The UNITED STATES OF AFRICA is a proposed concept for a federation of
some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent. The
concept takes its origin from
Marcus Garvey 's 1924 poem, Hail, United
States of Africa.
Former Libyan leader
Muammar al-Gaddafi , who was the 2009
Chairperson of the African Union (AU), advanced the idea of a United
Africa at two regional African summits: first in June 2007
Conakry, Guinea , and again in February 2009 in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia . Gaddafi had previously pushed for its creation at a 2000
Lomé, Togo , having described the AU as a failure on a
number of occasions; Gaddafi asserted that only a true pan-African
state can provide stability and wealth to Africa. A number of senior
AU members also support the proposed federation, believing that it
could bring peace to a 'new' Africa.
Alpha Oumar Konaré , former
Mali and former Chairperson of the African Union
Commission , spoke in favor of the concept at the commemoration of
Africa Day , on May 25, 2006.
* 1 Origins
* 1.1 2009–11 proposals
* 1.2 After the death of Gaddafi
* 2 National views
* 3 Demographics
* 4 In fiction
* 5 See also
* 6 References
Marcus Garvey in 1924
The idea of a multinational unifying African state has been compared
to various medieval African empires, including the
Ethiopian Empire ,
Ghana Empire , the
Mali Empire , the
Songhai Empire , the Benin
Empire , the
Kanem Empire , and other historic nation states. During
the late 19th and early 20th century the majority of African land was
controlled by various European empires, with the British controlling
around 30% of the African population at its peak.
The term "United States of Africa" was mentioned first by Marcus
Garvey in his poem Hail, United States of
Africa in 1924. Garvey's
ideas deeply influenced the birth of the
Pan-Africanist movement which
culminated in 1945 with the Fifth
Pan-African Congress in Manchester,
United Kingdom , attended by
W. E. B. Du Bois ,
Patrice Lumumba ,
George Padmore ,
Jomo Kenyatta ,
Dudley Thompson , and
Kwame Nkrumah .
Later, Nkrumah and
Haile Selassie took the idea forward to form the
Organisation of African Unity , the precursor of the African
Muammar al-Gaddafi in 2003
In February 2009, upon being elected chairman of the 53-nation
African Union in Ethiopia, Gaddafi told the assembled African leaders:
"I shall continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to
achieve the United States of Africa." The
BBC reported that Gaddafi
had proposed "a single African military force, a single currency and a
single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent".
Other African leaders stated they would study the proposal's
implications, and re-discuss it in May 2009.
The focus for developing the United States of
Africa so far has been
on building subdivisions of
Africa - the proposed East African
Federation can be seen as an example of this. Former President of
Abdoulaye Wade , had indicated that the United States of
Africa could exist from as early as 2017. The African Union, by
contrast, has set itself the task of building a "united and
Africa by 2025. Gaddafi had also indicated that the
proposed federation may extend as far west as the
Jamaica , the
Dominican Republic , and other islands featuring a large
African diaspora , may be invited to join.
Gaddafi also received criticism for his involvement in the movement,
and lack of support for the idea from among other African leaders. A
week before Gaddafi's death during the Libyan Civil War , South
Jacob Zuma expressed relief at the regime's
downfall, complaining that Gaddafi had been "intimidating" many
African heads of state and government in an effort to gain influence
throughout the continent and suggesting that the
African Union will
function better without Gaddafi and his repeated proposals for a
unitary African government.
AFTER THE DEATH OF GADDAFI
Gaddafi was ultimately killed during the Battle of Sirte in October
2011. While some regard the project to have died with him, Robert
Mugabe has expressed interest in reviving the project.
African integration generally has had a higher level of support among
poorer, less developed, and smaller African countries versus richer,
more developed, and larger African countries.
