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The UNITED STATES OF AFRICA is a proposed concept for a federation of some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent. The concept takes its origin from Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
's 1924 poem, Hail, United States of Africa.

Former Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi
, who was the 2009 Chairperson of the African Union (AU), advanced the idea of a United States of Africa
Africa
at two regional African summits: first in June 2007 in Conakry, Guinea , and again in February 2009 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia . Gaddafi had previously pushed for its creation at a 2000 summit in Lomé, Togo , having described the AU as a failure on a number of occasions; Gaddafi asserted that only a true pan-African state can provide stability and wealth to Africa. A number of senior AU members also support the proposed federation, believing that it could bring peace to a 'new' Africa. Alpha Oumar Konaré , former President of Mali
Mali
and former Chairperson of the African Union Commission , spoke in favor of the concept at the commemoration of Africa
Africa
Day , on May 25, 2006.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 1.1 2009–11 proposals * 1.2 After the death of Gaddafi

* 2 National views

* 2.1 Cape Verde
Cape Verde

* 3 Demographics * 4 In fiction * 5 See also * 6 References

ORIGINS

Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
in 1924

The idea of a multinational unifying African state has been compared to various medieval African empires, including the Ethiopian Empire , the Ghana Empire , the Mali
Mali
Empire , the Songhai Empire , the Benin Empire , the Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
, and other historic nation states. During the late 19th and early 20th century the majority of African land was controlled by various European empires, with the British controlling around 30% of the African population at its peak.

The term "United States of Africa" was mentioned first by Marcus Garvey in his poem Hail, United States of Africa
Africa
in 1924. Garvey's ideas deeply influenced the birth of the Pan-Africanist movement which culminated in 1945 with the Fifth Pan-African Congress in Manchester, United Kingdom , attended by W. E. B. Du Bois , Patrice Lumumba , George Padmore
George Padmore
, Jomo Kenyatta
Jomo Kenyatta
, Dudley Thompson , and Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
. Later, Nkrumah and Haile Selassie took the idea forward to form the 37 nation Organisation of African Unity , the precursor of the African Union .

2009–11 PROPOSALS

Muammar al-Gaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi
in 2003

In February 2009, upon being elected chairman of the 53-nation African Union
African Union
in Ethiopia, Gaddafi told the assembled African leaders: "I shall continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to achieve the United States of Africa." The BBC
BBC
reported that Gaddafi had proposed "a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent". Other African leaders stated they would study the proposal's implications, and re-discuss it in May 2009.

The focus for developing the United States of Africa
Africa
so far has been on building subdivisions of Africa
Africa
- the proposed East African Federation
Federation
can be seen as an example of this. Former President of Senegal
Senegal
, Abdoulaye Wade , had indicated that the United States of Africa
Africa
could exist from as early as 2017. The African Union, by contrast, has set itself the task of building a "united and integrated" Africa
Africa
by 2025. Gaddafi had also indicated that the proposed federation may extend as far west as the Caribbean
Caribbean
: Haiti
Haiti
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, the Dominican Republic , and other islands featuring a large African diaspora
African diaspora
, may be invited to join.

Gaddafi also received criticism for his involvement in the movement, and lack of support for the idea from among other African leaders. A week before Gaddafi's death during the Libyan Civil War , South African President Jacob Zuma expressed relief at the regime's downfall, complaining that Gaddafi had been "intimidating" many African heads of state and government in an effort to gain influence throughout the continent and suggesting that the African Union
African Union
will function better without Gaddafi and his repeated proposals for a unitary African government.

AFTER THE DEATH OF GADDAFI

Gaddafi was ultimately killed during the Battle of Sirte in October 2011. While some regard the project to have died with him, Robert Mugabe has expressed interest in reviving the project.

NATIONAL VIEWS

African integration generally has had a higher level of support among poorer, less developed, and smaller African countries versus richer, more developed, and larger African countries.

The nations of Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ghana
Ghana
, Senegal
Senegal
, and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
, have supported an African federation. Others such as South Africa
Africa
, Kenya , and Nigeria
Nigeria
have been more skeptic, feeling that the continent is not ready for integration. North African countries such as Algeria
Algeria
, Morocco
Morocco
, Egypt
Egypt
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, and post-revolution Libya
Libya
who have traditionally identified more with rival ideologies like Arab nationalism , Berberism and Islamism have shown less interest in the idea.

