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The University of London
London
is a collegiate[a] and a federal research university located in London, England. The university was incorporated originally by royal charter in 1836 and is, at present, incorporated by royal charter granted in 1863.[6] It is now governed by the University of London
London
Act 1994[7] and by the Statutes made under it.[7] The university currently consists of 18 constituent colleges, nine research institutes and a number of central bodies.[8] The collegiate university houses the second-oldest medical school in London[9], and was the first to admit women[10][11] as degree candidates in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and also the first to appoint a female as its Vice Chancellor in the United Kingdom.[b] The university is the largest university by number of full-time students in the United Kingdom, with 161,270 campus-based internal students and over 52,000 distance learning students in external mode. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London
University College London
and King's College London
London
and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom".[12] The university moved to a federal structure in 1900.[13] Most constituent colleges rank in the top 50 universities in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and for most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with some recently obtaining the power to award their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university. The ten largest colleges of the university are University College London, King's College London, Queen Mary, City, Birkbeck, the London
London
School of Economics and Political Science, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, SOAS, and St George's. The specialist colleges of the university include the London
London
Business School, the Royal Veterinary College
Royal Veterinary College
and Heythrop College, specialising in philosophy and theology. Imperial College London
London
was formerly a member, before leaving the university a century later in 2007.[14] City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016.[15] As of 2015, there are a total of around 2 million[16] University of London
London
alumni across the world, which include 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners and 3 Olympic gold medalists. The collegiate research university has also produced Father of the Nation for several countries.[c] In post-nominals, the University of London
London
is commonly abbreviated as Lond. or, more rarely, Londin., from the Latin
Latin
Universitas Londiniensis, after its degree abbreviations.

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 20th century 1.3 21st century

2 Campuses 3 Organisation and administration

3.1 Chancellors

4 Constituent colleges and Central academic bodies

4.1 Colleges 4.2 Central academic bodies 4.3 Former colleges and schools 4.4 University colleges in the external degree programme 4.5 Colleges in special relation

5 Coat of arms 6 Academic dress 7 Student life

7.1 Sports, clubs and traditions 7.2 Student housing

8 Notable people

8.1 Notable alumni, faculty and staff 8.2 Honorary Alumni

9 Literature and popular culture

9.1 Literature 9.2 Films and others

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] 19th century[edit] See also: London
London
University (UK Parliament constituency) University College London
University College London
(University College London) was founded under the name “ London
London
University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge.[17] In response to the theological controversy surrounding such educational establishment, King's College London
London
(KCL) was founded and was the first to be granted a royal charter (in 1829).[18][19] Yet to receive a royal charter, UCL in 1834 renewed its application for a royal charter as a university (originally applied for in 1830), which would grant it the power to confer degrees.[20] In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London
London
medical schools. The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press.[21] and in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education.[22][23] However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests,[24][25][26] particularly as the degrees of the new University of Durham
University of Durham
were also to be closed to non-Anglicans.[27] In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, and a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name".[28] Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the university started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837. The death of William IV in June, however, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death.[29] Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837, reincorporating the university. The university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to students from UCL and King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was essentially an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts, laws and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant, effectively giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university. In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had previously received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony. The London
London
academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings".[30] The list of affiliated colleges grew by 1858 to include over 50 institutions, including all other British universities. In that year, a new charter effectively abolished the affiliated colleges system by opening up the examinations to everyone whether they attended an affiliated college or not.[31] This led the Earl of Kimberley, a member of the university's senate, to tell the House of Lords in 1888 "that there were no Colleges affiliated to the University of London, though there were some many years ago".[32] The reforms of 1858 also incorporated the graduates of the university into a convocation, similar to those of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham, and authorised the granting of degrees in science, the first BSc being awarded in 1860.[33] The expanded role meant the university needed more space, particularly with the growing number of students at the provincial university colleges. Between 1867 and 1870 a new headquarters was built at 6 Burlington Gardens, providing the university with exam halls and offices. In 1863, via a fourth charter, the university gained the right to grant degrees in surgery.[34] This 1863 charter remains the authority under which the university is incorporated, although all its other provisions were abolished under the 1898 University of London
London
Act. In 1878, the university set another first when it became the first university in the UK to admit women to degrees, via the grant of a supplemental charter. Four female students obtained Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1880 and two obtained Bachelor of Science degrees in 1881, again the first in the country.[35] In the late 19th century, the university came under criticism for merely serving as a centre for the administration of tests, and there were calls for a "teaching university" for London. UCL and KCL considered separating from the university to form a separate university, variously known as the Albert University, Gresham University and Westminster University. Following two royal commissions the University of London
London
Act 1898 was passed, reforming the university and giving it a federal structure with responsibility for monitoring course content and academic standards within its institutions. This was implemented in 1900 with the approval of new statutes for the university.[36]

Somerset House
Somerset House
in 1836. The university had its offices here from 1837 to 1870.

