from small ...

James Burrill Angell
, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also ...
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''architect ...
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...
,
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
, and
medicine Medicine is the art, science, and practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment or palliation of their injury or disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain ...
. U-M also became the first American university to use the
seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some partic ...
method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was
Jose Celso Barbosa Jose is the English transliteration of the Hebrew and Aramaic name ''Yose'', which is etymologically linked to ''Yosef'' or Joseph. The name was popular during the Mishnaic and Talmudic periods. *Jose ben Abin *Jose ben Akabya *Jose the Galilean ...
, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and also served in high-ranking posts in the government. The University of Michigan was involved with the building of the Philippine education, legal, public health systems during the era of the American colonization of the Philippines through the efforts of Michigan alumni that included
Dean Conant Worcester Dean Conant Worcester, D.Sc.(hon.), FRGS (October 1, 1866 – May 2, 1924) was an American zoologist, public official, and authority on the Philippines, born at Thetford, Vermont, and educated at the University of Michigan (A.B., 1889). He first wen ...

Dean Conant Worcester
and George A. Malcolm. Early on, colonial government officials highlighted the importance of increasing the number of teachers and primary schools in the country. President McKinley appointed teachers from various universities, tasking them with building the foundations of the Philippine education system under American control. The first wave of these men sailed from San Francisco to Manila on the ''Thomas'', also known as the “Thomasites.” Of the nearly 500 who came to the Philippines in this group, the delegation from the University of Michigan was the second largest group of teachers who arrived. The Thomasites were instrumental in the proliferation of schools and mass enrollment of students in the Philippines. Ten years following their arrival, 4,000 schools were established, and by 1920, elementary enrollment was approaching one million and high school enrollment was at 17,335. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, chemistry, natural sciences,
Hill Auditorium Hill Auditorium is the largest performance venue on the University of Michigan campus, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The auditorium was named in honor of Arthur Hill (1847-1909), who served as a regent of the university from 1901 to 1909. He bequeathed ...

Hill Auditorium
, large hospital and library complexes, and two residence halls. In 1920, the university reorganized the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. The university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typically used beyond the sports contex ...
schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West." During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as
U.S. Navy ), (unofficial)."''Non sibi sed patriae''" ( en, "Not for self but for country") (unofficial). , colors = Blue and gold  , colors_label = Colors , march = "Anchors Aweigh" , m ...
projects in
proximity fuze 300px, Proximity fuze MK53 removed from shell, circa 1950s A proximity fuze (or fuse) is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value. Proximity fuzes are designe ...
s,
PT boat A PT boat (short for patrol torpedo boat) was a motor torpedo boat used by the United States Navy in World War II. It was small, fast, and inexpensive to build, valued for its maneuverability and speed but hampered at the beginning of the war ...
s, and
radar jamming Radar jamming and deception is a form of electronic countermeasures that intentionally sends out radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information. Concepts that blanket the ...
. After the war, enrollment expanded rapidly and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third (or 7,700) were veterans supported by the
G.I. Bill The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). The original G.I. Bill expired in 1956, but the term "G ...
. As the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies, the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc, after World War II. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but the per ...
and the
Space Race The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War adversaries, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), to achieve superior spaceflight capability. It had its origins in the ballistic missile-based nuclear arms race ...
took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U.S. Senator
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Kennedy served a ...
jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the
Peace Corps The Peace Corps is an independent agency and volunteer program run by the United States Government providing international social and economic development assistance. The program was established by Executive Order 10924 issued by President John F ...
speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the
Michigan Union The Michigan Union is a student union at the University of Michigan. It is located at the intersection of South State Street and South University Avenue in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The building was built in 1917 and is one of several unions at the Uni ...
. gave his speech outlining his
Great Society The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. It was coined during a 1964 speech by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and came to represent his ...
program as the lead speaker during the University of Michigan's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first-ever faculty-led "
teach-in A teach-in is similar to a general educational forum on any complicated issue, usually an issue involving current political affairs. The main difference between a teach-in and a seminar is the refusal to limit the discussion to a specific time fram ...
" to protest against American policy in Southeast Asia. In response to a series of
sit-in Human rights sit-in at the Taiwanese executive assembly A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. The protestors gather ...
s in 1966 by ''Voice'', the campus political party of
Students for a Democratic Society Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was a national student activist organization in the United States during the 1960s, and was one of the principal representations of the New Left. Disdaining permanent leaders, hierarchical relationships and ...
, U-M's administration banned sit-ins. In response, 1,500 students participated in a one-hour sit-in inside the Administration Building, now known as the LSA Building. In April 1968, following the
assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr., an African-American clergyman and civil rights leader, was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at 6:01 p.m. CST. He was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital, where he died at 7:05 ...
, a group of several dozen black students occupied the Administration Building to demand that the university make public its three-year-old commitment as a federal contractor to affirmative action and to increase its efforts with respect to recruiting more African American students, faculty and staff. At that time there were no African American coaches, for instance, in the Intercollegiate Athletics Department. The occupation was ended by agreement after seven hours. Former U-M student and noted architect
Alden B. Dow Alden B. Dow (April 10, 1904 – August 20, 1983) was an American architect based in Midland, Michigan, and known for his contributions to the style of Michigan Modern. During a career that spanned from the 1930s to the 1960s, he designed more than ...
designed the current Fleming Administration Building, which was completed in 1968. The building's plans were drawn in the early 1960s, before student activism prompted a concern for safety. But the Fleming Building's fortress-like narrow windows, all located above the first floor, and lack of exterior detail at ground level, led to a campus rumor that it was designed to be riot-proof. Dow denied those rumors, claiming the small windows were designed to be energy efficient. During the 1970s, severe budget constraints slowed the university's physical development; but in the 1980s, the university received increased grants for research in the social and physical sciences. The university's involvement in the anti-missile
Strategic Defense Initiative The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), nicknamed the "''Star Wars'' program", was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and ...
and investments in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...
caused controversy on campus. During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. In its 2011 annual financial report, the university announced that it had dedicated $497 million per year in each of the prior 10 years to renovate buildings and infrastructure around the campus. The university also emphasized the development of computer and information technology throughout the campus. In the early 2000s, U-M faced declining state funding due to state budget shortfalls. At the same time, the university attempted to maintain its high academic standing while keeping
tuition Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services. Besides public spending (by governments and other public bod ...
costs affordable. There were disputes between U-M's administration and labor unions, notably with the Lecturers' Employees Organization (LEO) and the Graduate Employees Organization (GEO), the union representing graduate student employees. These conflicts led to a series of one-day walkouts by the unions and their supporters. At the same time, the university was engaged in a $2.5 billion construction campaign after an eight-year capital campaign raised $3.11 billion, at the time a record for a US public university. In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M's
affirmative action Affirmative action refers to a set of policies and practices within a government or organization seeking to increase the representation of particular groups based on their gender, race, sexuality, creed or nationality in areas in which they are un ...
admissions policy reached the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that invo ...

