The United States of
Africa is a proposed concept for a federation of
some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent. The
concept takes its origin from Marcus Garvey's 1924 poem, Hail, United
States of Africa..
1.1 2009–11 proposals
1.2 After the death of Gaddafi
2 National views
2.1 Cape Verde
4 In fiction
5 See also
Marcus Garvey in 1924
The idea of a multinational unifying African state has been compared
to various medieval African empires, including the Ethiopian Empire,
Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Benin
Empire, the Kanem Empire, and other historic nation states. During
the late 19th and early 20th century the majority of African land was
controlled by various European empires, with the British controlling
around 30% of the African population at its peak.
The term "United States of Africa" was mentioned first by Marcus
Garvey in his poem Hail, United States of Africa in 1924. Kidane's
ideas and formation systems deeply influenced former
and the rebirth of the African Union, the precursor of the United
Africa States and Islands.
Muammar al-Gaddafi in 2003
In February 2009, upon being elected chairman of the 53-nation African
Union in Ethiopia, Gaddafi told the assembled African leaders: "I
shall continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to achieve
the United States of Africa." The
BBC reported that Gaddafi had
proposed "a single African military force, a single currency and a
single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent".
Other African leaders stated they would study the proposal's
implications, and re-discuss it in May 2009.
The focus for developing the United States of
Africa so far has been
on building subdivisions of
Africa - the proposed East African
Federation can be seen as an example of this. Former President of
Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, had indicated that the United States of
Africa could exist from as early as 2017. The African Union, by
contrast, has set itself the task of building a "united and
Africa by 2025. Gaddafi had also indicated that the
proposed federation may extend as far west as the Caribbean: Haiti,
Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and other islands featuring a large
African diaspora, may be invited to join.
Gaddafi also received criticism for his involvement in the movement,
and lack of support for the idea from among other African leaders.
A week before Gaddafi's death during the Libyan Civil War, South
Jacob Zuma expressed relief at the regime's
downfall, complaining that Gaddafi had been "intimidating" many
African heads of state and government in an effort to gain influence
throughout the continent and suggesting that the
African Union will
function better without Gaddafi and his repeated proposals for a
unitary African government.
After the death of Gaddafi
Gaddafi was ultimately killed during the Battle of Sirte in October
2011. While some regard the project to have died with him, Robert
Mugabe expressed interest in reviving the project. Following the
2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état, Mugabe resigned as President.
African integration generally has had a higher level of support among
poorer, less developed, and smaller African countries versus richer,
more developed, and larger African countries.
The nations of Eritrea, Ghana, Senegal, and Zimbabwe, have supported
an African federation. Others such as South Africa, Kenya, and
Nigeria have been more skeptic, feeling that the continent is not
ready for integration. North African countries such as Algeria,
Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, and post-revolution
Libya who have
traditionally identified more with rival ideologies like Arab
Islamism have shown less interest in the
Support appears to be inversely proportional to a nation's power and
influence. Doubts have been raised about whether the goal of a unified
Africa can ever be achieved while ongoing problems of conflict and
poverty persist throughout the continent.
Main article: Cape Verde–
European Union relations
The West African island nation of
Cape Verde was formerly in favour of
an African federation, however as of 2014, it has been lessening its
African integration. It is now focusing on European integration, as
the other three island groups in the
Macaronesian region between
Africa are part of the
European Union (Azores, Madeira, and
Canary Islands). Furthermore, the majority of the people of Cape Verde
do not consider themselves African, and have many cultural and genetic
links to Portugal and the rest of Europe.
Cape Verde had been part of Portugal for over five
centuries before gaining independence in 1975, and more than 70
percent of its population are of mixed descent (African and
European). Also, the vast majority of economic
investment, aid, and tourism comes from Europe. The people of Cape
Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole and Portuguese, which is a European
language. The leaders of
Cape Verde have proposed withdrawing from
ECOWAS, a West African integration organization.
The proposed federation would have the largest total territory of any
state, exceeding the Russian Federation. It would also be the third
most populous state after China and India, and with a population
speaking an estimated 2,000 languages.
In the fictional
Star Trek universe, the United States of
as part of the United Earth Government. Officer Uhura originates from
Kenya within the United States of Africa.
In the fictional
Halo (series) universe, the United States of Africa
exist as a nation of the United Earth Government, within the United
Nations Space Command.
Arthur C. Clarke's 1987 science fiction novel 2061: Odyssey Three
features the formation of a United States of Southern Africa.
The 2006 French-Beninese film
Africa Paradis is set in the United
Africa in the year 2033.
The 90's cartoon
Bots Master has a United States of Africa, and its
President is one of the few people who believes that Ziv "ZZ" Zulander
is not a terrorist.
Demographics of Africa
United States of Latin Africa
Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League
^ a b "Hail! United States Of
Africa Poem by Marcus Mosiah Garvey -
Poem Hunter". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
^ a b "Ambitious plan for a new Africa: Welcome to the U.S.A (that's
the United States of Africa)". The Independent. 30 June 2007.
^ Thabo Mbeki (9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July
2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki".
ABSA Stadium, Durban, South Africa: africa-union.org. Archived from
the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2002.
^ Would a United States of
Africa work?, from Le Monde diplomatique
(English edition), September 2000
BBC - History - British History in depth: Slavery and the 'Scramble
for Africa'". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
^ "Gaddafi vows to push
Africa unity". BBC. 2 Feb 2009.
^ AU summit extended amid divisions, from
BBC News, 4 February 2009
African Union & African Diaspora Leaders in Harlem: Pres Wade
call for United States of Africa, 2017". TheBlackList Pub. 25
September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
^ United States of
Africa - A Wishful Thinking, from AfricaLoft,
republished 4 February 2009
^ United States of
Africa may take off in 2017, says Wade, from
Guardian Newspapers, published 13 February 2009
^ Gadhafi pledges 'United States of Africa', from msnbc, 2 February
^ "AU better without 'intimidating' Gaddafi - Zuma". News24. 13
October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
^ Smith, David (21 January 2013). "Mugabe revives Gaddafi's United
Africa dream". Retrieved 25 June 2016.
^ "Zimbabwe's President Mugabe 'resigns'".
BBC News. 21 November 2017.
Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 November
^ "Gaddafi calls for United States of Africa, one army". Mmegi Online.
16 December 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
^ 'United States of Africa' Still an Idea Ahead of Its Time, from
World Politics Review, 13 July 2007
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