King William IV, who granted the University of London
London
its original royal charter in 1836.

An illustration of 6 Burlington Gardens, home to the university administration from 1870 to 1900.

20th century[edit] See also: First Universal Races Congress The reforms initiated by the 1898 act came into force with the approval of the new federal statutes in 1900. Many of the colleges in London
London
became schools of the university, including UCL, King's College, Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London
London
School of Economics. Regent's Park
Regent's Park
College, which had affiliated in 1841, became an official divinity school of the university in 1901 (the new statutes having given London
London
the right to award degrees in theology); Goldsmiths College joined in 1904; Imperial College
Imperial College
was founded in 1907; Queen Mary College joined in 1915; the School of Oriental and African Studies was founded in 1916; and Birkbeck College, which was founded in 1823, joined in 1920. The previous provision for colleges outside London
London
was not abandoned on federation, instead London
London
offered two routes to degrees: "internal" degrees offered by schools of the university and "external" degrees offered at other colleges (now the University of London International Programmes). UCL and King's College, whose campaign for a teaching university in London
London
had resulted in the university's reconstitution as a federal institution, went even further than becoming schools of the university and were actually merged into it. UCL's merger, under the 1905 University College London
University College London
(Transfer) Act, happened in 1907. The charter of 1836 was surrendered and all of UCL's property became the University of London's. King's College followed in 1910 under the 1908 King's College London
London
(Transfer) Act. This was a slightly more complicated case, as the theological department of the college (founded in 1846) did not merge into the university but maintained a separate legal existence under King's College's 1829 charter.[37] The expansion of the university's role meant that the Burlington Garden premises were insufficient, and in March 1900 it moved to the Imperial Institute in South Kensington.[38] However, its continued rapid expansion meant that it had outgrown its new premises by the 1920s, requiring yet another move. A large parcel of land in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
near the British Museum
British Museum
was acquired from the Duke of Bedford and Charles Holden
Charles Holden
was appointed architect with the instruction to create a building "not to suggest a passing fashion inappropriate to buildings which will house an institution of so permanent a character as a University." This unusual remit may have been inspired by the fact that William Beveridge, having just become director of LSE, upon asking a taxi driver to take him to the University of London
London
was met with the response "Oh, you mean the place near the Royal School of Needlework".[39] Holden responded by designing Senate House, the current headquarters of the university, and at the time of completion the second largest building in London.[40] During the Second World War, the colleges of the university (with the exception of Birkbeck) and their students left London
London
for safer parts of the UK, while Senate House was used by the Ministry of Information, with its roof becoming an observation point for the Royal Observer Corps. Though the building was hit by bombs several times, it emerged from the war largely unscathed; rumour at the time had it that the reason the building had fared so well was that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had planned to use it as his headquarters in London.[41] The latter half of the last century was less eventful. In 1948, Athlone Press was founded as the publishing house for the university, and sold to the Bemrose Corporation in 1979,[42] subsequent to which it was acquired by Continuum publishing.[43] However, the post-WWII period was mostly characterised by expansion and consolidation within the university, such as the acquisition as a constituent body of the Jesuit theological institution Heythrop College
Heythrop College
on its move from Oxfordshire in 1969. The 1978 University of London
London
Act saw the university defined as a federation of self-governing colleges, starting the process of decentralisation that would lead to a marked transference of academic and financial power in this period from the central authorities in Senate House to the individual colleges. In the same period, UCL and King's College regained their legal independence via acts of parliament and the issuing of new royal charters. UCL was reincorporate in 1977, while King's College's new charter in 1980 reunited the main body of the college with the corporation formed in 1829. One of the largest shifts in power of this period came in 1993, when HEFCE switched from funding the University of London, which then allocated money to the colleges, to funding the colleges directly and them paying a contribution to the university.[36] There was also a tendency in the late 20th century for smaller colleges to be amalgamated into larger "super-colleges". Some of the larger colleges (most notably UCL, King's College, LSE and Imperial) periodically put forward the possibility of their departure from the university, although no steps were taken to actually putting this into action until the early 21st century.