U.S. Supreme Court
('' Grutter v. Bollinger'' and '' Gratz v. Bollinger''). President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been the 46th governor of Texas from ...
publicly opposed the policy before the court issued a ruling. The court found that race may be considered as a factor in university admissions in all public universities and private universities that accept federal funding, but it ruled that a point system was unconstitutional. In the first case, the court upheld the
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. Law degrees Argentina In Argentina, lawy ...
admissions policy, while in the second it ruled against the university's undergraduate admissions policy. The debate continued because in November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposal 2, banning most affirmative action in university admissions. Under that law, race, gender, and national origin can no longer be considered in admissions. U-M and other organizations were granted a stay from implementation of the law soon after that referendum. This allowed time for proponents of affirmative action to decide legal and constitutional options in response to the initiative results. In April 2014, the Supreme Court ruled in '' Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action'' that Proposal 2 did not violate the U.S. Constitution. The admissions office states that it will attempt to achieve a diverse student body by looking at other factors, such as whether the student attended a disadvantaged school, and the level of education of the student's parents. On May 1, 2014, University of Michigan was named one of 55 higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints." President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Obama was the first African-American presi ...

Barack Obama
's
White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault was formed on January 22, 2014, after President Barack Obama directed the Office of the Vice President of the United States and the White House Council on Women and Girls to "str ...
was organized for such investigations. The University of Michigan's acceptance rate was 22.7% in 2019. The rate of new freshman enrollment has been fairly stable since 2010.


Campus

The Ann Arbor campus is divided into four main areas: the North, Central, Medical, and South campuses. The physical
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. ...
includes more than 500 major buildings, with a combined area of more than . The Central and South Campus areas are contiguous, while the North Campus area is separated from them, primarily by the Huron River. There is also leased space in buildings scattered throughout the city, many occupied by organizations affiliated with the University of Michigan Health System. An East Medical Campus was developed on Plymouth Road, with several university-owned buildings for outpatient care, diagnostics, and outpatient surgery. In addition to the U-M Golf Course on South Campus, the university operates a second golf course on Geddes Road called Radrick Farms Golf Course. The golf course is only open to faculty, staff and alumni. Another off-campus facility is the Inglis House, which the university has owned since the 1950s. The Inglis House is a mansion used to hold various social events, including meetings of the Board of Regents, and to host visiting dignitaries. The university also operates a large office building called Wolverine Tower in southern Ann Arbor near
Briarwood Mall Briarwood Mall is a shopping mall in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States. The mall's three anchor stores are Macy's, JCPenney, and Von Maur. Surrounded by office and other development, the mall anchors the southern Ann Arbor commercial area around ...
. Another major facility is the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which is located on the eastern outskirts of Ann Arbor. All four campus areas are connected by bus services, the majority of which connect the North and Central campuses. There is a shuttle service connecting the University Hospital, which lies between North and Central campuses, with other medical facilities throughout northeastern Ann Arbor.


Central Campus

Central Campus was the original location of U-M when it moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. It originally had a school and dormitory building (where Mason Hall now stands) and several houses for professors on of land bounded by North University Avenue, South University Avenue, East University Avenue, and State Street. The President's House, located on South University Avenue, is the oldest building on campus as well as the only surviving building from the original campus. Because Ann Arbor and Central Campus developed simultaneously, there is no distinct boundary between the city and university, and some areas contain a mixture of private and university buildings. Residence halls located on Central Campus are split up into two groups: the Hill Neighborhood and Central Campus. Central Campus is the location of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and is immediately adjacent to the medical campus. Most of the graduate and professional schools, including the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan. It offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, as well as an executive educati ...
, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. Law degrees Argentina In Argentina, lawy ...
and the , are on Central Campus. Two prominent libraries, the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library (which are connected by a
skywalk A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is an elevated type of pedway connecting two or more buildings in an urban area, or connecting elevated points within mountainous recreational zones. Urban skyways very often take the form of enclosed or covered fo ...
), are also on Central Campus. as well as
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items availa ...
housing collections in
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...
,
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and societies, in both the present and past, including past human species. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour, while cultur ...
,
paleontology Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (), is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils ...
,
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and dis ...
,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also ...
and art. Ten of the buildings on Central Campus were designed by Detroit-based architect
Albert Kahn Albert may refer to: Companies * Albert (supermarket), a supermarket chain in the Czech Republic * Albert Heijn, a supermarket chain in the Netherlands * Albert Market, a street market in The Gambia * Albert Productions, a record label Entertainm ...
between 1904 and 1936. The most notable of the Kahn-designed buildings are the and nearby
Hill Auditorium Hill Auditorium is the largest performance venue on the University of Michigan campus, in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The auditorium was named in honor of Arthur Hill (1847-1909), who served as a regent of the university from 1901 to 1909. He bequeathed ...

Hill Auditorium
.