The nations of
Senegal , and
Zimbabwe , have
supported an African federation. Others such as South
Africa , Kenya
Nigeria have been more skeptic, feeling that the continent is
not ready for integration. North African countries such as
Tunisia , and post-revolution
Libya who have
traditionally identified more with rival ideologies like Arab
Islamism have shown less interest in the
Support appears to be inversely proportional to a nation's power and
influence. Doubts have been raised about whether the goal of a unified
Africa can ever be achieved while ongoing problems of conflict and
poverty persist throughout the continent.
Cape Verde–European Union relations
The West African island nation of
Cape Verde was formerly in favour
of an African federation, however as of 2014, it has been lessening
its African integration. It is now focusing on
European integration ,
as the other three island groups in the
Macaronesian region between
Africa are part of the
European Union (Azores, Madeira, and
Canary Islands). Furthermore, the majority of the people of Cape Verde
do not consider themselves African, and have many cultural and genetic
links to Portugal and the rest of Europe.
Cape Verde had been part of Portugal for over five
centuries before gaining independence in 1975, and more than 70
percent of its population are of mixed descent (African and European).
Also, the vast majority of economic investment, aid, and tourism comes
from Europe. The people of
Cape Verde speak
Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole and
Portuguese, which is a European language. The leaders of Cape Verde
have proposed withdrawing from
ECOWAS , a West African integration
The proposed federation would have the largest total territory of any
state, exceeding the Russian
Federation . It would also be the third
most populous state after China and
India , and with a population
speaking an estimated 2,000 languages .
In the fictional
Star Trek universe, the United States of Africa
exist as part of the United Earth Government. Officer Uhura originates
Kenya within the United States of Africa.
In the fictional
Halo (series) universe, the United States of Africa
exist as a nation of the United Earth Government, within the United
Nations Space Command .
Arthur C. Clarke 's 1987 science fiction novel 2061: Odyssey Three
features the formation of a United States of Southern Africa.
The 2006 French-Beninese film
Africa Paradis is set in the United
Africa in the year 2033.
The 90's cartoon
Bots Master has a United States of Africa, and its
President is one of the few people who believes that Ziv "ZZ" Zulander
is not a terrorist.
* Demographics of
* United States of Latin
* Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities
* ^ A B "Hail! United States Of
Africa Poem by Marcus Mosiah Garvey
- Poem Hunter". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
* ^ A B C "Ambitious plan for a new Africa: Welcome to the U.S.A
(that\'s the United States of Africa)".
The Independent . 30 June
2007. Retrieved 2009-04-26.
* ^ Thabo Mbeki (9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July
2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki".
ABSA Stadium , Durban, South
Africa : africa-union.org. Retrieved 8
* ^ Gaddafi Calls for a "U.S." of Africa, from Mafé Tiga blog,
July 1, 2007
* ^ A B AU summit extended amid divisions, from
BBC News, 4
* ^ "United States of Africa?", from
BBC News , 11 July 2000
* ^ Gaddafi urges pan-African state, from
BBC News, 26 June 2007
* ^ "Statement of the UA Commission Chairperson". Retrieved 25 June
* ^ Would a United States of
Africa work?, from Le Monde
diplomatique (English edition), September 2000
* ^ "
BBC - History - British History in depth: Slavery and the
\'Scramble for Africa\'". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
* ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007).
"Organization of African Unity". HighBeam Research. Retrieved
2009-04-27. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* ^ "Gaddafi vows to push
BBC . 2 Feb 2009.
* ^ "
African Union & African Diaspora Leaders in Harlem: Pres Wade
call for United States of Africa, 2017". TheBlackList Pub. 25
September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
* ^ United States of
Africa - A Wishful Thinking, from AfricaLoft,
republished 4 February 2009
* ^ United States of
Africa may take off in 2017, says Wade, from
Guardian Newspapers, published 13 February 2009
* ^ Gadhafi pledges \'United States of Africa\', from msnbc, 2
* ^ "AU better without \'intimidating\' Gaddafi - Zuma". News24. 13
October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
* ^ Smith, David (21 January 2013). "Mugabe revives Gaddafi\'s
United States of
Africa dream". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
* ^ "Gaddafi calls for United States of Africa, one