The Imperial Institute Building in South Kensington, home to the university from 1900 to 1937

21st century[edit] In 2002, Imperial College
Imperial College
and UCL mooted the possibility of a merger, raising the question of the future of the University of London
London
and the smaller colleges within it. Subsequently, considerable opposition from academic staff of both UCL and Imperial led to a rejection of the merger.[44] Despite this failure, the trend of decentralising power continued. A significant development in this process was the closing down of the Convocation
Convocation
of all the university's alumni in October 2003; this recognised that individual college alumni associations were now increasingly the centre of focus for alumni.[45] However, the university continued to grow even as it moved to a looser federation, and, in 2005, admitted the Central School of Speech and Drama. On 9 December 2005, Imperial College
Imperial College
became the second constituent body (after Regent's Park
Regent's Park
College) to make a formal decision to leave the university. Its council announced that it was beginning negotiations to withdraw from the university in time for its own centenary celebrations, and in order to be able to award its own degrees. On 5 October 2006, the University of London
London
accepted Imperial's formal request to withdraw from it.[46] Imperial became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of the college's centenary. The Times Higher Education Supplement
Times Higher Education Supplement
announced in February 2007 that the London
London
School of Economics, University College London
University College London
and King's College London
London
all planned to start awarding their own degrees, rather than degrees from the federal University of London
London
as they had done previously, from the start of the academic year starting in Autumn 2007. Although this plan to award their own degrees did not amount to a decision to leave the University of London, the THES suggested that this "rais[ed] new doubts about the future of the federal University of London".[47] The School of Pharmacy, University of London, merged with UCL on 1 January 2012, becoming the UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL School of Pharmacy
within the Faculty of Life Sciences.[48] This was followed on 2 December 2014 by the Institute of Education
Institute of Education
also merging with UCL, becoming the UCL Institute of Education.[49] Since 2010, the university has been outsourcing support services such as cleaning and portering. This has prompted industrial action by the largely Latin
Latin
American workforce under the "3Cosas" campaign (the 3Cosas – 3 causes –being sick pay, holiday pay, and pensions for outsourced workers on parity with staff employed directly by the university). The 3Cosas campaigners were members of the UNISON trade union. However, documents leaked in 2014 revealed that UNISON representatives tried to counter the 3Cosas campaign in meetings with university management.[50] The 3Cosas workers subsequently transferred to the Independent Workers Union of Great Britain. Following good results in the Research Excellence Framework in December 2014, City University London
London
said that they were exploring the possibility of joining the University of London.[51] It was subsequently announced in July 2015 that City would join the University of London
London
in August 2016.[15] It will cease to be an independent university and become a college as "City, University of London".[52] Campuses[edit]

Senate House, the headquarters of the University of London
London
since 1937

The university owns a considerable central London
London
estate 12 hectares freehold land in Bloomsbury, near Russell Square
Russell Square
tube station.[53] Some of the university's colleges have their main buildings on the estate. The Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
Campus also contains eight Halls of Residence and Senate House, which houses Senate House Library, the chancellor's official residence and previously housed the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, now part of University College London
University College London
(UCL) and housed in its own new building. Almost all of the School of Advanced Study is housed in Senate House and neighbouring Stewart House.[54] The university also owns many of the squares that formed part of the Bedford Estate, including Gordon Square, Tavistock Square, Torrington Square and Woburn Square, as well as several properties outside Bloomsbury, with many of the university's colleges and institutes occupying their own estates across London:

Clare Market, The Aldwych, where the London
London
School of Economics and Political Science and part of King's College London
London
are based The North and East Wings of Somerset House, the location for the Courtauld Institute of Art
Courtauld Institute of Art
and King's College London, respectively St Bartholomew's Hospital, the University of London
London
Boat Club in Chiswick, and The campus of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College
Royal Holloway and Bedford New College
including the historic Founder's Building.