North Campus

North Campus is the most contiguous campus, built independently from the city on a large plot of farmland—approximately —that the university bought in 1952. It is newer than Central Campus, and thus has more
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural style based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function (funct ...
, whereas most Central Campus buildings are classical or
Collegiate Gothic#REDIRECT Collegiate Gothic {{R from other capitalisation ...
in style. The architect
Eero Saarinen Eero Saarinen (, ; August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish-American architect and industrial designer noted for his wide-ranging array of designs for buildings and monuments. Saarinen is best known for designing the Washington Dull ...
, based in
Birmingham, Michigan Birmingham is a city in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is a northern suburb of Detroit located along the Woodward Corridor (M-1). As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,103. History The area comprising what is now the city ...
, created one of the early master plans for North Campus and designed several of its buildings in the 1950s, including the Earl V. Moore School of Music Building. North and Central Campuses each have unique bell towers that reflect the predominant architectural styles of their surroundings. Each of the bell towers houses a grand
carillon A carillon ( or ; ) is a pitched percussion idiophone that is played with a keyboard and consists of at least 23 cast bronze bells in fixed suspension and tuned in chromatic order so that they can be sounded harmoniously together. Usually h ...
. The North Campus tower is called Lurie Tower. The University of Michigan's largest residence hall, Bursley Hall, is located on North Campus. North Campus houses the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
, the School of Music, Theatre & Dance, the Stamps School of Art & Design, the
Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning The A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning (also Taubman College) at the University of Michigan offers the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Master of Architecture (ranked #1 in 2010 by ''DesignIntelligen ...
, and an annex of the School of Information. The campus is served by the Duderstadt Center, which houses the Art, Architecture and Engineering Library. The Duderstadt Center also contains multiple
computer lab A computer lab is a space which provides computer services to a defined community. Computer labs are typically provided by libraries to the public, by academic institutions to students who attend the institution, or by other institutions to the pub ...
s,
video editing Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video shots. Video editing is used to structure and present all video information, including films and television shows, video advertisements and video essays. Video editing has been dramatically ...
studios, electronic music studios, an audio studio, a video studio, multimedia workspaces, and a 3D
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (e.g. video games), education (e.g. medical or military training) and busi ...
room. Other libraries located on North Campus include the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the
Bentley Historical Library 250px, Street view of library The Bentley Historical Library is the campus archive for the University of Michigan and is located on the University of Michigan's North Campus in Ann Arbor. It was established in 1935 by the regents of the University o ...
.


South Campus

South Campus is the site for the athletic programs, including major sports facilities such as
Michigan Stadium Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House", is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the largest stadium in the United States and Western Hemisphere, the third largest stadium in the world, and the 34th ...
,
Crisler Center Crisler Center (formerly known as Crisler Arena) is an indoor arena located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the home arena for the University of Michigan's men's and women's basketball teams as well as its women's gymnastics team. Constructed in 196 ...
, and
Yost Ice Arena Yost Ice Arena, formerly the Fielding H. Yost Field House, is an indoor ice hockey arena located on the campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the home of the Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey team which plays in th ...
. South Campus is also the site of the Buhr library storage facility, Revelli Hall, home of the
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan. The band performs at all Michigan Wolverines football home games, select away games, and nu ...
, the Institute for Continuing Legal Education, and the Student Theatre Arts Complex, which provides shop and rehearsal space for student theatre groups. The university's departments of public safety and transportation services offices are located on South Campus. U-M's golf course is located south of Michigan Stadium and Crisler Arena. It was designed in the late 1920s by
Alister MacKenzie Alister MacKenzie (30 August 1870 – 6 January 1934) was a Scottish golf course architect whose course designs span four continents. Originally trained as a surgeon, MacKenzie served as a civilian physician with the British Army during the Boe ...
, the designer of
Augusta National Golf Club Augusta National Golf Club, sometimes referred to as Augusta or the National, is a golf club in Augusta, Georgia, United States. Unlike most private clubs which operate as non-profits, Augusta National is a for-profit corporation, and it does not ...
in
Augusta, Georgia Augusta (), officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's ...
, home of the
Masters Tournament The Masters Tournament (usually referred to as simply The Masters, or the U.S. Masters outside North America) is one of the four major championships in professional golf. Scheduled for the first full week of April, the Masters is the first major ...
. The course opened to the public in the spring of 1931. The University of Michigan Golf Course was included in a listing of top holes designed by what ''
Sports Illustrated ''Sports Illustrated'' (''SI'') is an American sports magazine owned by Authentic Brands Group, and was first published in August 1954. It was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General E ...
'' calls "golf's greatest course architect". The U-M Golf Course's signature No. 6 hole—a par 4, which plays from an elevated tee to a two-tiered, kidney-shaped green protected by four bunkers—is the second hole on the Alister MacKenzie Dream 18 as selected by a five-person panel that includes three-time Masters champion
Nick Faldo Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo, (born 18 July 1957) is an English professional golfer who is now mainly an on-air golf analyst. A top player of his era, renowned for his dedication to the game, he was ranked No. 1 on the Official World Golf Ranking ...

Nick Faldo
and golf course architect
Tom Doak Tom Doak is a golf course architect. He has 6 courses ranked among the top 100 in the world according to the "Top 100 Courses in the World" march 2021 list compiled by ''Golf Magazine.'' These include Pacific Dunes in Oregon, Ballyneal in Colorado ...
. The listing of "the best holes ever designed by Augusta National architect Alister MacKenzie" is featured in SI's Golf Plus special edition previewing the Masters on April 4, 2006.


Organization and administration

The University of Michigan consists of a flagship campus in Ann Arbor, with two regional campuses in Dearborn and
Flint Flint is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fires. It occurs chiefly as nodul ...
. The Board of Regents, which governs the university and was established by the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, consists of eight members elected at large in biennial state elections for overlapping eight-year terms. Between the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837 and 1850, the Board of Regents ran the university directly; although they were, by law, supposed to appoint a Chancellor to administer the university, they never did. Instead, a rotating roster of professors carried out the day-to-day administration duties. The
President of the University of Michigan The president of the University of Michigan is a constitutional officer who serves as the principal executive officer of the University of Michigan. The president is chosen by the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, as provided for in ...
is the principal executive officer of the university. The office was created by the
Michigan Constitution The Constitution of the State of Michigan is the governing document of the U.S. state of Michigan. It describes the structure and function of the state's government. There have been four constitutions approved by the people of Michigan. The firs ...
of 1850, which also specified that the president was to be appointed by the Regents of the University of Michigan and preside at their meetings, but without a vote.State of Michigan, 1850, Article 13, section 8 Today, the president's office is at the Ann Arbor campus, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's House, the university's oldest building, located on Central Campus in Ann Arbor.
Mark Schlissel Mark Steven Schlissel (born November 24, 1957) is the president of the University of Michigan. He was named the 14th president of the university on July 1, 2014, following the retirement of Mary Sue Coleman. His initial contract with the Universi ...
is the 14th and current president of the university and has served since July 2014. There are thirteen undergraduate schools and colleges. By enrollment, the three largest undergraduate units are the University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
, and the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan. It offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, as well as an executive educati ...
. At the graduate level, the Rackham Graduate School serves as the central administrative unit of graduate education at the university. There are 18 graduate schools and colleges, the largest of which are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, the Law School, and the Ross School of Business. First professional degree, Professional degrees are conferred by the Schools of Architecture, Public Health, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Dentistry, Law, University of Michigan Medical School, Medicine, Urban Planning and Pharmacy. The Medical School is partnered with the University of Michigan Health System, which comprises the university's three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for medical care, research, and education.


