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The United States of Africa
Africa
is a proposed concept for a federation of some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent. The concept takes its origin from Marcus Garvey's 1924 poem, Hail, United States of Africa.[1][2][3].

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 2009–11 proposals 1.2 After the death of Gaddafi

2 National views

2.1 Cape Verde

3 Demographics 4 In fiction 5 See also 6 References

Origins[edit]

Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
in 1924

The idea of a multinational unifying African state has been compared to various medieval African empires, including the Ethiopian Empire, the Ghana
Ghana
Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Benin Empire, the Kanem Empire, and other historic nation states.[4] During the late 19th and early 20th century the majority of African land was controlled by various European empires, with the British controlling around 30% of the African population at its peak.[5] The term "United States of Africa" was mentioned first by Marcus Garvey in his poem Hail, United States of Africa[1] in 1924. Kidane's ideas and formation systems deeply influenced former Africa
Africa
leaders and the rebirth of the African Union, the precursor of the United Africa
Africa
States and Islands. 2009–11 proposals[edit]

Muammar al-Gaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi
in 2003

In February 2009, upon being elected chairman of the 53-nation African Union in Ethiopia, Gaddafi told the assembled African leaders: "I shall continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to achieve the United States of Africa."[6] The BBC
BBC
reported that Gaddafi had proposed "a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent". Other African leaders stated they would study the proposal's implications, and re-discuss it in May 2009.[7] The focus for developing the United States of Africa
Africa
so far has been on building subdivisions of Africa
Africa
- the proposed East African Federation
Federation
can be seen as an example of this. Former President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, had indicated that the United States of Africa
Africa
could exist from as early as 2017.[8] The African Union, by contrast, has set itself the task of building a "united and integrated" Africa
Africa
by 2025.[9] Gaddafi had also indicated that the proposed federation may extend as far west as the Caribbean: Haiti, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and other islands featuring a large African diaspora, may be invited to join.[10] Gaddafi also received criticism for his involvement in the movement, and lack of support for the idea from among other African leaders.[11] A week before Gaddafi's death during the Libyan Civil War, South African President Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
expressed relief at the regime's downfall, complaining that Gaddafi had been "intimidating" many African heads of state and government in an effort to gain influence throughout the continent and suggesting that the African Union
African Union
will function better without Gaddafi and his repeated proposals for a unitary African government.[12] After the death of Gaddafi[edit] Gaddafi was ultimately killed during the Battle of Sirte in October 2011. While some regard the project to have died with him, Robert Mugabe expressed interest in reviving the project.[13] Following the 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état, Mugabe resigned as President.[14] National views[edit] African integration generally has had a higher level of support among poorer, less developed, and smaller African countries versus richer, more developed, and larger African countries. The nations of Eritrea, Ghana, Senegal, and Zimbabwe, have supported an African federation.[15] Others such as South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria
Nigeria
have been more skeptic, feeling that the continent is not ready for integration.[2] North African countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, and post-revolution Libya
Libya
who have traditionally identified more with rival ideologies like Arab nationalism, Berberism
Berberism
and Islamism
Islamism
have shown less interest in the idea. Support appears to be inversely proportional to a nation's power and influence. Doubts have been raised about whether the goal of a unified Africa
Africa
can ever be achieved while ongoing problems of conflict and poverty persist throughout the continent.[16] Cape Verde[edit] Main article: Cape Verde– European Union
European Union
relations The West African island nation of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
was formerly in favour of an African federation, however as of 2014, it has been lessening its African integration. It is now focusing on European integration, as the other three island groups in the Macaronesian
Macaronesian
region between Europe and Africa
Africa
are part of the European Union
European Union
(Azores, Madeira, and Canary Islands). Furthermore, the majority of the people of Cape Verde do not consider themselves African, and have many cultural and genetic links to Portugal and the rest of Europe.[citation needed] In addition, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
had been part of Portugal for over five centuries before gaining independence in 1975, and more than 70 percent of its population are of mixed descent (African and European).[citation needed] Also, the vast majority of economic investment, aid, and tourism comes from Europe. The people of Cape Verde speak Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
and Portuguese, which is a European language. The leaders of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
have proposed withdrawing from ECOWAS, a West African integration organization.[citation needed] Demographics[edit] The proposed federation would have the largest total territory of any state, exceeding the Russian Federation. It would also be the third most populous state after China and India, and with a population speaking an estimated 2,000 languages. In fiction[edit] In the fictional Star Trek
Star Trek
universe, the United States of Africa
Africa
exist as part of the United Earth Government. Officer Uhura originates from Kenya
Kenya
within the United States of Africa. In the fictional Halo (series)
Halo (series)
universe, the United States of Africa exist as a nation of the United Earth Government, within the United Nations Space Command. Arthur C. Clarke's 1987 science fiction novel 2061: Odyssey Three features the formation of a United States of Southern Africa. The 2006 French-Beninese film Africa
Africa
Paradis is set in the United States of Africa
Africa
in the year 2033. The 90's cartoon Bots Master has a United States of Africa, and its President is one of the few people who believes that Ziv "ZZ" Zulander is not a terrorist. See also[edit]

African Union Arab Union Demographics of Africa Federal Europe Pan-African Parliament United States of Latin Africa Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League

References[edit]

^ a b "Hail! United States Of Africa
Africa
Poem by Marcus Mosiah Garvey - Poem Hunter". Retrieved 25 June 2016.  ^ a b "Ambitious plan for a new Africa: Welcome to the U.S.A (that's the United States of Africa)". The Independent. 30 June 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  ^ Thabo Mbeki (9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July 2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki". ABSA Stadium, Durban, South Africa: africa-union.org. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2002.  ^ Would a United States of Africa
Africa
work?, from Le Monde diplomatique (English edition), September 2000 ^ " BBC
BBC
- History - British History in depth: Slavery and the 'Scramble for Africa'". Retrieved 25 June 2016.  ^ "Gaddafi vows to push Africa
Africa
unity". BBC. 2 Feb 2009.  ^ AU summit extended amid divisions, from BBC
BBC
News, 4 February 2009 ^ " African Union
African Union
& African Diaspora Leaders in Harlem: Pres Wade call for United States of Africa, 2017". TheBlackList Pub. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2012.  ^ United States of Africa
Africa
- A Wishful Thinking, from AfricaLoft, republished 4 February 2009 ^ United States of Africa
Africa
may take off in 2017, says Wade, from Guardian Newspapers, published 13 February 2009 ^ Gadhafi pledges 'United States of Africa', from msnbc, 2 February 2009 ^ "AU better without 'intimidating' Gaddafi - Zuma". News24. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ Smith, David (21 January 2013). "Mugabe revives Gaddafi's United States of Africa
Africa
dream". Retrieved 25 June 2016.  ^ "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe 'resigns'". BBC
BBC
News. 21 November 2017. Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ "Gaddafi calls for United States of Africa, one army". Mmegi Online. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2012.  ^ 'United States of Africa' Still an Idea Ahead of Its Time, from World Politics Review, 13 July 2007

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Africa
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