The university also has several properties outside London, including a number of residential and catering units further afield and the premises of the University of London
London
Institute in Paris, which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French and historical studies. Organisation and administration[edit] See also: List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of London The University’s Board of Trustees, the governing and executive body of the University, comprises eleven appointed independent persons – all of whom are non-executive; the Vice-Chancellor, the Deputy Vice Chancellor and four Heads of member institutions, appointed by the Collegiate Council. The Board of Trustees is supported by the Collegiate Council, which comprises the Heads of the member institutions of the University, the Deputy Vice-Chancellor, the Dean and Chief Executive of the School of Advanced Study, the Chief Executive of the University of London International Programmes and the Collegiate Council’s Chair, the Vice-Chancellor. Chancellors[edit]

William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, first Chancellor of the University of London

The Princess Royal, current Chancellor of the University of London

The Chancellors of the University of London
London
since its founding are as follows:

William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Burlington, 1836–1856 Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, 1856–1891 Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, 1891–1893 Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell, 1893–1899 John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, 1899–1902 Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1902–1929 William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp, 1929–1931 Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, 1932–1955 Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, 1955–1981 Princess Anne ( The Princess Royal
The Princess Royal
from 1987), 1981–present

Constituent colleges and Central academic bodies[edit] The ten largest institutions of the federal university, usually termed the colleges, are Birkbeck, Goldsmiths, King's College London, the London
London
Business School, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway, SOAS, City, LSE and UCL. Formerly a constituent college, Imperial College
Imperial College
London
London
left the University of London
London
in 2007. For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 18 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Legally speaking they are known as Recognised Bodies, with the authority to examine students and award them degrees of the university. Some colleges have the power to award their own degrees instead of those of the university; those which exercise that power include:

City, University of London Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London Goldsmiths, University of London King's College London London
London
School of Economics and Political Science Queen Mary University of London Royal Holloway, University of London SOAS, University of London St George's, University of London University College London

Most decisions affecting the constituent colleges and institutions of the University of London
London
are made at the level of the colleges or institutions themselves. The University of London
London
does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and Board of Trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. The Collegiate Council is made up of the Heads of Colleges of the university.[55] The 12 institutes, or Listed Bodies, within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. Additionally, twelve universities in England, several in Canada
Canada
and many in other Commonwealth countries (notably in East Africa) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. An increasing number of overseas and UK-based academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London International Programmes's diplomas and degrees and the Teaching Institutions Recognition Framework enables the recognition of these institutions. Colleges[edit] See also: Heads of Colleges of the University of London The current constituent colleges of the University of London
London
are as follows:

College Name Year Entered Photograph Students

Birkbeck, University of London
London
(BBK) 1920

12,915

City, University of London
London
(CUL)[15] 2016

19,405

Courtauld Institute of Art
Courtauld Institute of Art
(CIA) 1932

495

Goldsmiths, University of London
London
(GUL) 1904

9,345

Heythrop College, University of London
London
(HEY) 1971

425

Institute of Cancer Research
Institute of Cancer Research
(ICR) 2003

275

King's College London
London
(KCL) 1836 (Founding College)

30,565

London
London
Business School (LBS) 1964

2,060

London
London
School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) 1900

11,210

London
London
School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) 1924

1,345

Queen Mary University of London
London
(QMUL) 1915

18,890

Royal Academy of Music
Royal Academy of Music
(RAM) 2003

820

Royal Central School of Speech and Drama
Central School of Speech and Drama
(RCSSD) 2005

1,100

Royal Holloway, University of London
London
(RHUL) 1900

10,325

Royal Veterinary College
Royal Veterinary College
(RVC) 1915

2,375

SOAS, University of London
London
(SOAS) 1916

6,360

St George's, University of London
London
(SGUL) 1836 (Joined after founding)

4,855

University College London
University College London
(UCL) 1836 (Founding College)

37,905

University of London Founded University

161,270 (internal)^ + 50,000 (external)

Central academic bodies[edit]

International Programmes Administrative Building, Stewart House, University of London. Also seen here is the University of London Institute in Paris, located on the Esplanade des Invalides
Esplanade des Invalides
in central Paris

University of London
London
(formerly International Programmes) University of London
London
Institute in Paris, formerly known as the British Institute in Paris School of Advanced Study
School of Advanced Study
comprising the following institutes:

the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies the Institute of Classical Studies the Institute of Commonwealth Studies the Institute of English Studies the Institute of Historical Research the Institute of Latin
Latin
American Studies the Institute of Modern Languages Research the Institute of Philosophy the Warburg Institute

Former colleges and schools[edit] Some colleges and schools of the University of London
London
have been amalgamated into larger colleges or left the University of London. These include: Imperial College
Imperial College
London
London
– became independent in July 2007[56]