Endowment

, U-M's financial endowment (the "University Endowment Fund") was valued at $12.4 billion. The endowment is primarily used according to the donors' wishes, which include the support of teaching and research. In mid-2000, U-M embarked on a fund-raising campaign called "The Michigan Difference", which aimed to raise $2.5 billion, with $800 million designated for the permanent endowment. Slated to run through December 2008, the university announced that the campaign had reached its target 19 months early in May 2007. Ultimately, the campaign raised $3.2 billion over 8 years. Over the course of the capital campaign, 191 additional professorships were endowed, bringing the university total to 471 . Like nearly all colleges and universities, U-M suffered significant realized and unrealized losses in its endowment during the second half of 2008. In February 2009, a university spokesperson estimated losses of between 20 and 30 percent. In November 2013, the university launched the "Victors for Michigan" campaign with a $4 billion goal. In 2017, the university announced that the campaign had met the goal 18 months ahead of schedule. In 2018, the university announced that the original $4 billion campaign had exceeded its goal by raising $5 billion from 382,000 donors.


Student government

Housed in the Michigan Union, the Student governments in the United States#University of Michigan, Central Student Government (CSG) is the central student government of the University. With representatives from each of the University's colleges and schools, including graduate students, CSG represents students and manages student funds on the campus. CSG is a 501(c)(3) organization, independent from the University of Michigan. In recent years CSG has organized Airbus, a transportation service between campus and the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, and has led the university's efforts to register its student population to vote, with its Voice Your Vote Commission (VYV) registering 10,000 students in 2004. VYV also works to improve access to non-partisan voting-related information and increase student voter turnout. CSG was successful at reviving Homecoming activities, including a carnival and parade, for students after a roughly eleven-year absence in October 2007, and during the 2013–14 school year, was instrumental in persuading the University to rescind an unpopular change in student football seating policy at Michigan Stadium. In 2017, CSG successfully petitioned the Ann Arbor City Council to create a Student Advisory Council to give student input into Ann Arbor city affairs. There are student governance bodies in each college and school, independent of Central Student Government. Undergraduate students in the LS&A are represented by the LS&A Student Government (LSA SG). Engineering Student Government (ESG) manages undergraduate student government affairs for the College of Engineering. Graduate students enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School are represented by the Rackham Student Government (RSG), and law students are represented by the Law School Student Senate (LSSS) as is each other college with its own respective government. In addition, the students who live in the residence halls are represented by the University of Michigan Residence Halls Association (RHA), which contains the third most constituents after CSG and LSA SG. A longstanding goal of the student government is to create a student-designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university's governing body. Such a designation would achieve parity with other Big Ten schools that have student regents. In 2000, students Nick Waun and Scott Trudeau ran for the board on the statewide ballot as third-party nominees. Waun ran for a second time in 2002, along with Matt Petering and Susan Fawcett. Although none of these campaigns has been successful, a poll conducted by the State of Michigan in 1998 concluded that a majority of Michigan voters would approve of such a position if the measure were put before them. A change to the board's makeup would require amending the
Michigan Constitution The Constitution of the State of Michigan is the governing document of the U.S. state of Michigan. It describes the structure and function of the state's government. There have been four constitutions approved by the people of Michigan. The firs ...
.


Academics


Rankings and reputation

The University of Michigan is a large, four-year, residential research university accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments and emphasizes instruction in the arts, sciences, and professions with a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate programs. The university has "very high" research activity and the comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and
STEM fields Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), previously science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is typically used to address an education po ...
as well as professional degrees in medicine, law, and dentistry. U-M has been included on Richard Moll (author), Richard Moll's list of Public Ivies. With over 200 undergraduate majors, and 100 doctoral and 90 master's programs, U-M has conferred 6,490 undergraduate degrees, 4,951 graduate degrees, and 709 first professional degrees in 2011–2012. The 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Colleges report ranked Michigan 3rd among public universities in the United States. Michigan was ranked 6th in the 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs Rankings. Michigan was ranked 3rd in the 2021 ''U.S. News & World Report'' Best Undergraduate Business Programs Rankings. The 2020 ''Princeton Review'' College Hopes & Worries Survey ranked Michigan as the No. 9 "Dream College" among students and the No. 7 "Dream College" among parents. National honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Tau Beta Pi have chapters at U-M. Degrees "with Highest Distinction" are recommended to students who rank in the top 3% of their class, "with High Distinction" to the next 7%, and "with Distinction" to the next 15%. Students earning a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 who have demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work may be recommended for a degree "with Highest Honors," "with High Honors," or "with Honors." Those students who earn all A's for two or more consecutive terms in a calendar year are recognized as James B. Angell Scholars and are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation, an event which recognizes undergraduate students with distinguished academic achievements. Out-of-state undergraduate students pay between $36,001.38 and $43,063.38 annually for tuition while in-state undergraduate students pay between $11,837.38 and $16,363.38 annually. U-M provides financial aid in the form of need-based loans, grants, scholarships, work study, and non-need based scholarships, with 77% of undergraduates in 2007 receiving financial aid. For undergraduates in 2008, 46% graduated averaging approximately $25,586 of debt. The university is attempting to increase financial aid availability to students by devoting over $1.53 billion in endowment funds to support financial aid.


Research

Michigan is one of the founding members (1900) of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in the United States (b ...
. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the United States National Academies, National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $1.6 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the nation. This figure totaled over $1 billion in 2009. The Michigan Medicine, Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests. In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly of wet laboratory space, and of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university's intentions for the space were not set, but the expectation was that the new space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people. The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the Electrocardiogram, EKG and the gastroscope. The university's University of Michigan Biological Station, biological station in the Northern Michigan, Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere reserve, Biosphere Reserves in the United States. In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model that became part of IBM System/360 Model 67, IBM's Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the "M" stood for Michigan). The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67's virtual memory features. U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation's longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs. The University of Michigan Library, U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes. U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system. In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks. The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI Communications, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second. In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state's three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan's economy. The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced 'MY-lar'), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.