Support appears to be inversely proportional to a nation's power and influence. Doubts have been raised about whether the goal of a unified Africa
Africa
can ever be achieved while ongoing problems of conflict and poverty persist throughout the continent.

CAPE VERDE

Main article: Cape Verde–European Union relations

The West African island nation of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
was formerly in favour of an African federation, however as of 2014, it has been lessening its African integration. It is now focusing on European integration , as the other three island groups in the Macaronesian region between Europe and Africa
Africa
are part of the European Union
European Union
(Azores, Madeira, and Canary Islands). Furthermore, the majority of the people of Cape Verde do not consider themselves African, and have many cultural and genetic links to Portugal and the rest of Europe.

In addition, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
had been part of Portugal for over five centuries before gaining independence in 1975, and more than 70 percent of its population are of mixed descent (African and European). Also, the vast majority of economic investment, aid, and tourism comes from Europe. The people of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
speak Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole
and Portuguese, which is a European language. The leaders of Cape Verde have proposed withdrawing from ECOWAS , a West African integration organization.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The proposed federation would have the largest total territory of any state, exceeding the Russian Federation
Federation
. It would also be the third most populous state after China and India
India
, and with a population speaking an estimated 2,000 languages .

IN FICTION

In the fictional Star Trek universe, the United States of Africa exist as part of the United Earth Government. Officer Uhura originates from Kenya
Kenya
within the United States of Africa.

In the fictional Halo (series) universe, the United States of Africa exist as a nation of the United Earth Government, within the United Nations Space Command .

Arthur C. Clarke 's 1987 science fiction novel 2061: Odyssey Three features the formation of a United States of Southern Africa.

The 2006 French-Beninese film Africa
Africa
Paradis is set in the United States of Africa
Africa
in the year 2033.

The 90's cartoon Bots Master has a United States of Africa, and its President is one of the few people who believes that Ziv "ZZ" Zulander is not a terrorist.

SEE ALSO

* African Union
African Union
* Arab Union * Demographics of Africa
Africa
* Federal Europe
Federal Europe
* Pan-African Parliament * United States of Latin Africa
Africa
* Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Hail! United States Of Africa
Africa
Poem by Marcus Mosiah Garvey - Poem Hunter". Retrieved 25 June 2016. * ^ A B C "Ambitious plan for a new Africa: Welcome to the U.S.A (that\'s the United States of Africa)". The Independent
The Independent
. 30 June 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-26. * ^ Thabo Mbeki (9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July 2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki". ABSA Stadium , Durban, South Africa
Africa
: africa-union.org. Retrieved 8 February 2002. * ^ Gaddafi Calls for a "U.S." of Africa, from Mafé Tiga blog, July 1, 2007 * ^ A B AU summit extended amid divisions, from BBC
BBC
News, 4 February 2009 * ^ "United States of Africa?", from BBC
BBC
News , 11 July 2000 * ^ Gaddafi urges pan-African state, from BBC
BBC
News, 26 June 2007 * ^ "Statement of the UA Commission Chairperson". Retrieved 25 June 2016. * ^ Would a United States of Africa
Africa
work?, from Le Monde diplomatique (English edition), September 2000 * ^ " BBC
BBC
- History - British History in depth: Slavery and the \'Scramble for Africa\'". Retrieved 25 June 2016. * ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). "Organization of African Unity". HighBeam Research. Retrieved 2009-04-27. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ "Gaddafi vows to push Africa
Africa
unity". BBC
BBC
. 2 Feb 2009. * ^ " African Union
African Union
& African Diaspora Leaders in Harlem: Pres Wade call for United States of Africa, 2017". TheBlackList Pub. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2012. * ^ United States of Africa
Africa
- A Wishful Thinking, from AfricaLoft, republished 4 February 2009 * ^ United States of Africa
Africa
may take off in 2017, says Wade, from Guardian Newspapers, published 13 February 2009 * ^ Gadhafi pledges \'United States of Africa\', from msnbc, 2 February 2009 * ^ "AU better without \'intimidating\' Gaddafi - Zuma". News24. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. * ^ Smith, David (21 January 2013). "Mugabe revives Gaddafi\'s United States of Africa
Africa
dream". Retrieved 25 June 2016. * ^ "Gaddafi calls for United States of Africa, one