Wye College – Wye, Kent; Wye courses are now run by the University of Kent
University of Kent
in partnership with Imperial College
Imperial College
London, and graduating students receive a University of Kent
University of Kent
degree and an Imperial Associateship of Wye College[57] Royal Postgraduate Medical School; now part of the Imperial College School of Medicine

Royal Holloway, University of London

Bedford College – Inner Circle Regent's Park; now part of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (the legal title of Royal Holloway, University of London, under its establishing act of parliament) Institute of Musical Research
Institute of Musical Research
- moved from School of Advanced Study
School of Advanced Study
in 2015

King's College London

Chelsea College – Manresa Road, Chelsea; now part of King's College London Queen Elizabeth College – Campden Hill Road, Kensington; now part of King's College London Institute of Psychiatry
Institute of Psychiatry
– split from Maudsley Hospital, merged with King's College London
London
in 1997 United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals – merged with King's College London
London
in 1998, now part of King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry

University College London

The School of Pharmacy, University of London; merged with University College London
London
on 1 January 2012 School of Slavonic and East European Studies
School of Slavonic and East European Studies
although formerly an Institute of the University of London, rather than a college, is now part of University College London Institute of Education; merged with University College London
University College London
on 2 December 2014

Queen Mary, University of London

Westfield College – Kidderpore Avenue, Hampstead; now part of Queen Mary and Westfield College
Westfield College
(the registered Royal Charter
Royal Charter
title of Queen Mary, University of London)

Others

The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Chelsea, London, founded 1891. In 1978 became a science funding body New College London, was closed in 1980. Despite the name the college never had any association with Royal Holloway and Bedford New College. Regent's Park College
Regent's Park College
moved to Oxford in 1927, becoming a Permanent Private Hall of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
from 1957 University Marine Biological Station, Millport, closed in 2013, now run by Field Studies Council

University colleges in the external degree programme[edit] Main article: University of London
London
International Programmes A number of major universities originated as university colleges teaching the degrees of (what is now) the International Programmes.

Mason College, Birmingham, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1900 as the University of Birmingham. Owen's College Manchester, became part of the Victoria University in 1880, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1903 as the Victoria University of Manchester. University College Liverpool, became part of the Victoria University in 1884, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1903 as the University of Liverpool. Yorkshire College, Leeds, became part of the Victoria University in 1887, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1904 as the University of Leeds. Firth College, Sheffield, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1905 as the University of Sheffield. Bristol University College, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1909 as the University of Bristol. University College Reading, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1926 as the University of Reading. Ceylon University College, established by the Ceylon University Ordinance Act in 1942 as the University of Ceylon. University College Nottingham, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1948 as the University of Nottingham. Hartley University College, Southampton, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1952 as the University of Southampton. University College Hull, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1954 as the University of Hull.[58] University College of the South West of England, Exeter, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1955 as the University of Exeter. University College Leicester, awarded a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1957 as the University of Leicester. University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff, joined the University of Wales
University of Wales
in 1893 and became Cardiff University
Cardiff University
in 2005. University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, joined the University of Wales in 1893 and became Aberystwyth University
Aberystwyth University
in 2007. University College of North Wales, Bangor, joined the University of Wales in 1893 and became Bangor University
Bangor University
in 2007.

A number of other colleges had degrees validated and awarded by the University of London.[59]

St. Patrick's, Carlow College, Ireland – from 1840 to 1892 students studied for primary degrees in Arts (BA) and Law (BLL).[60] St. Patrick's College, Thurles, Ireland – from 1849 the University of London, allowed Thurles to offer degrees.[61] Huddersfield College Queen's College, Birmingham[62] Stonyhurst College, a Catholic college in Lancashire. Wesleyan Collegiate Institution, Taunton, which became Queen's College, Taunton. Ceylon Technical College, 1933 – 1950 students studied for engineering degrees in BSc in Engineering. University College Lahore Singapore Institute of Management Northwest College for Advanced Learning, India

Colleges in special relation[edit] Main article: University of London
London
International Programmes Between 1946 and 1970, the university entered into 'schemes of special relation' with university colleges in the Commonwealth of Nations. These schemes encouraged the development of independent universities by offering a relationship with the University of London. University colleges in these countries were granted a Royal Charter. An Academic Board of the university college negotiated with the University of London
London
over the entrance requirements for the admission of students, syllabuses, examination procedures and other academic matters. During the period of the special relationship, graduates of the colleges were awarded University of London
London
degrees. Some of the colleges which were in special relation are listed below, along with the year in which their special relation was established.