Student body


Admissions

Admissions are highly competitive, with a 2020 freshman admit rate of 26.1%. In recent years, annual numbers of applications for freshman admission have exceeded 65,000. Around 15,000 students are admitted annually, with a target freshman class of more than 6,000 students. Students come from all 50 U.S. states and nearly 100 countries. In academic year 2019–20 full-time undergraduate students made up about 97 percent of the student body, with a first-time student retention rate of almost 97 percent.


Enrollment

In Fall 2016, the university had an enrollment of 44,718 students: 28,983 Undergraduate education, undergraduate students, 12,565 graduate students and 2,665 First professional degree, first professional students in a total of 600 academic programs. Of all students, 37,954 (84.9%) are U.S. citizens or Permanent residence (United States), permanent residents and 6,764 (15.1%) are international students. In 2014, undergraduates were enrolled in 12 schools or colleges: About 61 percent in the University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; 21 percent in the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
; 5.3 percent in the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan. It offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, as well as an executive educati ...
; 3.3 percent in the University of Michigan School of Kinesiology, School of Kinesiology; 2.7 percent in the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance, School of Music, Theatre & Dance; and 2 percent in the School of Nursing. Small numbers of undergraduates were enrolled in the colleges or schools of Art & Design, Architecture & Urban Planning, Dentistry, Education, Pharmacy, and Public Policy. In 2014, the School of Information opened to undergraduates, with the new Bachelor of Science in Information degree. Among undergraduates, 70 percent graduate with a bachelor's degree within four years, 86 percent graduate within five years and 88 percent graduating within six years. Of the university's 12,714 non-professional graduate students, 5,367 are seeking Doctorate, academic doctorates and 6,821 are seeking master's degrees. The largest number of master's degree students are enrolled in the
Ross School of BusinessThe Stephen M. Ross School of Business (Ross; formerly known as University of Michigan Business School) is a business school operated by the University of Michigan. It offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees, as well as an executive educati ...
(1,812 students seeking Master of Business Administration, MBA or Master of Accounting degrees) and the
College of Engineering Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education (bachelor's and/or master's degree), and any advanced education and specializations that fo ...
(1,456 students seeking Master of Science, M.S. or Master of Engineering, M.Eng. degrees). The largest number of doctoral students are enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (2,076) and College of Engineering (1,496). While the majority of U-M's graduate degree-granting schools and colleges have both undergraduate and graduate students, a few schools only issue graduate degrees. Presently, the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan School of Public Health, School of Public Health, and University of Michigan School of Social Work, School of Social Work only have graduate students. In Fall 2014, 2,709 Michigan students were enrolled in U-M's professional schools: the (628 students),
Law School A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. Law degrees Argentina In Argentina, lawy ...
(1,047 students), University of Michigan Medical School, Medical School (1,300 students), and University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy (436 students).


Student life


Residential life

The University of Michigan's campus housing system can accommodate approximately 10,000 students, or nearly 25 percent of the total student population at the university. The residence halls are located in three distinct geographic areas on campus: Central Campus, Hill Area (between Central Campus and the University of Michigan Medical Center) and North Campus. Family housing is located on North Campus and mainly serves graduate students. The largest residence hall has a capacity of 1,270 students, while the smallest accommodates 25 residents. A majority of upper-division and graduate students live in off-campus apartments, houses, and Housing cooperative, cooperatives, with the largest concentrations in the Central and South Campus areas. The residential system has a number of "living-learning communities" where academic activities and residential life are combined. These communities focus on areas such as research through the Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars, medical sciences, community service and the German language. The Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars and the Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program are housed in Mosher-Jordan Hall. The Residential College (RC), a living-learning community that is a division of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, also has its principal instructional space in East Quad. The Michigan Community Scholars Program, dedicated to civic engagement, community service learning and intercultural understanding and dialogue, is located in West Quad. The Lloyd Hall Scholars Program (LHSP) is located in Alice Lloyd Hall. The Health Sciences Scholars Program (HSSP) is located in Couzens Hall. The North Quad complex houses two additional living-learning communities: the Global Scholars Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Global Scholars Program and the Max Kade, Max Kade German Program. It is "technology-rich," and houses communication-related programs, including the School of Information, the Department of Communication Studies, and the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures. North Quad is also home to services such as the Language Resource Center and the Sweetland Center for Writing. The residential system also has a number of "theme communities" where students have the opportunity to be surrounded by students in a residential hall who share similar interests. These communities focus on global leadership, the college transition experience, and internationalism. The Adelia Cheever Program is housed in the Helen Newberry House. The First Year Experience is housed in the Baits II Houses and Markley Hall along with portions of all other buildings with the exception of North Quad, Northwood, and Stockwell Hall. The Sophomore Experience is housed in Stockwell Hall and the Transfer Year Experience is housed in Northwood III. The newly organized International Impact program is housed in North Quad.


