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UNITY IN DIVERSITY (Latin: _unitas in varetite_) is a political motto advocating federalism or multiculturalism . The phrase is a deliberate oxymoron , the rhetorical combination of two antonyms, _unitas_ "unity, oneness" and _varietas_ "variety, variousness".

The phrase can be traced to Leibniz , who uses it as a definition of "harmony " (_Harmonia est unitas in varietate_) in his _Elementa verae pietatis, sive de amore dei super omnia_ (1677/8). In modern politics it was first used, as _In varietate unitas_, by Ernesto Teodoro Moneta in the context of Italian Unification . In 1943 it invoked by Adélard Godbout , Premier of Quebec, in the context of the situation of French Canadians within Canada. The variant _In varietate concordia_ was adopted as the motto of the European Union
European Union
in 2000.

HISTORY OF USAGE

In 1938, in his book _The World Order of Bahá\'u\'lláh _, Shoghi Effendi , the Guardian of the Baha\'i Faith , said that "unity in diversity" was the "watchword" for the religion.

Adélard Godbout , while Premier of Quebec, published an article entitled "Canada: Unity in Diversity" (1943) in the Council on Foreign Relations journal. He asked,

“ _How does the dual relationship of the French Canadians make them an element of strength and order, and therefore of unity, in our joint civilization, which necessarily includes not only Canada and the British Commonwealth of Nations, but also the United States, the Latin republics of America and liberated France?_ ”

The phrase has since become somewhat of a staple of Canadian multiculturalism in general. The phrase was invoked in the Interdisciplinary Research Seminar at Wilfrid Laurier University in the 1970s. Ervin Laszlo presented his paper entitled "Framework for a General Systems Theory of World Order" (1974) as one of the first seminar Papers that led to the establishment of the IRS in 1975. The motto of the province of Saskatchewan , adopted in 1986, is a variation, _Multis e gentibus vires_ (from many peoples, strength).

When the Apartheid
Apartheid
of Republic of South Africa
Republic of South Africa
celebrated 20 years of independence on 31 May 1981, the theme of the celebrations was "unity in diversity". Anti-apartheid campaigners denounced the motto as a cynical attempt to explain away the inequalities in South African life and called on runners of the Comrades Marathon to protest at the co-option of the event by wearing a black armband. The winner of the race, Bruce Fordyce , was one of those wearing a black armband. The term has since been incorporated into the preamble of the 1996 Constitution of South Africa as a central tenet of post-Apartheid South Africa.

In 2000, the European Union
European Union
adopted 'United in Diversity' (Latin: _In varietate concordia_) as official motto , a reference to the many and diverse member states of the Union in terms of culture. Apart from its English form, the European Union's motto is also official in 23 other languages. "Unity in diversity" was selected by means of a competition involving students from member nations. According to the European Union official website

“ _It signifies how Europeans have come together, in the form of the EU , to work for peace and prosperity, while at the same time being enriched by the continent's many different cultures, traditions and languages._ ”

SEE ALSO

* Bhinneka Tunggal Ika * E pluribus unum * Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno * Cultural diversity

REFERENCES

* ^ ed. Grua (1948) I.12/A VI.4.1358. Leibniz glosses the definition with _Harmonia est cum multa ad quandam unitatem revocantur_ "'Harmony' is when many are restored to some kind of unity". * ^ i.e. the EU replaced _varietas_ by _concordia_ "concord, cordial accord" in the Latin version and inverted word order. In the English version _unity_ was retained (French _unité_). * ^ "European Motto in _varietate concordia_", _Eurominority_, 2004, retrieved 10 January 2014 * ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1938), _The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh_, Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, ISBN 0-87743-231-7 , retrieved 10 January 2014 Effendi, Shoghi (1938), "Unity in Diversity", _World Order of Bahá’u’lláh_, Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, pp. 41–42, ISBN 0-87743-231-7 , retrieved 10 January 2014 * ^ Godbout 1943 . * ^ Godbout, Adelard (April 1943), _Canada: Unity in Diversity_, 21 (3), Council on Foreign Relations, retrieved 10 January 2014 "Gwich’in Tribal Council Annual Report 2012 - 2013: Unity through diversity" (PDF), _Gwich’in Tribal Council_, 2013, retrieved 5 September 2014 Roxanne, Lalonde (April 1994), "Edited extract from M.A. thesis", _Unity in Diversity: Acceptance and Integration in an Era of Intolerance and Fragmentation_, Ottawa, Ontario: Department of Geography, Carleton University, retrieved 9 January 2014 * ^ Nyiri, Nicolas A.; Preece, Rod (1977), _Unity in Diversity_, 1, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 0-88920-058-0 , retrieved 14 February 2012 * ^ Morgan, Brad (nd), _Bruce Fordyce: Comrades King_

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