1946 – The University College of the West Indies, until 1961. (Now the University of the West Indies)[63] 1948 – University College, Ibadan, until 1967. (Now the University of Ibadan)[64] 1956 – University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now the University of Zimbabwe). 1961 – Royal College Nairobi (now the University of Nairobi). 1963 – University of East Africa

In 1970, the 'Schemes of Special
Special
Relation' were phased out. Coat of arms[edit] The University of London
London
first received a grant of arms in April 1838.[65] The arms depict a cross of St George upon which there is a Tudor rose surrounded by detailing and surmounted by a crown. Above all of this there is a blue field with an open book upon it. The arms are described in the grant as:

Argent, the Cross of St George, thereon the Union Rose irradiated and ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper, a Chief Azure, thereon an open Book also proper, Clasps gold[65]

Academic dress[edit] Main article: Academic dress
Academic dress
of the University of London The University of London
London
had established a rudimentary code for academic dress by 1844. The university was the first to devise a system of academic dress based on faculty colours, an innovation that was subsequently followed by most other universities. Since their being granted autonomous degree awarding powers, King's College London, The London
London
School of Economics and Political Science and University College London
University College London
have each introduced their own form of academic dress. Queen Mary, University of London, as of 2014, introduced its own form of academic dress to reflect its autonomous degree awarding powers.[66] The remaining colleges of the university continue to use the University of London
London
academic dress. Student life[edit]

The main building of the University of London
London
Union (now rebranded as 'Student Central, London')

In 2016/17, 170,670 students (approximately 5% of all UK students) attended one of the University of London's affiliated schools.[2] Additionally, over 50,000 students follow the University of London International Programmes.[3] The ULU
ULU
building on Malet Street
Malet Street
(close to Senate House) was home to the University of London
London
Union, which acted as the student union for all University of London
London
students alongside the individual college and institution unions. The building is now rebranded as 'Student Central, London', offering full membership to current University of London students, and associate membership to students at other universities, and other groups. The union previously owned London
London
Student, the largest student newspaper in Europe, which now runs as a digital news organisation[67][68] Sports, clubs and traditions[edit] Though most sports teams are organised at the college level, ULU
ULU
ran a number of sports clubs of its own, some of which (for example the rowing team) compete in BUCS leagues. The union also organised its own leagues for college teams to participate in. These leagues and sports clubs are supported by Friends of University of London
London
Sport which aims to promote them. In addition to these, ULU
ULU
catered for sports not covered by the individual colleges through clubs such as the University of London Union Lifesaving
Lifesaving
Club, which helps students gain awards and learn new skills in lifesaving as well as sending teams to compete throughout the country in the BULSCA league. ULU
ULU
also organised a number of societies, ranging from Ballroom and Latin
Latin
American Dance to Shaolin Kung Fu, and from the University of London
London
Big Band to the Breakdancing
Breakdancing
Society. Affiliated to the university is the University of London
London
Society of Change Ringers, a society for bellringers at all London
London
universities. The university runs the University of London
London
Boat Club. Student housing[edit]

Connaught Hall, located in Tavistock Square

The university operates the following eight intercollegiate halls of residence, which accommodate students from most of its colleges and institutions:[69]

College Hall, Malet Street, WC1[70] Connaught Hall, Tavistock Square, WC1[71] International Hall, Brunswick Square, WC1[72] Lillian Penson Hall, Talbot Square, W2[73] Nutford House, Brown Street, W1[74]

The Garden Halls

Canterbury Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1[75] Commonwealth Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1[75] (paired with Hughes-Parry Hall for administration) Hughes Parry Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1[75] (paired with Canterbury Hall for administration)

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of University of London
London
people Notable alumni, faculty and staff[edit]

Mahatma Gandhi, Father of the Nation for India

Nelson Mandela, Father of the Nation for South Africa

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Father of the Nation for Pakistan[d]

Tedros Adhanom, 8th Director-General of the World Health Organization

Jeremy Heywood, 11th Cabinet Secretary

Margrethe II, Queen of Denmark

Aung San Suu Kyi, 1st State Counsellor of Myanmar

V. K. Krishna Menon, 3rd Defence Minister of India

Fred Mulley, Former British Secretary of State for Defence

Alexander Graham Bell, Inventor of Telephone

Elton John, English singer and composer.