Groups and activities

The university lists 1,438 student organizations. With a history of student activism, some of the most visible groups include those dedicated to causes such as civil rights and labor rights, such as local chapters of Students for a Democratic Society (2006 organization), Students for a Democratic Society and United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS). The latter group seeks to hold accountable multinational companies that exploit their workers in factories around the world where college apparel is produced. Although the student body generally leans toward left-wing politics, there are also conservative groups, such as Young Americans for Freedom, and non-partisan groups, such as the Roosevelt Institute. The university's Spectrum Center (community center), Spectrum Center is the oldest collegiate LGBT student center in the U.S. There are also several engineering projects teams, including the University of Michigan Solar Car Team, which has placed first in the North American Solar Challenge six times and third in the World Solar Challenge four times. Michigan Interactive Investments, the TAMID Israel Investment Group, and the Michigan Economics Society are also affiliated with the university. The university also showcases many community service organizations and charitable projects, including Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children, Dance Marathon at the University of Michigan, The Detroit Partnership, Relay for Life, Relay For Life, U-M Stars for the Make-A-Wish Foundation, InnoWorks at the University of Michigan, SERVE, Letters to Success, PROVIDES, Circle K International, Circle K, Habitat for Humanity, and Ann Arbor Reaching Out. Intramural sports are popular, and there are recreation facilities for each of the three campuses. Fraternities and sororities play a role in the university's social life; approximately 17% of undergraduates are involved in Greek life. Membership numbers for the 2009–2010 school year reached the highest in the last two decades. Four different Greek councils—the Interfraternity Council, Multicultural Greek Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council, and Panhellenic Association—represent most Greek organizations. Each council has a different recruitment process. The
Michigan Union The Michigan Union is a student union at the University of Michigan. It is located at the intersection of South State Street and South University Avenue in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The building was built in 1917 and is one of several unions at the Uni ...
and Michigan League are student activity centers located on Central Campus; Pierpont Commons is on North Campus. The Michigan Union houses a majority of student groups, including the student government. The William Monroe Trotter House, located east of Central Campus, is a multicultural student center operated by the university's Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs. The University Activities Center (UAC) is a student-run programming organization and is composed of 14 committees. Each group involves students in the planning and execution of a variety of events both on and off campus. The
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan. The band performs at all Michigan Wolverines football home games, select away games, and nu ...
, composed of more than 350 students from almost all of U-M's schools, is the university's marching band. Over 100 years old, the band performs at every home football game and travels to at least one away game a year. The student-run and led University of Michigan Pops Orchestra is another musical ensemble that attracts students from all academic backgrounds. It performs regularly in the Michigan Theater (Ann Arbor), Michigan Theater. The University of Michigan Men's Glee Club, founded in 1859 and the second oldest such group in the country, is a men's chorus with over 100 members. Its eight-member subset a cappella group, the University of Michigan Friars, which was founded in 1955, is the oldest currently running ''a cappella'' group on campus. The University of Michigan is also home to over twenty other a cappella groups, including Amazin' Blue, The Michigan G-Men, and Compulsive Lyres, all of which have competed at the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella (ICCA) finals in New York City. Compulsive Lyres are the first and only group from Michigan to claim an ICCA title, having won in 2002. The Michigan G-Men are one of only six groups in the country to compete at ICCA finals four times, one of only two TTBB ensembles to do so, and placed third at the competition in 2015. Amazin' Blue placed fourth at ICCA finals in 2017. In 2020, The A Cappella Archive ranked The Michigan G-Men and Amazin' Blue at #7 and #13, respectively, out of all groups that have ever competed in ICCA. The University of Michigan also encourages many cultural and ethnic student organizations on campus. There are currently over 317 organizations under this category. There are organizations for almost every culture from the Arab Student Association to Persian Student Association to African Students Association to even the Egyptian Student Association. These organizations hope to promote various aspects of their culture along with raising political and social awareness around campus by hosting an assortment of events throughout the school year. These clubs also help students make this large University into a smaller community to help find people with similar interests and backgrounds.


Media and publications

The student newspaper is ''The Michigan Daily'', founded in 1890 and editorially and financially independent of the university. ''The Daily'' is published five days a week during academic year, and weekly from May to August. Other student publications at the university include the conservative ''The Michigan Review'' and the progressive ''Michigan Independent''. The humor publication ''Gargoyle Humor Magazine'' is also published by Michigan students. WCBN-FM (88.3 FM) is the student-run college radio station which plays in Freeform (radio format), freeform format. WOLV-TV is the student-run television station that is primarily shown on the university's cable television system. WJJX was previously the school's student-run radio station. A carrier current station, it was launched in 1953. In 1987, a DJ on WJJX attracted controversy by allowing racist jokes to air on his program. The station was shut down for a month following the incident. It was shut down permanently in the 1990s. Several academic journals are published at the university: * The Law School publishes the well-regarded ''Michigan Law Review'' and six other law journals: The ''Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law'', ''University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform'', ''Michigan Journal of Race & Law'', ''Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review'', ''Michigan Journal of International Law'', and ''Michigan Journal of Gender and Law''. * The Ross School of Business publishes the ''Michigan Journal of Business''. * Several undergraduate journals are also published at the university, including the ''Michigan Journal of Political Science'', ''Michigan Journal of History'', ''University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Journal'', the ''Michigan Journal of International Affairs'', and the ''Michigan Journal of Asian Studies''.


Athletics

The University of Michigan's sports teams are called the
Wolverines The wolverine () (also spelled wolverene), ''Gulo gulo'' (''Gulo'' is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, or quickhatch (from East Cree, ''kwiihkwahaacheew''), is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Must ...
. They participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly Division I-A) and in the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For over eight decades this conf ...
in all sports except women's water polo, which is a member of the Collegiate Water Polo Association. U-M boasts 27 varsity sports, including 13 men's teams and 14 women's teams. In 10 of the past 14 years concluding in 2009, U-M has finished in the top five of the NACDA Director's Cup, a ranking compiled by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to tabulate the success of universities in competitive sports. U-M has finished in the top 10 of the Directors' Cup standings in 14 of the award's 16 seasons and has placed in the top six in nine of the last 10 seasons.


Football

The Michigan Wolverines football, Michigan football program ranks first in NCAA history in total wins (925 through the end of the 2015 season) and first among FBS schools in winning percentage (.731). The team won the first Rose Bowl Game, Rose Bowl game in 1902 Rose Bowl, 1902. U-M had 40 consecutive winning seasons from 1968 to 2007, including consecutive bowl game appearances from 1975 to 2007. The Wolverines have won a record 42 Big Ten championships. The program has 11 College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS, national championships, most recently in 1997, and has produced three Heisman Trophy winners: Tom Harmon, Desmond Howard and Charles Woodson.
Michigan Stadium Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House", is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the largest stadium in the United States and Western Hemisphere, the third largest stadium in the world, and the 34th ...
is the largest college football stadium in the nation and one of the largest football-only stadiums in the world, with an official capacity of 107,601 (the extra seat is said to be "reserved" for Fritz Crisler) though attendance—frequently over 111,000 spectators—regularly exceeds the official capacity. The NCAA's record-breaking attendance has become commonplace at Michigan Stadium, especially since the arrival of head coach Bo Schembechler. U-M has fierce rivalries with many teams, including Michigan State University, Michigan State, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, and Ohio State University, Ohio State; ESPN has referred to the Michigan–Ohio State football rivalry, Michigan-Ohio State rivalry as the greatest List of NCAA college football rivalry games, rivalry in American sports. U-M also has all-time winning records against Michigan State, Notre Dame, and Ohio State.


Men's ice hockey

The Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey, men's ice hockey team, which plays at
Yost Ice Arena Yost Ice Arena, formerly the Fielding H. Yost Field House, is an indoor ice hockey arena located on the campus of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the home of the Michigan Wolverines men's ice hockey team which plays in th ...
, has won nine NCAA Men's Ice Hockey Championship, national championships.


Men's basketball

The Michigan Wolverines men's basketball, men's basketball team, which plays at the
Crisler Center Crisler Center (formerly known as Crisler Arena) is an indoor arena located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the home arena for the University of Michigan's men's and women's basketball teams as well as its women's gymnastics team. Constructed in 196 ...
, has appeared in five NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, Final Fours and won the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, national championship in 1989. The men's basketball program became involved in a University of Michigan basketball scandal, scandal involving payments from a booster during the 1990s. This led to the program being placed on probation for a four-year period. The program also voluntarily vacated victories from its 1992–1993 and 1995–1999 seasons in which the payments took place, as well as its 1992 and 1993 Final Four appearances. The Michigan Wolverines men's basketball, men's basketball team has most recently won back-to-back Big Ten Tournament Championships, against Wisconsin Badgers men's basketball, Wisconsin in 2017 and Purdue Boilermakers men's basketball, Purdue in 2018.


Other sports

The Michigan Wolverines wrestling, men's wrestling, Michigan Wolverines men's gymnastics, men's gymnastics, and Michigan Wolverines women's volleyball, women's volleyball teams compete at the Cliff Keen Arena, dedicated and named after longtime wrestling coach Cliff Keen in 1990. U-M is also home to 29 men's and women's club sports teams, such as rugby, hockey, volleyball, boxing, soccer, and tennis.


In the Olympics

Through the 2008 Summer Olympics, 178 U-M students and coaches had participated in the Olympics, winning medals in each Summer Olympic Games except 1896, and winning gold medals in all but four Olympiads. U-M students have won a total of Michigan Wolverines#Olympians, 151 Olympic medals: 72 golds, 39 silvers, and 40 bronzes.


Traditions


School colors

The University of Michigan school colors are Maize (color), maize and blue.


Fight songs and chants

The University of Michigan's fight song, "The Victors," was written by student Louis Elbel in 1898 following the last-minute football victory over the University of Chicago that won a league championship. The song was declared by John Philip Sousa as "the greatest college fight song ever written." The song refers to the university as being "the Champions of the West." At the time, U-M was part of the Western Conference, which would later become the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For over eight decades this conf ...
. Michigan was considered to be on the Western Frontier when it was founded in the old Northwest Territory. Although mainly used at sporting events, the Michigan fight song is often heard at other events as well. President
Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American politician and attorney who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977. A member of the Republican Party, Ford prev ...

Gerald Ford
had it played by the United States Marine Band as his entrance anthem during his term as president from 1974 to 1977, in preference over the more traditional "Hail to the Chief", and the
Michigan Marching BandThe Michigan Marching Band (also known as the University of Michigan Marching Band or simply MMB) is the official marching band of the University of Michigan. The band performs at all Michigan Wolverines football home games, select away games, and nu ...
performed a slow-tempo variation of the fight song at his funeral. The fight song is also sung during graduation commencement ceremonies. The university's alma mater song is "The Yellow and Blue." A common rally cry is "Let's Go Blue, Let's Go Blue!" which has a complementary short musical arrangement written by former students Joseph Carl, a sousaphonist, and Albert Ahronheim, a Drum major (marching band), drum major. Before "The Victors" was officially the University's fight song, the song "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" was considered to be the school song. After Michigan temporarily withdrew from the Western Conference in 1907, a new Michigan fight song "Varsity (fight song), Varsity" was written in 1911 because the line "champions of the West" was no longer appropriate.


Alumni

File:Justin_Amash_official_photo.jpg, Justin Amash, former United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative File:Bucs_WFT_223_(50833097576).jpg, Tom Brady, seven-time Super Bowl champion Ann_Coulter_by_Gage_Skidmore_3.jpg, Ann Coulter, conservative pundit Thomas_E._Dewey_color_photograph.png, Thomas E. Dewey, 47th Governor of New York and former presidential candidate Gerald Ford presidential portrait (cropped).jpg,
Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American politician and attorney who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977. A member of the Republican Party, Ford prev ...

Gerald Ford
, 38th
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Ar ...
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In addition to the late President of the United States, U.S. president
Gerald Ford Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (; born Leslie Lynch King Jr.; July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was an American politician and attorney who served as the 38th president of the United States from 1974 to 1977. A member of the Republican Party, Ford prev ...