Mick Jagger, English singer and composer.

A large number of famous individuals have passed through the University of London, either as staff or students, including at least 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 1 Ekushey Padak
Ekushey Padak
winner and 3 Olympic gold medalists. The collegiate research university has also produced Father of the Nation for several countries. Staff and students of the university, past and present, have contributed to a number of important scientific advances, including the discovery of vaccines by Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
and Henry Gray
Henry Gray
(author of Gray's Anatomy). Additional vital progress was made by University of London
London
people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA
DNA
(Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
and Rosalind Franklin); the invention of modern electronic computers (Tommy Flowers); the discovery of penicillin ( Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray
X-Ray
technology ( William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
and Charles Glover Barkla); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10 (Anne O'Garra); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism (James Clerk Maxwell); the determination of the speed of light (Louis Essen); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao); and the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell). Notable political figures who have passed through the university include Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Romano Prodi, Junichiro Koizumi, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ramsay MacDonald, Desmond Tutu, Taro Aso, Walter Rodney, Nelson Mandela, John F. Kennedy, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
and Mahatma Gandhi. In the arts, culture and literature the university has produced many notable figures. Writers include novelists Malcolm Bradbury, G. K. Chesterton, H. G. Wells, Thomas Hardy, Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke
and J.G. Ballard. Futurologist Donald Prell. Artists associated with the university include Jonathan Myles-Lea, and several of the leading figures in the Young British Artists
Young British Artists
movement (including Ian Davenport, Tracey Emin
Tracey Emin
and Damien Hirst). Outstanding musicians across a wide range include the conductor Sir Simon Rattle, the soprano Felicity Lott and both members of Gilbert and Sullivan, to Mick Jagger, Elton John, Dido, Pakistani singer Nazia Hassan
Nazia Hassan
(known in South Asia as the "Queen of Pop"), and Hong Kong singer Karen Mok, and members of the bands Coldplay, Keane, Suede, The Velvet Underground, Blur, Iron Maiden, Placebo, The Libertines, and Queen. The university has also played host to film directors (Christopher Nolan, Derek Jarman), philosophers (Karl Popper, Roger Scruton), explorers (David Livingstone), international academics (Sam Karunaratne), Riccarton High School Head of Commerce, Tom Neumann and leading businessmen (Michael Cowpland, George Soros). Honorary Alumni[edit] The University of London
London
presented its first honorary degrees in June 1903.[76][77] This accolade has been bestowed on a wide range of distinguished individuals from both the academic and non-academic worlds.[77] Honorary degrees are approved by the Collegiate Council, part of the University’s governance structure.[77]

Edward VIII
Edward VIII
(LLD), King of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the British Dominions and Emperor of India

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
(BMus, LLD), Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other Commonwealth realms

Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1948[e]

René Cassin
René Cassin
(1969), Recipient of Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1968

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(1936), Theoretical physicist
Theoretical physicist
and Recipient of Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941), 32nd President of the United States

Literature and popular culture[edit] See also: Category:University of London
London
in fiction

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017)

When the University of New Zealand
University of New Zealand
was constituted in 1874[78], it was a federal university modelled on the University of London, functioning principally as an examining body.[78] University of the Cape of Good Hope, when it was constituted in 1875 and authorised to be responsible for examinations throughout South Africa.[78] In Canada, similar structures were adopted, but on a regional basis.[78] The University of Toronto acted as an examining and degree awarding body for the province of Ontario
Ontario
from 1853 to 1887, by utilising an operating model based on that of University of London.[78] Literature[edit] Dr. Watson, a fictional character in the Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, received his medical degree[79][80][81] from Barts and The London
London
School of Medicine and Dentistry (now QMUL) and met Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
in the chemical laboratory there.[79][82] Films and others[edit] The Senate House, London
London
and constituent colleges of the University of London
London
has been featured in Hollywood and British films.[83][84][85][86] Jay Sean
Jay Sean
was a medical candidate[87][88] at the university, before dropping out to become British singer and songwriter.[89] See also[edit]

London
London
portal University portal

Golden triangle (universities) List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) Third-oldest university in England
England
debate United Hospitals

References[edit]

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Vice-Chancellor
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Notes

^ All students from all constituent colleges, central bodies and Institutes are members of their respective institutions and are also University of London
London
students and alumni. The University of London
London
has a Collegiate Council which advises the Board of Trustees on the strategic direction of the university, and is responsible for ensuring the proper discharge of its academic affairs. It is chaired by the Vice-Chancellor, and its membership comprises the Deputy Vice-Chancellor
Vice-Chancellor
(who is the Deputy Chair), all the Heads of the Colleges, the Dean and Chief Executive of the School of Advanced Study, and the Chief Executive of the University of London International Programmes. ^ Dame Lillian Penson served as Vice-Chancellor
Vice-Chancellor
of University of London
London
collegiate system from 1948–1951. She became the first female, in the history of the United Kingdom, to be appointed to lead a university. ^ The constituent colleges and central bodies of the University of London
London
has graduated several " Father of the Nation or Founders" for several countries. Names include Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Lee Kuan Yew, Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah. ^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
graduated from Inns of Court School of Law, which is now City Law School. In year 2016, City University London (CUL) "later renamed to City, University of London" became self-governing and one of the constituent college of the University of London. ^ The University of London
London
awarded honorary doctorate degree to Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at the Foundation Day ceremony on 18 November 1948.

Further reading[edit]

Harte, Negley (2000). University of London: An Illustrated History: 1836–1986. London: A&C Black. ISBN 9780567564498.  Thompson, F. M. L. (1990). The University of London
London
and the World of Learning, 1836–1986. London: A&C Black. ISBN 9781852850326.  Willson, F. M. G. (1995). Our Minerva: The Men and Politics of the University of London, 1836–58. London: Athlone Press. ISBN 9780485114799.  Willson, F. M. G. (2004). The University of London, 1858–1900: The Politics of Senate and Convocation. London: Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843830658. 

External links[edit]

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London
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v t e

University of London

Colleges and institutions

Current

Birkbeck City Courtauld Institute of Art Goldsmiths Heythrop College Institute of Cancer Research King's College London
London
(KCL) London
London
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London
School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) London
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School of Oriental and African Studies
(SOAS) University College London
University College London
(UCL)

Former and defunct

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Imperial College
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London
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Regent's Park
College Royal Postgraduate Medical School School of Pharmacy School of Slavonic and East European Studies University Marine Biological Station Millport St Thomas's Hospital Medical School Westfield College Wye College

Central bodies and programmes

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University of London
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Institute in Paris University of London
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(formerly International Programmes)

People

Chancellor: HRH The Princess Royal Vice-Chancellor: Sir Adrian Smith Visitor: Lord President of the Council

Academics Alumni Heads of Colleges List of University of London
London
people

Places and buildings

Current

Bloomsbury Gordon Square Halls of residence

College Hall Connaught Hall The Garden Halls International Hall Lillian Penson Hall Nutford House

Malet Street Russell Square Senate House Tavistock Square Torrington Square Woburn Square

Former

6 Burlington Gardens Church of Christ the King Halls of residence

Canterbury Hall Commonwealth Hall Hughes Parry Hall

Other

Academic dress The Careers Group History London
London
Student University of London
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Big Band University of London
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Boat Club University of London
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Computer Centre University of London
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Union (Rebranded) Parliamentary Constituency (Abolished)

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England

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University of London

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London
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Other

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London
Met London
London
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Wales

Aberystwyth Bangor Cardiff Cardiff Metropolitan South Wales Swansea Swansea Metropolitan UW Trinity Saint David Wrexham Glyndŵr

Overseas territories

Bermuda College Cayman Islands Law School International College of the Cayman Islands Saint James School of Medicine St. Matthew's University University of Gibraltar University College of the Cayman Islands University of Science, Arts and Technology University of the West Indies

Crown dependencies

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Universities

University of London

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London
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London
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London
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Other

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Imperial College
London University of Law London
London
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London
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Other university-level colleges

London
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Further education colleges

Barking & Dagenham Barnet & Southgate Bexley Bromley Capel Manor Carshalton City & Islington City Lit City of Westminster Croydon Ealing, Hammersmith & West London Fashion Retail Greenwich Haringey, Enfield & North East London Harrow Havering Hillcroft Kensington
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& Chelsea Kingston Lambeth Lewisham Southwark Marine Society Mary Ward Morley New City Newham North West London Richmond Adult Richmond upon Thames Sutton South Thames Stanmore Uxbridge Waltham Forest West Thames Westminster Kingsway Workers' Educational Working Men's

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Big Creative BSix Christ the King Coulsdon ELAM Haringey Harris Westminster Havering John Ruskin King's London
London
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London
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.