Gerald Ford
, the university has, produced thirty-six List of University of Michigan alumni#Pulitzer Prize winners, Pulitzer Prize winners, twenty-seven Rhodes Scholarship, Rhodes Scholars, one Mitchell Scholarship, Mitchell Scholar and nine List of University of Michigan alumni#Nobel laureates, Nobel laureates. , the university has almost 500,000 living alumni. More than 250 Michigan graduates have served as List of University of Michigan legislator alumni, legislators as either a United States Senator (47 graduates) or as a Congressional representative (over 200 graduates), including former House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt and U.S. Representative Justin Amash, who represented Michigan's 3rd congressional district, Michigan's Third Congressional District. Mike Duggan, List of mayors of Detroit, Mayor of
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town That Put The Worl ...
, earned his bachelors and J.D. degrees at Michigan, while the former Michigan Governor Rick Snyder earned his bachelor, M.B.A., and J.D. degrees from Michigan. Former United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson received his medical degree from the U-M medical school. Thomas E. Dewey, another Michigan alumnus, was the Governor of New York from 1943 to 1954 and was the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1944 and 1948 presidential elections. The 13th President of Pakistan, Arif Alvi, completed his master's degree in prosthodontics in 1975. U-M's contributions to aeronautics include aircraft designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson of Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed Skunk Works fame, Lockheed president Willis Hawkins, and several astronauts including the all-U-M crews of both Gemini 4 and Apollo 15. List of University of Michigan alumni#Computers, engineering, and technology, Numerous U-M graduates contributed greatly to the field of computer science, including Claude Shannon (who made major contributions to the mathematics of information theory), and Turing Award winners Edgar Codd, Stephen Cook, Frances E. Allen and Michael Stonebraker. U-M also counts among its alumni List of University of Michigan business alumni#Billionaires, nearly two dozen billionaires, including prominent tech-company founders and co-founders such as John Robert Beyster, Dr. J. Robert Beyster, who founded Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in 1969 and Google co-founder Larry Page. Several prominent and/or groundbreaking women have studied at Michigan—by 1900, nearly 150 women had received advanced degrees from U-M. Marjorie Lee Browne received her M.S. in 1939 and her doctoral degree in 1950, becoming the third African American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics. Many, however, were forced to leave the university to continue their studies or to become faculty in their own right elsewhere, like Katharine Coman—when U-M President James Angell offered her a "Dean of Women" position, she told him that ″′if the regents...wish to propose a chaperone for students, and propose to dignify that office by allowing the woman who holds it to do a little University teaching,′ she was not interested. If, however, the regents accepted women as equal partners and as faculty, and if she were one of several women given proper rank and authority, she would consider it.″ Michigan's Regents did not accept, so instead Coman became dean, founder of the Economics Department, and the first female Statistics education, statistics professor in the US at Wellesley College. Notable writers who attended U-M include playwright Arthur Miller, essayists Susan Orlean, Jia Tolentino, Sven Birkerts, journalists and editors Mike Wallace, Jonathan Chait of ''The New Republic'', Indian author and columnist Anees Jung, Daniel Okrent, and Sandra Steingraber, food critics Ruth Reichl and Gael Greene, novelists Brett Ellen Block, Elizabeth Kostova, Marge Piercy, Brad Meltzer, Betty Smith, and Charles Major (writer), Charles Major, screenwriter Judith Guest, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Theodore Roethke, National Book Award winners Keith Waldrop and Jesmyn Ward, composer/author/puppeteer Forman Brown, and Alireza Jafarzadeh (a Middle East analyst, author, and TV commentator). In Cinema of the United States, Hollywood, famous alumni include actors Michael Dunn (actor), Michael Dunn, Darren Criss, James Earl Jones, David Alan Grier, actresses Lucy Liu, Gilda Radner, and Selma Blair, television director Mark Cendrowski, and filmmaker Lawrence Kasdan. Many Broadway and musical theatre actors, including Gavin Creel, Andrew Keenan-Bolger, his sister Celia Keenan-Bolger, and Taylor Louderman attended U-M for musical theatre. The musical theatre group StarKid Productions had their start at the University, and staged multiple productions there. Musical graduates include operatic soprano Jessye Norman, singer Joe Dassin, jazz guitarist Randy Napoleon, and Mannheim Steamroller founder Chip Davis. Well-known composers who are alumni include Frank Ticheli, Andrew Lippa, and the Oscar and Tony Award-winning duo Pasek and Paul, Benj Pasek and Justin Paul. Pop Superstar Madonna (entertainer), Madonna and rock legend Iggy Pop, attended but did not graduate. Other U-M graduates include former Dean of Harvard Law School Martha Minow, Dean of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Erika H. James, current Dean of Yale Law School, Heather K. Gerken, Heather Gerken, assisted-suicide advocate Dr. Jack Kevorkian, Weather Underground radical activist Bill Ayers, activist Tom Hayden, architect Charles Willard Moore, Charles Moore, the Swedish Holocaust hero Raoul Wallenberg, and Civil War General Benjamin D. Pritchard. Neurosurgeon and CNN chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta attended both college and medical school at the University. Clarence Darrow attended law school at U-M at a time when many lawyers did not receive any formal education. Frank Murphy, who was mayor of Detroit, governor of Michigan, United States Attorney General, attorney general of the United States, and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court justice was also a graduate of the Law School. Conservative pundit Ann Coulter is another U-M law school graduate (J.D. 1988). Vaughn R. Walker, a United States district court, federal district judge in California who overturned the controversial California Proposition 8 (2008), California Proposition 8 in 2010 and ruled it unconstitutional, received his undergraduate degree from U-M in 1966. Kenneth Marin, who became a professor of economics after he graduated from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, was appointed by President as a member of the White House Consumer Advisory Council where he served on Wage and Price Control in the mid-1960s. He went to Tanzania in the late sixties and worked as an economic advisor to the government of President Julius Nyerere until the early 1970s. Some notorious graduates of the University are 1910 convicted murderer Dr. Hawley Harvey Crippen, Harvey Crippen, late 19th-century American serial killer Herman Webster Mudgett (also known as H. H. Holmes), and "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski. U-M athletes have starred in Major League Baseball, the National Football League and National Basketball Association as well as other professional sports. Notable among recent players is Tom Brady of the New England Patriots and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Three players have won college football's Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player considered the best in the nation: Tom Harmon (1940), Desmond Howard (1991) and Charles Woodson (1997). Professional golfer John Schroeder (golfer), John Schroeder and Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps also attended the University of Michigan, with the latter studying Sports Marketing and Management. Phelps also swam competitively for Michigan Wolverines swimming and diving#Club Wolverine, Club Wolverine, a swimming club associated with the university. National Hockey League players Marty Turco, Chris Summers (ice hockey), Chris Summers, Max Pacioretty, Carl Hagelin, Dylan Larkin, Zach Hyman, Brendan Morrison, Jack Johnson (ice hockey), Jack Johnson, and Michael Cammalleri all played for U-M's ice hockey team. Baseball Hall of Famers George Sisler and Barry Larkin also played baseball at the university. Several team owners have also been alumni, including multiple-team owner Bill Davidson (businessman), Bill Davidson (NBA Detroit Pistons, NHL Tampa Bay Lightning, WNBA Detroit Shock, among others) and NFL owners Stephen M. Ross (Miami Dolphins), Preston Robert Tisch (New York Giants), and Ralph Wilson (Buffalo Bills). The university claims the only alumni association with a chapter on the moon, established in 1971 when the crew of Apollo 15 (two of whom had engineering degrees from U-M; the third had attended for a year before transferring) placed a charter plaque for a new U-M Alumni Association on the lunar surface. The plaque states: "The Alumni Association of The University of Michigan. Charter Number 1. This is to certify that The University of Michigan Club of The Moon is a duly constituted unit of the Alumni Association and entitled to all the rights and privileges under the Association's Constitution." Several small U-M flags were also brought on the mission; a persistent campus legend claims at least one flag was left on the moon.


References


Specific


General

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External links

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University of Michigan Athletics website
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